The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991
David CATALAN, Neala HICKEY, Jasper NOOIJ, Emese NYITRAI, Levente NYITRAI, Bobbie SCHOEMAKER, Kristóf ZSIDI
Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Shira BORZAK, Lauren CRYSTAL, Botond CSELLE, Sonya COWELL, Péter János DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB, Kati DEPETRILLO, Doris DOMOSZLAI, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖRDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA, Kristína GABIKOVA, Zsófia GÖDE, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Ágnes HEVÉR, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Emily Jennifer HOLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU, Dean JOLLY, Annastiina KALLIUS, János KEMÉNY, András KISS, Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zardas LEE, Karina LEGRADI, Tara LOTSTEIN, Cynthia MANCHA, Viktor NAGY, Jennifer OTTERSON, Linda RICHTER, Zita Bettina VASAS, Dániel VÉKONY, Péter VUKMAN, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2012
At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The first part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1945 to 1952, but our goal is to publish the whole chronology covering the entire Cold War era up until 1991 in parts during the next two years. The years 1953–1955 will be available by September, 2012 and the years 1956–1968 by December, 2012.
The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come.
The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.
List of Sources
Hungary – 1945 (HC)
According to the Central Statistical Office, the territory of Hungary is 93,011 square kilometers, its population is 9,453,087 people.
Bulgaria – 1945 (PLC)
The Patriarch of Constantinople recognizes the Bulgarian exarchates established in 1870.
Yugoslavia – January 1945 (ACY)
Bishop Serafim of Raška-Prizren, who was interned by the Albanians in Tirana, dies.
Bulgaria / Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – January 1945 (BST)
The Bulgarians and the Yugoslavs are invited to Moscow for Soviet arbitration.
Hungary / Germany – January 1, 1945 (HC)
The German army launches an attack to free the forces enclosed in Budapest.
Poland – January 1, 1945 (HDP)
The Polish Committee on National Liberation declares itself the provisional government.
Hungary / Germany – January 2, 1945 (REV)
The German army in North Transdanubia makes a counterattack on the blockade of Budapest, but the attack is pushed back on January 13.
Hungary – January 4, 1945 (HC)
The 14th and the 15th edicts (on reorganization of public administration and setting up committees to certify state employees) of the Provisional National Government are published.
Hungary – January 4, 1945 (REV)
A government order is issued reorganizing the public administration and setting up screening committees to examine the wartime conduct of state employees.
Poland / Soviet Union – January 5, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviet Union (again) recognizes the provisional communist Polish government of the Lublin Committee. As a response, the Western allies confirm that the recognized Polish government is the exiled one in London.
Hungary – January 7, 1945 (HC)
The establishing conference of the National Peasant Party takes place in Debrecen. (chairman Péter Veres, general secretary Ferenc Erdei.) The establishing conference of the Alliance of Hungarian Democratic Youth (MADISZ) takes place in Szeged.
Hungary – January 9, 1945 (HC)
Partisans of Újpest blow up the house of the arrow-cross members and set the prisoners free. The National Board of Szeged orders the installation of the People’s Court.
Hungary – January 14, 1945 (HC)
The “Néplap” of Debrecen publishes the proposal of the National Peasant Party about the land reform. (Its main objectives: all lands exceeding the 432 thousand square meters must be expropriated; all lands of the traitor, arrow-cross and Volksbund members must be confiscated. These lands must be divided between the landless and small-land-holder peasants. The reform must be executed by the 1st of Ocotber, 1945. For the sake of the smooth process, boards from the representatives of the land demanders must be formed.)
Germany – mid-January, 1945 (HC)
The German attack in the Ardennes, launched on the 16th of December 1944, collapses.
Hungary – January 16, 1945 (HC)
The rebuilding of the Northern Facility of the Hungarian Railroads (MÁV) has begun. Representatives of the National Councils of Kisújszállás, Karcag, Túrkeve, Kenderes, Kunmadaras, Kunhegyes push for land reform with the Prime Minister. The provisional executive committee of the Social-Democratic Party is founded in Budapest (chairman: Bán Antal)
Poland / Soviet Union – January 17, 1945 [PSN, HDP]
The Red Army begins its assault on Warsaw, after waiting since the autumn of 1944.
Poland / Soviet Union – January 17, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviet army occupies Warsaw.
Poland / Soviet Union – January 18, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviet army occupies Krakow (from where German governor general Hans Frank fled just the day before).
Hungary / Germany / Soviet Union – January 18, 1945 (REV)
The Red Army completes the capture of Pest. German engineers blow up the two remaining bridges over the Danube, the Elizabeth and Chain bridges.
Czechoslovakia – January 19, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviet army occupies Kosice (Kassa).
Poland – January 19, 1945 (PSN)
The Polish Home Army is officially dissolved. Many of its officers and soldiers join new underground organizations, primarily Nie and Freedom and Independence (WiN).
Hungary / Soviet Union – January 20, 1945 (HC)
Hungary signs the Armistice Agreement with the Allied Powers in Moscow. The Hungarian delegation was led by Minister of Foreign Affairs János Gyöngyösi, the Allied Powers were represented by Marshall K. J. Vorosilov. The main objectives of the armistice: Hungary withdraws its troops and its civil service behind the borders of (31 December) 1937. It joins the fight against Germany with 8 heavy-infantry divisions. It pays $300 million in war reparations. It disbands all German friendly, Fascist, political, military, paramilitary organizations, and bans anti-Soviet propaganda. For the execution of the objectives, the Allied Control Commission must be set up.
Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / U.K. / U.S. – January 20, 1945 (LBC)
The United States and Great Britain seek more influence in the operation of the Allied Control Commission in Hungary than those of Romania and Bulgaria. The U.S. and Great Britain succeed in reducing Hungary’s reparation payment from $400 million to $300 million.
Hungary – January 21, 1945 (HC)
From the representatives of the democratic parties, the National Committee of Budapest is set up. Its chairman is Zoltán Tildy. On its first meeting, János Csorba from the Smallholders Party is nominated for mayor of Budapest, the Communist László Sólyom is nominated for the commander of the police forces.
The National Committee of Budapest appoints Gyula Ortutay to manage the Hungarian news agency (MTI) and The Hungarian Radio Corporation.
The Central Leadership of the Communist Party, and the national leadership of the Social-democratic Party lay down the conditions of the agreement between the two worker’s parties in Debrecen.
Hungary – January 25, 1945 (HC)
The Provisional National Government publishes its 81/1945 decree about the installation of the People’s Courts. (The People’s Courts are the organizations to convict war criminals)
Hungary – January 26, 1945 (HC)
The Political Committee of the Provisional National Assembly adopts a proposition about setting up a 3-member (Béla Zsedényi, Béla Dálnoki Miklós and Ernő Gerő)
National High Council (its assumes some of the head of state’s rights)
In the Castle of Buda, gendarmes execute 11 members of the Red Brigade, including Éva Braun and Ferenc Körösi.
Hungary – January 27, 1945 (HC)
The mayor of Budapest orders the clean-up of the city from debris, the immediate removal of all Fascist posters, the burying of human and animal bodies and the collection of the glass shards.
The first concert is held in the (partly) liberated Budapest in the building of the Hungarian Theater.
Poland / Soviet Union – January 27, 1945 (HDP)
The Red Army liberates Auschwitz.
Soviet Union – January 28, 1945 (PLC)
The Red Army occupies Memel/Klaipeda.
Poland / Soviet Union – January 28, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviet troops occupy Katowice.
Soviet Union – January 30, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviet army approaches the Oder.
Hungary – January 28, 1945 (HC)
Smallholders’ Party member Imre Oltványi is nominated for the temporary chairman position of the National Bank. He is selected by the National Committee of Budapest. It also entrusts the Social-Democrat József Fischer with the position of chairman of the Board of Communal Work of Budapest.
Hungary – January 30, 1945 (HC)
The Provisional National Government releases a recruiting announcement, calling on the Hungarian people to fight against Fascism.
Hungary – January 31, 1945 (HC)
The National Committee of Budapest orders the establishment of the Medical Board for the leadership over medical cases. Its range covers the entirety of Greater-Budapest.
Poland / Czechoslovakia – January 31, 1945 (KCA)
Czechoslovakia announces its recognition of the Lublin Committee as Provisional Government in Poland.
Hungary – February 1945 (HC)
The National Committee of Budapest establishes the Highest Board of Sports.
Yugoslavia / Trieste / U.K. / U.S. – February, 1945 (LUY)
British Field Marshal Harold R. Alexander arrives in Belgrade for discussions with Tito concerning operations in Yugoslavia. Verbal agreements are reached to permit the Anglo-American forces to temporarily occupy Trieste.
Hungary – February 1, 1945 (HC)
The National Committee of Budapest nominates the board of directors of the State House of Opera (Pál Komáromy, Mihály Székely and Kálmán Nádasdy)
Bulgaria – February 1, 1945 (KCA)
Three former Regents of the country, including Prince Kyrill, are executed along with other former government officials.
Poland – February 1, 1945 (PLC)
The Lublin government moves to Warsaw.
Poland / Czechoslovakia – February 1, 1945 (KCA)
The Polish Government in London breaks relations with the Czechoslovak Government, but states that it still hopes to establish close cooperation with Czechoslovakia in the future.
Bulgaria – February 2, 1945 (PLC)
In Sofia, 96 defendants are executed out of the 162 “war criminals” sentenced to death during the staged trials in January.
Hungary – February 2, 1945 (HC)
The Red Army headquarters orders 400 tons of food supplies to the starving population of Budapest.
Hungary – February 2, 1945 (REV)
The Political Police Department (PRO) at the Budapest Police Headquarters of the Hungarian State Police starts to work under communist Gábor Péter. An equivalent department of the Provincial Police Headquarters is formed under András Tömpe on February 26.
Soviet Union – February 2, 1945 (PLC)
The Moscow synod (opened January 31) chooses Aleksi as the Russian patriarch (after the death of Sergei in 1944).
Hungary – February 3, 1945 (HC)
Marshall Vorosilov, head of the Allied Control Commission, arrives in Debrecen.
The People’s Court holds its first trial in Budapest. The first verdict - death by hanging - is publicly executed the following day at Oktogon Square in Budapest.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. / France / Germany / Poland / Yugoslavia – February 4-11, 1945 (HC/PLC/REV)
The Conference of Yalta. British Prime Minister W. Churchill, President of the United States F.D. Roosevelt, and the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union J. V. Stalin meet in Yalta, on the Crimean peninsula.
The three allies agree to share power after the capitulation of Germany and to split the country into four occupied zones (giving France an area too). They prepare to set up an Allied Control Council governing Germany based on the principles of “total disarmament, demilitarization and division”. The borders drawn for Poland follow the Curzon line in the East but compensate with territorial gains in the West.
The fifth chapter of the signed declaration, the “Declaration on Liberated Europe” allows the European countries to “create democratic institutions of their own choice”. They agree to change the Polish and the Yugoslav governments to be coalitional, and so they revoke their support of the governments-in-exile. The Soviet Union agrees to attack Japan two to three months after the end of the European war. Ukraine and Belorussia are admitted to the U.N., and the 1936 Montreaux Channel agreement is revised.
Poland – February 5, 1945 (PLC)
The Polish communist government announces that it will take over the administration of Silesia and East-Prussia. The expulsion of the German population begins.
Poland / Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – February 5, 1945 (LBC)
The Soviet Union establishes diplomatic relations with the Polish Provisional Government of Lublin. In response the U.S. and British governments claim that they continue to recognize the Polish exile government in London.
Hungary – February 6, 1945 (HC)
The 200/1945 order of the Provisional National Government is published. It revokes the “anti-Jewish laws”. The representatives of the Social-Democratic Party and the Hungarian Communist Party strengthen their agreement (adopted on the 10th of October 1944) on cooperation and mutual support.
Romania – February 6, 1945 (HC)
In Romania, the law called the “Statutum of Ethnicities” is released, declaring all citizens equal regardless of race, language, nationality, and religion. The ethnic minorities can freely use their mother tongue and the public servants cannot be forced to take language tests. Where 30% of the population is from another ethnicity, the orders and proposals must be released in their language as well. They can write their proposals in their language, and bilingual street signs are mandatory.
Soviet Union – February 6, 1945 (PLC)
Soviet troops cross the Oder.
Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – February 7, 1945 (WBA)
A protocol on the provisional regulation of the postal and telecommunication services between the postal administrations of Bulgaria and Yugoslavia is signed in Belgrade.
Poland / Soviet Union – February 8, 1945 (PLC)
In Yalta the temporary Polish-Soviet border is set at the Curzon Line.
Yugoslavia – February 8, 1945 (PLC)
Tito takes Kosovo under military conduct. The Albanian resistance’s aim to create Great Albania continues.
Hungary – February 9, 1945 (HC)
The National Committee of Budapest entrusts Jenő Fuchs, 4-times Olympic Champion fencer, the secretary of the Budapest Stock Market to set up the Stock Exchange of Budapest.
Yugoslavia – February 11, 1945 (OEH)
The Yalta Conference of the Allied governments orders the AVNOJ to amplify the Yugoslav government with former members of the Yugoslav parliament, the Skupštin.
Hungary – February 12, 1945 (HC)
From members of the regular army the Volunteer Regiment of Buda is formed. It contains 2,500 soldiers; its commander is Colonel Oszkár Variházy. The Regiment participates in the siege of the Castle of Buda.
Hungary / Soviet Union – February 13, 1945 (HC/REV)
Fighting from street to street, the forces of the 2nd Ukrainian Front complete the occupation of Budapest. The remaining Hungarian and German defenders attempt a break-out towards the West, but only a few hundred troops reach the German lines. About 25 thousand civilians die in the city. Throughout the fights, 74% of the 40 thousand houses in the capital are damaged and 27% are destroyed or severely damaged. 32,363 homes are completely destroyed or become unlivable.
The Red Army carries off prisoners of war and civilians to labor camps.
Poland – February 13, 1945 (LBC)
The Polish Government in exile in London renounces the Yalta Declaration on the Polish situation. They announce that the declaration constitutes the fifth division of Poland and is contradictory to the principles of the Atlantic Charter.
Hungary – February 14, 1945 (HC)
The National Committee of Budapest, referring to the severe health conditions and other medical disabilities that the women had to suffer (Soviet soldiers raped a large number of females), lifts the ban on abortion and makes the operation free, but only if it is performed in medical institutions.
Poland – February 15, 1945 (KCA)
Arciszewski, Polish Prime Minister in London, reaffirms his government’s refusal to accept the settlement drawn up in the Crimea.
Hungary – February 16, 1945 (HC)
The Provisional National Government publishes the first list of war criminals (The second list was released a few days later).
Soviet Union / France – February 16, 1945 (KCA)
A 20-year Franco-Russian pact of alliance and non-aggression comes into force.
Czechoslovakia – February 17, 1945 (KCA)
President Benes and the Czechoslovak Government announce that they will soon return home from exile in London when their country is liberated by the Red Army.
Hungary – February 17, 1945 (HC)
The 50 100/1945 order of the Minister of Industry is released. Each factory that employs more than 50 people has to form a Factory Committee.
Hungary – February 18, 1945 (HC)
The Democratic Alliance of the Hungarian Women (MNDSZ) is formed. The “Népszava”, the major newspaper of the Hungarian Social-Democratic Party, is reissued. (Editor in chief: Árpád Szakasits)
Hungary – February 19, 1945 (HC)
The leadership of the Social-Democratic Party is reorganized. Chairman: Ferenc Szeder, first secretary: Árpád Szakasits. The members of the Party Committee will be elected at the February 26 party convention.
Czechoslovakia – February 21, 1945 (KCA)
President Benes addresses and expresses gratitude to the British people.
Poland – February 23, 1945 (PLC)
Poznan is occupied by the Soviet army.
Hungary – February 23-24, 1945 (HC)
The Central Leadership of the Hungarian Communist Party holds its convention in Budapest. The party leaderships of Debrecen and Budapest merge. General secretary: Mátyás Rákosi.
Germany / Turkey – February 23, 1945 (PLC)
Turkey declares war on Germany on March 1.
Romania – February 24, 1945 (PLC)
Mass demonstrations initiated by the communists contribute to a governmental crisis in Romania.
Yugoslavia – February 24, 1945 (BST)
The presidency of AVNOJ discusses the proportional representation of the federal units in AVNOJ.
Hungary – February 26, 1945 (HC)
The Provisional National Government releases the following three decrees: number 526/1945 (according to the armistice agreement it revokes the First (1938) and Second (1940) Vienna Awards, and revokes all the laws and proposals regarding the border changes); Number 528/1945 (It disbands every Fascist party and organization and all military organizations, including the Party of Hungarian Life, the Party of Hungarian Resurrection, the Arrow-Cross Party, the Alliance of Etelköz, the Hungarian National Socialist Party, the Union of Awakening Hungarians, the MOVE and the Turul Alliance); Number 530/1945 (the surrender and repeal of fascist and anti-soviet printed publications)
Poland – February 28, 1945 (PLC)
A decree is passed, stating that Germans living in the country can only receive Polish citizenship after a process of “verification” (By April 1, 1948 more than 1 million Germans went through this process).
Romania / Soviet Union – February 28, 1945 (PLC)
The Radescu Government resigns. Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Andrei Vishinski presses for a Romanian People’s Front.
Poland / Soviet Union – March 1945 (PSN)
The leaders of the Polish underground movement are invited to a meeting with senior members of the Red Army. On arrival they are arrested, according to Stalin in agreement with the provisional government.
Yugoslavia – March 1, 1945 (PLC)
The Yugoslav Army is formed from the partisan groups.
Yugoslavia – March 2, 1945 (LUY)
The three new regents nominated by Tito are appointed by King Peter: Srdjan Rudisovljeviæ, Ante Mandiæ and Dušan Sernec.
Germany / Finland – March 3, 1945 (PLC)
Finland declares war on Germany.
Hungary – March 3, 1945 (REV)
The Hungarian Radical Party is established in Budapest with Imre Csécsy as president.
Estonia / Latvia / Lithuania / U.S. – March 3, 1945 (LBC)
The U.S. Government announces that it continues to recognize the Baltic States and its attitude has not changed in that respect.
Hungary – March 4, 1945 (HC)
In the prisoner of war camp of Debrecen the first unit (the 6th infantry division) of the Hungarian Democratic Army is formed.
Yugoslavia – March 5, 1945 (KCA)
The new Yugoslav Regents take their official oath in Belgrade.
Hungary – March 6-15, 1945 (HC)
The last attack (the battle of Lake Balaton) of the German South Army against the 2nd and 3rd armies of the Ukrainian Front takes place in the Transdanubian region. It is the last German offensive operation of the Second World War.
Romania – March 6, 1945 (PIR)
After tough negotiations with the representatives of the democratic parties, Vyshinsky imposes a government led by Petru Groza and composed of representatives of the National Democratic Front (Frontul Naţional Democrat), PNL-Tătărescu (The National Liberal Party-Tătărescu faction), PNŢ-Alexandrescu (The National Peasants’ Party-Alexandrescu faction) and PSD (The Social-Democratic Party). This veritable Coup d’État opens the way for the communist regime in Romania.
Yugoslavia – March 7, 1945 (RYE/KCA)
A new Yugoslav Provisional Government is created after Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt press Tito and Šubašiæ to implement and extend their agreements of the preceding summer. Tito becomes the last Royal Yugoslav Prime Minister and Minister of Defense. Šubašiæ and two other members of the government in exile are accepted in his cabinet. The Yugoslav Government of National Unity supersedes the National Committee of Liberation and the Royal Yugoslav Government in London, whose existence is formally ended.
Yugoslavia – March 8, 1945 (OEH)
Based on the recommendation of AVNOJ, the Tito-Šubašiæ coalition government is extended with members of the Regency Council, established on March 2, 1945.
Hungary – March 9, 1945 (HC)
The joint session of the consultative committee of the Hungarian Communist Party and the Social-Democrat Party is held. It approves the proposal on land reform.
Romania – March 8, 1945 (PIR)
General Gheorghe Avramescu is arrested on the Czechoslovak front, along with General Nicolae Dragomir, and sent to Moscow. The general had been replaced from the command of the 4th Army in January 1945; he was tried in the USSR for membership in a subversive pro-German organization; he was accused of having aided the Legionary escape to Germany; on the Eastern front, he had fought alongside the Russian partisans; the Ministry of Justice declared him deceased in the town of Jászberény, Hungary, after a bombardment of the German aviation. He was buried at Sashalom.
Romania – March 8-9, 1945 (PIR)
Telegram exchange between Prime Minister Petru Groza, the Minister of External affairs Gheorghe Tătărescu, and Joseph Stalin, through which the transfer of Northern Transylvania to the Romanian Administration is agreed upon. The Romanian Government publishes the decree regarding the institutionalization of Romanian administration in Northern Transylvania.
Romania – March 9, 1945 (PIR)
The Ministry of Internal Affairs is reorganized under the leadership of Teohari Georgescu. The Police and State Security are cleansed of cadres active before August 23, 1944.
Romania – March 10, 1945 (PIR)
The Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR) discusses with the communist members of the government the Transylvanian problem, the arrest of war criminals and legionaries, and the founding of Popular Tribunals.
Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – March 11, 1945 (KCA)
Benes visits Moscow in order to engage in a number of negotiations.
Yugoslavia / U.K. / U.S. – March 12, 1945 (LUY)
Ralph Stevenson sets up the British Embassy in Belgrade. A few weeks later he is joined by U.S. Ambassador Richard C. Patterson.
Romania – March 13, 1945 (HC)
The Soviet military administration of Northern Transylvania is replaced by the Romanian civil service.
Romania – March 13, 1945 (PIR)
King Mihai I, A.I. Vyshinsky, Petru Groza, Gh. Tătărescu and other members of the government take part, in Cluj, at the ceremony marking the passage of Northern Transylvania to Romania.
Soviet Union / Romania / U.K. – March 14, 1945 (LBC)
British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden declares in the House of Commons that the Soviet Union implemented the change in the Romanian government to suppress pro-Hitler and pro-fascist elements.
Romania – March 15, 1945 (PIR)
A manifestation takes place in the Palace Square in Bucharest during the reinstallation of Romanian administration in Northern Transylvania.
Yugoslavia – March 16, 1945 (ACY)
Alojzije Stepinac, Archbishop of Zagreb, addresses a conference of students on Croatia's right to independence and its unwillingness to accept any regime imposed by force.
Hungary – March 17, 1945 (HC)
The Provisional Government approves the 600/1945 decree about the land reform. The lands of the war criminals, arrow-cross members and other national-socialist leaders and Volksbund-members are to be confiscated to full extent. Lands over 800 thousand square meters are confiscated, but reclaiming for ransom is possible. Lands over 1 million square meters are fully confiscated. Land is required to be distributed amongst the poor.
Finland – March 17-18, 1945 (PLC)
The first parliamentary elections in Europe after the war take place in Finland. The participation rate, similarly to 1907, is especially high: 74.9%. The former party structure is broken, as the communist Finnish People's Democratic League (formed in 1944) receives 49 seats out of the 200 (23.5%), the second highest number of seats. The winning party, the Social Democratic Party of Finland wins 50 seats, the Agrarian League 49. The communist party becomes a part of the coalitional government.
Romania – March 19, 1945 (PIR)
The government demands the arrest of generals accused of war crimes; the list of accused individuals includes Ilie Şteflea, Gheorghe Potopeanu, Radu Korne, Atanasie Trincu, and Gheorghe Cialak.
Soviet Union / Turkey – March 19, 1945 (KCA)
The Soviet Foreign Commissariat informs the Turkish Ambassador that the USSR denounced the Soviet–Turkish Treaty of friendship and neutrality signed in 1925.
Hungary – March 20, 1945 (HC)
The sappers of the Red Army open the temporarily reconstructed Liberty Bridge and “Manci” Bridge to public traffic.
Hungary / Soviet Union – March 21, 1945 (HC)
The Soviet Union gives 20 thousand tons of food supplies and a loan of 100 million Pengő to Hungary.
Romania – March 21, 1945 (PIR)
The Workers’ University of the PCR (Universitatea Muncitorească a PCR) is founded. The institution will be later renamed the “Ştefan Gheorghiu” Academy (after the unification with the Superior Party School “Jdanov”).
Poland / Soviet Union – April 21, 1945 (PSN)
The Polish provisional government and the Soviet Union sign a “Treaty of Friendship, Mutual Aide and Post-War Cooperation.” The treaty is primarily aimed at Germany promising mutual aide if either of the parties were to be attacked by Germany or its allies. The treaty forbids the cooperation of each party with Germany against the other.
Czechoslovakia – March 22, 1945 (PLC)
An agreement is reached between the Czechoslovak Government in exile in London and the Communist group returning from Moscow in the town of Kosice (Kassa).
Romania – March 22, 1945 (PLC)
A decree of land reform in Romania is issued.
Romania – March 22, 1945 (PIR)
The Council of FND discusses the reports from its members of the government regarding the implementation of the law for the cleansing of private enterprises, as well as the law of profession chambers, labor legislation and the modification of the Constitution.
Hungary – March 23, 1945 (HC)
The Red Army liberates Székesfehérvár and Veszprém.
Romania – March 23, 1945 (HC)
The Groza Government orders the confiscation of lands exceeding 200 thousand square meters.
Romania – March 23, 1945 (PIR/HC)
An agrarian reform is legislated. It orders the confiscation of lands exceeding 200 thousand square meters and 900,000 families receive 1,468,000 ha of land.
Hungary – March 24, 1945 (HC)
3,400 kat. Hold (~1957 ha) of land began to be parcelled out in Balmazújváros, according to the Szabadság, the main newspaper of the Independence Front.
The Csepel section of the Hungarian Communist Party calls for the celebration of 1st of May and for the rebuilding competition of the parties of Budapest.
Yugoslavia – March 24, 1945 (ACY)
Five Catholic bishops, members of the Working Committee of the Bishops' Conference, meet and issue a pastoral letter rejecting the accusation that the Church was guilty of misdeeds during the war.
Hungary – March 25, 1945 (HC)
The Szabad Nép, the major newspaper of the Hungarian Communist Party is published. (editor in chief: József Révai)
The temporarily reconstructed Southern railway bridge in Budapest is opened for traffic.
Hungary – March 26, 1945 (REV) (HC)
The Allied Control Commission holds its first meeting in Debrecen, chaired by Marshal Kliment Voroshilov.
Cardinal Serédi Jusztinián, Archbishop of Esztergom dies.
Hungary – March 27, 1945 (HC)
The major newspaper of the National Peasant Party, the Szabad Szó is published. (editor in chief: József Darvas)
Hungary – March 27, 1945 (KCA)
The Provisional Government issues a special law revoking all anti-Jewish legislation, placing the Jews on equality with all other citizens.
Poland / Soviet Union – March 27-28, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviets arrest 16 members of the Polish exile government in Pruskow.
Hungary – March 28, 1945 (HC)
The Red Army captures Győr and Komárom.
The first convention of the reorganized National Committee of Budapest is held. (Chairman: Árpád Szakasits, secretary: Gyula Kállai)
Soviet Union / Austria / Hungary – March 29, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviet army crosses the Hungarian-Austrian border.
Yugoslavia – March 29, 1945 (PLC)
The Yugoslav government splits Sandjsak (occupied by Italy from 1941, and by Germany from 1943) between Serbia and Montenegro, disregarding the 1943 outlines of the federation.
Romania – March 29, 1945 (PIR)
The Minister of Justice, Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu, signs the decree for the “purging of public administration”, promulgated the same day by the king.
Hungary – March 29, 1945 (HC)
The beginning of the implementation of the land reform takes place in a ceremonial way in Pusztaszer.
The Provisional National Government releases the 751/1945 decree on the set-up of the National Economic Council.
Ferenc Szálasi “Nationleader” and his closest colleagues (218 people) leave the town of Kőszeg in Western Hungary by train towards southern Germany.
Hungary – March 30, 1945 (HC)
Kis Újság, the major newspaper of the Independent Smallholders Party, begins publishing. (Managing editor: count Gyula Dessewffy)
Romania – March 30, 1945 (HC)
The radio of Bucharest begins its Hungarian broadcast for one hour a day.
Poland / Soviet Union – March 30, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviet army occupies Gdansk (Danzig).
Romania – March 31, 1945 (PIR)
The government approves – at Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu’s proposal – the decree regarding the punishment of those guilty of war crimes and of the country’s disaster. These categories are so inclusive that practically the whole former political elite could be labelled as war “criminals”.
Yugoslavia – April-May 1945 (KCA)
The federal structure of the new Yugoslavia takes shape as Regional Governments are established for Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia.
Romania – April 1, 1945 (PIR)
The following laws are promulgated: the law regarding the exceptional imposition of war benefits (for the years 1941-1944) of industrial and commercial enterprises and of private fortunes obtained in the period; the law regarding the creation of the global income tax for private individuals.
Hungary – April 1, 1945 (HC)
The Red Army liberates Sopron and Nagykanizsa. The next day it liberates Mosonmagyaróvár.
The temporary Petőfi-bridge is opened in Budapest.
Hungary – April 2, 1945 (HC)
The Budapest members of the Provisional National Assembly are elected. (The division of the representatives: Hungarian Communist Party 26, Social-Democratic Party 26, Independent Smallholders Party 16, Civil Democratic Party 6, representatives of trade unions: 6, independent: 8)
Romania – April 3, 1945 (HC)
The order from the County Chief’s office in Cluj (Kolozsvár) is published. It orders authorities to accept proposals written in a foreign language; in places where the language population exceeds 90%, this language must be used even in the official reports. It also orders the bilingual inscriptions at the post offices and railway stations.
Czechoslovakia – April 3, 1945 (KCA)
President Benes and his government return from London.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – April 4, 1945 (REV)
The Czechoslovak government program announced in Košice (Kassa) declares that the country’s Hungarian minority has collective responsibility for the wartime fragmentation of the country. All its members except those who were active in the resistance movement are stripped of their citizenship. Furthermore, all citizens of Hungarian national affiliation are barred from holding land.
Hungary – April 4, 1945 (HC)
The Red Army liberates the last Hungarian village: Nemesmedves (Vas County).
Report from the Red Army: after 194 days of fighting, the last German troops are pushed out of Hungary. According to a 1946 assessment, the damage caused by the war exceeds 22 billion pengő. This is about 5 times higher than Hungary’s state revenue in the year of 1938. 40% of the national property has been destroyed.
The National Land-organizing Council holds its first session (the members of the Council: Péter Veres, National Peasant Party; Ferenc Nagy and Mihály Kerék, Independent Smallholders Party; Ferenc Donáth, Hungarian Communist Party; József Takács, Social-Democratic Party)
Romania – April 4, 1945 (PIR)
Law no. 260 extends the rule of Romanian legislation over the whole territory of Transylvania, nullifying the effects of Hungarian legislation.
Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – April 4, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviets occupy Bratislava (Pozsony). The independent Slovak state collapses.
Hungary / Soviet Union – April 4, 1945 (PLC)
Diplomatic relations between Hungary and the Vatican are broken off as a result of Soviet pressure.
Soviet Union / Japan – April 5, 1945 (KCA)
Moscow radio announces that the Soviet Government has denounced its Neutrality Pact with Japan, an act welcomed in the Allied capitals.
Romania – April 5, 1945 (PIR)
Under the coordination of PCR, the Union of Anti-Fascist Women from Romania (Uniunea Femeilor Anti-Fasciste din România) is created.
Yugoslavia – April 5, 1945 (PLC)
Yugoslav partisans occupy Sarajevo.
Yugoslavia – April 5, 1945 (OEH)
A monetary reform takes place in Yugoslavia. The dinar is re-valued 10 to 1.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – April 6, 1945 (HC)
Hungarian-Soviet reparation agreements are signed in Moscow, while the Hungarian-Czechoslovakian agreements are signed in Prague.
The Néplap newspaper states that the Hungarian divisions are allowed to fight at the front. (the 6th division on 13 April, the 1st division on 23 April depart for Austria, they perform their tasks behind the front lines)
Poland – April 6, 1945 (KCA)
The Polish Government in London issues a statement saying that after receiving an invitation to meet with Col. Pimienov, 15 Polish officials presented themselves to General Ivanov and since then have not returned, have not been in contact with their families, and that their whereabouts are unknown.
Poland – April 6, 1945 (KCA)
The Polish Army in London analyzes military and civilian casualties suffered by Poland since the outbreak of the war and publishes a report estimating 1,045,000 military casualties and 9,000,000 civilian casualties.
Czechoslovakia – April 7, 1945 (KCA)
The constitution of the Provisional Government, as agreed in Moscow, is announced.
Soviet Union – April 7, 1945 (PLC)
Lithuania receives the Memel area as a part of the USSR.
Yugoslavia – April 7, 1945 (KCA)
The Government of Macedonia is established at Skopje.
Austria / Soviet Union – April 8, 1945 (KCA)
The Soviet Government issues a statement saying that the Red Army’s invasion of Austria does not mean that it is aiming to acquire any new territory, and that its goal is to destroy the regimes of the German-fascist invaders.
Hungary – April 8, 1945 (HC)
The first great convention of the Smallholders Party takes place in Budapest. (The Republican Party led by Imre Vér and the Kossuth Party led by Vince Nagy join the Smallholders Party)
Poland – April 8, 1945 (KCA)
Cardinal Hlond, Primate of Poland, arrives in Paris after his release by the Allied forces. He had been detained by the Germans.
Yugoslavia / Italy – April 8, 1945 (NBT)
A bomb explodes in front of the headquarters of the Yugoslav Partisan representation in Rome.
Romania – April 9, 1945 (PIR)
A meeting of the leadership of the United Labor Front (Frontul Unic Muncitoresc) takes place. Discussions cover the relations between the Social-Democratic Party (PSD) and the Communist Party, and the removal of former Iron Guard elements from PSD.
Poland – April 9, 1945 (KCA)
Statements are issued in Britain saying that the proceeding of the Commission of Three (M. Molotov, Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, and Mr. Averell Harriman), set up in Moscow to consult on the reorganization of the Polish Government under the Yalta Agreement, has reached a deadlock.
Hungary – April 9, 1945 (HC)
Count Géza Teleki (minister of religion and education) undertakes the leading position of the Civil Democratic Party.
Soviet Union – April 9, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviet army occupies Konigsberg.
Yugoslavia – April 10, 1945 (KCA)
Government of Serbia established in Belgrade.
Poland – April 11, 1945 (KCA)
It is announced that on March 1, M. Wincenty Witos, former Prime Minister of Poland and leader of the Peasant Party for 20 years, was taken from his car by his home to an unknown destination by four persons, one of which was wearing a Soviet uniform.
Hungary – April 11, 1945 (HC)
The Provisional National Government and the Allied Control Commission (the Commission on 12 April) move from Debrecen to Budapest.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – April 11, 1945 (KCA)
The USSR and Yugoslavia sign a treaty of friendship, mutual assistance and post-war collaboration.
Romania – April 12, 1945 (PIR)
Participants in the Movement of the Progressive Youth (Mişcarea Tineretului Progresist) decide to create a unitary organization entitled The Progressive Youth of Romania (Tineretul Progresist din România). The Congress of the new structure takes place on October 22-24, 1945.
Hungary – April 12, 1945 (HC)
The first meeting of the Government takes place in Budapest.
Romania – April 12-14, 1945 (PIR)
The Minister of Internal Affairs, Teohari Georgescu, gives instructions to the prefects regarding the substitution of mayors in the rural areas.
Austria / Soviet – Union April 13, 1945 (PLC)
Soviet troops occupy Vienna after the street fights starting on April 7.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – April 13, 1945 (OEH)
An economic agreement is signed between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union – April 14, 1945 (PLC)
The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church is banned.
Poland – April 15, 1945 (PLC)
The former Premier of the London Polish Government, Stanislaw Mikolajczyk, recognizes the Allies’ decision on Poland at Yalta, which was one of the conditions to participate in the government.
Yugoslavia / Italy – April 15, 1945 (LBC)
Marshall Tito announces Yugoslavia’s claim on Trieste and Istria.
Germany – April 16, 1945 (PLC)
The battle of Berlin begins.
Yugoslavia – April 17, 1945 (KCA)
The Government of Croatia is established at Split, and the Government of Montenegro at Cetinje.
Czechoslovakia – April 17, 1945 (PLC)
The American army of Patton approaches Western Czechoslovakia from Bavaria.
Romania / Bulgaria – April 20, 1945 (PIR)
The Association for Romanian-Bulgarian Friendship is founded in Bucharest.
Germany / Italy – April 21, 1945 (PLC)
After the occupation of Bologna, the German front in northern Italy collapses.
Romania – April 21, 1945 (PIR)
Law no. 312 for the pursuance and sanction of those guilty of the country’s disaster or of war crimes is passed.
Poland – April 21, 1945 (KCA)
The Soviet Union and Polish Provisional Government (the former Lublin Committee) sign a treaty of friendship, mutual assistance, and post-war cooperation.
Hungary – April 23, 1945 (HC/REV)
The gendarmerie is dissolved and a unified Hungarian State Police is established by the 1700/1945 edict of the Provisional National Government. The Government declares March 15 (the anniversary of the outbreak of the 1848 Revolution) a national holiday, April 4 the festival of the Liberation, and May 1 the festival of Labor.
Major József Lakos, police chief of Szentes, is arrested and imprisoned until February 1946. He is beaten and tortured while under arrest, for not wanting to join the communist party.
The Alliance of Democratic Youth is formed. (MADISZ, chairman: Zoltán Szabó, National Peasant Party; secretary general: József Kiss, Hungarian Communist Party)
Romania – April 23, 1945 (PIR)
The Political Bureau of the CC of PCR discusses the evolution of the internal political situation between August 23, 1944 and March 6, 1945, the economic situation, the agrarian reform and the verification of cadres proposed for various offices.
Finland – April 24, 1945 (PLC)
The Germans leave northeast Finland. During the fights from September 1944, the Finnish lost 4,000, the Germans 4,400 soldiers.
The Western Allies reject the German offer of a separate peace treaty.
Hungary – April 24, 1945 (HC)
The daily paper called Népsport [People`s Sport] begins publishing.
Romania – April 25, 1945 (PIR)
At Mihai Ralea’s (Minister of Arts) proposal, a decree is adopted by which the ancient fortresses of Histria, Adamclisi, Capidava, Callatis, Harsova, etc. are declared historical monuments.
Austria / Soviet Union – April 25, 1945 (PLC)
The allied Soviet and Anglo-Saxon troops meet at Torgau (by the Elba) and at Erlauf (in Austria).
Czechoslovakia – April 26, 1945 (PLC)
Milano, Brno and Stettin are occupied.
Hungary – April 26, 1945 (HC)
The leadership of the National Peasant Party is reorganized and expanded. Chairman is Péter Veres, General Secretary is Imre Kovács.
Romania / Soviet Union – April 27, 1945 (PIR)
A Romanian economic delegation, led by Mircea Durma, minister of Finances, leaves for Moscow for economic negotiations with the USSR; negotiations last until May 3rd.
Austria – April 27, 1945 (PLC)
In Austria a provisional coalition government is formed led by the socialist Karl Renner.
Romania – April 28, 1945 (PIR)
British trade union leader John Mark arrives in Romania and, in a meeting with the representatives of the PCR, discusses various aspects of the trade union movement in the two states.
Poland – April 28, 1945 (KCA)
The Polish Government in London issues a statement saying that the Lublin Government is not the true Polish Provisional Government, and that although it would like relations with the Soviet Union to be conducted in the spirit of good-neighbourliness, the treaty does not reach that end because it is invalid.
Yugoslavia – April 29, 1945 (KCA)
The Government of Bosnia-Herzegovina is established at Sarajevo.
Yugoslavia – April 30, 1945 (KCA)
Tito announces that the 4th Yugoslav army has entered Rijeka, Pula and Trieste.
Germany – April 30, 1945 (PLC)
Hitler commits suicide in Berlin.
American forces take over Munich.
Yugoslavia – May 1945 (JVJ)
The Partisan troops liberate the last of Yugoslav territory.
Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – May 1945 (PLC)
Yugoslavia initiates diplomatic relations with Bulgaria.
Yugoslavia / Albania – May 1945 (PLC)
Yugoslav-Albanian negotiations on a federation take place.
Yugoslavia – May 1945 (ACY)
The Orthodox Synod decides to reopen the seminary at Prizren, but the government says that it is not yet possible. Permission to reopen the seminary is granted by the Serbian government at the beginning of 1947.
Yugoslavia – May 1945 (LBY)
British Army General Keightley returns over 9,000 Croat soldiers to Yugoslavia, who on arrival are massacred by Tito’s partisans.
Romania – May 1, 1945 (PIR)
A large manifestation take place in Bucharest, followed by a Festival of Labor at the National Theater. The events are organized by the Government, the FND and the General Confederation of Work (Confederaţia Generală a Muncii).
Hungary – May 1, 1945 (HC)
The first Labor Day is celebrated all over the country. The Hungarian Radio begins broadcasting in Budapest. Beer is sold for the first time since the war.
Germany / Yugoslavia / Trieste – May 1, 1945 (PLC)
British and German forces arrive in Trieste, after Tito’s Partisans occupied the city.
Yugoslavia – May 1, 1945 (KCA)
Italian Premier and Foreign Minister insist that until Italo-Yugoslav frontier questions can be definitely solved at a Peace Conference, the disputed territory must be entrusted to Allied military administration.
Germany – May 2, 1945 (PLC)
The German headquarters are moved to Flensburg, where the government of Donitz is formed, hoping to agree on partial armistice with the Allies.
Soviet Union / Germany – May 2, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviet Army occupies Berlin.
Yugoslavia / Germany May 2, 1945 (PLC)
The Germans leave Zagreb. The Croatian state collapses.
Austria – May 2, 1945 (PLC)
The proclamation of the Republic of Austria.
Romania – May 3, 1945 (PIR)
The law for salary settlement and the founding of ‘economat’ shops is promulgated.
Other laws are adopted: The Law for the settlement of prices regime and the circulation of goods; The Law on the introduction of goods into circulation; The Law for the suppression of commercial speculation and of economic sabotage; The Law for the creation of citizen control organs.
Germany / U.K. – May 3, 1945 (PLC)
The British Army occupies Hamburg.
Czechoslovakia – May 4, 1945 (PLC)
Benes (in immigration since 1939) is chosen temporarily as the President of Czechoslovakia (1945-1948).
Germany – May 4, 1945 (PLC)
The German troops suspend the resistance against the Western Allies.
Yugoslavia / Trieste / Italy / New Zealand – May 4, 1945 (LUY)
All military resistance ends in Trieste with the Yugoslavs and New Zealanders belligerently facing each other off in the city.
Czechoslovakia – May 5, 1945 (PLC)
The beginning of the Prague uprising takes place in the city. The insurgents are soon forced to ask for the help of the German-side Vlaszov army of 20,000 soldiers stationed 30 km from the capital. This army, led by Bujanyicsenko, liberates the city and then leaves.
Eisenhower orders the Americans to end the fights in Czechoslovakia. Patton’s army stops at Plzen after occupying the city on May 6, and lets the Soviet Red Army, under the leadership of marshal Koniev, liberate Prague.
Hungary – May 5-6, 1945 (HC)
Representatives of the Labour Union of Peasants convene in Budapest. (New name: National League of Peasants and Smallholders – FÉKOSZ, chairman: József Takács, Social-Democratic Party, vice-chairman: Gyula Rácz, Hungarian Communist Party and Sándor Kállay, Social-Democratic Party, secretary general: János Német, Hungarian Communist Party)
Hungary – May 5, 1945 (REV)
The Hungarian government addresses a verbal note to Marshal Kliment Voroshilov, chairman of the Allied Control Commission, protesting that the Red Army is arbitrarily dismantling whole installations and factories and shipping them away with raw materials and finished products, without accounting for them. (Further protest notes are sent on May 14, 25, 28 and 30 and June 5, without effect.)
Poland – May 5, 1945 (KCA)
The official TASS Agency releases a Soviet statement saying that the 15 Polish people that apparently disappeared are actually 16, that they were arrested by the Soviet Command, and that they are in Moscow pending the investigation of their case.
Romania – May 6-13, 1945 (PIR)
The congress of the Hungarian Popular Union, organization member of FND, takes place in Cluj.
Yugoslavia – May 6, 1945 (ACY)
General von Löhr informs Paveliæ that the Germans have signed the document of their surrender, and relinquishes his command to Paveliæ. The next day Paveliæ orders an accelerated withdrawal to Austria and then himself flees to safety, eventually reaching Argentina.
Germany – May 7, 1945 (PLC)
In Reims a German delegation led by Colonel Alfred Jodl signs an armistice requiring total and unconditional capitulation in front of the Commander-in-Chief of the Western Allies, Eisenhower.
Germany / Soviet Union – May 8, 1945 (PLC/REV)
General (Field Marshal) Wilhelm Keitel signs an agreement of unconditional capitulation of the German forces at the Soviet headquarters in Germany, at Karlshorst near Berlin. The agreement comes into force at midnight on May 9, thereby ending the Second World War in Europe. As demanded by the Soviet Union it is decleared to be the “Day of Victory” in Europe.
Germany – May 8, 1945 (PLC)
The German military forces in Norway capitulate. The émigré Norwegian government returns from London.
Romania / Soviet May 8, 1945 (PIR)
In Moscow, the Romanian Minister of Finance, Mircea Durma, signs accords of economic collaboration with the USSR, on the basis of which mixed Soviet-Romanian societies (SOVROM) will be created in different branches of the economy (a total of 16 such organizations will be created).
Romania – May 8, 1945 (PIR)
The Superior Department of Culture, Education and Propaganda of the Army is created for the purpose of extending communist control.
Yugoslavia – May 8, 1945 (ACY)
Partisan troops enter Zagreb.
Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – May 9, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviet army marches into Prague, liberated by the Vlaszov-army. The Czechoslovak government moves from Kosice to Prague.
Soviet Union / U.S. – May 9, 1945 (PLC)
The United States announces the end of the lend-lease aids to the Soviet Union, but the decision is changed after Soviet objection.
Hungary – May 10, 1945 (HC)
The Government appoints commissioners to guide the reorganization of the industry.
A sequence of conventions of the Social-Democratic Party begins in Budapest. The convention works on the political program of the party.
Hungary – May 11, 1945 (HC)
The National High Council (Nemzeti Főtanács) appoints Ernő Gerő (Hungarian Communist Party) as Minister of Trade and Traffic. It also establishes the Rebuilding Ministry led by Ferenc Nagy (Independent Smallholders Party).
Hungary – May 11-12, 1945 (HC)
The National Miners’ Congress takes place in Budapest. It discusses questions of production, food supplies and salaries.
Soviet Union – May 11, 1945 (KCA)
Ralph Parker, correspondent of The Times in Moscow, sends a letter to Stalin, stating that the 16 Poles arrested by the Soviet Union were in fact members of a delegation invited to negotiate with the Soviet authorities.
Romania – May 12, 1945 (PIR)
The Romanian Army ends its participation in the anti-Hitlerist war, after having fought for the liberation of Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Austria.
Yugoslavia / U.K. / U.S. – May 12, 1945 (LBC)
U.S. Undersecretary of State Joseph. C. Grew announces that he opposes Marshall Tito’s claim on Trieste. The U.S. and the United Kingdom send memoranda to Tito in which they affirm that Trieste must remain under Allied control until a peace conference decides its future.
Hungary – May 13, 1945 (HC)
Street lights are switched back on in Budapest.
Romania – May 14-22, 1945 (PIR)
The trial of the first lot of war criminals (of whom the most notable was General Nicolae Macici) takes place at the People’s Tribunal and concludes with 29 death sentences.
Hungary – May 14, 1945 (HC)
The newspaper of the Civil Democratic Party, Világ begins to publish. (Managing director: Géza Supka)
Germany – May 14, 1945 (PLC)
The German military forces in Eastern Prussia capitulate.
Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – May 15, 1945 (KCA)
Czechoslovak Prime Minister M. Zdenek Fierlinger announces that the Czechoslovak Government recognizes that the population of Ruthenia is primarily Ukrainian in language and culture, and that it will not oppose the Ruthenian people’s desire to be incorporated into the USSR as part of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic.
Hungary – May 16, 1945 (REV)
The Committee of the Capital City Authority holds its first meeting. Árpád Szakasits is elected chairman, with László Cseh-Szombathy and László Rajk as vice-chairmen, Zoltán Vas (MKP) as mayor, and József Kővágó (FKGP), Endre Morvay (FKGP) and Péter Bechtler (SZDP) as deputy mayors. The Hungarian-Soviet indemnity negotiations begin between delegations headed by Hungarian Lieutenant General Hermann Pokorny, chairman of the Indemnity Committee, and General Valerian Zorin, head of the Economic Department at the Allied Control Commission.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 16, 1945 (LBC)
Joseph C. Grew repeats his warning to Tito concerning a territorial settlement by use of force.
Yugoslavia – May 17, 1945 (ACY)
Archbishop Stepinac is taken into protective custody and lodged in a villa in Zagreb.
Soviet Union – May 18, 1945 (KCA)
Stalin replies to Parker’s letter, saying that the arrest of the 16 Poles was not related in any way to the reconstruction of the Polish Provisonal Government, and that they were arrested in concordance with the law.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – May 18, 1945 (HC)
An order of the Slovak National Council is issued. It states that all Hungarians, except the active anti-Fascists are excluded from political parties. All Hungarian press is forbidden in Slovakia.
Austria – May 19-26, May 24, 1945 (KCA)
Field Marshall Sir Harold Alexander officially announces two proclamations to the Austrian people regarding his troops’ entry into the country. He says that while Austria was responsible for fighting with the Germans against the Allies, it will be liberated from German domination in hopes of Austria being reestablished in freedom and independence.
Soviet Union – May 19, 1945 (KCA)
The texts of Parker’s letter and of Stalin’s response are published simultaneously.
Hungary – May 20-21, 1945 (HC)
The first national convention of the Hungarian Communist Party takes place in Budapest.
Romania – May 20-23, 1945 (PIR)
The First Congress of ARLUS opens in Bucharest in the presence of Petru Groza.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 20, 1945 (LBC)
U.S. troops leave Trieste.
Romania – May 22, 1945 (PIR)
The FND Committee discusses the inclusion into the Front of the youth organizations, women’s organizations and the Union of Petit Professionals, as well as the unification of youth and women’s organizations into one structure.
Hungary – May 23, 1945 (HC)
The number 55 000/1945 order of the Minister of Industry is published: workers’ committees must be organized even in factories with 20 workers.
Germany – May 23, 1945 (PLC)
In Germany the members of the Donitz government are arrested.
Soviet Union / U.S. – May 23, 1945 (LBC)
Harry L. Hopkins, President Truman’s special envoy, travels to Moscow to discuss matters of mutual interest between the U.S. and the USSR with Marshal Stalin.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – May 24, 1945 (PLC)
After a gun fight with British forces, Tito’s partisans leave Trieste and Gorizia, occupied during the last days of the war, because of Western pressure and lack of Soviet support.
Romania – May 25, 1945 (PIR)
Regional economic offices are created, with the purpose of collecting agricultural products which would eventually be delivered to the USSR and account for the payment of war reparations according to the Romanian-Soviet convention of January 1945.
Yugoslavia – May 25, 1945 (OEH)
Pressured by the Western Allied powers, the Yugoslav Partisan troops withdraw from the occupied Carinthian territories.
Soviet Union / U.K. – May 26, 1945 (LBC)
British Foreign Secretary Eden sends a message to Soviet Commissar of Foreign Affairs Molotov to commemorate the third anniversary of the Soviet-British treaty. In this he expresses that peace in Europe can be secured only if both the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom adhere to the treaty. Eden points out that the treaty envisions a “close and friendly cooperation” between contracting parties, “without striving for any territorial acquisitions for ourselves and refraining from interference with the internal affairs of other states”.
Hungary – May 27, 1945 (HC)
The funeral service of anti fascist resistance leader Endre Bajcsy-Zsilinszky, executed by Szálasi’s arrow-cross government in December, 1944, takes place in Budapest in the presence of the members of the Government and the Allied Control Commission. After the service he is buried in Tarpa (Bereg County).
Yugoslavia – May 27, 1945 (LUY)
Tito addresses a mass rally in Ljubljana. In connection to the Trieste situation, he states that ''we do not want to be used as a bribe in international bargaining; we do not want to get involved in any policy of spheres of interest.''
Romania – May 29, 1945 (HC)
The number 1945:407 law is passed in Romania. It orders that before 1st of June 1945, a Hungarian university must be set up in Cluj, (Kolozsvár) under the name of Bolyai Magyar Tannyelvű Állami Tudományegyetem (Bolyai Hungarian Language State University), with the following faculties: Liberal Arts, Law, Economics, Natural Sciences, Medicine.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – May 30, 1945 (HC)
The number 44/1945 order of the Slovakian National Council is published. State officials of Hungarian ethnicity, including teachers, are fired. The Hungarian government sharply protests at the Allied Control Commission against the anti-Hungarian orders in Slovakia.
Romania – May 30-June 4, 1945 (PIR)
The People’s Tribunal tries the journalist war criminals: Pamfil Şeicaru, Stelian Popescu, Nichifor Crainic, Grigore Manoilescu, Radu Gyr, and others.
Hungary – May 31, 1945 (REV)
Among the goods supplied to the Red Army by the Hungarian government in the second quarter of 1945 are 9,400 tons of fresh meat, 10 tons of slaughtered poultry, 1,300 tons of milk, 540 tons of butter, 48,000 tons of fresh vegetables, 2,000 tons of sugar and 1,050 tons of tobacco.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – June 1945 (HC)
The Hungarian Alliance of Culture in Yugoslavia is formed (in Újvidék - Novi Sad,). Its objectives are the organization of Hungarian cultural associations, libraries, book publishing, and book circulating, and also to lead Hungarian language education.
Yugoslavia – June 1945 (ACY)
Bishop Arsenije Bradvaroviæ is appointed administrator of four Orthodox Croatian dioceses: Zagreb, Gornji Karlovac, Pakrac and Dalmatia.
Yugoslavia – June 1945 (LBY)
The Yugoslav Government requests repatriation of war criminals.
Yugoslavia –June 2, 1945 (ACY)
While in Zagreb, Tito meets the representatives of Zagreb's Catholic clergy to discuss their situation. The aim of the government is to separate the church from the Vatican and form a national Catholic Church. Tito promises that the cases of imprisoned priests will be dealt with quickly.
Yugoslavia – June 3, 1945 (ACY)
Archbishop Stepinac is released from custody and returns to the archbishop's palace.
Yugoslavia – June 4, 1945 (ACY)
A meeting takes place between Tito, Chairman of the Croatian Communist Party, Vladimir Bakariæ and Archbishop Stepinac in Zagreb.
Germany / Soviet Union – June 5, 1945 (PLC)
The Commanders-in-Chief of the four occupying powers in their Berlin declaration - taking over officially the governing power - establish the Allied Control Council, a committee responsible for all German questions. The agreement on the zones is finalized.
Romania – June 5, 1945 (PIR)
The Center for Studies and Research regarding Transylvania is created as an annex to the University of Cluj.
Romania – June 6-7, 1945 (PIR)
A party conference with “the ones responsible for peasants’ work” from the entire country takes place, with the aim of preparing a Congress of the Plowmen’s Front.
Yugoslavia – June 7, 1945 (KCA)
Trials and execution of six Croat Fascist ministers and officers take place.
Romania / Czechoslovakia – June 7, 1945 (PIR)
Romania and Czechoslovakia resume diplomatic relations at the level of political representation.
Yugoslavia / U.K. / U.S. – June 9, 1945 (PLC)
American-British-Yugoslav agreement is reached on the Allies’ administration of the region of Venice Giulia (including Trieste).
Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – June 10, 1945 (PLC/KCA))
In the Soviet-occupied zone of Germany the foundation of democratic parties is allowed, but the programs need to be presented to Soviet authorities for approval.
Yugoslavia / Italy – June 12, 1945 (KCA)
The Yugoslav flag is lowered from the Trieste town hall, signaling Yugoslavia’s withdrawal.
Romania – June 13, 1945 (PIR)
In a speech held in Cluj, Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu denounces the hostile campaign which questioned the final integration of Northern Transylvania within the borders of the Romanian state, and condemns the attempts of chauvinistic Hungarian elements to display the Hungarian flag and block the use of Romanian language in the administration and justice system.
Soviet Union – June 14, 1945 (KCA)
A group of eminent British scientists and scholars leaves Britain for the USSR as guests of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in celebration of the 220th anniversary of its founding.
Yugoslavia – June 14-15, 1945 (ACY)
A group of Montenegrin priests, led by Petar Kapièiæ, holds a meeting at Nikšiæ and sends a resolution to the Orthodox Synod asking that the Orthodox Church in Yugoslavia be organized so that ''all Orthodox without regard to national origin should have equal standing.''
Hungary – June 15, 1945 (HC)
Prime Minister Béla Dálnoki Miklós and Marshall K. J. Vorosilov the chairman of the Allied Control Commission sign the Hungarian-Soviet reparation agreement. Of the 200 million dollars reparation, 169 million must be paid by industrial products, 31 million dollars must be paid by agricultural goods in six years.
According to the governmental edict, the total number of the Hungarian State Police is 34,000 members.
A new national rebuilding competition is launched at the National Council of Hungarian Free Trade Unions’ own initiative.
Poland / Soviet Union – June 16-21, 1945 (PSN)
Trials are held in the Soviet Union for underground leaders in Poland, Lithuania, and western districts of Belarus and Ukraine.
Poland / Soviet Union – June 17-21, 1945 (PSN)
Negotiations begin in Moscow between the Soviet backed Polish provisional government and the former Prime Minister of the London Government, Stanislaw Mikolajczyk, on formation of a government that could be recognized by the United States and the United Kingdom. On June 21, Mikolajczyk agrees to take the position of Vice Prime Minister and Minister of Agriculture and the Provisional Government of National Unity is formed. This government is recognized by Britain and the United States. The Peasant Party is given independence but the Labor Party remains controlled. The National Party is refused legalization.
Romania – June 19, 1945 (PIR)
Law no. 511, which establishes transitory measures for the conversion of war industry into peace industry, is passed.
Czechoslovakia / Poland – June 19, 1945 (KCA)
Polish troops enter Teschen, an industrial town at the center of an important coal-mining area on the Czech-Polish border whose status had been disputed.
Hungary – June 20, 1945 (HC)
The people of Budapest receive 250 trucks, 18 thousand tons of grain, 1,400 tons of meat, 900 tons of salt, 180 tons of coffee and 100 square meters of window glass from the Soviet Union as a gift.
Hungary / Soviet Union – June 20, 1945 (REV)
The Hungarian Government sends a memorandum to the Soviet delegates of the Allied Control Commission calling for an end to Hungary’s status as a war zone and for the Red Army to cease dismantling factories and shipping out goods without compensation. The task of guarding mines, factories, warehouses etc. should pass onto the Hungarian armed forces, and the railways and post office should be placed under Hungarian control.
Yugoslavia – June 20, 1945 (KCA)
An agreement is signed in Trieste fixing the demarcation line between the Allied and Yugoslav zones of occupation in Istria.
Yugoslavia – June 21, 1945 (KCA)
Yugoslav troops withdraw from Pula.
Czechoslovakia / Poland – June 21, 1945 (PLC)
A Czechoslovak-Polish treaty is signed for the border conflicts in Teschen and Orava/Spis.
Czechoslovakia – June 22, 1945 (KCA/PLC)
The Czechoslovak Government agrees on the expropriation of all land held by Germans, Hungarians, Czechoslovak traitors and Nazi collaborators.
Soviet Union / The Netherlands – June 23, 1945 (KCA)
An announcement is issued that Vassili Valkov has been appointed as first Soviet Ambassador to Holland.
Poland / Soviet Union – June 23, 1945 (LBC)
An agreement is signed in Moscow on the constitution of the new Polish government, which is to include five Londoners and domestic Poles as well as the members of the Moscow-backed Warsaw (Lublin) regime.
Hungary – June 24, 1945 (HC)
The Transdanubian representatives of the Provisional National Convention are elected. (Total: 160 representatives; Independent Smallholders Party: 51 members, Hungarian Communist Party: 33 members, Social-Democratic Party: 33 members, National Peasant Party: 20 members, Civil Democratic Party: 3 members, representatives of the trade unions: 20 members)
Romania – June 24-26, 1945 (PIR)
In the ANEF Stadium in Bucharest, Petru Groza inaugurates the first congress of the Plowmen’s Front, an organization for which he would be president until its dissolution in 1953.
United Nations – June 26, 1945 (REV)
The Charter of the United Nations is signed at the San Francisco Conference outlining the principles of the world organization.
Poland – June 26, 1945 (KCA)
The Polish Government in London issues a statement declaring the new Polish Provisional Government of National Unity illegal, claiming it will only hand over its authority to a Government which has been formed on free Polish soil and which reflects the will of the people, as expressed in free elections.
Poland – June 27, 1945 (KCA)
The Polish Government in London issues an “Appeal to the Polish Nation”.
Poland – June 28, 1945 (PLC)
Following the agreements on June 23, the National United Provisional Government of Poland is formed with the participation of 5 members of the London government, and 16 members of the Lublin government. The deputy prime ministers of Prime Minister Osóbka-Morawski will be the communist Gomulka and Mikolajczyk from the Peasants’ Party.
Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – June 29, 1945 (PLC)
A Czechoslovak-Soviet treaty allows the Soviet annexation of the Carpathian Ukraine. The capital of the region will be Uzsgorod (Ungvár).
Poland – June 29, 1945 (PLC)
France recognizes the Polish provisional government.
Romania – June 30, 1945 (PIR)
The founding of the National Institute for Technological Research is decided.
Romania June 30 – July 2, 1945 (PIR)
A national conference of the Patriot’s Union, an organization under PCR influence, takes place in Bucharest.
Yugoslavia – July 1945 (ACY)
Bishop Stepinac orders the closing down of all religious associations, including Catholic Action, with the exception of Caritas.
Hungary – July 1945 (REV)
The League of Hungarian University and College Associations (MEFESZ) is established at a students’ conference in Balatonlelle. The Free Union of Hungarian Writers, established in February, takes the name Union of Hungarian Writers, or Writers’ Union.
Hungary – July 1945 (HC)
The journal of the Social-Democratic Party, Szocializmus begins to publish.
Hungary / Soviet Union – July 1, 1945 (REV)
The Red Army disbands the factory military commands, and transfers control of 300 factories to the Hungarian authorities.
Romania / France – July 1, 1945 (PIR)
Romania signs an economic agreement with France.
Romania – July 1, 1945 (PIR)
The Congress of the National Liberal Party (PNL), led by Gheorghe Tătărescu, takes place. New leadership organs are elected.
Czechoslovakia / Poland – July 1, 1945 (KCA)
After returning from Moscow, Fierlinger says he received Soviet assurances that Czechoslovakia had full right to its 1938 frontiers and that Teschen was important for the Czechoslovak economy.
Germany / Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – July 1, 1945 (PLC)
The establishment of the occupied zones in Germany is completed. The American, British and Soviet forces start to withdraw from the jointly occupied territories.
Poland – July 1, 1945 (PLC)
The Polish People’s Resistance announces its new program called “The Testament of the Fighting Poland”.
Austria / Allied forces – July 4, 1945 (PLC)
The Allies recognize the Austrian Renner government. They announce that Austria and Vienna will be divided into four occupied zones.
Poland / U.K. / U.S. – July 5, 1945 (PLC)
The United Kingdom and the United States recognize the Polish government, denying acknowledgement of the London government-in-exile.
Romania – July 5, 1945 (PIR)
A meeting of 20 regional organizations of PNŢ-Anton Alexandrescu takes place, reaffirming the PNŢ program of 1934.
Hungary / Soviet Union – July 6, 1945 (REV)
The Red Army transfers control of the coal mines to the Hungarian authorities.
Romania / Soviet Union – July 6, 1945 (PIR)
A decree of the Supreme Soviet Presidium of the USSR regarding the decoration of the head of the Romanian state, King Mihai I, with the Victory Order, the highest Soviet war decoration, is published.
Poland / Soviet Union – July 6, 1945 (PLC)
Polish-Soviet agreement on the exchange of minority populations is reached.
Romania / Soviet Union – July 6, 1945 (KCA)
The Soviet-Romanian Agreement on the release of Romanian prisoners of war is established.
Romania / Poland – July 7, 1945 (PIR)
Romania concludes an economic agreement with Poland.
Soviet Union – July 7, 1945 (PLC)
General amnesty is granted in the Soviet Union following the defeat of nazi Germany.
Austria / Allied forces – July 9, 1945 (PLC)
Allied agreement on the Austrian occupied zones and the administration of Vienna is reached.
Poland / Soviet Union – July 9, 1945 (LBC)
A Polish-Soviet commercial treaty is signed.
Yugoslavia – July 11, 1945 (ACY)
Based on an initiative of the Slovenian Catholic Church, a meeting between the church and authorities takes place in Ljubljana. In its memorandum, the clergy welcomes the new Slovene government and condemns the wartime collaboration of the clergy with Italy, but tries to explain the reason behind the cooperation.
Romania – July 11-14, 1945 (PIR)
A session of the propaganda and agitation sections of the regional PCR committees takes place, during which the political, economic and organizational situations, the party education and the activity of syndical commissions throughout the country are discussed.
Czechoslovakia – October July 12, 1945 (KCA)
Karl Hermann Frank, former State Secretary to the Protectorate and Czechoslovakia’s “War Criminal no.1” is arrested after being handed over to the Czechoslovak Government by the U.S. Military.
Romania – July 12, 1945 (PIR)
The annual national awards for Romanian literature and art (poetry, literary prose, critical prose or essay, dramatic literature, music, painting, sculpture, architecture) are instituted.
Hungary – July 12-13, 1945 (HC)
The first national convention of the factory unions takes place in Budapest.
Yugoslavia – July 13, 1945 (ABC)
A meeting of the Politburo of the Croatian Communist Party discusses church-state relations. During the meeting, Bakaric emphasizes that one has to come to terms with the ''anti-national'' work of the clergy and expose it.
Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – July 14, 1945 (PLC)
In the Soviet-occupied zone of Germany the Democratic Bloc is formed from the communist KDP, the social democrat SPD, the Christian democrat CDU and the liberal LDPD.
Romania – July 16, 1945 (PIR)
It becomes compulsory for peasant households to give to the state quotas of the production of wheat, barley, corn, peas, beans and oleaginous seeds.
Allied forces – July 17-August 2, 1945 (HC)
The representatives of the three great powers (Truman, Churchill – (later Attlee) and Stalin) hold their conference in Potsdam. The main objectives of the conference: the political and economic basis of Germany’s foreign occupation; German reparation; the peace treaty with Italy, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania and Hungary; the Western borders of Poland.
Czechoslovakia – July 17, 1945 (HC)
The No. 27/1945 presidential edict: Settlement Offices are established in Bratislava and in Prague. The task is to carry out “internal settlements” of Germans and Hungarians .
Romania – July 17, 1945 (PIR)
The convention regarding the creation of the Sovrompetrol company is signed in Bucharest. Its functioning (with a social capital amounting to 1,759,000 lei, in 1939 value) is authorized by the Romanian government on October 26, 1945.
Yugoslavia – July 17, 1945 (KCA)
The Crown Prince of Yugoslavia, Alexander, is born.
U.K. – July 17, 1945 (REV)
The Labour Party wins a majority in the general elections for the British House of Commons. The wartime Conservative leader Winston Churchill is replaced as Prime Minister by Clement Attlee of the Labour Party.
Poland / U.S. – July 19, 1945 (LBC)
A statement by Joseph C. Grew is made public, according to which the U.S. will insist on participating in the observation of Polish elections on an equal basis with other allies.
Soviet Union / Poland – July 19, 1945 (KCA)
Moscow radio announces the signing of a trade agreement between the Soviet Union and Poland providing for an exchange of goods totaling $120 million and granting each other the most-favored-nation status.
Romania / Soviet Union – July 19, 1945 (PIR)
The convention regarding the founding of the Romanian-Soviet navigation company is signed in Bucharest.
Romania – July 19, 1945 (PIR)
Under orders from the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MAI), the first labor detachments are created and administered by the General Inspectorate of the Gendarmerie.
Hungary – July 19, 1945 (HC)
The Board of National Public Education is formed. It is an advising committee of the government in questions of education and upbringing. Its chairman is the Nobel Prize winner scholar Albert Szent-Györgyi.
Hungary / Romania – July 20, 1945 (HC)
Hungary and Romania sign a temporary agreement about the exchange of commodities in Bucharest.
Hungary – July 21, 1945 (HC)
At Communist pressure Ministers Gabor Faragho, Agoston Valentiny and István Vásáry leave the Provisional National Government. The new ministers are Sándor Rónai (Minister of Public Welfare, Social-Democratic Party), István Ries (Minister of Justice, Social-Democratic Party), Imre Oltványi (Minister of Finance, Independent Smallholders Party)
Hungary – July 24, 1945 (HC)
Count Géza Teleki resigns from the chairman position of the Civil Democratic Party and leaves the party.
Soviet Union – July 26, 1945 (KCA)
Moscow radio announces that Molotov handed a note to the Japanese Ambassador in Mexico, stating that the U.S. and Britain had invited the Soviet Government to join in the war against Japanese aggression and that the Soviet Government had accepted this proposal.
Bulgaria – July 26, 1945 (PLC)
The Bulgarian opposition asks for international control during the elections of August 26.
Yugoslavia – July 28, 1945 (ACY)
In his speech, Bakaric warns the organizers of the pilgrimage at Marija Bistrica that legal measures could be taken against them. In his answer on 2 August, Stepinac vigorously denies that the pilgrimage was politically motivated.
Yugoslavia – July 29-August 7, 1945 (KCA)
The trial of Mihailović supporters takes place. Seven of the accused are sentenced to be executed on August 16, 1945, while the rest are sentenced to life imprisonment. General Mihailović is accused of treason.
Romania – July 30, 1945 (PIR)
The law “for the annulment and revoking of acts of disposition concluded in exceptional circumstances” is promulgated.
Austria – July 31, 1945 (KCA)
Karl Renner, Chancellor of the Austrian Provisional Government, issues a press statement protesting the division of Austria into zones, though he says his Government is not against Allied control.
Albania – August 1945 (PLC)
In Albania a land reform decree is issued. It is extended on February 4 and March 27, 1946.
Allied forces / Germany – August 2, 1945 (PLC/REV/HC)
The end of the Potsdam conference of the Allies, held in the Hohenzoller castle in Cecilienhof from July 17. The Allies decide on the four-zone occupation of Germany and Berlin until the conclusion of a peace treaty, but they agree to treat the country as one single economic entity. Consensus is reached that Germany will not be divided and that a peace treaty will be signed with the country as a whole. As for the eastern borders of Germany it is decided that the territories east of the Oder-Neisse line will be put under Polish control until the peace treaty. East-Prussia is temporarily detached from Germany, and Northeast-Prussia is given to the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union demands control over at least one Italian colony, two eastern provinces of Turkey and military bases in the area of the Straits, on the Dardanelles. The Western Allies do not accept these requests. The Soviet Union eventually withdraws its demand for international control over the Ruhr and its Mediterranean claims. In return, the Western Allies undertake not to intervene in the affairs of the Soviet zone of occupation. The principle of the obligation to pay war reparations is accepted.
They establish the Council of Foreign Ministers to work out the draft peace treaties.
The conference refuses the proposal of the Czechoslovakian government for the resettlement of the Hungarian minority from Czechoslovakia.
Hungary / Austria – August 4, 1945 (HC)
Hungary and Austria sign an agreement about the exchange of commodities in Budapest.
Romania – August 5, 1945 (PIR)
After the welcoming of Romanian troops in Cluj, incidents occur resulting in 3 deaths. The government accuses PNŢ of having provoked them.
Yugoslavia – August 5-7, 1945 (JVJ)
The founding congress of the Yugoslav People's Front takes place.
Romania / Soviet Union – August 6, 1945 (PIR)
Diplomatic relations between the USSR and Romania are re-established through a communiqué of the Soviet government handed to Petru Groza by General I.Z. Susaikov and Counselor A.P. Pavlov.
Romania / Finland / Soviet Union – August 6, 1945 (KCA)
The Soviet Government announces that it has resumed normal diplomatic relations with Romania and Finland.
Romania – August 6, 1945 (PIR)
A law regarding the settlement and sanction of crimes against the National Minorities Statute is promulgated.
Hungary / Soviet Union – August 7, 1945 (REV)
The Red Army transfers control of the Manfréd Weiss Iron Works in Csepel to the Hungarian authorities.
Romania – August 7, 1945 (PIR)
The Romanian Armistice Commission is reorganized and the General Commissariat for Armistice Execution is created.
Yugoslavia – August 7, 1945 (KCA)
Tito addresses the Yugoslav National Congress and asks for a Republican form of government.
Yugoslavia – August 7-25, 1945 (KCA)
The Anti-Fascist National Liberation Council (AVNOJ) holds its third session in Belgrade, meeting as a provisional parliament to draw up a draft for legislation for the election. A summary of the legislation is passed in the Council.
Austria / Soviet Union / U.K. / France / U.S. – August 8, 1945 (KCA)
London, Washington, Moscow and Paris jointly release a statement announcing that an Allied Control Council will be set up in Austria, and that the zones of occupation in the country will be established between the Soviet Union, the U.S., Britain and France.
Soviet Union / Japan – August 8, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviet Union declares war on Japan. The offensive begins in Manchuria the following day.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – August 8, 1945
Representatives of the four great powers (United States, United Kingdom, France and the Soviet Union) sign an agreement about the persecution and punishment of war criminals.
Yugoslavia – August 8, 1945 (KCA)
King Peter issues a response to Tito’s statement repudiating his request and defending his right to power, dismissing the Yugoslav Regents and declaring that “from this moment the duty of defending the constitutional rights of my people reverts to me.”
Yugoslavia – August 9, 1945 (KCA)
Tito speaks at the third session of ANVOJ, stating that the war damage suffered by Yugoslavia at the hands of Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Bulgaria was estimated at roughly $61 billion. Tito strongly attacks Italy, which he said was responsible for a great deal of the damage.
Yugoslavia – August 10, 1945 (KCA)
The Yugoslav News Agency says that King Peter’s statement was unconstitutional, and that it is “aimed at preventing the creation of a democratic federal Yugoslavia.”
Romania / Soviet Union – August 13, 1945 (PIR)
After the re-establishment of diplomatic relations between Romania and the USSR, Iorgu Iordan and Simeon I. Kavtaradze are appointed extraordinary representatives in Moscow and Bucharest, respectively.
Romania – August 14, 1945 (PIR)
The “Law on names” (Legea Asupra Numelui) simplifies the procedure of name-change at the citizen’s request and annuls existing interdictions restricting such operation.
Romania – August 14, 1945 (PIR)
The “Law for the annulment of disposition acts concluded during the Hungarian occupation”, acts through which the Romanian population of Transylvania had been deprived of its goods, under constraint and violence, is promulgated.
Soviet Union – August 14, 1945 (KCA)
A meeting between Stalin, Molotov and the Chinese Prime and Foreign Ministers takes place. A Soviet-Chinese treaty of alliance and friendship is signed.
Austria – September August 14, 1945 (KCA)
Vienna radio announces the arrest of August Eigruber, former Gauleiter of Upper Austria, by American troops.
Soviet Union / Bulgaria – August 14, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviet Union restores its diplomatic relations with Bulgaria.
Allied forces / Germany – August 15, 1945 (KCA)
A map showing the final allocation of zones of occupation in Germany between the U.S., United Kingdom, France and the Soviet Union is issued with approval of the U.S. State Department. Also included on the map is the provisional western Polish frontier and the Soviet-Polish partition of East Prussia as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference.
Hungary – August 16, 1945 (HC)
Marshall K. J. Vorosilov, the chairman of the Allied Control Commission informs Hungarian Prime Minister Béla Miklós Dálnoki about the resolutions of the Yalta Conference: parliamentary elections must be held in Hungary too. Vorosilov receives the Prime Minister, the Speaker of the Parliament and the representatives of the coalition parties to discuss the preparations for the elections.
Undersecretary of the Ministry of Interior Mihály Farkas, Gábor Péter, the leader of the political section of the police and György Pálffy the military-political section of the Ministry of Defence return from Salzburg where they discussed the transfer of Hungarian war criminals with the American occupying authorities.
Hungary – August 16, 1945 (REV)
Pope Pius XII appoints József Mindszenty, bishop of Veszprém, as archbishop of Esztergom in succession to the deceased Cardinal Primate Jusztinián Serédi. (Mindszenty is installed on October 2.)
Poland / Soviet Union – August 16, 1945 (PSN)
Poland and the Soviet Union sign an agreement on German war reparations. The Soviet Union renounces claims to German property in Poland and in the part of Germany that is ceded to Poland following the Potsdam conference. In return Poland agrees to supply the Soviet Union with 52 million tons of coal over the next five years, followed by twelve tons a year on an agreed, low, price. In 1947 the quotas were lowered and in 1953 the supply for low prices was cancelled.
Soviet Union – August 17, 1945 (KCA)
Poles and Jews living in the Soviet Union who had been forced to adopt Soviet nationality during the war would now be allowed to claim Polish nationality, whilst Ukrainians, Belorussians, Ruthenians and Lithuanians would be allowed to claim Soviet nationality.
Hungary – August 17-20, 1945 (HC)
A National Sport Congress takes place in Budapest.
Soviet Union / Poland – August 17, 1945 (KCA)
Soviet Union and Poland sign a treaty on the delimitation of the Soviet-Polish frontier. Poland gains two large districts and other reparations.
Austria – August 17, 1945 (KCA)
The first trial of war criminals before a special People’s Court ends. Three men are found guilty and sentenced to death for the murder of 122 Hungarian Jews. A fourth man is sentenced to eight years of hard labor.
Romania – August 17-19, 1945 (PIR)
The political representatives of the U.S. and the U.K. in Bucharest, Roy Melbourne and John Le Rougetel, remit to King Mihai I diplomatic notes reminding him that western governments do not recognize the Groza government because it is unrepresentative. In these conditions, the two Allies will not re-establish diplomatic relations with Romania.
Bulgaria / U.K. / U.S. – August 18, 1945 (LBC)
The U.S. State Department informs Bulgaria that in its view Prime Minister Kimon Georgiev’s administration does not properly represent the Bulgarian people and it has not taken the necessary steps to make the elections to be held on August 16 open for all democratic elements. The State Department claims that the United Kingdom has a similar view of the situation.
Hungary – August 18, 1945 (HC)
The number 6650/1945 order of the government on the organization of the 8-class elementary schools, and the number 6660/1945 order on the opening of the Law and Political Science college departments for women are issued.
Hungary – August 18-20, 1945 (REV)
Arthur Schoenfeld, the head of the U.S. political mission attached to the Allied Control Commission, handles over to the speaker of the Provisional National Assembly, Béla Zsedényi, the Holy Right Hand of St Stephen, a relic which had been taken to the West by fleeing Arrow-Cross members.
Romania – August 18, 1945 (PIR)
A session of the Political Bureau of the CC of PCR takes place. The discussion includes the factors that contributed to the decline in production, the rationalization of consumption, the gathering of goods and the provision of the army.
Romania / Soviet Union – August 18, 1945 (PLC)
Mihai I, King of Romania, who is diplomatically supported by the United States, calls for the abdication of Prime Minister Petru Groza. Groza refuses to leave, knowing that he enjoys the support of the Soviet regime.
Hungary – August 19-21, 1945 (HC)
The national electoral convention of the Independent Smallholders Party (FKGP) takes place in Budapest.
Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / U.K. – August 20, 1945 (LBC)
According to British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin the governments of Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary are not representative of the majority of the people and it is his impression that one totalitarian regime will be replaced by another.
Romania – August 20, 1945 (PLC)
Mihai I, Romanian King, breaks off all relations with the government and he refuses to sign any decrees or laws for close to half a year (“the strike of the king”) as a sign of protest.
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 21, 1945 (HC)
The United States halts the mass food and military supplies to the Soviet Union. The supplies were delivered under the policy of land-lease. This is the first serious sign of American anti-Soviet policy.
Yugoslavia – August 21, 1945 (ACY)
A decree of August 21 sets up federal and republican Commissions for Religious Affairs to study all questions touching on the external life of religious communities and their relations with each other. The Croatian Commission for Religious Affairs is set up on the same day with Svetozar Rittig as its first president.
Romania / U.S. – August 22, 1945 (KCA)
U.S. Secretary of State Byrnes announces that King Mihai I of Romania, after his failure to achieve recognition from the current Government, has asked the U.S., British, and Soviet Governments to assist in establishing a Romanian Government that might be recognized and eligible to join the United Nations.
Yugoslavia – August 23, 1945 (HC)
The Constitutional Convention of Yugoslavia passes a law about land reform and relocation. Based on this, around 50 thousand Serbian families are moved into the Voivodina (Vajdaság) region.
Romania – August 23, 1945 (KCA)
King Mihai I leaves Bucharest, breaking off relations with the Government.
Austria / France / U.K. / U.S. – August 23, 1945 (KCA)
U.S., British, and French troops formally enter Vienna.
Yugoslavia – August 23, 1945 (PLC)
Land reform in Yugoslavia takes place.
Romania – August 23, 1945 (PIR)
The first anniversary of the turn of August 23, 1944 takes place in the presence of the Government, without the participation of king Mihai I.
Romania / Soviet Union – August 24, 1945 (PIR)
Diplomatic relations between Romania and the USSR are raised to the level of embassy.
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 24, 1945 (PLC)
American President Truman orders to end the transfer of military equipment to the Soviet Union.
Bulgaria – August 25, 1945 (KCA)
It is announced in Sofia that, at the recommendation of the Allied Control Commission, elections will be postponed, which is warmly welcomed by leaders in London and Washington.
Yugoslavia – August 25, 1945 (OEH)
The People's Assembly adopts a new law on enemy activities against the people and the state of Yugoslavia. The law makes it possible to confiscate the property of those convicted. It means the beginning of the nationalization of the industry in Yugoslavia.
Romania – August 26, 1945
The Groza government states its position towards the royal strike by means of an official communiqué, maintaining that it will not resign.
Hungary / Soviet Union – August 27, 1945 (REV)
A Hungarian delegation headed by Ernő Gerő and András Bán sign a Hungarian-Soviet Economic Agreement in Moscow. This prescribes the exchange of goods worth $30 million up to the end of 1946. The agreement is ratified by the National High Council on December 20, after a long public debate and numerous protests.
Hungary – August 28, 1945 (HC)
At the convention of Angyalföld, Mátyás Rákosi, the General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party, announces that the two workers’ parties will enter the Budapest municipal elections of October together.
Romania – August 29-30, 1945 (PIR)
The congress of the Union of artists, writers and journalists takes place in Bucharest. A leadership committee is elected and the affiliation to the General Confederation of Labor, under PCR control, is decided upon.
Hungary – August 30, 1945 (HC)
The Communist philosopher György Lukács arrives in Hungary from the Soviet Union after 25 years of emigration.
Czechoslovakia – August 30, 1945 (KCA)
President Benes signs a decree setting up a Provisional National Assembly.
Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – September 1945 (KCA)
An agreement on extensive land reform is reached. The junker lands are eliminated as a part of the land reform.
Yugoslavia/Hungary – September 1945 (HC)
In the region of the Yugoslavian Voivodina,( Vajdaság) 34,782 students open the school year in 732 Hungarian language elementary schools. In 4 Hungarian language middle- and 4 upper high schools 6,082 students study.
The Hungarian Theatre of Vajdaság opens in Szabadka. (In 1951 it joins the Croatian Folk Theatre.)
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – September 1, 1945 (LBC)
President Truman terminates all lend-lease shipments to the USSR and Great Britain.
Soviet Union – September 2, 1945 (KCA)
Stalin broadcasts a message to the Russian people announcing the end of the war, the unconditional surrender of Japan and the Soviet occupation of Japanese Sakhalin and the Kuriles.
Soviet Union / Bulgaria / U.S. – September 3, 1945 (CWC)
Maynard Barnes, the American Representative in Sophia writes to Secretary of State James Byrnes that the Soviet Union was interfering in the Bulgarian elections to make certain the government remained subservient to the Soviet Union. Barnes reports that the Yalta agreements would become worthless if the Soviet Union succeeded in Bulgaria.
Soviet Union – September 3, 1945 (KCA)
The Red Army paper, Red Star, announces the creation of the officers’ clubs exclusively for the use of Red Army officers.
Romania – September 4-13, 1945 (PIR)
A Romanian governmental delegation (composed of Petru Groza, Gh Tătărescu, Gh. Gheorghiu-Dej, Şt. Voitec, M. Ghelmegeanu, B. Şchiopu, M. Solacolu) visits Moscow, discussing several problems regarding the bilateral rapports, the peace treaty, the economic accords, the royal strike, the repatriations, the question of the prisoners of war, the armistice conditions, etc.
Soviet Union – September 4, 1945 (HC)
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union orders the elimination of the State Defence Committee (led by Stalin) and the Council of Peoples Commissars will take over its power. The elimination of the war administration begins.
Hungary – September 5-13 1945 (REV)
The Budapest session of the Provisional National Assembly passes legislation of fundamental importance on land reform, the armistice agreement and jurisdiction of the people. On September 15, the electoral law is passed.
Austria – September 5, 1945 (KCA)
It is reported from Innsbruck, capital of Austrian Tirol and headquarters of the French zone of the country, that Provisional Governor Gruber appealed to Allied leaders to allow a plebiscite to be taken in South Tirol, so that the German-speaking part of that area, may be reunited with Austria.
Yugoslavia – September 6, 1945 (KCA)
It is announced that the Vojvodina Autonomous Region is constituted as a part of the federal structure of the Yugoslav State, and that it will have a regional parliament and other branches of government and will ensure all of its citizens equal rights.
Austria – September 8, 1945 (KCA)
It is announced that on behalf of the Austrian Provisional Government, Prime Minister Renner communicated to the Allied Control Council the Austrian wish to reunite with South Tirol.
Soviet Union / Romania / U.S. – September 8, 1945 (CWC)
An editorial in Izvestia accuses the United States and the United Kingdom of interfering in Romania's internal affairs.
Bulgaria – September 9, 1945 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Government introduces a more liberal election policy, providing greater freedom to opposition parties. It allows opposition parties to become legal political parties, publish newspapers, and conduct election campaigns. The measures do not satisfy the opposition forces who demand the resignation of the entire government, as well as appointments of non-communists to the posts of the ministers of Interior and Justice. In addition, they demand the restoration of the independence of the courts.
Romania – September 10-13, 1945 (PIR)
The Martial Court holds the trials of alleged terrorist organizations and of the ‘liberal youth’.
Austria – September 11, 1945 (KCA)
The Allied Control Council holds its first meeting in Vienna.
Allied Forces – September 11-October 2, 1945 (PLC/REV)
The first meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers in London. The United States does not recognize the legitimacy of the Romanian and the Bulgarian governments, which are supported by the Soviet Union. During the talks about Italy the Soviet Union asks for control over Libya, 100 million dollars reparation payments and to give Trieste to Yugoslavia. The United States presses for free elections in Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania.
Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – September 12, 1945 (KCA)
The Soviet authorities announce the establishment of centralized administration under Soviet supervision.
Finland – September 12, 1945 (KCA)
The Finnish parliament approves the government’s bill for setting up a Special Court for the punishment of war politicians and criminals.
Romania – September 12, 1945 (KCA)
A statement is issued that negotiations with the Soviet Union had been concluded and had resulted in a relaxation of the Armistice terms and Romania’s economic obligations towards the USSR.
Poland / U.K. – September 13, 1945 (KCA)
It is announced from London that an Anglo-Polish agreement had been reached on the question of repatriation of Polish troops under British command in the U.K., Germany, Italy and the Middle East.
Hungary – September 13-15, 1945 (HC)
The first Congress of the Hungarian Alliance of Democratic Youth (MADISZ) takes place.
Soviet Union – September 13, 1945 (KCA)
A report is published on the “material damage caused by the German-Fascist invaders to State enterprises and institutions, collective farms, public bodies, and Soviet citizens.”
Yugoslavia – September 13, 1945 (KCA)
Alexander Cincar-Markovitch is arrested.
Hungary – September 15, 1945 (REV)
A government order makes the printing of press materials with a political purpose contingent on a permit from the Press Department of the Prime Minister’s Office.
Romania / Bulgaria / Hungary – September 15, 1945 (PIR)
At the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs in London (September 11th – October 2nd), V.M. Molotov presents the drafts of the peace treaties with Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary.
Romania / Poland – September 15, 1945 (KCA)
Moscow announces that the Polish Government has agreed to resume diplomatic relations with Romania.
Soviet Union – September 16, 1945 (PLC)
The Lenin mausoleum on the Red Square is reopened, after his sarcophagus was returned to Moscow in April.
Poland / Vatican – September 16, 1945 (PLC)
The Polish government denounces the 1925 concordat with the Vatican, as it refuses to recognize the new Polish borders.
Yugoslavia / Council of Foreign Ministers – September 17, 1945 (OEH)
In a note to the Conference of Foreign Ministers in London, the Yugoslav government demands the Slovenian coastline, Trieste, the Istrian Peninsula, Fiume, Zara and the Dalmatian islands from Italy.
Yugoslavia – September 17-22, 1945 (ACY)
The Catholic Bishop's Conference meets in plenary sessions. On September 20 it issues a pastoral letter condemning all ideologies and social systems not based on Christian revelation and strongly criticizing the authorities' steps against the church. It demands complete freedom of the Catholic press, Catholic schools and religious instructions in every level of education, full respect for Christian marriage and the return of every confiscated institution. In a separate circular to the clergy next day, the conference attacks the whole basis of the government's reforms and rejects the separation of church and state.
Romania / Poland – September 18, 1945 (PIR)
Romania establishes diplomatic relations with Poland, at the level of legation.
Hungary – September 19, 1945 (HC)
A committee made up of the representatives of the coalition parties forms to prepare for the peace treaty. It works under the authority of the Foreign Ministry.
Yugoslavia – September 20, 1945 (KCA)
The opposition parties decide to boycott the elections (in the elections people may not vote for parties but only for or against Tito’s National Front).
Hungary – September 21, 1945 (HC)
The Hungarian-Romanian Society is formed in Budapest. Its chairman is the composer Zoltán Kodály.
Romania – September 21, 1945 (PIR)
The first organ dedicated to the planning of the economy is created: the Superior Council of the National Economy.
Hungary/ US – September 22, 1945 (HC)
Arthur Schoenfeld, the leader of the American mission working parallel to the Allied Control Commission, gives a note to Foreign Minister János Gyöngyösi. The United States is willing to recognize Hungary with the condition that free elections will be held.
Hungary/ Soviet Union – September 25, 1945 (HC)
On the 25th K. J Vorosilov, the chairman of the Allied Control Commission informs Béla Dálnoki Miklós that the Soviet Union establishes diplomatic relations with Hungary without any condition.
Germany – September 25, 1945 (KCA)
The Allied Control Council meets in Berlin and issues a proclamation to the German people announcing additional requirements arising from the “complete defeat and unconditional surrender of Germany” as discussed at the Potsdam Conference. The requirements grant the Allies control over German foreign affairs, finance and commerce, and internal transport including ships and aircrafts. The German State will cease to have diplomatic, consular, commercial, and all relations with other States. Military formations and organizations and their organs are completely and finally abolished, and the German acquisition of war materials is forbidden. The proclamation also states that the Germans must carry out the reparations outlined by the Allies.
Germany – September 25, 1945 (PLC)
The Volga Republic of Germans is abolished officially after its informal end in 1941.
Hungary – September 25-October 8, 1945 (HC)
The 1st Congress of the World Alliance of Trade Unions takes place in Paris. The Hungarian delegation is led by István Kossa.
Hungary – September 25, 1945 (REV)
The Democratic People’s Party headed by István Barankovics, which split from the earlier Christian Democratic People’s Party, announces its programme.
Romania – September 25, 1945 (PIR)
Session of the CC of the PCR during which the problem of establishing Communist control over the army is debated; Ana Pauker, Vasile Luca, Constantin Pârvulescu, Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu and Emil Bodnăraş participate; among others, the party admission of certain generals and high officers (Constantin Vasiliu-Răşcanu, Nicolae Cambrea, Iacob Teclu, and others), the evolution of army purges, and the improvement of the activity of the military section of the CC of PCR are discussed.
Romania – September 25-October 8, 1945 (PIR)
A delegation of the General Confederation of Labor takes part in the works of the World Trade Union Congress in Paris, where the communist-influenced World Trade Union Federation is created.
Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – September 25, 1945 (KCA)
Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union sign a trade agreement.
Austria – September 26, 1945 (KCA)
The new Landtag of Tirol, the first such body to be created in Austria since the war, holds its first meeting in Innsbruck.
Germany – September 26, 1945 (KCA)
President Truman announces that under a decision at the recent Potsdam Conference, the remainder of the German Fleet is to be divided equally between Great Britain, the U.S., and the Soviet Union.
Hungary – September 26, 1945 (HC)
The composer Béla Bartók dies in New York.
Hungary – September 26, 1945 (HC)
The government considers inflation, and raises salaries and pensions by 50%.
Romania – September 26, 1945 (PIR)
During a session of the Council of Foreign Ministers in London, Molotov raises the problem of recognizing the Romanian government.
Hungary / Soviet Union – September 27, 1945 (REV)
The Soviet Union establishes diplomatic relations with Hungary at the level of legation.
Austria / Soviet Union – September 28, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviet-occupied Burgenland province of Austria is formed again.
Romania – September 28, 1945 (PIR)
The government orders the dissolution of internment camps. On the basis of this decision, between October 14 and December 1, 1945 all 1,911 interned in such camps were released, 275 of whom were handed over to courts.
Hungary / U.S. – September 29, 1945 (PLC)
The United States recognizes the Hungarian Government.
Yugoslavia – September 30, 1945 (ABC)
The Pastoral Letter of the Catholic Bishops' Conference is read in churches throughout the country and has a strong effect both in Yugoslavia and abroad.
Czechoslovakia / Hungary – October 1945 (KCA)
A trade agreement is signed between Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
Yugoslavia – October 1945 (PLC)
Tito supports the unified Macedonia.
Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – October 1945 (PLC)
In the Soviet-occupied zone of Germany most industries are nationalized.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 1, 1945 (HC)
The Hungarian-Yugoslavian Society is formed in Budapest. (Chairman: Gyula Moór)
Hungary – October 1, 1945 (HC)
The Haladás (Progress) newspaper of the Hungarian Radical Party begins to publish. (Editor: Béla Zsolt)
Romania / Czechoslovakia – October 1, 1945 (PIR)
The Romanian and Czechoslovak Governments raise diplomatic relations to the level of legation.
Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – October 1, 1945 (KCA)
Elementary schools are reopened after a purge of Nazi teachers and teaching materials.
Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – October 2, 1945 (KCA)
Two Gestapo members are sentenced to death for committing atrocities in a concentration camp near Dresden.
Yugoslavia – October 2, 1945 (ABC)
Private schools in Croatia are dissolved by the adoption of the Law Concerning the Dissolution of Private Schools.
Hungary / U.S. – October 3, 1945 (REV)
The U.S. authorities fly Ferenc Szálasi and ten associates to Hungary. The first group of war criminals is handed over to the Hungarian justice system.
Soviet Union – October 3, 1945 (CWC)
Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov blames the Western powers for the break up of the London conference. He denies American claims that the conference broke up because of the inability of the Soviet delegation to consult with Stalin.
Soviet Union – October 5, 1945 (KCA)
President Kalinin signs a decree announcing elections for a new Supreme Soviet to be held on February 10, 1946.
Yugoslavia / Romania – October 5, 1945 (WBA)
The Yugoslav-Romanian Provisional Committee for the management of the affairs of the Iron Gate Administration on the Danube is founded by agreements between the two countries.
Poland / Soviet Union – October 6, 1945 (PLC)
The Soviet Union gives Poland Stettin and the Oder horn from its German occupation zone.
Hungary – October 7, 1945 (HC)
Municipal elections take place in Budapest. The division of the 240 municipal members: 122 Independent Smallholders Party (FKGP), 51-51 Hungarian Communist Party and Hungarian Social-Democratic Party. 9 Civil Democratic Party, 9 National Peasant Party, 2 Hungarian Radical Party members.
Yugoslavia – October 8, 1945 (KCA)
Subasic, the Foreign Minister, and Juraj Sutej, Minister without Portfolio, resign claiming that the Tito-Subasic agreement has not been carried out. Marshal Tito replies to the resignation with accusations of Subasic provoking foreign intervention on internal Yugoslav affairs.
Romania / Poland – October 10, 1945 (PIR)
The Association for Romanian-Polish friendship is created in Bucharest.
Finland – October 11, 1945 (KCA)
Minister of Education Helo, who had just recently visited Moscow, announces that upon hearing about Finland’s critical economic situation, Stalin offered the country a prolongation of the repayment of reparations from 6 to 8 years.
Bulgaria – October 11, 1945 (KCA)
The opposition parties boycot the elections, believing that as long as the government’s authority rests in the Communist party alone, genuinely free elections are impossible.
China – October 11, 1945, (REV)
The Chinese Civil War begins.
Romania / Bulgaria – October 12, 1945 (PIR)
Romania signs an economic agreement with Bulgaria.
Hungary – October 12, 1945 (HC)
The leadership of the Social-Democratic Party convenes in Budapest. It declares that it will keep the unity of the workers, and will run independently in the general elections of November.
Hungary / Soviet Union – October 13, 1945 (HC)
Marshall K. J Vorosilov announces that the Soviet government is willing to receive the historian Gyula Szekfű as Hungary’s envoy to the Soviet Union.
Austria – October 15, 1945 (PLC)
The Western Allies recognize Karl Renner’s government (“the Russian government in Vienna”).
Hungary – October 16, 1945 (REV)
Marshal Kliment Voroshilov, chairman of the Allied Control Commission, calls in the leaders of the coalition parties for talks on running a joint list in the approaching general elections. The proposal is rejected by the Independent Smallholders’ Party (FKGP), but strong pressure from Voroshilov forces it to agree a few days later to form a coalition government, regardless of the election results and to award the Interior and Transport ministries to the Hungarian Communist Party (MKP).
Romania / Soviet Union – October 16, 1945 (KCA)
The formation of a Soviet-Romanian shipping company takes place.
Yugoslavia – October 16, 1945 (KCA)
In view of Subasitc’s resignation, the U.S. Government announces its intention of not recognizing the Yugoslav elections.
Finland – October 16, 1945 (KCA)
The Bank of Finland announces a further devaluation of the Finnmark by approximately 12.5%.
Romania – October 16-17, 1945 (PIR)
In the building of the Chamber of Deputies in Bucharest, the General Congress of Orthodox priests and servants of all cults in Romania takes place. It is the first time in the country’s history when Orthodox, Catholic, Uniate, Reformed, Mosaic and Muslim priests come together.
Romania – October 16-21, 1945 (PIR)
The General Conference of the PCR takes place in Bucharest, resulting in the election of the Central Committee and a new secretary general in the person of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej.
Soviet Union – October 17, 1945 (PLC)
Northeast-Prussia (today the Kaliningrad region of Russia) becomes officially a part of the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union / U.S. – October 17, 1945 (LBC)
The U.S. and the USSR sign an agreement worth $350-400 million in lend-lease goods, the shipment of which to the USSR was terminated on September 1. The loan was extended for thirty years at an interest of 2.8%. The first installment is to be paid in nine years.
Hungary – October 18, 1945 (HC)
The memorandum of the Board of Bishops sharply criticizes the people’s democracy, and asks its followers not to vote for left-wing parties at the November elections.
France – October 21 1945 (REV)
There is a left-wing victory in the elections to the French National Assembly, with the Communists winning 25% of the votes and the most seats .
Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia – October 21, 1945 (KCA)
Bulgaria signs a trade agreement with Czechoslovakia.
Hungary / Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – October 21, 1945 (LBC)
The U.S. and U.K protest against the trade agreement concluded between Hungary and the Soviet Union. The agreement was concluded without consulting the Allied Control Commission and would give the Soviet Union a 50% share in the Hungarian mining and transport sectors. This would facilitate Soviet economic and political penetration in Hungary.
Hungary – October 22, 1945 (HC)
The Allied Control Commission gives back the control of the Hungarian State Railway (MÁV) to Hungary.
Czechoslovakia – October 24, 1945 (KCA)
A plan of a Czechoslovak drastic nationalization program is signed by President Benes, providing for the nationalization of banks, industries, mines and natural resources, large industries in food and drinks and insurance companies.
Czechoslovakia / France – October 24, 1945 (LBC)
A trade agreement is signed between Czechoslovakia and France, according to which France is to ship goods worth 396 million Francs to Czechoslovakia and purchase 906 million Francs worth of commodities.
Soviet Union / U.S. – October 24, 1945 (CWC)
United States Ambassador to the Soviet Union, Averell Harriman, meets with Stalin to discuss the break down of the London meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers. Stalin assures Harriman that the Soviet Union and the Western Powers will come to an agreement and that peace treaties could soon be signed.
Yugoslavia – October 24, 1945 (KCA)
The Christening of the Crown Prince of Yugoslavia takes place in the Westminster Abbey.
Romania / Soviet Union – October 25, 1945 (KCA)
Formation of joint Soviet-Romanian oil company.
Soviet Union / Finland – October 26, 1945 (PLC)
Finnish-Soviet treaty about the rental of the Porkkala military base for 50 years is agreed upon. The Petsamo area becomes a part of the Soviet Union, Finland loses its last open exit to the Barents sea.
Romania – October 26, 1945 (PIR)
The Secretariat of the CC of PCR discusses the preparation of property titles for those who had received land following the agrarian reform, and the replacement of the Administrative Council of the National Bank of Romania.
Romania – October 26, 1945 (PIR)
The Council of Ministers authorizes the functioning of the Romanian-Soviet Bank (Sovrombanc), with a capital of 1,200 million lei.
Romania – October 27, 1945 (PIR)
The Minister of National Education announces the start, as of November 15, of an action with permanent character for fighting illiteracy among the population.
Czechoslovakia – October 28, 1945 (KCA)
The Provisional National Assembly meets for the first time and confirms Benes as the President of Czechoslovakia.
Romania – October 29-31, 1945 (PIR)
The Congress of mathematicians in Romania takes place in Bucharest.
Hungary – October 29, 1945 (HC)
The People’s Court begins the trial of ex-Prime Minister László Bárdossy. His trial is the first of all the war criminals. (13 November: he is sentenced to death, he is executed on 10 January 1946)
Hungary – October 29-November 10, 1945 (HC)
The World Youth Conference takes place in London. The World Alliance of Democratic Youth is formed.
Czechoslovakia – October 29, 1945 (KCA)
All foreign trade in Czechoslovakia is brought under state control.
Czechoslovakia / Yugoslavia – October 29, 1945 (KCA)
A trade agreement is signed with Yugoslavia.
Romania – October 31, 1945 (PIR)
The newspapers announce the repatriation from the USSR of 30,000 Romanian prisoners of war.
Albania / Bulgaria – November 1945 (PLC)
Albania and Bulgaria reestablish their diplomatic relations.
Hungary / Romania – November 1945 (HC)
During his trip to Transylvania, Romanian Prime Minister Groza expresses willingness to form a Romanian-Hungarian customs union.
Soviet Union – November 1, 1945 (KCA)
Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov rejects British and American press correspondents’ protests against Soviet censorship.
Austria / Switzerland – November 2, 1945 (KCA)
It is officially announced in Bern that Switzerland recognizes Renner’s Government in Austria and hopes to resume normal diplomatic relations.
Hungary – November 2, 1945 (HC)
G. M. Puskin, Soviet envoy in Budapest, presents his credentials to the Council of Ministers.
Romania / Soviet Union – November 2, 1945 (KCA)
The mixed Soviet-Romanian Bank and Civil Aviation Companies are formed.
Romania / U.S. – November 2, 1945 (PIR)
American Senator Claude Pepper visits Romania.
Soviet Union – November 2, 1945 (KCA)
The Free German Committee and the Union of German Officers, anti-Nazi organizations established in the Soviet Union during the war, meet and decide to dissolve themselves on the proposal of their chairmen, Erich Weinert and Gen. von Seidlitz.
Soviet Union / Hungary / U.S. – November 2, 1945 (CWC)
Soviet Union negatively replies to the American note on the Soviet-Hungarian trade pact.
Germany – November 4, 1945 (KCA)
The Allied Control Council issues a law creating an External Property Commission of the four occupying Powers that will assume control of German property of all kinds outside Germany.
Hungary – November 4, 1945 (PLC)
At the first parliamentary election in the Soviet-occupied countries, in Hungary the Smallholder’s Party wins with 57% of the vote (245 seats out of 409). The Hungarian Communist Party with 16.9% of the votes is third, after the Social Democratic Party with 17.4% of the votes. The governing parties’ deputies agree on the distribution of governmental functions.
Yugoslavia – November 4, 1945 (ACY)
As Archbishop Stepinac arrives at Zaprešiæ to open a new parish, he is attacked by a mob that includes men in uniform. They throw stones and eggs at the new administration of the parish and beat them up. The archbishop manages to escape.
Finland – November 6, 1945 (KCA)
Various Finnish politicians are arrested for indictment by the special court set up under the law.
Hungary – November 6, 1945 (HC)
The National Board of the Trade Unions convenes. It demands the nationalization of the banks, great industrial fields, the providing of food, and a 100% increase in salary.
Soviet Union / U.S. – November 6, 1945 (CWC)
Molotov delivers a speech on Soviet foreign policy in Washington praising the Soviet Union's actions in defeating German aggression. The speech stated that the goal of Soviet policy was to rebuild the Soviet Union's economy to match its military needs. The tone of the speech was generally conciliatory to the United States, but warned the Americans not to use its nuclear monopoly to achieve foreign policy goals.
Czechoslovakia – November 6, 1945 (KCA)
Zdenek Fierlinger is reappointed as Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia.
Romania – November 7, 1945 (PIR)
The PCR organizes large rallies in Bucharest (Piaţa Victoriei, Piaţa Naţiunilor Unite, Piaţa Universităţii) dedicated to the day of November 7.
Romania – November 8, 1945 (PIR/PLC)
On King Mihai I’s name-day, a large manifestation takes place in Bucharest, organized by the youth sections of the historical parties. Government supporters cause serious incidents, which is enough reason for the troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to make arrests from the ranks of the demonstrators and to initiate – in the following days – a campaign against PNŢ and PNL. According to reports, as a result of the police action 11 people are killed and 85 injured. Investigating the events of November 8th, in the next three days the Ministry of Internal Affairs makes 300 arrests from the ranks of sympathizers of the historical parties.
Romania – November 9, 1945 (PIR)
Romania concludes an economic accord with Czechoslovakia (completed May 4th, 1946)
Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union / U.S. – November 9, 1945 (PLC)
An American-Soviet agreement to pull out from Czechoslovakia is reached. The United States revalidates the 1925 trade preference agreement.
Albania / Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – November 10, 1945 (KCA)
The British, American and Soviet Governments recognize the Provisional Albanian Government under Enver Hoxha. The British and American recognition is conditional on the holding of free elections.
Finland – November 10, 1945 (KCA)
The appointments of Vice-President of the Diet Vesterinen to Minister of Agriculture and Communication, and of Social Democratic parliamentary group leader Peltonen, to Minister of Public Works are announced in Helsinki.
Bulgaria – November 10, 1945 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Government decrees the abolition of martial law.
Yugoslavia – November 11, 1945 (KCA/PLC)
General Elections in Yugoslavia result in victory for Tito’s National Front.
Romania – November 11, 1945 (PIR)
Diplomatic relations between Romania and Poland are raised to the level of embassy.
Hungary – November 13, 1945 (REV)
The People’s Tribunal sentences former Prime Minister László Bárdossy to death. He is executed on January 10, 1946.
Poland – November 13, 1945 (PLC)
In order to integrate the previously German areas, in Poland the “Ministry of the Rejoined Areas” is founded, led by Gomulka.
Romania – November 13, 1945 (PIR)
Scânteia publishes The Point of view of the Romanian Communist Party regarding Transylvania. The Government discusses the problems of Romanian science together with some members of the Romanian academia.
Austria / Czechoslovakia – November 14, 1945 (KCA)
It is officially announced in Prague that Czechoslovakia recognizes Renner’s Government in Austria.
Hungary – November 14, 1945 (HC)
A celebration of the Northern Workshop of the MÁV takes place for the occasion of the 500th rebuilt locomotive.
Romania – November 15-18, 1945 (PIR)
The Plenary session of the Hungarian Popular Union expels “reactionary chauvinistic elements” from its ranks and rejects their request regarding the modification of borders.
Hungary – November 15, 1945 (REV)
The Provisional National Government of Prime Minister Béla Dálnoki Miklós resigns after the general elections. Zoltán Tildy of the Independent Smallholders’ Party (FKGP), a clergyman of the Reformed Church, is called upon to form a government. He appoints Imre Nagy of the Hungarian Communist Party (MKP) as Minister of Interior.
Soviet Union – November 16, 1945 (KCA)
The Supreme Soviet issues a decree offering the restoration of Russian citizenship to all former Russian subjects now in Manchuria.
Poland – November 16, 1945
The decrees on “Offenses Particularly Dangerous During the Time of the Reconstruction of the State”, “On Summary Procedure” and “On the Organization and Prerogatives of the Special Commission for Combating abuses and Acts Detrimental to the National Economy” make it easier for the state to resort to penalization.
Hungary / U.S. – November 17, 1945 (LBC)
The United States extends diplomatic recognition to Hungary.
Bulgaria – November 18, 1945 (KCA)
An official announcement is made stating that the U.S. and Bulgaria will resume trade negotiations.
Hungary – November 18, 1945 (HC)
The Petőfi pontoon bridge of Budapest opens.
Romania / US – November 18, 1945 (PLC)
Parliamentary elections in Romania take place. Participation rate: 86.6%. The Patriotic Coalition wins, receiving 88.2% of the votes (258 seats out of 279). The communists win 94 seats, the BNFSZ 96 seats.
The United States had announced on 16 November that it will not recognize the manipulated and single-listed election’s results.
Romania – November 19, 1945 (PIR)
The Political Bureau of the CC of the PCR analyzes, together with the representatives of the General Confederation of Labor, the problem of prices, salaries, gatherings and the conclusion of collective work contracts.
Romania / U.S. – November 19-29, 1945 (PIR)
American journalist Mark Ethridge, commissioned by the U.S. government with the drafting of a report regarding the situation in Romania, visits Bucharest, meeting with the king and other political leaders (from the government as well as from the opposition).
Hungary – November 19-21, 1945 (HC)
The first national congress of the Social-Democratic Youth Movement (SZIM) takes place.
Allied forces / Germany – November 20, 1945 (HC)
The International Military Tribunal begins the trials of the Nazi war criminals.
Allied forces / Czechoslovakia – November 20, 1945 (PLC)
The Allies’ principles of the relocation of German minorities from Czechoslovakia are accepted, in order to mollify the harsh execution of the Potsdam agreements by local authorities.
Hungary / Germany – November 20, 1945 (REV)
The Allied Control Commission orders the deportation of the Germans in Hungary to Germany. Under a government order of January 15, 1946, all those who declared themselves to be German in the last census are obliged to resettle, as are all former members of a German armed unit or of the Volksbund. Almost 200,000 Hungarian Germans have to leave the country in the period up to 1947.
Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – November 20, 1945 (KCA)
It is announced that American and British journalists and parliamentary delegates are free to visit and travel the Russian zone of Germany.
Soviet Union – November 22, 1945 (KCA)
An article in Soviet Weekly gives the details of plans for the post-war construction of the Crimea, which has been accepted by the Government and put into effect.
Soviet Union / U.S. – November 22, 1945 (CWC)
Ambassador Averell Harriman reports that Russian intellectuals have become more hostile to the West. Russians believe that the United States is trying to keep the Soviet Union from bringing democracy to the Balkans.
Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – November 23, 1945 (KCA)
The cession of Transcarpathian Ukraine (Ruthenia) to the Soviet Union under an agreement made in 1945 is ratified by the National Assembly.
Hungary – November 23, 1945 (HC/REV)
Ex-Prime Minister Béla Imrédy receives death penalty by the People’s Court. He is executed on February 28, 1946.
Soviet Union / U.S. – November 23-24, 1945 (CWC)
U.S. Secretary of State Brynes and Molotov agree to a conference of the big three to be held in Moscow.
Romania – November 24, 1945 (PIR)
The Superior Council of the National Economy is formed, annexed to the Presidency of the Government, with the aim of planning, coordinating and applying the economic, financial and social policies of the government.
Austria – November 25, 1945 (PLC)
At the parliamentary elections of the occupied Austria, the National Party receives 49.8% of the votes (85 seats out of 165). The Austrian Socialist Party comes in second with 44.6% of the votes. The Communist Party only gets 5.4% of the votes, but still becomes a part of the coalition government.
Hungary – November 29, 1945 (HC)
The new National Assembly opens. Zoltán Tildy announces the program of his government. Its main objectives: the building of friendly relations with the Soviet Union and the neighbouring countries. In interior politics: the strengthening of the central government, the stabilization of industry and traffic, the completing of land reform, the halt of inflation and the fight against political reaction.
Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – November 29, 1945 (KCA)
Yugoslavia signs a trade agreement with Czechoslovakia.
Yugoslavia – November 29, 1945 (KCA)
The Constituent Assembly meets for the first time and decides to proclaim a republic and to deprive King Peter and his dynasty of all rights. King Peter allegedly having “neither the ability nor the necessary will to organise the people’s resistance to the invader”.
Romania – November 30, 1945 (KCA)
U.S. observer Mark Ethridge prematurely ends his visit of the country.
Allied forces / Germany – November 30, 1945 (PLC)
The Allied forces sign a treaty about the connection between the Western Occupied Zones of Berlin and Germany.
Yugoslavia – December 1945 (ABC)
Croatian Premier Vladimir Bakariæ proclaims the start of a campaign against the priests at a conference of secretaries of the district committees of KPH for northern Croatia.
Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union / U.S. – December 1, 1945 (KCA)
All Soviet and American troops are withdrawn from Czechoslovakia simultaneously.
Czechoslovakia / Denmark – December 1, 1945 (KCA)
Czechoslovakia signs a trade agreement with Denmark.
France – December 1, 1945 (HC)
The International Alliance of Democratic Women forms in Paris.
Romania – December 1, 1945 (PIR)
The PSD congress decides to participate in the next elections on a separate list.
Albania – December 2, 1945 (PLC)
In Albania the Communist Coalition wins the single-listed constitutional elections with 93.7% of the votes.
Hungary – December 2, 1945 (HC)
The National Council of the Trade Unions helds its first general assembly in Budapest. (Chairman: Ödön Kiss, Social-Democratic Party, secretary general: István Kossa, Hungarian Communist Party)
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – December 3-6, 1945 (HC)
Led by Foreign Minister János Gyöngyösi, a government delegation negotiates in Prague about the exchange of Hungarian and Slovak nationals. The negotiations are unsuccessful.
Hungary – December 6, 1945 (HC)
The National Assembly makes a proposal about the nationalization of the coal mines.
Hungary – December 7, 1945 (HC)
Due to the severe nutritional situation, the workers of the Weiss-Manfred complex of Csepel go on a strike.
Czechoslovakia / Norway – December 8, 1945 (KCA)
Czechoslovakia signs a trade agreement with Norway.
Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – December 8, 1945 (KCA)
The land reform measures in are completed.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – December 10, 1945 (LUY)
The new Yugoslav government formally informs the United States of its organization, authority, first official acts and its new officers.
Hungary – December 11, 1945 (HC)
The Economic High Council controls the price of the main food products.
Hungary – December 11, 1945 (KCA)
It is announced in Budapest that the Hungarian Government decides to dissolve and liquidate the Soviet-Hungarian trading company formed after the signing of the economic agreement, which had never been ratified by the Hungarian Government.
Yugoslavia – December 11, 1945 (ACY)
The first Croatian seminary in Istria is opened in Pazin by Bishop Santin of Trieste
Hungary – December 12, 1945 (REV)
The Hungarian government has spent a sum of 14,428,925,530 pengős on Allied Control Commission purposes since April 1, 1945.
Hungary – December 14, 1945 (HC)
The Municipal Committee elects József Kővágó Independent Smallholders Party (FKGP) as the mayor of Budapest.
Yugoslavia – December 14, 1945 (KCA)
Yugoslavia demands the return of war criminals, particularly demanding Anton Pavelic and General Nedic.
Romania / Yugoslavia – December 15, 1945 (PIR)
Romania concludes commercial and payment agreements with Yugoslavia.
Soviet Union / Bulgaria / Hungary / Finland / Romania / U.S. / U.K. – December 16-26, 1945 (PLC/PIR/REV/LBC)
The meeting of the Soviet, U.S. and British foreign ministers in Moscow. They agree that the conditions of the peace treaties will be prepared by the Council of Foreign Ministers alone, and not at the peace conference. They agree on the peace treaties to be concluded with the former allies of Germany (Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Italy and Finland).
On December 22the great powers announce an agreement on the broadening of the Romanian and the Bulgarian governments and on their Anglo-American recognition.
The foreign ministers agree that the Soviet Union will not take part in the occupation of Japan, that Korea should be placed under joint Soviet-U.S. control for an interim period of five years, and that the Soviet Union should have a part in the control of atomic weapons.
Bulgaria – December 16, 1945 (KCA)
Full diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union are resumed. After the Moscow Conference of the three allied foreign ministers, discussions begin on how to attempt to broaden the basis of the government in accordance with the Moscow suggestions.
Romania – December 17-20, 1945 (PIR)
A conference of regional prefects and of the representatives of the parties from FND takes place in Bucharest.
Hungary – December 18, 1945 (HC)
The People’s Court sentences ex-Minister of Interior Andor Jaross, and ex-under-secretaries László Baky and László Endre to death. (They are executed on 11 April 1946, 29 March 1946 and 28 March 1946, respectively.)
In an attempt to stop inflation, the government orders stamping some of the banknotes in circulation. (Without stamping the banknote is invalid or must be redeemed)
Finland / U.S. – December 17, 1945 (KCA)
The United States State Department announces that Finland had, on December 15, 1945, paid the periodic installment of $258,054 of the Finnish war debt for the war of 1914-1918.
Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – December 18, 1945 (KCA)
It is announced that the Leuna oil plant, target of many aerial attacks during the war, has been restored and reopened under Russian supervision.
Soviet Union / U.S. – December 19, 1945 [CWC]
Secretary of State James Brynes meets with Stalin to discuss peace treaties, Soviet troops in Iran and the break down of the London Conference.
Austria – December 20, 1945 (PLC)
The Parliament elects Karl Renner to be the President of the Second Republic.
Hungary / Soviet Union – December 21, 1945 (KCA)
The Hungarian Provisional Government ratifies the economic treaty with the Soviet Union, which provides for comprehensive barter trade between the two countries and for the purchase by the Soviet Union of a 50 percent share of Hungarian industrial and commercial industries. This treaty also allows Hungary to conduct similar treaties with other countries.
Hungary / Switzerland – December 21, 1945 (KCA)
It is announced that the Swiss Federal Council officially recognizes the new Hungarian Government and is ready to resume normal diplomatic relations with the country as soon a possible.
Yugoslavia / U.K. / U.S. – December 22, 1945 (KCA)
It is announced that the British and American Governments have recognised the new Republican regime in Yugoslavia.
Soviet Union / U.S. – December 23, 1945 (CWC)
Brynes meets with Stalin for a second time to discuss the Iranian government’s threats to bring charges against the Soviet government, the control of Atomic Energy, American troops in northern China, as well as the composition of governments in Bulgaria and Romania.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – December 23, 1945 (CWC)
The communique of the Moscow conference announces: agreements on peace treaties of the defeated nations of WWII, commissions pertaining to Japan and Korea, the withdrawal of military forces from China, steps to make the Bulgarian and Romanian governments more representative, and support for a United Nations commission on atomic energy.
Hungary – December 24, 1945 (KCA)
At pressure from the Allied Control Commission, the Hungarian Government issues a decree expelling all 500,000 German-speaking inhabitants from Hungary. They are given permission only to take food and clothing with them on their departure. Eventually some 200,000 Germans have to leave the country in 1946-1947.
Soviet Union / France – December 29, 1945 (KCA)
A five-year commercial agreement between France and the Soviet Union is signed in Moscow. The agreement sets up trade missions in both Paris and Moscow, allowing the Soviet Union to export wheat, petroleum, and wood, while allowing France to export wine, perfumes, and certain manufactured goods.
Romania – December 31, 1945 (PIR)
Andrei Vishinski, Averell W. Harriman and Archibald Clark-Kerr, members of the Inter-Allied Commission delegated to translate into practice the decisions of the Moscow Conference, arrive in Bucharest.
Finland / Soviet Union – December 31, 1945 (KCA)
A Soviet-Finnish agreement is signed in Helsinki extending the delivery period for Finnish reparations to Russia.
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2012