The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991
David CATALAN, Neala HICKEY, Jasper NOOIJ, Emese NYITRAI, Levente NYITRAI, Bobbie SCHOEMAKER, Kristóf ZSIDI
Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Shira BORZAK, Lauren CRYSTAL, Botond CSELLE, Sonya COWELL, Péter János DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB, Kati DEPETRILLO, Doris DOMOSZLAI, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖRDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA, Kristína GABIKOVA, Zsófia GÖDE, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Ágnes HEVÉR, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Emily Jennifer HOLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU, Dean JOLLY, Annastiina KALLIUS, János KEMÉNY, András KISS, Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zardas LEE, Karina LEGRADI, Tara LOTSTEIN, Cynthia MANCHA, Viktor NAGY, Jennifer OTTERSON, Linda RICHTER, Zita Bettina VASAS, Dániel VÉKONY, Péter VUKMAN, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2012
At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The first part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1945 to 1952, but our goal is to publish the whole chronology covering the entire Cold War era up until 1991 in parts during the next two years. The years 1953–1955 will be available by September, 2012 and the years 1956–1968 by December, 2012.
The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come.
The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.
List of Sources
Hungary – 1946 (HC)
According to the Central Statistical Office, the population is 9,048,893 people.
Animal stock: Cattle: 1,222,835; Horse: 424,364; Swine: 1,716,828; Sheep: 3,969,100
Electricity supply: 1,279,839,000 kWh
Length of Roads: 31,237 km
Number of vehicles: 28,329
Length of railroad track: 8,715 km (of this, 84 km electric)
Number of locomotives: 1,086
Personal cars: 1,488
Goods wagon: 12,768
Length of waterway: 1,104 km
Personal boat: 18
Pulling boat: 12
Diesel boat: 3
Kindergartens: 1246 (kindergarten teachers:1,246, kindergarteners: 85,913)
“People’s schools“ and elementary schools: 7,016 (teachers: 29,266, students: 1,032,210)
Apprentice schools: 333 (teachers: 2,586, apprentices: 39,749)
“Civic schools”: 364 (teachers: 3,364, students: 45,057)
Workers’ “civic schools”: 115 (teachers: 855, students: 3,586)
College for kindergarten teachers: 4 (lecturers: 55, students: 499)
Workers’ college for kindergarten teachers: 3 (lecturers: 31, students: 145)
Workers’ teacher’s college: 17 (lecturers: 199 students: 653)
High schools: 310 (teachers: 5,884, students: 75,394)
Workers’ grammar schools: 86 (teachers: 829, students: 3,981)
Workers’ vocational schools: 18 (industry - teachers: 157, students: 557); 11 (trade - teachers: 127, students: 623)
Universities and colleges: 44 (lecturers: 1,311, students: 24, 987)
Evening schools (for workers): 8 (teachers: 44, students: 1,216)
Technical schools: 217 (teachers: 1,927, students: 9,937
The Territorial radio station in the Carpathian – Ukraine (Ruthenia) begins broadcasting in Hungarian too.
Czechoslovakia – January 1946 (HAC/PLC)
The relocation of German minorities from Czechoslovakia begins.
By December 1946, 135,655 people move to the American-occupied zone of Germany.
Yugoslavia – January 1946 (RSB)
Husein Čišić, a deputy to the federal assembly from Mostar tried to explain the existence of Slavic Muslims as a separate South Slavic nation in the Yugoslav parliament. The Bosnian Muslims were recognized as a nation only in the 1974 constitution.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – January 1946 (LBY)
The Yugoslav trade delegation that arrives in London makes it clear that Yugoslavia cannot afford to pay off war debts owed to the U.K.., which is estimated by the Treasury at £2.5 million.
Hungary – January-February 1946 (HC)
Mass peasant movements begin to operate with the “We don’t give lands back” slogans. Peasant delegations arrive in Budapest from all over the country to stop the attacks on land reform.
Hungary – January 1, 1946 (HC)
The Economic High Council introduces the “adópengő” (a new version of pengő ) in order to decrease the value of the highly inflated money with banknotes by now having unpronounceable titles (for example: 1 billion-million pengő or 1,000 billion pengő, etc.).
Romania – January 1, 1946 (PIR)
The members of the Inter-Allied Commission, A.I. Visinski, A.W. Harriman and A. Clark-Kerr, are received by King Mihai I.
Romania – January 2, 1946 (PIR)
The Inter-Allied Commission begins negotiations with the members of the government for the inclusion of representatives of the historical parties.
Poland – January 3, 1946 (PLC)
Decree of nationalization in Poland is passed (making official what has already been done).
Poland / Soviet Union – January 3, 1946 (KCA)
The Polish National Council ratifies the Polish-Soviet population exchange agreement of August 17, 1945, thus establishing Poland’s new Eastern frontier. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet had ratified the agreement as well. Poles and Jews living in the area, who had been forced to adopt Soviet nationality during the war, would now be allowed to claim Polish nationality, whilst allowing Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Ruthenians and Lithuanians to claim Soviet nationality.
A decree is issued providing for far-reaching nationalization of Polish industries as well as confiscation with no compensation of German-owned enterprises. Compensations will be provided for Polish and foreign (non-German) owners.
Yugoslavia / France – January 3, 1946 (OEH)
The French government officially recognizes Tito's Yugoslavia.
Romania – January 4, 1946 (PIR)
A faction led by Nicolae Lupu breaks from PNŢ (National Peasant Party).
Hungary / Soviet Union – January 5, 1946 (REV)
The Economic High Council, yielding to Soviet pressure, orders the heads of the ministries and county offices concerned to begin the immediate dismantling of the Mátravidék Power Station at Lőrinci (Heves County). The installations are shipped to the Soviet Union by the end of the following month.
Romania – January 6, 1946 (PIR)
After negotiations between the government and the opposition parties, Emil Haţieganu and Mihail Romniceanu are accepted into the cabinet as representatives of PNŢ and PNL (National Liberal Party).
Romania – January 7, 1946 (PIR)
The two representatives of the opposition, Emil Haţieganu (PNŢ) and Mihail Romniceanu (PNL) swear an oath in front of King Mihai I and of prime-minister Petru Groza, as portfolio ministers.
Romania – January 7, 1946 (KCA)
The Romanian Government accepts the Moscow decisions, and issues a statement agreeing to satisfy the conditions required by Britain and the USA in order to obtain official recognition.
Bulgaria / Romania / U.S. / Yugoslavia – January 8, 1946 (LBC)
President Truman at a press conference announces that he reserves the right to revoke even the conditional recognition of Romania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia in case they fail to guarantee the democratic transformation accepted in Yalta. Yugoslavia’s recognition is still tied to guarantees.
Poland / U.S. – January 8, 1946 (LBC)
The U.S. ambassador in Warsaw, Arthur Bliss Lane, does not support Poland’s bid for a 500 million dollar loan, since in his view the nationalization of the industry violates the Polish-American commercial treaty of 1931.
Romania – January 8, 1946 (PIR)
The Groza government approves the execution of the decisions adopted by the Moscow Conference, accepting the organization of free elections and promising the freedom of press, speech, religion and right of association.
Romania – January 8, 1946 (PLC)
After an agreement with the Allies, King Mihai stops his “strike” and reestablishes his relation with the government.
Hungary – January 10, 1946 (KCA)
László Bárdossy, the Hungarian Prime Minister at the time of the Hungarian declaration of war on the Soviet Union, is found guilty of high treason.
Hungary – January 10, 1946 (REV)
The first General Assembly of the United Nations convenes in London.
Romania – January 10, 1946 (PIR)
A Journal of the Council of Ministers regarding the implementation of the agrarian reform is published.
Romania – January 10-12, 1946 (PIR)
In the Dalles Hall in Bucharest, the General Congress of the Union of Patriots meets and is reorganized into the National Popular Party, whose elected president is Mitiţă Constantinescu.
Yugoslavia – January 10, 1946 (KCA)
Britain hands over General Neditch and Rupnik, the former “quisling” Premier of Slovenia, to Yugoslavia.
Albania – January 11, 1946 (PLC)
The People’s Republic of Albania is proclaimed.
Albania – January 11, 1946 (KCA)
The Tirana Radio announces that the Albanian Constituent Assembly has proclaimed Albania a Republic and deprived the ex-King Zog of his royal rights, forbidding his return.
Hungary – January 12, 1946 (HC)
The announcement of the National Board of Trade Unions and the two worker’s parties about the re-election of the factory committees is published.
Bulgaria – January 13, 1946 (LBC)
Deputy Commissar of Foreign Affairs Andrei Vishinsky announces that attempts to broaden the Bulgarian government failed, because the opposition demanded the transformation of the cabinet, the dissolution of the National Assembly and new elections.
Romania – January 14, 1946 (PIR)
The Democratic Union of the Muslims of Dobrogea is founded.
Romania – January 14, 1946 (LBC)
Romanian Minister of Justice Lucretiu Patrascanu announces that foreign observers may not be present at the national election.
Soviet Union – January 14, 1946 (KCA)
It is announced that the Commissar for the Interior, Lavrenti Beria, has been asked to relieve his duties because of the pressure of other engagements, and that he will be succeeded by Sergei Kruglov.
Romania – January 15, 1946 (PIR)
The Soviet military censorship on mail and telegraph communication is ceased.
Hungary – January 18, 1946 (HC)
Romania – January 19, 1946 (PIR)
The National Federation of Women in Romania is founded.
Hungary – January 20, 1946 (HC)
The academic magazine of the Hungarian Communist Party, the Társadalmi Szemle begins to be published. (editor: Aladár Mód)
Romania – January 20, 1946 (PIR)
The National-Democratic Peasants’ Party is created, led by Nicolae Lupu. The Aurora newspaper, the media organ of the party, publishes its “Manifest to the country.”
Poland – January 22, 1946 (PSN)
A decree on the “Responsibility for the Defeat of Poland in September, 1939 and the Fascisization of Political Life” is signed, giving the state the ability to retroactively charge prewar Polish officials with “weakening the defensive spirit of society.” The law stipulates long imprisonment and capital punishment.
Hungary – January 22, 1946 (HC)
The Economic High Council liberates the stockpile of the merchants. It allows the free traffic of potatoes, leguminous plants, chickens, eggs and 40% of industrial goods.
Romania – January 23, 1946 (PIR)
The Romanian Armistice Commission and the General Commissariat for the Execution of the Armistice end their activity; the execution of the clauses of the Armistice Convention will be supervised by the Romanian Commission of liaison with the Allied Control Commission, which will function alongside the Ministry of External Affairs.
Yugoslavia – January 23, 1946 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government commences a mass expulsion of Germans, in spite of Anglo-American protests.
Soviet Union – January 26, 1946 (KCA)
Moscow Radio broadcasts an official announcement concerning the Yalta agreement and the Soviet annexation of the Kurile Islands and Southern Sakhalin. U.S. Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson says that the agreement provided the Soviet Union with the right to occupy the areas but did not provide the final transfer of these islands to the USSR.
Romania – January 27, 1946 (PIR)
The first congress of the Union of Free Jews takes place.
East Germany – January 29, 1946 (KCA)
The University of Berlin is reopened under Russian supervision and after a purge of Nazi teachers and students.
Czechoslovakia / Vatican – January 30, 1946 (KCA)
Diplomatic Relations between Czechoslovakia and the Vatican are resumed.
Romania – January 31, 1946 (PIR)
The Government approves the law initiative prolonging the deadlines for the purge of public administration (until March 31st) and for the trials of war criminals (until June 1st).
Yugoslavia – January 31, 1946 (PLC)
The founding of the federal government of Yugoslavia, formed out of the six republics of the federal state.
Yugoslavia – January 31, 1946 (KCA)
The Constituent Assembly of Yugoslavia unanimously accepts a motion for its own immediate conversion into National Assembly, accepts the resignation of Marshal Tito, and at the same time charges him with the formation of a new government.
Soviet Union – February 1946 (KRI)
Elections for the Supreme Soviet are held
Hungary – February 1, 1946 (KCA/HC)
The Hungarian National Assembly passes a constitutional bill abolishing the Monarchy and setting up a Republic. Tildy is unanimously elected as the first President.
The re-electing of the factory committees begins in the whole country.
Czechoslovakia – February 1, 1946 (HC)
An order from the Ministry of Interior halts a law on the confiscation of property of the Hungarian ethnic minority.
Yugoslavia – February 1, 1946 (OEH)
A reorganization of the Yugoslav government takes place in Belgrade.
Poland – February 2, 1946 (KCA)
Karl Maria Splett, the Roman Catholic Bishop of Danzig, is sentenced to 8 years imprisonment, 5 years loss of civil rights and confiscation of his property. He is convicted for having used his office “to the detriment of the Polish nation, the Catholic hierarchy, and the civil population.”
Yugoslavia – February 2, 1946 (KCA)
Tito announces his new Government.
Hungary / Poland / Romania – February 4, 1946 (HC)
The President names Ferenc Nagy of the Independent Smallholders’ Party (FKGP) as Prime Minister. No changes occur in the Government.
Hungary and Poland sign an agreement about the exchange of commodities.
In Tirgu Mures (Marosvásárhely), Romania, the (Hungarian language) National Sekler Theatre opens.
Hungary / Poland – February 4, 1946 (KCA)
A Polish-Hungarian trade agreement is signed in Budapest.
Hungary – February 5, 1946 (HC/REV)
The People’s Courts begin the trial of Arrow Cross leader Ferenc Szálasi and his alleged companions. On March 1, all 7 of them receive the death penalty by hanging. On the 12th of March, the verdict is executed.
Romania / U.K. / U.S. – February 5, 1946 (KCA)
The British and American Governments recognize the government of Groza in Romania on the condition of drafting a new electoral law and holding elections.
Yugoslavia – February 5, 1946 (KCA)
The Yugoslavian National Assembly unanimously elects Tito as Commander-in-Chief of the Yugoslav Army.
Romania – February 6, 1946 (PLC)
King Mihail appoints the Petru Groza government.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – February 6, 1946 (LBC)
In a radio speech Soviet Commissar of Foreign Affairs Molotov declares that “dangerous talk on a third world war is being encouraged” in “the ruling classes of some other countries” He assails British maintenance of “hundreds of thousands of German soldiers” in their zone of occupation, and allied support of “tens of thousands of troops of Polish Fascist General Anders” in Italy.
Yugoslavia – February 6, 1946 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Ministry of the Interior announces that the “quisling” Premier of Serbia during the war, General Milan Nedic who was to have been tried as a war criminal, committed suicide by jumping out of a third floor window.
Romania – February 7, 1946 (PIR)
The Groza government responds to the notes of the U.S. and British governments of February 5. On Victory Square (Piaţa Victoriei) an FND demonstration takes place for the recognition of the Groza government by the two allies.
Hungary – February 8, 1946 (REV)
The Tatabánya collieries challenge the country’s miners to a competition (the “battle of coal”) to produce as much coal as possible to ease the catastrophic shortage of fuel.
Romania – February 8, 1946 (PIR)
A note on the Romanian government is published. It contains observations regarding the expected provisions of the Peace Treaty and expresses regret that Romania’s co-belligerence had not been recognized.
Romania – February 9-10, 1946 (PIR)
Following a session, “The Central Executive Committee” of PSD adopts the decision to participate on common lists with the PCR in the elections and calls a congress for March 10.
Soviet Union – February 9, 1946 (CWC)
Stalin gives a speech on the wartime achievements of the Soviet Union and on the war-like doctrine of capitalism. He pledges to increase the fighting strength of the Red Army to prepare for the next war that capitalism causes. Though most likely intended for a domestic audience in order to promote reconstruction, the speech is interpreted by the Western Powers as a threat.
Romania – February 10, 1946 (PIR)
The PCR University “Stefan Gheorghiu” is inaugurated in the presence of prominent party figures such as Chivu Stoica, Gh. Apostol, Iosif Chişinevschi and others. The courses would start a year later.
Soviet Union – February 10, 1946 (PLC)
The first Supreme Soviet elections take place in the Soviet Union since 1937.
Soviet Union – February 11, 1946 (KCA)
The terms of the secret agreement from February 11, 1945, concerning the Soviet Union entering the war against Japan are published.
Romania – February 11-12, 1946 (PIR)
Consultations of the basic female party activists take place. Discussions include: the campaign for preparing the syndicate elections, the World Congress of Women, the forming of the Democratic Federation of Women in Romania, and the role of anti-fascist women in Romania.
Albania – February 12, 1946 (KCA)
King Zog, the ex-King of Albania, leaves from Britain with his family to take residence in Egypt.
Czechoslovakia / Poland – February 12, 1946 (KCA)
A Czechoslovak-Polish agreement is reached, providing for the exchange and restitution of installations looted by the Germans during the war.
Soviet Union – February 12, 1946 (KCA)
The Commissariat of the Interior of the Soviet Union announces that of the total electorate, 99.7% had voted, and that 99.18% of the votes had been cast to the Communist and non-Party bloc.
Poland – February 14, 1946 (PLC)
According to the census, the population of Poland is 23.6 million. 86.9% of the population is Polish, 9.7% is German. The percentage of “verificated” (previously German) citizens is 1.7%.
Poland – February 14, 1946 (HDP)
Polish and British representatives agree on the deportation of millions of Germans from Poland to the West.
Romania – February 14, 1946 (PIR)
A session of the Executive Committee of the Plowmen’s Front concludes with the decision to participate in the elections on common lists with the PCR.
Romania – February 14-18, 1946 (PIR)
The trial of “Centrala Evreilor” (The Jewish Central) takes place at the People’s Tribunal. The organization is accused of having chased the Jews during the war.
Hungary – February 16, 1946 (HC)
A rally of the Hungarian Communist Party takes place in Budapest. Mátyás Rákosi informs the public about the party’s plans to halt inflation, purify the administration, introduce state control of the banks and state maintenance of heavy industry, to defend the land reform, nationalize the production of oil and other raw materials and, last, increase the working peasants’ condition.
Romania – February 17, 1946 (PIR)
Romania and the Netherlands resume diplomatic relations at the level of legation.
West Germany – February 17, 1946 (PLC)
In the Western occupied zones of Germany a decree allows democratic parties to take part at the local elections.
Romania – February 19, 1946 (PIR)
Students of the parties PNL-Tătărescu, PCR, PSD, Frontul Plugarilor, PNŢ-Anton Alexandrescu, and the National Popular Party decide to found the University Democratic Front (Frontul Democrat Universitar).
Romania – February 20-21, 1946 (PIR)
The People’s Tribunal tries more war criminals: members of the Horia Sima government and journalists accused of “Hitlerist propaganda”.
Yugoslavia – February 20, 1946 (WBA)
A protocol on the establishment of border traffic between Yugoslavia and Albania is signed in Belgrade.
Hungary – February 21, 1946 (HC)
A meeting of the Assembly of the Iron and Metal Workers takes place in Budapest. It demands the removal of “reactionary elements” and the decrease of the oversized national administration.
Hungary / US – February 21, 1946 (HC)
Hungary receives $10 million in loans from the U.S. to purchase equipment from the U.S. Army’s European stockpiles.
Czechoslovakia – February 21, 1946 (HC)
Czechoslovakian general elections are announced. However, citizens of Hungarian origin are deprived of the right to vote.
Romania – February 21, 1946 (PIR)
At the suggestion of Minister of Finance Alexandrini, the government raises the salaries and pensions of public and military employees by 100%.
Bulgaria / Soviet Union /US – February 22, 1946 (PLC)
The U.S. demands Bulgaria to broaden the government. The Soviet Union rejects the American demands in a March 8 response.
Romania – February 22-March 1, 1946 (PIR)
The trial of General Constantin Voiculescu, former governor of Bessarabia (1941-1943) and head of the Gendarmerie in Bessarabia, takes place.
Hungary – February 23, 1946 (HC)
Agricultural Minister Béla Kovács resigns. His successor is István Dobi (ex-Minister of State). István Dobi’s successor is István B. Szabó as a Minister of State.
Nearly 10 thousand workers in front of the Parliament building in Budapest demand the removal of reactionary elements from the civil service as well as the participation of representatives of the trade unions in various delegations (which are selecting public servants who must be dismissed from state positions because of their behavior during the ancient regime).
Bulgaria – February 24, 1946 (KCA)
It is reported that Kristu Pastukov, leader of the opposition Social-Democratic Party, has been arrested on charges of sowing discontent in the Army.
Romania – February 24, 1946 (PIR)
PNL-Dinu Brătianu organizes a reunion of the liberals in Câmpulung Muscel, one year after the manifestation of February 24, 1945.
Soviet Union – February 25, 1946 (KCA)
Moscow radio announces that the Commissariat of Defense and the Soviet Navy have merged into a single Commissariat of the Armed Forces of the USSR, headed by Marshal Stalin.
Soviet Union – February 25, 1946 (KRI)
The Red Army changes its name to the Soviet Army.
Soviet Union – February 26, 1946 (KCA)
With immediate effect, price cuts between 50 and 75 percent are introduced for necessary foodstuffs.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – February 27, 1946 (REV)
An agreement on a Hungarian-Czechoslovak population exchange is signed. The Czechoslovak authorities may send as many Hungarian deportees to Hungary as Slovaks volunteer to move from Hungary to Czechoslovakia. Subsequently, cc. 70,000 Hungarians are resettled in Hungary from Czechoslovakia.
Soviet Union / Mongolia – February 27, 1946 (KCA)
A treaty of friendship and mutual assistance, as well as of economic and cultural convention, is signed between the Soviet Union and Mongolia.
Hungary – February 28, 1946 (KCA)
Béla Imrédy, former Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Hungary, is found guilty of high treason for collaboration with the enemy and promulgation of anti-Semitic legislation.
Soviet Union – February 28, 1946 (KCA)
Marshal Semyon Timoshenko is appointed as the Soviet Minister to Ethiopia, Sadcikov as the Soviet Minister to Iran, and Jakov Suris as the first Soviet Ambassador to Brazil.
Soviet Union – March 1946 (KRI)
L.P. Beria and G.M. Malenkov are made full Politburo members. A.N. Kosygin and N.A. Bulganin are appointed as candidates to membership in the Politburo. M.A Suslov is given the responsibility for analysis and propaganda for the Central Committee.
Romania / Turkey / Yugoslavia – March 1, 1946 (PIR)
Diplomatic relations between Romania and Turkey, and between Romania and Yugoslavia are raised to the level of embassy.
Hungary – March 3, 1946 (HC)
The National Board of the Hungarian Youth (MIOT) forms in Budapest. Its objective is to unite the youth of the workers, peasants and students.
Hungary – March 4, 1946 (HC)
The People’s Court begins the trial of ex-Prime Minister Döme Sztójay and four of his Ministers. Sztójay, Jenő Rátz, Lajos Reményi-Schellner, Lajos Szász receive the death penalty while the 4th Minister Antal Kunder is sentenced to life imprisonment in a forced labour institution. The death penalty of Rátz is changed to life imprisonment by the President. On 23 August the plea for clemency is refused. The verdicts are executed on 24 August.
Romania – March 4-6, 1946 (PIR)
The first Congress of Women in Romania takes place in the presence of some foreign delegations. The Democratic Federation of Women in Romania is constituted.
Hungary March 5, 1946 (REV/HC)
The Hungarian Communist Party (MKP), the Social Democratic Party (SZDP), the National Peasants’ Party (NPP) and the Trade-Union Council form the Left-Wing Bloc, declaring in a joint statement that they are prepared to cooperate only with the ‘democratic elements’ in the Independent Smallholders’ Party (FKGP). They demand the defense of land reform, the purification of the administration, the nationalization of the oil fields and bauxite mines, the nationalization of the main factories of heavy industry, and the nationalization of the banks. Their action marks the beginning of the “salami tactics” that lead to the break-up of the Smallholders.
Romania – March 5, 1946 (PIR)
The Ministry of Propaganda is transformed into the Ministry of Information (minister: Petre Constantinescu-Iaşi), which controls The National Office of Tourism, the National Cinematographic Office, the Romanian Society of Radio broadcast, the State Publishing House, and others.
Soviet Union – March 5, 1946 (LBC)
Winston Churchill’s cold war speech in Fulton, Missouri: “An iron curtain” has “descended across the Continent”. – The March 11 response of Pravda calls Churchill a warmonger and declares that his recommendation amounts to the formation of an Anglo-American military alliance in order to dominate the world and “liquidation” of the three-power coalition and the United Nations. - March 13. Stalin’s interview in Pravda: Churchill’s speech is “incompatible” with the Anglo-Soviet treaty and says his charge that East European countries are all subjected to the “increasing control of Moscow” is “rudely and shamelessly” libelous; “if Churchill and his friends not only in England but also in the United States” succeed in organizing a new military expedition against Eastern Europe, “which is not very probable”, then “they will be beaten”.
Yugoslavia / Italy – March 5, 1946 (KCA)
British foreign minister Bevin announces that the Council of Foreign Ministers has appointed a commission of experts to make recommendations on the boundary between Italy and Yugoslavia. The boundary will mainly follow the ethnic line, leaving minimum population under foreign rule.
Soviet Union – March 6, 1946 (KCA)
Ministers Molotov, Shvernik and Zhdanov are awarded the Order of Lenin.
Romania – March 6, 1946 (PIR)
The first anniversary of the Groza government takes place in the Aro Hall, in the presence of all the members of the Cabinet.
Hungary – March 7, 1946 (HC) (REV)
The great assembly of the Hungarian Communist Party, the Social-Democratic Party, the National Peasant Party and the trade unions takes place in Heroes’ Square. It presses for the demands of the Left Wing Bloc, and the removal of reactionary elements of the FKGP. The Smallholder politicians István Dobi and Gyula Ortutay issue a statement of support for the Bloc’s demands.
Hungary – March 7 1946 (REV)
József Lakos, former police chief of Szentes, is murdered in Szentes Hospital by members of the communist R Guard. Lakos had been freed on February 19 following a parliamentary question by Dezső Futó. (Imre Dadi, Csongrád County Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party (MKP) who ordered the murder, is freed at the end of January 1948 under a general pardon after a short period on remand).
Hungary / Soviet Union / U.S. – March 7, 1946 (LBC)
According to the U.S. the Soviets caused $2,5 million worth of damage by assuming operation of the oil field of Lispe in Hungary.
Bulgaria / Soviet Union / U.S. / U.K. – March 8, 1946 (LBC)
In response to a note by the U.S., in which it requested the broadening of the Bulgarian government by two members who are acceptable to the opposition, the Soviet Union announces that the U.S. is violating the London agreement and that the note was delivered without consultation of the governments involved.
Soviet Union / U.S. / U.K. – March 8, 1946 (LBC)
Referring to Churchill’s Fulton speech that calls for Anglo-American cooperation to defend common interests, Byrnes affirms that the U.S. wants an alliance neither with Britain nor the USSR.
Soviet Union – March 8, 1946 (KRI)
Under pressure from the state, the Ukrainian Uniat Church severs its ties with Rome and becomes absorbed into the Orthodox Church.
Hungary / Soviet Union – March 9, 1946 (KCA)
The Hungarian Government approves an air agreement with the Soviet Union, setting up a joint air transport corporation.
Hungary – March 9-11 1946 (REV)
Under pressure from the Left Wing Bloc, the Independent Smallholders’ Party (FKGP) expels 20 members of Parliament from its ranks, including Vince Nagy, Dezső Sulyok and István Vásáry. Béla Kovács is appointed editor of the party paper, the Kis Újság, in place of Count Gyula Dessewffy.
Romania – March 10, 1946 (PIR)
The Congress of PSD decides, with 232 votes for and 29 against, the participation in the election on common lists with the governmental Bloc.
Hungary – March 11-12, 1946 (HC)
The first national congress of the National Peasant Party takes place in Budapest. (president: Péter Veres, vice-president: Ferenc Erdei and Imre Kovács, the position of secretary general is ceased.)
Finland – March 11, 1946 (PLC)
Paasikivi becomes the President of Finland after Mannerheim (1946-1956).
Bulgaria – March 12, 1946 (PLC)
Decree of land reform in Bulgaria is issued.
Hungary – March 12 1946 (REV/HC)
Parliament passes legislation providing penal-law protection for the democratic system of government and the republic. This later provides the legal grounds for show trials.
Hungary – March 12, 1946 (KCA)
Ferenc Szálasi, the leader of the Hungarian Nazi movement and anti-Semitic Arrow Cross party is hanged.
Poland – March 12, 1946 (KCA)
The Polish Security Police raids the Peasant Party headquarters.
Yugoslavia – March 13, 1946 (LUY)
Ranković announces in the Peoples' Assembly that Mihailović is captured and will be tried.
Soviet Union – March 13, 1946 (KCA)
Stalin strongly criticizes Churchill’s speech at Fulton, U.S., in which Churchill condemns the trend of contemporary Soviet policy. Stalin calls Churchill’s speech “a dangerous act” and a “call for war on the USSR.”
Albania / Yugoslavia – March 14, 1946 (PLC)
The Albanian People’s Republic’s Constitution, following the Yugoslav model, is accepted.
Poland / Yugoslavia – March 15 – 16, 1946 (KCA)
Tito pays an official government visit to Poland, and a Polish-Yugoslav treaty of friendship and mutual aid is signed.
Poland – March 15, 1946 (KCA)
An official statement announces the prohibition of all activities, the closing of the offices and the arrest of the leaders of the National Peasant Party in the provinces of Wloszczow and Grojec.
Soviet Union – March 15, 1946 (KCA)
Stalin tenders the resignation of his Government and is asked to form a new Administration by the Supreme Soviet. In the new government the title: people’s commissar is changed to minister.
A detailed report about the first post-war Five-Year-Plan of the Soviet Union is presented to the Supreme Soviet. The main objectives of the plan are “to rehabilitate the war-devastated districts, restore industry and agriculture to the pre-war level, and considerably surpass that level”.
Romania – March 16, 1946 (PIR)
The CC Plenary of PSD excludes the Titel Petrescu-group from the leadership of the party, securing it for the faction Lothar Rădăceanu-Ştefan Voitec.
Poland / U.K. – March 16, 1946 (KCA)
After months of discussing the details of the repatriation of Polish troops serving under British command, the British Government decides to demobilize all such Polish forces.
Soviet Union – March 17, 1946 (KCA)
An article in the New York Times points out that during the war the territory of the Soviet Union increased from 8,241,921 sq. miles to 8,515,000 sq. miles, while the population increased from 170,000,000 to 194,000,000.
Poland – March 18, 1946 (KCA)
Poland joins the European Coal Organization.
Soviet Union – March 18, 1946 (KRI)
The Fourth Five-Year-Plan, “for the Restoration and Advancement of the Economy of the USSR”, is adopted.
Soviet Union – March 19, 1946 (KCA)
Due to failing eyesight, Mikhail Kalinin resigns from the post of Chairman of the Supreme Soviet, to be succeeded by Nikolai Shvernik.
Hungary – March 20 1946 (REV)
Imre Nagy is replaced as Interior Minister by László Rajk, who holds the position until August 1948.
Romania – March 20, 1946 (PIR)
The Romanian-Soviet accord on the creation of the Sovromlemn (SOVROM – wood) is signed at the Ministry of Agriculture and Domains.
Czechoslovakia / Yugoslavia – March 20-23, 1946, (KCA)
Tito visits Czechoslovakia. During the conversations it is agreed that there should be preparations for a Czechoslovak-Yugoslav treaty.
Czechoslovakia – March 22, 1946 (KCA)
Karl Hermann Frank, “Reichs-Protector of Bohemia and Moravia” during the war, appears before a court for trial as a war criminal. The defendant is accused of ordering the Lidice massacre and other atrocities, attempting to “Germanize” the Czech provinces and acting in the interest of the enemy. As Frank is a Sudeten German, he is allowed to give evidence in German.
Hungary – March 22, 1946 (KCA/REV)
Döme Sztójay, former Prime Minister of Hungary, is executed by a firing squad on August 24.
Hungary / Soviet Union / U.S. – March 22, 1946 (LBC)
The U.S. military mission in Hungary delivers a note in which it demands the removal of Soviet personnel from the U.S.-owned oil fields and the return of the wells to U.S. control.
Poland / UK – March 22, 1946 (KCA)
Bevin announces that arrangements will be made for those demobilized Polish troops serving under British colors who wish not to repatriate to Poland.
Yugoslavia – March 24, 1946 (KCA)
It is announced that General Draha Mihailovic, has been in the hands of the Government since March 13, 1946. Mihailovic, previously Minister of War and the leader of the Chetnik guerrillas, was accused of collaborating with the German occupation forces and using his Chetniks against Tito’s partisans.
Soviet Union – March 27, 1946 (CWC)
The Soviet Union boycotts the UN Security Council because it refuses to participate in debates over Soviet-Iranian border disputes.
Romania – March 28, 1946 (PIR)
Minister of Communications and Public Works G. Gheorghiu-Dej is appointed president of the Superior Council of the National Economy.
Hungary / Soviet Union / France / U.S. / U.K. – March 28, 1946 (HC)
At the meeting of the representatives of the four great powers, Soviet Ambassador Gusev proposes plans for a peace treaty with Hungary.
Hungary / Soviet Union – March 29, 1946 (HC)
Hungary and the Soviet Union sign an agreement about the establishment of the Hungarian-Soviet Shipping Company (MESZHART) and the Hungarian-Soviet Civil Air Service Company (MASZOVLET). They are seated in Budapest.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – March 30, 1946 (KCA)
A U.S. note to the Yugoslav Government requests permission for U.S. Army personnel connected with General Mihailovic to testify on his behalf. The request is rejected.
Romania / Yugoslavia – March 30, 1946 (PIR)
Diplomatic relations with Yugoslavia are re-established; the first postwar Ambassador of Romania in Yugoslavia is university professor Tudor Vianu.
Bulgaria – March 31, 1946 (KCA)
Col. Georgiev forms a New “Fatherland Front” Government.
Romania – March 31, 1946 (PIR)
A meeting of protest against the Spanish Franco regime is organized in the Aro Hall.
Yugoslavia / Italy – April 1, 1946 (KCA)
For weeks, especially during the visit of the Four-Power Boundary Commission, the situation in Trieste deteriorates considerably and there is tension between the Yugoslav and Italian communities.
Yugoslavia – April 1, 1946 (KCA)
At a joint session of both Houses of the National Assembly, Tito gives a review of Yugoslav foreign policy. According to Tito, Yugoslav foreign policy is based on the following principles: the consolidation of world peace; concentration on Yugoslavia realizing all her rights (including “unjust loss of its territories”); and the consolidation of cultural, political and economic relations with Slavic peoples and the Soviet Union.
Hungary – April 3, 1946 (HC)
The Szabad Nép announces that 48 Croatian, 17 Serbian, 10 Slovakian and 4 Romanian language schools will open.
Albania / U.K. – April 4, 1946 (KCA)
The diplomatic relations between Britain and Albania are severed after “unfriendly and un-cooperative attitude adopted by the Albanian Government towards the British representatives in the country”.
Romania – April 4, 1946 (PIR)
The Romanian government terminates diplomatic relations with Spain.
Romania – April 4, 1946 (PIR)
By a decision of the Ministry of National Education, students from all state, confessional and private schools are banned from any political manifestation, both inside schools and outside. All associations and committees composed of students, with the exception of classroom committees and cultural societies, are dissolved.
Poland / Spain – April 5, 1946 (KCA)
The Warsaw radio announces that the Polish Government will recognize and establish diplomatic relations with the Spanish Republican Government in Paris under Jose Giral.
Poland – April 6, 1946 (KCA)
The Polish population is counted to be 23,622,334.
Hungary – April 6-8, 1946 (HC)
The first national congress of the Alliance of Hungarian Democratic Women (MNDSZ) takes place in Budapest.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – April 6, 1946 (REV)
János Erőss, President of the Reparations Office, and Vladimir Clementis, Foreign Ministry State Secretary, sign the Hungarian-Czechoslovak Reparations Agreement in Prague. Hungary is to make reparation payments worth $30 million over a six-year period.
Romania – April 8, 1946 (KCA)
The wartime Premier and dictator of Romania, Marshal Ion Antonescu, along with seven others, is handed to the Romanian authorities by the Soviets to be tried as war criminals.
Hungary / Soviet Union – April 8, 1946 (HC)
Hungary and the Soviet Union sign the Oil, Aluminium and Bauxite Agreement. (July 1946: the Hungarian-Soviet Bauxite-Aluminium Company. and Hungarian-Soviet Crude Oil Company are founded.)
Hungary / Romania – April 9, 1946 (HC)
The National Hungarian Music Academy opens in Cluj (Kolozsvár).
Hungary / Soviet Union April 9-18, 1946 (REV/HC/CSB)
A Hungarian delegation headed by Prime Minister Ferenc Nagy visits Moscow. The Soviet Government agrees that Hungary may meet its reparations obligations over eight years instead of six (similar agreements soon follow with the Czechoslovak and Yugoslav governments) and waives the $6 million interest penalty for commitments not met in the first year. The Soviet Government also promises that the status of the Hungarian prisoner of wars will be sorted, helps that the Hungarian goods - hauled to the West - are delivered back to Hungary. Stalin agrees that Hungarian territorial claims against Romania may be presented at the peace conference implying that such claims would be supported by
the Soviet Union, while shortly after the meeting he secretly informs the Romanian government that Moscow considers the 1937 Hungarian-Romanian border final. He also promises to intervene for restoring equal rights for the Hungarian minority in Czechoslovakia, while a few months later at the peace conference Soviet representatives strongly support the demand of Czechoslovakia for the expelling of 200,000 Hungarians from the country.
East Germany – April 10, 1946 (KCA)
It is reported that the land reform program for Brandenburg, the Soviet zone of Germany, has been completed with not one great estate remaining.
Poland – April 9, 1946 (KCA)
With the support of the Polish Government, a League to Combat Racialism is created. It includes representatives of all six political parties and some intellectual leaders. The purpose of the League is announced to counteract widespread anti-Semitism in Poland.
Hungary April 10 1946 (REV/HC)
Politicians expelled a month earlier from the Independent Smallholders’ Party (FKgP) found the Hungarian Freedom Party. Dezső Sulyok becomes chairman, with Vince Nagy and István Vásáry as vice-chairmen. A political paper, Holnap (Tomorrow), is launched.
Soviet Union /US – April 10, 1946 (KCA)
Andre Gromyko is appointed as permanent Soviet representative to the United Nations Security Council, while Nikolai Novikov is appointed as Ambassador to the U.S.
Poland / Soviet Union – April 12, 1946 (KCA)
A Polish-Soviet Trade Agreement is signed.
Romania / France – April 13, 1946 (PIR)
Romania and France transform their political representations into legations.
Hungary / Romania – April 13, 1946 (HC)
Hungary and Romania sign an agreement in Bucharest about the exchange of commodities.
Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – April 14, 1946 (KCA)
A new Soviet-Czechoslovak trade agreement is signed.
Yugoslavia / Spain – April 15, 1946 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government recognizes Jose Giral’s Spanish republican government in exile as the only legitimate Spanish government and establishes full diplomatic relations with it.
Romania / Soviet Union – April 15, 1946 (PIR)
At the Romanian Government’s request, the Soviet Government lengthens by two more years the deadline by which reparations must be paid.
Finland / Soviet Union – April 17, 1946 (KCA)
A Finnish Government delegation arrives in Moscow to discuss with Stalin and Foreign Minister Molotov Finland’s war reparations to the Soviet Union.
Hungary / Soviet Union – April 18, 1946 (KCA)
A joint Hungarian-Soviet announcement states that the Soviet Government has agreed at the request of the Hungarian Government to an eight year extension of Hungarian reparations to the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union / U.S. – April 18, 1946 (LBC)
Secretary of State Byrnes affirms that the U.S. invited the USSR to start negotiations on the $1 billion loan requested by the USSR.
Yugoslavia – April 19, 1946 (BST)
The Politburo accuses Hebrang of trying to revive the old factional struggles and rules in favor of Tito. Earlier that month, Hebrang wrote a letter of protest to Kardelj, accusing Tito of personal animosity.
East Germany – April 19-22, 1946 (PLC)
At the Berlin party congress of the Soviet-occupied zone of Germany, the Social Democratic Party and the Communist Party are united under the new name of Socialist United Party of Germany (SED).
Yugoslavia / U.S. – April 19, 1946 (KCA)
The U.S. Government recognizes the government of Tito, and full diplomatic relations are resumed.
Poland – April 20, 1946 (KCA)
The official exchange rate of the Polish zloty is fixed at 100 to the dollar and 403 to the British pound.
Soviet Union – April 20, 1946 (KCA)
Kalachnikov is appointed Minister of Education.
Austria – April 22, 1946 (PLC)
At the Innsbruck mass demonstration a petition signed by 155 thousand people is given to Austrian chancellor Figl, demanding repossession of South-Tirol.
Romania – April 22, 1946 (PIR)
FND members assault ministers M. Romniceanu (PNL) and Emil Haţieganu (PNŢ) in Galaţi and Dej.
Hungary / U.K. – April 24, 1946 (HC)
A British parliamentary delegation arrives in Budapest for a two week visit.
Soviet Union / France / U.S. / U.K. – April 25-July 25, 1946 (HC)
The Council of Foreign Ministers convenes in Paris. It prepares for the peace treaties of the defeated countries.
Poland / Sweden – April 25, 1946 (KCA)
A new train ferry service is opened between Trelleborg, Sweden and Gdynia, Poland, to serve mainly for the goods traded between Poland and Sweden.
Bulgaria / Finland / Hungary / Romania / Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. / Italy – April 25, 1946 (CWC/PIR)
The second meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers in Paris attempts to draft peace treaties for Germany’s European allies: Italy, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary and Finland.
Bulgaria / Spain – April 26, 1946 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Government breaks relations with General Franco’s Government in Spain.
Hungary – April 27, 1946 (HC)
The convention of the district leaders and party functionaries of the leadership of the Hungarian Communist Party and the Social-Democratic Party takes place in the Sports Hall in Budapest. According to their announcement, the workers’ parties’ main objectives are to fix the most urgent questions about the industry and the creation of a solid currency.
Hungary / Switzerland – April 27, 1946 (HC)
Hungary and Switzerland sign an economic agreement. Hungary receives a 10 million Swiss Franc loan and 4 million Franc worth of food and medical supplies.
Poland – April 28, 1946 (PSN)
A new act makes Polish citizenship in the recovered territories dependent on proof of Polish ethnicity.
Romania – April 28-29, 1946 (PIR)
The Permanent Delegation of PNL-Tătărescu decides participation in the elections on common lists with the governmental Bloc.
Soviet Union – April 29, 1946 (CWC)
Secretary of State Byrnes proposes to ease Soviet concerns by signing a treaty that would guarantee U.S. defense of the Soviet Union in case it is ever attacked.
Soviet Union / Switzerland – April 30, 1946 (KCA)
Anatol Kulashenkov is appointed as the first Soviet Minister to Switzerland. Colonel de Division Hermann Fluckiger is appointed as a Swiss Minister to Moscow.
Soviet Union – May 1, 1946 (CWC)
Stalin declares that international forces are preparing for another war and thus, the Soviet Army must be diligent in protecting peace.
Poland – May 3, 1946 (PSN)
After a service in St. Mary's Church in Cracow, groups of demonstrators cheer for Mikolajczyk. Soldiers from the internal Security Corps intervene with arms. After the demonstration, the authorities order large scale arrests of students, prompting student strikes.
Hungary – May 3, 1946 (HC)
The National Assembly approves the 1946: IX Law about relocation and the end of the land reform. It states the accomplishments of the land reform, and orders compensation wherever necessary. It claims that those who had been excluded from the land reform must be compensated through relocation.
Finland / Soviet Union – May 4, 1946 (KCA)
A new Soviet-Finnish trade agreement is concluded.
Yugoslavia / Italy/ US / Soviet Union – May 4, 1946 (PLC)
Byrnes suggests a referendum to solve the Italian -Yugoslav border dispute. Molotov would like to broaden this to the whole of the Venice-Giulia region and Istria.
Hungary – May 6, 1946 (REV)
After the inter-party agreement, compilation begins of a B list of politically undesirable public employees and state officials, and the process of reducing the staff by 10%. The left-wing parties use the process to rid the state and public administration of their political opponents.
Romania – May 6, 1946 (PIR)
The trial of Marshal Ion Antonescu and the other members of his government accused of “war crimes, betrayal of the country,” etc. begins at the People’s Tribunal (the president of the court being Alexandru Voitinovici). After the reading of the accusation act, Marshal Antonescu is interrogated.
Hungary / Romania / Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – May 7, 1946 (PIR)
In the 19th plenary session of the Council of Foreign Ministers in Paris, the Vienna award of August 30th 1940 is declared “null and void”. The frontier between Romania and Hungary is re-established “as it existed on January 1st 1938”.
Romania – May 7, 1946 (PIR)
The trial of the Antonescu government continues with the interrogations of: Mihai Antonescu, generals Constantin Pantazi, Constantin Z. Vasiliu, Gh. Dobre, David Popescu, and of Titus Dragoş, Nicolae Mareş, Ion Marinescu, Traian Brăileanu, Constantin Buşilă, Petre Tomescu, Gh, Alexianu and Radu Lecca.
Hungary – May 8, 1946 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Communist Party approves the program of the party. Its main objectives are the creation of a solid currency, the collection of currency and stockpile, taxation reform, the reduction of the number of state officials, and the adoption of a new price and salary system.
Poland / U.S. – May 8, 1946 (LBC)
The U.S. suspends deliveries to Poland of goods provided in the framework of the $50 million property surplus credit.
Hungary – May 9, 1946 (HC)
Mihály Károlyi returns to Budapest from exile after 27 years.
Czechoslovakia / Yugoslavia – May 9, 1946 (KCA)
A Czechoslovak-Yugoslav treaty of mutual assistance, cooperation and friendship is signed.
Romania – May 10, 1946 (PIR)
A military parade takes place on Victory Square during Independence Day and Victory Day. In the presence of King Mihai I, members of the Government and representatives of the allied armies, a monument dedicated to Soviet soldiers is inaugurated.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – May 11 1946 (REV)
President of the Reparations Office János Erőss and O.M. Cicmil sign the Hungarian-Yugoslav Reparations Agreement in Belgrade Hungary is to pay reparations worth $70 million over a six-year period.
Romania – May 11, 1946 (PIR)
The representatives of FND and the General Confederation of Labor discuss the economic situation of the miners, the strike movements and measures to resolve the problems in the area with delegates of Petroşani and Valea Jiului.
Romania – May 11, 1946 (PIR)
Iuliu Maniu, PNŢ president, testifies in the trial of Marshal Ion Antonescu.
Romania – May 17, 1946 (PIR)
Verdict is announced in the trial of the Antonescu government: Ion Antonescu, Mihai Antonescu, C.Z. Vasiliu, Gh. Alexianu, C. Pantazi, Eugen Cristescu and Radu Lecca are sentenced to death. The sentences of the latter three are commuted to life imprisonment.
Romania – May 17, 1946 (PIR)
The Bloc of Democratic Parties (BPD), an alliance comprised of: PCR, PSD, PNL-Tătărescu, The Plowmen’s Front, PNP and PNŢ-Alexandrescu, is founded.
Romania – May 17, 1946 (PIR)
The Central Electoral Commission is constituted.
Romania – May 17, 1946 (PIR)
The FND Council discusses the problems connected to the Hungarian Popular Union (its organization, its influence, and its rapports to the Romanian population).
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – May 17-June 12, 1946 (LBC)
The second round of the Paris conference of the Council of Foreign Ministers takes place.
Romania – May 18, 1946 (PIR)
A meeting between university rectors and representatives of the government takes place to discuss the issue of anti-governmental actions and protests from students.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – May 20, 1946 (KCA)
Budapest announces that a Yugoslav-Hungarian agreement on Hungarian war reparations to Yugoslavia has been signed, according to which Hungary is to pay $70 million out of the $300 million to which it had agreed under the Armistice Treaty with the Allies.
Romania – May 20, 1946 (PIR)
The Platform-Program of the Bloc of Democratic Parties is made public.
Romania – May 20-22, 1946 (PIR)
The national conference of the Union of Workers from Ports and Transportation expresses its support for the government, asking “the severe sanctioning of owners who play the game of reactionary forces and refuse to help the working class.”
Yugoslavia / U.K. / U.S. – May 20, 1946 (KCA)
An Anglo-American note strongly criticizes the Yugoslav “unwarranted propaganda campaign, culminating in completely unfounded charges by Marshal Tito”.
Hungary – May 20, 1946 (HC)
The political committee of the FKGP releases a proclamation. It demands the reallocation of the leadership positions of the police and various other political positions according to the elections. The proportions of each party must be represented in these positions according to the election results. It also presses for local elections. This proclamation will be sent to the representatives of the leaders of the Left Wing Bloc.
Hungary – May 21, 1946 (HC)
After approving the proposal of the Hungarian Communist Party, the Council of Ministers orders the issue of the new solid currency, the Forint, by August.
A provoked fighting in the crowd results in an anti-Semitic pogrom in Kunmadaras (Szolnok county) 2 people were killed, 18 injured (25 July: The People’s Court sentenced the 3 inciters to death, and 4 accomplices to forced labour for life.
Czechoslovakia – May 21, 1946 (KCA)
Karl Hermann Frank is sentenced to death. The following day he is hanged in the presence of 5,000 people, including survivors of the Lidice massacre.
Romania – May 22, 1946 (PIR)
The Romanian government recognizes the republican Spanish Government in exile, led by Jose Giral y Pereira.
Finland / Soviet Union – May 25, 1946 (KCA)
A joint Moscow and Helsinki announcement states that the Soviet Government has agreed to “relieve Finland from further deliveries of property taken away from the Soviet Union”. Also, extensive Soviet supplies to Finland are announced.
Czechoslovakia – May 26, 1946 (PLC)
Parliamentary elections in Czechoslovakia. Similar to Austria, the parties do not form a coalition. Participation rate: 94.1%. The Czech and Slovak communist parties win with 38% (114 seats out of 300). In the Czech Republic the communists win with 40.2%, while in Slovakia the Democratic Party wins with 62%, the Slovak Communist Party is second with 30.4%. The percentage of white paper votes is 10.7%.
Hungary – May 26, 1946 (HC)
The great assembly of all the member parties of the Left Wing Bloc takes place in Kaposvár. Their proclamation stresses the importance of the fight against the remains of the reaction and the Fascists. It also highlights the importance of the creation of political bases of stability. It announces that the Executive Committee of the Left Wing Bloc is a permanent body.
Romania – May 26, 1946 (PIR)
King Mihai I personally awards Petru Groza with the Order “Faithful Service” at Constanţa.
Poland / Soviet Union – May 26, 1946 (KCA)
A Polish-Soviet agreement is reached on the following topics; the annulment of financial obligations concerning the Polish army that arose during the war; Soviet supply of arms and munitions for the Polish army; Soviet gold credits to Poland; expediting Soviet deliveries to Poland in view of the country’s urgent reconstruction needs; cultural exchanges; population exchange.
Soviet Union – May 26, 1946 (KCA)
Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov makes a speech at the recent Conference of Foreign Ministers in Paris, saying that “certain positive results were reached… although they cannot be recognized as sufficient”
Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – May 26, 1946 (KCA)
Prague radio announces that General Vlassov was arrested by the Soviet Army and taken back to Moscow. General Vlassov was taken prisoner during the war, after which he joined the enemy and fought for the Germans.
Romania – May 27, 1946 (PIR)
In Bucharest, U.S. Representative Burton Y. Berry and U.K. Representative Adrian Holman address a note to the Romanian Government protesting the abuses against democracy.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – May 27, 1946 (LBC)
In an interview with Pravda, Foreign Minister Molotov claims that at the Paris Conference “the Anglo-American” bloc launched an offensive against the USSR and “desire to impose its will on the Soviet Union”. Molotov deems that Byrnes’s proposal to put the whole peace conference to the U.N. General Assembly was an attempt “to utilize the methods of pressure, threat and intimidation”.
Romania – May 28-29, 1946 (PIR)
In Cluj, student dormitories are attacked by Hungarians who are dissatisfied with the retrocession of Transylvania.
Poland – May 29, 1946 (PLC)
The Polish “rejoined areas” are split into three counties: Olsztyn, Wroclaw, Szczecin. The remaining areas become parts of the existing counties.
Czechoslovakia – May 30, 1946 (KCA)
The Czech and Slovak parties agree that Benes remains the President of the Republic.
Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – May 27, 1946 (KCA)
A Yugoslav-Soviet agreement is announced in which the Soviet Government agrees to supply the Yugoslav Army with armaments and ammunitions, and assist in the restoration of the Yugoslav armament industry and the mutual exchange of commodities.
Soviet Union / U.S. – May 31, 1946 (KCA)
Truman discloses that he invited Stalin to the U.S. twice, but that Stalin rejected the invitation both times due to health issues.
Albania / Yugoslavia – June 1946 (PLC)
At the congress of the Albanian Communist Party, Enver Hoxha tries to change the policy line of Dzodze, building close ties with Yugoslavia, but he does not succeed.
Romania – June 1, 1946 (PIR)
Marshal Ion Antonescu, Mihai Antonescu, General C.Z. Vasiliu and Gh. Alexianu are executed in the courtyard of the Jilava prison.
Romania – June 1, 1946 (PIR)
The Romanian government responds to the allied note of May 27, promising free elections and the safeguarding of democratic liberties.
Romania / U.S. – June 1, 1946 (LBC)
The U.S. protests to the Romanian government after the Romanian secret police arrested three employees of Romanian citizenship in the building of the U.S. military mission on May 28.
Soviet Union / Iceland – June 1, 1946 (KCA)
An Icelandic-Soviet trade agreement is announced.
Romania – June 2, 1946 (PIR)
The National Peasants’ Party publishes its manifest in Dreptatea. The manifest is the party’s election program.
Czechoslovakia – June 4, 1946 (KCA)
President Benes requests Klemens Gottwald, the Communist leader, to form a new Government.
Yugoslavia – June 4, 1946 (OEH)
A law on the establishment of the Federal Central Planning Board, headed by Boris Kidrić, is adopted.
Hungary – June 5, 1946 (REV)
Under an agreement between the Left Wing Bloc and the Independent Smallholders’ Party (FKGP), the former undertakes to meet the latter’s ‘proportioning’ demands on the redistribution of positions according to the election results, while the Smallholders agree to move against ‘right-wing elements’ in their ranks.
Poland – June 5, 1946 (KCA)
The suspension of all the activities of the Peasant Party is announced in four additional areas on the basis that it was allegedly involved in activities aimed at “the overthrow of the democratic Polish State”.
Romania – June 5, 1946 (PIR)
During a meeting with the faculty and students of Iasi, Petru Groza makes pro-monarchist statements, assuring the King that, maintaining the line of the people’s destiny on which he had set himself on the 23rd of August, 1944 “he could reign in good peace, like no king reigns in Europe today.”
Soviet Union / Denmark – June 5-8, 1946 (KCA)
A Danish delegation visits the Soviet Union, holding discussions on trade matters as well as political questions.
Romania – June 7, 1946 (PIR)
The Central Electoral Committee of the Bloc of Democratic Parties is formed under the presidency of Mihai Ralea.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – June 8, 1946 (HC)
Hungary and Czechoslovakia sign an agreement about the exchange of commodities.
Hungary / France / U.S. / U.K. – June 8-25, 1946 (HC/REV)
A Hungarian government delegation headed by Prime Minister Ferenc Nagy holds talks in Washington, London and Paris. While the Western powers make it clear that they are not in a position to effectively support Hungary’s claims at the peace conference, the U.S. administration agrees to return to the National Bank of Hungary some $40 million worth of gold reserves taken by U.S. forces. The gold had originally been taken away by the Germans and Hungarian arrow-cross members. The official announcement on behalf of the US Secretary of State is on 25 June.
Romania – June 9-10, 1946 (PIR)
The National Congress of Democratic Students takes place in Bucharest.
Romania – June 9-10, 1946 (PIR)
The Conference of the General Federation of the Patron-Handicraftsmen of Romania (Conferinţa Federaţiei Generale a Meşterilor Patroni) takes place. It expresses adhesion to the platform-program of BDP.
Yugoslavia – June 10-July 15, 1946 (KCA)
The trial of the former Chetchnik leader, General Draja Mihailovic, takes place before the Supreme Military Court in Belgrade, along with the trial against other prominent members of the war-time Yugoslavian Government. Mihailovic is found guilty of “countless war crimes” and sentenced to death by shooting.
Soviet Union – June 10, 1946 (PLC)
In Lithuania the United Democratic Resistance Movement is formed as the most important anti-Soviet political and military organization.
Romania / Hungary – June 11, 1946 (PLC)
A Hungarian suggestion to exchange minorities and correct the Romanian-Hungarian border established in the Trianon Treaty in 1920 is issued.
Yugoslavia / France – June 13, 1946 (KCA)
A Franco-Yugoslav trade agreement is signed.
Yugoslavia – June 11, 1946 (RSB)
Seven-year compulsory education is introduced in Yugoslavia.
Soviet Union – June 14, 1946 (KCA)
The Supreme Soviet issues a decree stating that former subjects of the Soviet Union will be able to regain Soviet citizenship.
Hungary June 15, 1946 (REV)
An order is issued to hand over German assets in Hungary to the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union / Yugoslavia / Italy / France / U.S. / U.K. – June 15-July 12, 1946 (LUY)
The Council of Foreign Ministers reconvenes in Paris. The principal issue is the question of Trieste. Kardelj represents Yugoslavia and clearly indicates that he will not sign an Italian peace treaty, unless Yugoslavia receives Trieste. Yugoslavia is, at first, backed by Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov, but on the evening of July 3 Molotov abruptly changes his position and accepts the French compromise proposal. It proposes the internationalization of the city of Trieste into an autonomous territory under the United Nations.
Romania – June 16, 1946 (PIR)
In the aula of the Commercial Academy of Bucharest, the Congress of University and Secondary Teachers begins. It ends on June 18.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – June 17, 1946 (HC)
The number 20 000-1-IV/1946 order of the Slovak National Council about “re-Slovakization” is issued. It calls on the Hungarian minority to declare (in writing) that their nationality is Slovak by which they can regain their Czechoslovak citizenship and civil rights.
Hungary – June 17, 1946 (REV)
At Oktogon Square in Budapest, shots are fired from an attic on passing Soviet soldiers, killing a Soviet officer, a soldier and a Hungarian girl. According to a police statement, the shooter was István Pénzes, a member of the National Secretariat of Catholic Agricultural Youth Clubs (KALOT), who committed suicide afterwards. The assault may also have been an act of provocation by the communist-led political police, the ÁVO.
Romania – June 17, 1946 (KCA)
Former Romanian Prime Minister Nicola Radescu, after being the target of violent attacks by the left-wing parties, escapes Bucharest and flees to Cyprus to seek sanctuary with the British representative.
Romania – June 17, 1946 (PIR)
The international conference on the theme of health, organized by the U.N., invites Romania to participate as an observer.
Hungary / Romania – June 18, 1946 (HC)
The 2nd Congress of the Hungarian Popular Alliance in Romania takes place in Székelyudvarhely. According to the report of the Congress, 1680 elementary and 127 high schools exist in Transylvania, Romania.
Hungary – June 18, 1946 (REV)
Following the Oktogon incident, Interior Minister László Rajk puts a proposal before the government which contains punishments for “acts of terror”.
Romania – June 18-19, 1946 (PIR)
The first Conference of the post-bellum world of theater takes place in Bucharest.
Soviet Union – June 19, 1946 (HC)
The Soviet Union calls for a ban on nuclear weapons in the U.N.
Hungary / France – June 19, 1946 (HC)
Henri-Louis Gauquié the new envoy of France presents his credentials to the Hungarian President.
Romania – June 19, 1946 (PIR)
A new political purge in the army takes place through a law to create disposable army cadres. With nominal approval from the King, 7,600 officers from a table of 20,000 are placed on reserve.
Czechoslovakia – June 19, 1946 (KCA)
Eduard Benes is unanimously re-elected as President of the Republic by the Constitutional Assembly, and Prime Minister Gottwald forms a new Government.
Bulgaria / Soviet Union – June 20, 1946 (PLC)
The Council of Foreign Ministers decides to pull out Western forces from Italy and Soviet forces from Bulgaria within 90 days after signing the peace treaties.
East Germany – June 20, 1946 (KCA)
The Soviet Military Government announces that in the Soviet zone of Germany elections for local district councils will take place in September.
Poland / Argentina – June 21, 1946 (KCA)
Diplomatic relations are resumed between Poland and Argentina.
Poland – June 21-July 10, 1946 (KCA)
The former Nazi President of the Free City of Danzig, Arthur Greiser, is tried as a war criminal. During the trial he tries to place the blame on Hitler, Himmler and the Gestapo. Greiser is found guilty and sentenced to death.
Hungary – June 23, 1946 (HC)
The Left Wing Bloc sends an open letter to the members of the FKGP. It suggests that the democratic peasant majority of the party should unite against the right wing side of the party.
Poland / U.K. – June 23, 1946 (PSN)
Poland and the U.K. sign an agreement on financial matters. The British renounce their claim to expenses made in arming Polish soldiers during the war and in transferring war supplies from Britain to Poland.
Hungary – June 25, 1946 (REV)
The Hungarian government puts all associations and social organizations under Interior Ministry supervision, giving its communist minister control over the entire civil sector.
Romania – June 25-29, 1946 (PIR)
A country-wide conference of the C.A.M. Syndicates takes place.
Hungary – June 26, 1946 (HC)
The National Assembly passes the number 1946 XIII law about the nationalization of mines.
Romania – June 27, 1946 (PIR)
Romania and Iran re-establish diplomatic relations at the level of legation.
Austria / Soviet Union – June 27, 1946 (PLC)
The leaders of the Soviet zone of Austria confiscate all German properties.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – June 28, 1946 (HC)
The Hungarian government protests at the Allied Powers against the re-Slovakization campaign in Czechoslovakia.
Hungary / Poland – June 28, 1946 (HC)
Hungary and Poland sign an agreement about the exchange of commodities.
Austria – June 28, 1946 (PLC)
The second occupation agreement constrains the veto right of the Allies (and thus broadens the power of the government) in occupied Austria.
Bulgaria – June 28, 1946 (KCA)
Kristu Pastukhov, a veteran Social-Democratic leader, is sentenced to five years imprisonment for a newspaper article criticizing a speech by the Communist leader Gheorghi Dimitrov.
Poland – June 28, 1946 (KCA)
Mikolajczyk, the leader of the Polish Peasant Party, announces that more than 1,200 members of the party have been arrested, and that the party is not able to carry out its election campaign.
Romania – June 29, 1946 (PIR)
Romania concludes an economic accord with Switzerland.
Romania – June 29, 1946 (PIR)
The national Conference of small and medium industry expresses its support for the politics of the government and its adhesion to the platform-program of the BPD.
Romania – June 29-July 3, 1946 (PIR)
The second national Conference of the Union of CFR Syndicates (Romanian Railway system) announces its support for BPD in the elections.
Romania – June 30, 1946 (PIR)
The national conference of the Jewish Democratic Committee announces its support for BPD in the elections.
East Germany – June 30, 1946 (KCA)
A referendum in the Soviet Zone of Germany approves of expropriation of Nazi businesses in Saxony.
Poland June 30, 1946 (HC)
In Poland a referendum approves nationalization and land reform act and the abolishment of the Senate. The results of the referendum were, however, forged by the Communists. Real results are said to be hugely in favor of the Peasant Party, campaigning for not to dissolve the Senate.
Romania / Czechoslovakia – July 1946 (PLC)
A Czechoslovak decree on repatriating Czech and Slovak minorities from Romania is issued.
Romania – July 1-5, 1946 (PIR)
The national Conference of the Union of Syndicates in the Petrol-Gas branch takes place in Ploieşti.
Albania / Yugoslavia – July 1, 1946 (PLC)
A Yugoslav-Albanian economic cooperation agreement is concluded.
Poland – July 1, 1946 (KCA)
Mikolajczyk, leader of the Peasant Party, protests against widespread irregularities in the counting of the votes of the June 30 referendum.
Yugoslavia / Italy / Soviet Union / France / U.S. / U.K. – July 2, 1946 (PLC)
The peace conference reaches agreement on the Trieste problem. Trieste will become a free area of two zones, administered internationally.
Romania / France – July 3, 1946 (PIR)
Romania concludes an economic accord with France.
Bulgaria – July 3, 1946 (KCA)
The Bulgarian parliament passes a bill for a “fundamental purge of harmful elements in the Bulgarian Army” and the appointment of Political Commissars in the Army possessing equal rights with military commanders.
Romania / Belgium /Luxemburg – July 4, 1946 (PIR)
Romania re-establishes diplomatic relations at the level of legation with Belgium and with the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg.
Poland – July 4, 1946 (KCA/PSN)
Pogroms against the Jews erupt in the town of Kielce. Forty one Jews are killed. Troops and police are sent to the town and a number of anti-Semitists are arrested, including the town’s deputy chief of police.
Soviet Union – July 4, 1946 (PLC)
Konigsberg is renamed Kaliningrad to commemorate the Soviet leader Kalinin, who died on March 19.
Hungary – July 4, 1946 (HC)
Minister of the Interior László Rajk disbands the “Hungarian Scout Association), and the “Katolikus Agrárifjúsági Legényegyesületek Országos Testülete” (KALOT). In the following two weeks he disbands an additional 1,500 community and religious youth organizations.
Poland – July 5, 1946 (PSN)
A decree establishes the creation of the Central Office for the Supervision of the Press, Publications and Spectacles. The new office becomes the center for widespread censorship of the media.
Romania – July 5-6, 1946 (PIR)
The national Conference of the “Patriotic Defense”, an organization dedicated to the battle against terror and the aid of the victims of war and fascism, declares its adhesion to the platform-program of BPD.
East Germany – July 5, 1946 (KCA)
The Soviet occupation authorities open a German Academy of Science, to replace the former Prussian Academy of Science.
Hungary – July 7, 1946 (REV)
Lieutenant General Vladimir Sviridov, deputy chairman of the Allied Control Commission, summons Prime Minister Ferenc Nagy and demands in an ultimatum that “pro-fascist” associations should be dissolved and the Catholic Church and the “reactionary clergy” brought to their knees.
Poland – July 7, 1946 (KCA)
The number of Jews murdered at the pogrom on July 4, 1946, is confirmed at 45, while 40 were wounded. Premier Osubka-Morawski announces that the ringleaders of the pogrom will immediately be put on trial.
Albania / Yugoslavia – July 9, 1946 (PLC)
A Yugoslav-Albanian friendship and mutual assistance agreement is signed in Tirana.
Hungary – July 10, 1946 (HC)
In the presence of the President and other prominent members of the Government, the leadership of the Győrffy István college of Budapest announces the beginning of the Movement for Building People’s Colleges.
Soviet Union / US – July 10, 1946 (CWC)
Molotov gives a speech in which he criticizes the Byrnes plan as a wrong step in resolving the occupation of Germany. This marks the public acknowledgment of a wide gap between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
Yugoslavia – July 10-16, 1946 (JVJ)
The trial of Dragoljub ''Draža'' Mihailović, leader of the Chetnik movement, takes place. Mihailović is sentenced to death on July 16, 1946.
Bulgaria – July 12, 1946 (KCA)
G. M. Dimitrov, former leader of the Agrarian Party, is sentenced to life imprisonment and loss of civil rights for infringing the State security law by undermining the morale of the Bulgarian Army during the 1944 campaign against Germany.
Poland – July 12, 1946 (KCA)
The final results of the referendum of June 30, 1946 are published, with the result being “yes” to each of the questions.
Poland – July 13, 1946 (KCA)
In a military court in Kielce, 9 leaders of the pogrom in Kielce are sentenced to death, and three others to 10 years’ imprisonment.
Yugoslavia – July 13, 1946 (PLC)
Montenegro’s capital, Podgorica, is renamed in honor of Tito (Titograd).
Romania – July 13, 1946 (PIR)
The electoral law, which establishes the right to direct, equal and anonymous voting for all citizens over 21 years of age, including people in the military and women, is promulgated. Likewise, the law pronounces the dissolution of the Senate as an institution.
Romania – July 14, 1946 (PIR)
A PCR meeting at the Roman Arenas opens the electoral campaign of the party.
Romania – July 15-16, 1946 (PIR)
The national Conference of the Democratic Federation of Women in Romania takes place, dedicating itself to supporting the electoral campaign of BPD.
Yugoslavia – July 17, 1946 (PLC)
In Yugoslavia, Mihajlovic and 10 other politicians are executed after the July 10-16 Chetnik trial.
Yugoslavia – July 18, 1946 (JVJ)
A law on the establishment of agricultural co-operatives is adopted in Parliament.
Hungary – July 29, 1946 (REV)
The Independent Smallholders’ Party (FKGP) protests over the banning of church associations and demands that the measure be rescinded. Interior Minister László Rajk dissolves over a thousand other church, religious, cultural, social and youth bodies over the next year.
Soviet Union / Denmark – July 19, 1946 (KCA)
Moscow and Copenhagen announce a two-year Soviet-Danish trade agreement.
Romania – July 19-20, 1946 (PIR)
The Congress of PNŢ-Anton Alexandrescu takes place.
Hungary – July 19, 1946 (HC)
The Political Committee of the FKGP expresses its concern about Minister of the Interior László Rajk, and demands for the cancellation of the banning of youth organizations, especially religious ones.
Romania – July 21, 1946 (PIR)
The first syndical congress of the primary school teachers in Romania opens in Bucharest.
Hungary – July 21, 1946 (HC)
Cardinal of Esztergom József Mindszenty writes a letter to Prime Minister Ferenc Nagy on behalf of the Catholic bishops. He sharply criticizes the government for the banning of Catholic Youth organizations, and demands the immediate cancelation of these orders.
Poland – July 21, 1946 (KCA)
Arthur Greiser is publicly hanged in Poznan in the presence of 15,000 people.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – July 22, 1946 (LUY)
Yugoslavia cancels all U.S. flights over Yugoslav territory, and requires the Vienna-to-Belgrade plane to operate over Hungarian territory.
Romania – July 23, 1946 (PIR)
The composition of the Romanian delegation at the Paris Peace Conference is decided upon: Gh. Tătărescu, L. Pătrăşcanu, Şt. Voitec, I. Gh. Maurer, S. Stoilov, R. Franasovici.
Hungary – July 24, 1946 (HC)
In the National Assembly, Dezső Sulyok publishes the program of the Freedom Party which was established in April 10.
Composer Zoltán Kodály becomes the president of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – July 25, 1946 (KCA)
Czechoslovak-Soviet negotiations end with the Czechoslovak delegation’s proposals to the Soviet Union about the Hungarian peace treaty. The following day the Czechoslovak Government announces that the Soviet Government “understands our just claims against Hungary”.
Hungary / Sweden – July 26, 1946 (HC)
Hungary and Sweden sign a trade agreement.
Hungary / Soviet Union / U.S. – July 26, 1946 (LBC)
The U.S. publishes its diplomatic note of July 23 in which it accuses the USSR of depriving Hungary of food supplies and industrial equipment. According to the note, reparations and the obligation to supply the Red Army caused Hungary’s difficult situation. The note contains recommendations for the U.S., the USSR and the U.K. to work jointly in order to stop Hungary’s economic disintegration.
Hungary – July 27, 1946 (HC)
The number 10 860/1946 order of the government is published. The food-ticket system is expanded to the entire country.
The Minister for Public Supply rules the bread and wheat rations.
Allied Powers / Defeated countries – July 29-October 15, 1946 (PLC)
The Paris Peace Conference ending the Second World War takes place. The German, Austrian and Japanese peace treaties are not on the agenda. The conference does not have decisive power, and the 21 participating member states can only give recommendations to the Council of Foreign Ministers. Previous decisions (armistices and the decisions of the Council) had already been accepted. On October 15 the conference is postponed because of Soviet-Western antagonism, delaying the German, the Austrian and the Japanese peace treaties.
Romania – July 30, 1946 (PIR)
The draft of the Peace Treaty with Romania is published simultaneously in London, Paris, Moscow and Washington.
Czechoslovakia – July 30, 1946 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior announces that the city of Moravska-Ostrava has been renamed Ostrava.
Hungary – July 30-August 1, 1946 (HC)
Anti-Semitic riots take place in Miskolc due to the hitch in food supplies.
Yugoslavia – August 1946 (ACY)
In a show trial designed to prove criminal collaboration with the German army, the Anglo-Saxon intelligence and the Royal Yugoslav Army, Bishop Rožman is put on trial in absentia. The accused include Rupnik, president of the wartime civil government of Ljubljana and a former Yugoslav Army general; Rösener, a German SS general in command in Slovenia; Dr. Hacin, the Ljubljana wartime police chief; and Dr. Klerk, a former minister who spent the war years in England.
Hungary – August 1, 1946 (REV)
A new stable currency, the Forint, is issued and inflation controlled. (Ft. 1 = 400,000 x 1024 pengős, 200 million tax pengős, or 0.28766 pengős of 1938.)
Hungary / Soviet Union / U.S. – August 1, 1946 (LBC)
The Soviet Union rebuffs the U.S. note of July 26. Moscow denies the American assertion that in 1945 it received 24% of Hungary’s GNP for reparations.
Soviet Union – August 1, 1946 (PLC)
The Soviet Supreme Court sentences General Andrei Vlassov, the commander of the “Russian Liberating Army”, to death, together with his associates. He collaborated with the Germans during the war and was brought back to the Soviet Union in May 1945. He is executed immediately.
Romania – August 3, 1946 (PIR)
The Romanian Press publishes the official text of the draft Peace Treaty between the Allied Powers and Romania.
Yugoslavia / Netherlands – August 3, 1946 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs a payment agreement with the Netherlands.
Hungary – August 6, 1946 (HC/KCA)
The entire gold reserve (32 tons of gold) of the Hungarian National Bank is returned to Hungary by the U.S. authorities in Germany.
Poland / Soviet Union – August 6, 1946 (KCA)
Polish and Soviet authorities reach an agreement according to which the control and navigation of the entire Oder is Polish responsibility.
Romania – August 8, 1946 (PIR)
The government places 8,000 officers on reserve.
Soviet Union / Turkey – August 8, 1946 (KCA)
The Soviet Chargé d’Affaires presents a note to the Turkish Government, demanding for the revision of the Montreaux Convention and for joint Soviet-Turkish responsibility for the defense of the Straits in the Black Sea. The note causes deep worry in Turkey, as joint defense of the Straits would mean Soviet military bases and forces on Turkish territory.
Hungary – August 9, 1946 (HC)
In the Kerepes cemetery of Budapest, Communist martyrs Imre Sallai, Sándor Fürst (1932), Zoltán Schönherz (1942) Ferenc Rózsa (1944) and Endre Ságvári (1944) are put to their permanent graves during a ceremony.
Romania – August 9, 1946 (PIR)
The Romanian Government approves the mandate and composition of the Romanian Delegation at the Paris Peace Conference (led by Gh. Tătărescu, Minister of Foreign Affairs).
Romania – August 9, 1946 (PIR)
The Political Bureau of the CC of the PCR discusses the problem of frontiers with Bulgaria and the navigation regime on the Danube.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – August 9, 1946 (LUY)
A U.S. C-47 transport plane on its way from Vienna to Udine is forced to land under pressure of two Yugoslav fighters. The plane makes a successful wheels-up crash landing in a Slovenian cornfield near Ljubljana with only one Turkish officer getting seriously injured.
Romania – August 10, 1946 (PIR)
Following the governmental decision of August 9, a governmental declaration titled “The Romanian Attitude at the Paris Peace Conference” is made public, presenting the objectives of Romania at the Conference.
Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – August 10, 1946 (PLC)
According to the resolution of the Bulgarian Communist Party, the base of the Macedon nation is Yugoslav-Macedonia. Great Macedonia must be a part of Yugoslavia (together with Pirini-Macedonia).
Romania – August 12, 1946 (PIR)
The National Federation of the Democratic Youth in Romania is formed.
Romania – August 13, 1946 (PIR)
In the plenary session of the Peace Conference, Gheorghe Tătărescu exposes the point of view of Romania regarding the Peace Treaty.
Bulgaria – August 14, 1946 (KCA)
Bulgarian Foreign Minister Kulishev, addresses the Paris Peace Conference. He asks for the recognition of Bulgaria as a co-belligerent country, emphasizing Bulgarian losses during the war, and expresses disapproval at the clause in the draft peace treaty restricting the size of the Bulgarian Army.
Hungary /Czechoslovakia / Romania – August 14, 1946 (KCA)
Hungarian Foreign Minister Gyöngyösi addresses the Paris Peace Conference, focusing mainly on the catastrophic economic situation of Hungary (with 35-40% of the pre-war national capital lost) and the conditions of Hungarian minorities in neighboring states. Gyöngyösi asks for the return of Hungarian territory (22,000 sq. km) in Transylvania (from the complete area of 103,000 sq. km detached from Hungary in 1920) with regard to the Hungarian minority in Romania. He further criticizes the treatment and suppression of the Hungarian minority in Slovakia. Czechoslovakian Foreign Minister Jan Masaryk replies that “after all unspeakable experiences, can you wonder that we did not give back all the rights and privileges which the Hungarians have abused for so long?” According to him in the interwar years the Hungarian minority had been a “constant source of agitation”.
Romania – August 14, 1946 (KCA)
Tatarescu, the Romanian Foreign Minister, addresses the Paris Peace Conference. He makes a plea for the recognition of Romania as co-belligerent because of her military and economic efforts against Germany in 1944-1945, as well as the faithful fulfilling of the Armistice conditions.
Soviet Union / Turkey – August 14, 1946 (KCA)
Turkish Prime Minister Peker states that the Turkish army is ready to safeguard the country’s territory and that the government will study the Soviet note of August 8 more carefully before announcing a reply.
Romania – August 16, 1946 (PIR)
At the Peace Conference, the Economic Committee for the Balkans and Finland debates (until September 30th) the economic problems of the Peace Treaty with Romania.
Yugoslavia – August 17, 1946 (PLC)
Dimitrov and Tito approve the plan of Great-Macedonia.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – August 18, 1946 (KCA)
Richard Patterson, American Ambassador in Belgrade, reports that a C-47 transport plane has been shot down by two Yugoslav fighters on August 9, 1946. 10 people aboard are reported to be in Yugoslav detention.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – August 19, 1946 (KCA)
An American plane on the way to Vienna goes missing after the pilot is reporting to be under machine-gun attack in the north of the Austro-Yugoslav frontier.
Poland / U.K. – August 19, 1946 (KCA)
A British note reminds Poland to hold free and fair elections as soon as possible
Hungary – August 20, 1946 (HC)
The rebuilt Liberty Bridge (the former Franz Joseph Bridge) is ceremoniously reopened.
Poland / U.K. / U.S. – August 20, 1946 (LBC)
The U.S. and the U.K. accuse Poland of suppressing democratic activity and of violations in counting the votes in the June 30 referendum.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – August 20, 1946 (KCA)
A Czechoslovak memorandum presented to the Paris Peace Conference asks for more areas to be ceded to Czechoslovakia and the authority to transfer 200,000 Hungarians to Hungary as a final solution to the question of the Hungarian minority in Slovakia.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – August 20, 1946 (KCA)
Dean Acheson condemns the Yugoslav attacks on U.S. planes. In reply to an official note sent to the Yugoslav government, the Yugoslav Telegraphic Agency publishes a text of an earlier Yugoslav note to the U.S., dated August 11, complaining about U.S. infringement on Yugoslav territory.
Hungary – August 21, 1946 (KCA)
Col.-Gen. Albert Bartha is appointed as Hungarian Defense Minister.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – August 21, 1946 (KCA)
A second official note to the Yugoslav Government demands the release of the passengers and crew of the plane forced down on August 9 within 48 hours. Also, it asks permission for American diplomatic representatives to investigate the disappearance of the U.S. plane shot down on August 19. It threatens the Yugoslav Government with UN Security Council action. The Yugoslav Government replies the same day, repeating accusations of American planes violating the aerial territory of Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – August 22, 1946 (KCA)
The passengers and crew of the U.S. plane forced down in Yugoslavia on August 9 are released.
Hungary – August 24, 1946 (HC)
The National Assembly passes the number 1946: XII law according to which women may apply for colleges and universities.
Soviet Union – August 25, 1946 (KCA)
Maxim Litvinov resigns from the post of Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs. Feodor Gusev and Jakob Malik are appointed as the new Vice-Ministers of Foreign Affairs.
Bulgaria – August 26, 1946 (KCA)
In the Paris Peace Conference, the Political and Territorial Commission rejects a proposal giving Bulgaria the status of a co-belligerent country.
Romania August 27, 1946 (PIR)
The Political and Territorial Commission of the Peace Conference rejects Romania’s request for the recognition of the co-belligerent status.
Poland – August 27, 1946 (KCA)
The Polish Embassy in Washington condemns the recent British and American notes as interference in Polish internal matters and sovereign rights.
Yugoslavia – August 27, 1946 (ABC)
In his speech to the Fifth Regular Session of the Sabor (Parliament) of the People's Republic of Croatia, Bakarić sets forth his view concerning the entire political situation then existing in Croatia, placing special attention to relations between the authorities and the Catholic Church.
Yugoslavia / Norway – August 30, 1946 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs an economic and payment agreement with Norway.
Romania / Hungary – August 31, 1946 (PIR)
At the Peace Conference, the Political and Territorial Commission discusses the problem of the Romanian-Hungarian border.
Romania – September 1946 (PIR)
Ştefan Foriş, former General Secretary of the PCR, is assassinated in prison under orders from the new party leadership.
East Germany – September 1-15, 1946 (KCA)
Elections for town and parish councils take place, the Socialist Unity Party wins with absolute majority.
Hungary – September 1-5, 1946 (HC)
Prime Minister Ferenc Nagy attends the Paris Peace Conference.
Romania/Hungary September 2, 1946 (KCA)
During the Paris Peace Conference, there is a joint meeting of the Romanian and Hungarian Political Commissions to hear statements of both Governments on Transylvania. The Hungarian representative now asks only for a minor cession of Transylvania to Hungary with approximately 300,000 Hungarians, and the opening of Hungarian-Romanian negotiations for the protection of the remaining Hungarian minority in Transylvania. Tatarescu of Romania rejects all Hungarian proposals, claiming that the Hungarians in Romania enjoy full guarantees of equality and freedom and that that the area demanded by Hungary is vital to the existence of Transylvania.
Yugoslavia / Romania – September 3, 1946 (WBA)
Agreement on the regulation of the frontier service for passenger, baggage and goods traffic between the Yugoslav State Railways and the Romanian State Railways is signed in Jimbolia, Romania.
Austria – September 5, 1946 (PLC)
The Italian-Austrian treaty in Paris about the autonomy of South-Tirol is discussed. The Italian Trento is a part of the region from January 29, 1948; and so the majority of the new Trento-Alto-Adige is Italian.
Romania – September 5, 1946 (PIR)
The Peace Conference annuls the 1940 Vienna award; Transylvania is restored within the borders of Romania.
Poland / Soviet Union / U.S. – September 6, 1946 (PLC)
The U.S. declares that the Polish borders are not permanent. The Soviet Union declares that the Polish borders are permanent.
Yugoslavia – September 6, 1946 (ACY)
Eighteen men are tried in Zagreb for crimes against the people and the State. Main defendant is Erik Lisak, former Ustasa chief of police. Others are, inter alia, the reverent Ivan Salic, one of Archbishop Stepinac’s secretaries and Modesto Martincic, provincial of the Franciscans in Zagreb.
Hungary – September 7-9, 1946 (REV)
The Independent Smallholders’ Party (FKGP) and the Hungarian Peasant Association organize Peasant Days in Budapest. The main event is a mass rally in Hősők tere (Heroes’ Square) addressed by Prime Minister Ferenc Nagy.
Bulgaria – September 8, 1946 (PLC)
A Bulgarian referendum agrees to proclaim the republic with the approval of 92.3% of the votes. The participation rate is 92.7%.
Romania – September 9, 1946 (PIR)
At the Paris Conference, the Romanian representatives request that Hungary pays war reparations to Romania, mainly for objects taken from Transylvania and the restoration of railways.
Bulgaria – September 9, 1946 (KCA)
At the Paris Conference Great Britain and South Africa strongly oppose Bulgarian demands for ceding Greek territory in western Thrace to Bulgaria.
Romania – September 10, 1946 (KCA)
At the Paris Conference, the Romanian Political Commission accepts a British amendment to the Romanian treaty. It consists of a clause protecting racial and religious minorities in Romania.
Hungary – September 12, 1946 (HC)
After an interpellation in parliament, the deputies of FKGP, the Freedom Party and the Civil Democratic Party vote against Minister of Interior László Rajk. Asked by the Political Committee of the FKGP, Rajk stays in office.
Romania – September 12, 1946 (PIR)
In a session of the Military Commission of the Peace Conference, Romanian delegate Dumitru Dămăceanu presents the observations of the Romanian government concerning the military clauses of the peace treaties.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – September 12, 1946 (LBC)
In a speech delivered in New York, Secretary of Commerce Henry A. Wallace condemns U.S. intervention in Eastern Europe and criticizes the tough political line against the Soviet Union: “The tougher we get the tougher the Russians will get.” According to Wallace, American foreign policy cannot rely upon the U.K. alone. America must make peace with Russia. “The Russians have no more business in stirring up native communists to political activity in Western Europe, Latin America and the U.S. than we have in interfering in the politics of Eastern Europe and Russia.”President Truman expresses his agreement with the speech, since in his view it coincided with the line pursued by Byrnes.
Romania – September 13, 1946 (PIR)
The National Conference of the mine workers in Petroşani calls for the increase of production, the support of the Romanian delegation in Paris, the aiding of the regions affected by drought and support for BPD in elections.
Romania – September 14, 1946 (PIR)
In the name of PNŢ, Iuliu Maniu files an appeal to the Central Electoral Commission asking for the annulment of the table with electoral signs.
Bulgaria – September 15, 1946 (HC/KCA/PLC)
The Bulgarian National Assembly ceremoniously declares the People’s Republic of Bulgaria. Vassil Kolarov, the Communist leader, becomes provisional President. Czar Simeon is forced to abdicate and immigrate.
Poland / Soviet Union – September 16, 1946 (KCA)
In a statement in Paris, Molotov upholds Poland’s claim to its present western frontiers in response to the suggestion of the U.S. Government that Poland’s Western frontiers might be subject to revision in the peace settlement.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – September 17, 1946 (LKT)
In a meeting with Walworth Barbour of the State Department's Southeast European Division and Acting Secretary Clayton, Yugoslav Ambassador Kosanović claims that the shot down U.S. planes were smuggling arms into Yugoslavia for those opposed to the regime. He also states that the Yugoslav authorities uncovered a ''spy ring'' that was headed by Eric Pridonov, a former member of the embassy staff and constant critic of the Tito regime. The “ring” supposedly still includes a Yugoslav employee of the embassy, named Milutin Stefanović.
Yugoslavia – September 18, 1946 (ACY)
Archbishop Stepinac is arrested in connection with the ongoing trial in Zagreb.
Soviet Union / U.S. – September 18, 1946 (LBC)
Secretary of Commerce Wallace’s letter to President Truman: the U.S. should destroy its nuclear bombs and publish the atomic secret; it should allow the Soviet Union to receive a warm water port; the U.S. should recognize the Soviet Union’s right for a security system in the framework of which the Soviet Union would be surrounded by friendly nations. On September 20, Truman forces Wallace to resign, because of “fundamental conflict” between his and the Administration’s view on foreign policy. Roosevelt’s former Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes (and others) protests against the resignation.
Romania – September 19, 1946 (PIR)
“The Regulation for the application of the Nationality Statute” is published in the Official Gazette.
Soviet Union – September 20, 1946 (KCA)
Moscow announces the appointment of Georgi Zarubin as the Soviet Ambassador in London.
Romania – September 20, 1946 (PIR)
PNL president Dinu Brătianu files an appeal to the Central Electoral Commission declaring the electoral lists null and asking for their annulment.
Soviet Union – September 24, 1946 (KCA)
The Tass Agency issues the replies made by Stalin to questions on the international situation presented on September 17, 1946. Stalin expresses that he does not believe in the real danger of a new war and that he disregards the accusations that the policies of the European Communist Parties would be dictated by Moscow. He expresses his belief in peaceful co-existence between the Soviet Union and the Western capitalist democracies. In the British, American and French press the statements by Stalin are welcomed as an important contribution to international understanding.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – September 25, 1946 (HC)
Yugoslavia enters into diplomatic relations with Hungary.
Yugoslavia – September 25, 1946 (ACY)
Speaking at a gathering of students (and again at a meeting of the First Congress of the Croatian People's Front in the middle of October), Bakarić insists that the government is not trying to destroy or persecute the church; but church and state must be separated, all religious communities must be equal, and religious belief or the lack of it, is the private concern of the individual.
Soviet Union – September 26, 1946 (KCA)
A decree announces that disciplinary action by state and party officials will be taken against irregularities in the administration of the collective farms in the Kuibyshev and Yaroslav districts.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – September 26, 1946 (LBC)
Yugoslavia bans the activity of the U.S. Information Service (USIS) in the country.
Hungary – September 27, 1946 (REV)
The Greek Civil War begins between the communist-led partisans and the royal forces.
Poland – September 27, 1946 (KCA)
Warsaw radio announces that the Polish Government deprived Gen. Anders and 75 of his officers of Polish nationality for joining the Resettlement Corps in Britain.
Poland – September 27, 1947 (KCA)
Inter-party coalition negotiations break down, allegedly due to the “unhelpful attitude” of the Peasant Party led by Mikolajczyk. The four pro-Government parties announce the formation of their (left wing) bloc.
Germany – September 30-October 1, 1946 (PLC)
The sentences in the Nurnberg trials that started in November 1945 are announced. Out of the 22 most important defendants 12 are sentenced to death, 7 to 10-20 years in prison and 3 are released.
Yugoslavia – September 30–October 8, 1946 (KCA)
The trial of the Archbishop of Zagreb and Roman Catholic Primate of Yugoslavia, Aloysius Stepinac, takes place in the people’s Court of Croatia.
Poland – October 1946 (PLC)
The National Council is formed with 444 members. The biggest group within the Council is the communist Polish Worker’s Party with 135 members.
Yugoslavia – October 1946 (ACY)
The Vicar-General of Prekmurje (Slovenia), Ivan Jerič, and others are tried before a military court in Maribor, accused of contacts with émigré groups in Austria.
Romania – October 1, 1946 (PIR)
Diplomatic relations between Romania and Argentina are re-established at the level of legation.
Romania – October 3, 1946 (PIR)
The law court in Topoloveni declares Ion Mihalache, PNŢ Vice-President, unworthy of being on the electoral lists because he had fought as a volunteer on the Eastern Front.
Soviet Union – October 3, 1946 (KCA)
It is announced in Moscow that the name “Red Army” is changed to “Soviet Army” (see: February 25).
Soviet Union / U.S. – October 3, 1946 (LBC)
Byrnes’s speech in Paris: he agrees with Stalin that “there is no immediate danger of war” and hopes that “this statement will put an end to the unwarranted charges that any nation or group of nations is seeking to encircle the Soviet Union.” The U.S. and other nations have no wish to surround the Soviet Union, and policies leading to war must be avoided.
Romania – October 4, 1946 (PIR)
The Trade Union of writers, artists and journalists is founded under the presidency of the writer Mihail Sadoveanu.
Hungary – October 6, 1946 (REV)
At the instigation of the Hungarian Communist Party (MKP), the Budapest and provincial political police departments are brought under direct supervision of the Interior Ministry and combined into the State Protection Department (ÁVO) of the Hungarian State Police, under the command of Gábor Péter (MKP).
Romania – October 6, 1946 (PIR)
In the presence of King Mihai I, Patriarch Nicodim and members of the government, the orthodox Cathedral of Timisoara is hallowed; construction began in 1936.
Soviet Union / Sweden – October 7, 1946 (KCA)
Trade negotiations between Sweden and the Soviet Union end in an agreement, providing for the re-establishment of the normal flow of the reciprocal trade between the two countries.
Poland – October 7, 1946 (PLC)
In Poland the oppositional Peasants Party refuses to join the coalitional government led by the communists. Thus, the former members of the London government in exile leave the government.
Yugoslavia – October 8, 1946 (OEH)
An order on the nationalization of credit banks is issued.
Soviet Union – October 9, 1946 (KCA)
A council for Kolkhoz Affairs to regulate the administration of the collective farms in the Soviet Union is created, headed by Andreyev.
Poland – October 9, 1946 (KCA)
The Peasants Party decides to participate in the elections on an independent basis and not as a part of the bloc.
Romania October 10, 1946 (PIR)
The Paris Peace Conference approves, article by article, the Peace Treaty with Romania.
U.S. representative Senator Vandenberg stresses the economic aspects of the Romanian treaty and the importance of free Danubian navigation, while Bevin of the U.K. stresses the principle of non-discrimination.
Romania October 10, 1946 (PIR)
The Romanian Credit Institute is reorganized.
Yugoslavia – October 11, 1946 (KCA)
Aloysius Stepinac is found guilty of anti-national activities during the occupation and collaborating with the enemy, and sentenced to 16 years of hard labor, loss of civic rights and the confiscation of his property.
Bulgaria – October 11, 1946 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Peace Treaty is discussed in the Paris Peace Conference. Polish Representative Wierbowski holds the view that the Bulgarian reparation payments to Greece are excessive, a view supported by the Yugoslavian and the American representatives. It is agreed that Bulgarian borders will return to those of January 1, 1941, and that the Bulgarian frontier adjacent to Greece will be demilitarized.
Soviet Union – October 12, 1946 (PLC)
The Jewish Antifascist Council is accused of nationalism in the Soviet Union. An anti-Zionist campaign is started.
Hungary /Czechoslovakia – October 12, 1946 (KCA)
The Hungarian Peace Treaty is discussed in the Paris Peace Conference, the debate focuses mostly on the reparations clause, which is upheld by 12 votes. The rest of the clauses remain the same except for a secession to Czechoslovakia of a small area (3 villages) close to Bratislava to Czechoslovakia.
Czechoslovakia – October 14, 1946 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government adopts a two-year economic plan, increasing the output of all commodities above the 1937 level.
Yugoslavia / Vatican – October 14, 1946 (ACY)
L'Osservatore Romano publishes a decree of the Sacred Congregation of the Council excommunicating all of those who took part physically or morally in Archbishop Stepinac's trial.
Romania – October 15, 1946 (PIR)
The draft text of the law against commercial speculation with food products is made available for public debate.
Czechoslovakia / U.S. – October 16, 1946 (LBC)
The State Department revokes the remaining $40 million of the $50 million loan to Czechoslovakia and instructs the Export-Import Bank to suspend talks on another $50 million loan. The reason is the Czechoslovak government’s pro-Soviet policy. Prague supports the Soviet notion that the U.S. extended loans for “imperialistic” purposes.
Romania – October 17, 1946 (KCA)
King Mihai I signs a decree providing for general elections to be held on November 19, 1946. Only former Fascists and Iron Guard members, as well as individuals who had fought voluntarily against the Allies during the War, would be barred from voting. Prior to the elections the leaders of the two main opposition parties criticize the Groza Government for its persecution of political opponents and seeking to falsify the elections to ensure the Governments’ return to power. The U.K. and the U.S. send several notes to the Romanian Government, demanding that elections be free and fair. The American note especially points out that the opposition parties were fully denied the use of broadcasting facilities and were under severe restrictions of issuing their own publications.
Hungary – October 19, 1946 (HC)
The “Szabad Nép” publishes the letter of the Executive Committee of the Left Wing Bloc to the FKGP. The main demands in the letter: the decrease of prices, the support of the new landowners, the nationalization of the banks, the democratic reform of the civil service and the fight against the reaction.
East Germany – October 20, 1946 (PLC)
Regional elections in the Soviet-occupied zone of Germany take place. Participation rate: 90.7%. Proportion of invalid votes: 5.0% (512,000). The SED receives 47.5% of the votes and wins in all five provinces (the LDP receives 24.6% of the votes, the CDU 24.3%).
In the Berlin elections, where the SPD and the SED run separately, the SPD wins with 48.7%, second the CDU with 22.1% and third the SED with 19.8%. Participation rate: 85.9%.
Romania – October 21, 1946 (PIR)
PNŢ, PNL and PSD conclude – through their leaders, Iuliu Maniu, Dinu Brătianu and Constantin Titel Petrescu – an electoral accord for the defense of the freedom of the elections.
Hungary – October 22, 1946 (HC)
The Political Committee of the FKGP answers the October 18 letter of the Left Wing Bloc. It approves the demands, but rejects the reform of voting rights. It repeats its own demands.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 22-30, 1946 (HC)
The Yugoslavian People’s Republic convicts Colonel Ferenc Szombathelyi, former chief of the general staff and eight of his associates. They all receive the death penalty and are executed.
Albania – October 22, 1946 (KCA/PLC)
A military conflict arises between Albania and the U.K. over the Corfu Channel (a total of 44 seamen and officers are killed). The International Court in the Hague rules in favor of the U.K. on April 9, 1949, which claims the Corfu Channel is international.
Bulgaria / U.K. / U.S. – October 23, 1946 (KCA)
The U.S. and British Governments decide to send representatives to the Bulgarian Government due to the unsatisfactory electoral conditions in the country.
Romania – October 23, 1946 (PIR)
A common session of the central committees of PCR and PSD, and their candidates on the lists of the BPD takes place.
Yugoslavia / U.K. / Trieste – October 23, 1946 (LBY)
British Prime Minister Clement Attlee pledges at the Foreign Affairs debate of the House of Commons that Anglo-American troops will remain on the Morgan Line until an agreement is reached and implemented.
Romania – October 24, 1946 (PIR)
The national conference of the BPD candidates takes place in the Dalles Hall.
Soviet Union / Sweden – October 26, 1946 (KCA)
An air agreement signed between Sweden and the Soviet Union.
Bulgaria – October 27, 1946 (PLC/ KCA)
New parliamentary elections in Bulgaria take place. Participation rate: 94.3%. The National Front wins with 70.8% (364 seats out of 465). Within the coalition the BKP receives 53.7% of the votes (277 seats). The strongest opposition, the National Farmer’s Ally (Petkov-Sulcev Party), led by Nikola Petkov receives 28.7% of the votes (89 seats). Petkov claims that many opposition deputies and adherents have been arrested and placed in labor camps before the elections.
Soviet Union / Poland / U.S. – October 28, 1946 (LBC/KCA)
Stalin’s interview: the USSR is still interested in receiving a U.S. loan; in his view the U.S.-Soviet tension has not grown; Poland’s boundaries are final. The presence of the U.S. fleet in the Mediterranean is of no concern to the USSR.
Stalin claims that the most serious threats to world peace are the instigators of a new war, namely “Churchill and people of like mind in Britain and the U.S.” He claims that the Soviet Union has not developed an atomic bomb of its own.
Soviet Union – October 29, 1946 (HC)
The Soviet Union introduces a proposal in the U.N. about disarmament.
Czechoslovakia – October 29, 1946 (KCA)
The last organized population transfer of Germans from Czechoslovakia takes place. Prague announces that since early 1946, a total of 1,415,000 Germans had been sent to the U.S. zone of Germany and 750,000 to the Soviet zone, with 311,000 Germans remaining in the country.
Hungary – October 30, 1946 (HC)
Negotiations between parties begin about the solutions of the governing coalition’s problems and about the demands of the Left Wing Bloc.
Romania – October 30, 1946 (PIR)
PNL newspaper, “The Liberal”, publishes “The Word of C.I.C. Brătianu addressed to the country and the manifest-program of PNL.”
Hungary / The Netherlands – October 31, 1946 (KCA)
The Hungarian Government decides to resume diplomatic relations with the Netherlands.
Bulgaria / U.K. – November 2, 1946 (KCA)
Reports from the British representation in Bulgaria claim that the elections in Bulgaria were carried out in unsatisfactory conditions. Opposition meetings were broken up by Government supporters, and at least four opposition candidates were murdered.
Hungary / Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – November 3-December 12, 1946
The Council of Foreign Ministers meets in New York and finalizes the text of the peace treaties with the defeated European countries, including Hungary.
Hungary – November 3, 1946 (HC)
Led by Árpád Szakasits, a Social-Democratic party delegation travels to Paris and London.
Hungary – November 3-4, 1946 (HC)
The national convention of the National Peasant Party takes place in Budapest. It refuses Imre Kovács’s proposal to join the Independent Smallholder Party.
Yugoslavia / Italy – November 3, 1946 (OEH)
The leader of the Italian Communist Party and former Minister of Justice Palmiro Togliatti meets Tito in Belgrade and discusses the possibilities of solving the Trieste problem.
Romania – November 4, 1946 (KCA)
The Romanian reply to the Western note states that the election campaign is being freely conducted and that the Anglo-American representations constitute an “infringement of Romanian sovereignty”.
Czechoslovakia / U.K. / U.S. – November 7, 1946 (LBC)
Great Britain extends a $10 million loan to Prague. The U.S. terminates loans to Czechoslovakia.
Albania / U.S. – November 8, 1946 (KCA)
The American Government announces the withdrawal of the American representative in Tirana due to the Albanian government “failing to confirm the continuing validity of all treaties and agreements in force between the U.S. and Albania as on April 7, 1939, the date of the Italian invasion of Albania.”
Poland / U.K. – November 9, 1946 (KCA)
Jerzy Michalowski is appointed Polish Ambassador to Britain.
Romania – November 11, 1946 (PIR)
The Martial Court opens the trial of the leaders and members of the resistance organizations “Sumanele negre”, “The National Resistance Movement”, “The Hajduks of Avram Iancu” and the “Resistance Group Sinaia”. Sentences given on November 18 range from 12 years imprisonment to lifetime forced labor and death.
Albania / U.K. – November 12, 1946 (KCA)
The Albanian legation in Belgrade announces that the Albanian Government made a second protest against Britain for the “unilateral decision of the British Government to sweep the Corfu Straits, which are Albanian territorial waters.”
Albania / U.K. – November 14, 1946 (KCA)
The Albanian Government sends a telegram to U.N. Secretary-General Trygve Lie, calling attention to the British violation of Albanian water territories, and ships provocatively “sailing in war formation”.
Poland / Soviet Union – November 15, 1946 (KCA)
Polish Marshal Rola-Zymierski and Soviet Marshal Rokossovsky sign an agreement providing for the evacuation of Soviet forces from areas in Western Poland.
Romania – November 17, 1946 (PIR)
PNŢ organizes a great electoral meeting in the National Theater Square.
Hungary / U.K. – November 18, 1946 (KCA)
Great Britain and Hungary resume trade relations.
Romania – November 18, 1946 (PIR)
The gas pipe connecting Transylvania with Bucharest is opened.
Soviet Union – November 18, 1946 (KCA)
The Soviet newspaper Red Star announces that Marshal Ivan Koniev has been appointed Commander-in-Chief of all the Soviet ground forces.
Romania – November 19, 1946 (KCA/PLC/PIR)
Parliamentary elections are held. The participation rate is 88.2%. The Communist-led coalition (BPD) wins 347 seats (68.7%), the National Peasant Party 33 (12.7%) and the Hungarian Popular Alliance 29 (8.2%). On November 21, the Ministry of the Interior announces that six people were killed in unrest surrounding the elections, allegedly due to opposition provocation.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – November 19-February 25, 1946 (PLC)
Following the 1945 Benes decrees, approximately 60,000 Hungarians from Slovakia are deported to the Sudetenland area.
Hungary – November 20, 1946 (HC)
The FKGP replaces some of its ministers. Antal Balla and István Dobi leave the Government. József Bognár becomes the Minister of Information, Károly Bárányos becomes the Minister of Agriculture and János Erőss becomes the Minister of Public Supply.
Bulgaria November 22, 1946 (PLC)
Communist leader Dimitrov forms a new Bulgarian government.
Romania – November 22, 1946 (KCA)
Opposition parties protest against accusations of provocation during the November 19 elections. They accuse the government of “terrorism” and “falsification of the ballot and of official records”. U.S. Under-secretary of State Dean Acheson declares that the U.S. cannot regard the elections as fair and will not recognize their validity.
Romania November 23, 1946 (PIR)
The Official Gazette publishes the law decree on the functioning of the Council of Ministers and the organization of its presidency.
Soviet Union / Sweden – November 23, 1946 (KCA)
A new Moscow-Stockholm airway is opened.
Poland – November 24, 1946 (PSN)
The press publishes an interview with Communist Party leader Boleslaw Bierut. He states that he sees no reasons for “opposing the fundamental aspirations of the State to the aspirations of the Church”. He claims that the Church is allowed to have private schools and its own press, that the teaching of religion in state owned schools is obligatory, that the clergy retained property, including real estate, that the army had chaplains and that the radio broadcasts religious services. He states that the Vatican's failure to recognize the new Polish Government rests on a Germanophile attitude in the Vatican.
Yugoslavia – November 25, 1946 (KCA)
Belgrade announces that Patriarch Gavrillo, head of the Serbian Orthodox Church, has returned to Yugoslavia after an absence of 5 years and that he declared his full support for Marshal Tito and the new regime.
Hungary – November 26, 1946 (HC)
The number 23,500/1946 order of the Prime Minister is published. In order to govern the nationalized coal mines, it creates the Incorporated Company of the Hungarian Nationalized Coal Mines.
Poland – November 26, 1946 (HC)
The Polish Labor Party and the Polish Socialist Party sign a co-operation agreement.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – November 27, 1946 (LBC)
The Council of Foreign Ministers reaches agreement on the Trieste problem. Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov makes the most concessions.
Soviet Union / U.S. / U.K. / France – November 28, 1946 (LBC)
Byrnes accepts Molotov’s proposal for the four great powers to put forward a declaration on the freedom of navigation and free trade on the river Danube and insists on inserting this into the peace treaties.
Yugoslavia / Albania – November 28, 1946 (WBA)
The following agreements on joint Albano-Yugoslav companies are signed in Belgrade: an agreement on the founding of an Albano-Yugoslav company for oil prospecting and exploitation, an agreement on the founding of an Albano-Yugoslav company for the prospecting and exploiting of ores, an agreement on the founding of an Albano-Yugoslav company for electrification, an agreement on the founding of an Albano-Yugoslav company for import and export and an agreement on the founding of an Albano-Yugoslav bank.
East Germany / Soviet Union – November 28, 1946 (KCA)
A Soviet military spokesman announces that the Soviet Zone of Germany is to be demobilized.
Hungary – November 28, 1946 (HC)
The number 23 550/1946 order of the Prime Minister is published, announcing that the state will nationalize the bigger industrial factories starting on December 1, 1946.
Soviet Union – November 29, 1946 (KCA)
A total of 6.3 billion rubles are allocated to scientific research institutions (including those dealing with nuclear energy). Pravda writes that the Soviet scientists are working successfully on problems of atomic physics.
Romania – November 29, 1946 (PIR)
The conference of the representatives of the BPD parties takes place. The Romanian government is reorganized following election results.
Yugoslavia – November 29, 1946 (KCA)
Tito announces that the Yugoslav Government is drafting a Five-Year Plan to transform Yugoslavia from an agricultural into an industrial country through the introduction of heavy industries.
Romania – November 30, 1946 (KCA)
The new Cabinet is formed. It has no members from opposition parties.
Soviet Union – December 1946 (KCA)
An article published by Red Fleet, a journal of the Soviet Navy, criticizes British Authorities of “half-heartedness” in directing a northern convoy to the Soviet Union in June 1942. Later on the Pravda reproves the Red Fleet article as “ill-conceived”.
West Germany – December 1, 1946 (PLC)
Regional elections take place in the American-occupied Bavaria (CDU 52.3%) and Hessen (SPD 42.7%).
Romania – December 1, 1946 (PIR)
In the presence of King Mihai I and the members of the government, the first session of the new parliament opens.
Germany – December 2, 1946 (PLC)
It is announced that the American and the British occupation zones are economically united (bi-zone) as of January 1, 1947.
Romania – December 2, 1946 (PIR)
The political organizations of the national minorities, The Armenian Front, the Jewish Democratic Committee, the Hungarian Popular Alliance, the Patriotic Hellenistic Union, the Bulgarian Community, reunite in a common session. They decide to support the regime and declare that they will volunteer alongside the Romanian people to support the country’s reconstruction and development.
Romania / UK – December 2, 1946 (KCA)
In London the Under-Secretary of Foreign Affairs Mayhew states that the U.K. will not recognize the validity of the Romanian elections.
Hungary – December 3, 1946 (HC)
The FKGP publishes a proposal of ten objectives for the government. It supports the nationalization of the banks and the creation of the planned economy, calls for action against the price increases and illegal traders, proposes the control of the profit-oriented corporations, the decrease of huge personal incomes, and a ban on the production of luxury goods. It also proposes the financial support of new landowners.
Yugoslavia / Greece / Albania / Bulgaria – December 3, 1946 (LUY)
In front of the UN Security Council, Greek Premier Tsaldaris claims that Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia are inciting friction along the northern border.
Yugoslavia – December 4, 1946 (KCA)
The Yugoslav federal parliament approves a bill for the nationalization of private enterprises.
Romania – December 5, 1946 (PIR)
PNŢ-Maniu decides that its elected deputies will not participate in the works of the new Parliament.
Romania – December 5, 1946 (PIR)
Mihail Sadoveanu is elected President of the Assembly of Deputies.
Hungary – December 6, 1946 (HC)
Around fifteen thousand women protest against high prices in front of the Parliament Building.
Yugoslavia – December 6, 1946 (KCA)
Belgrade radio announces that the Nationalization Bill will also affect newspapers, which will be taken over “in the interest of correct information and for the better fulfillment of social and cultural tasks”.
Czechoslovakia / Austria / Bulgaria / Hungary / Poland / Romania – December 7-9, 1946 (PLC)
A meeting of the social democratic parties takes place in Prague. Participants ask for more international cooperation.
Hungary – December 8, 1946 (HC)
Károly Peyer, Ágoston Valentiny, Imre Gyorki, Gyula Pozsgai send a memorandum to the leadership of the Social-Democratic Party, sharply criticizing the policy of the party and disapproving the cooperation with the Communist Party. The national leadership of the Social-Democratic Party discusses and rejects the objectives of the memorandum.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union / Poland / Czechoslovakia / Bulgaria – December 8-12, 1946 (PLC)
The first post-war Pan-Slavic congress takes place in Belgrade with representatives from the Soviet Union, Poland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria. Belgrade is chosen as the permanent seat of the Slavic congress, and the participants agree on the adherence of Slavic nations to democratic principles.
Albania / U.K. – December 9, 1946 (KCA)
A British note is sent to the Albanian Government, accusing the Albanian Government of a “deliberately hostile act” in laying mines or allowing them to be laid in the Corfu Straits. The British threaten to bring the matter to the UN Security Council.
Romania / Hungary – December 10, 1946 (PIR)
Romania re-establishes diplomatic relations at the level of political mission with Hungary.
Hungary – December 10, 1946 (HC)
Jenő Rácz, (FKGP) Minister of Finance presents the first (Forint-) budget of the country.
Yugoslavia / Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / Poland / Soviet Union – December 12, 1946 (KCA)
The first post-war Slavic congress takes place in Belgrade with representatives from the Soviet Union, Poland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria. Belgrade is chosen as the permanent seat of the Slavic congress, and the participants agree on the adherence of Slavic nations to democratic principles.
Hungary – December 14-16, 1946 (REV)
The Military Policy Department of the Ministry of Defense, lead by Communist György Pálffy, arrests Chief of Staff István Szent-Miklósy, János Héder and Bálint Arany, on accusations of conspiracy. The charges are aimed at politically compromising and fragmenting the Smallholders’ Party.
Romania – December 15, 1946 (PIR)
The general assembly of magistrates from the entire country decides on affiliation with the General Confederation of Labor.
Romania – December 16, 1946 (PIR)
Minister of Finance Alexandrini (PNL-Tătărescu), launches the law project for the nationalization of the National Bank and compensation of investors.
Hungary – December 18, 1946 (KCA)
The Hungarian agrarian reform is officially completed. Altogether 5,600,000 cadastral yokes embracing 3,200 communities are distributed among 663,000 peasants.
Romania – December 20, 1946 (KCA)
The Romanian National Assembly adopts a law providing for the nationalization of the Bank of Romania.
Hungary / Austria – December 21, 1946 (HC)
Hungary and Austria sign an agreement in Budapest on the exchange of commodities and payments.
Germany – December 21, 1946 (KCA)
An agreement on the exchange of goods and supplies between the Anglo-American economic area and the Soviet zone is signed.
Soviet Union – December 21, 1946 (KCA)
Stalin is interviewed by Elliott Roosevelt. Stalin expresses his belief in the peaceful coexistence of the U.S. and the Soviet Union, and that the success of the United Nations depends on harmony between the U.S., the U.K. and the Soviet Union.
Poland – December 22, 1946 (KCA)
Polish rejection of the British and American notes stresses that Poland does not allow interference in its internal affairs.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – December 23, 1946 (HC)
Hungary and Yugoslavia sign an agreement about the exchange of commodities and foreign trade in Belgrade.
Soviet Union – December 25, 1946 (KCA)
The East Prussian towns of Pillau, Tilsit and Insterburg are renamed Baltisk, Sovietsk and Chernyakhovsky.
Soviet Union – December 29, 1946 (KCA)
Gromyko, permanent Soviet representative of the U.N. Security Council, is appointed Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister.
Czechoslovakia – December 31, 1946 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak population is calculated at 12,000,000, with a drop of 2,600,000 people attributed to the expulsion of the former Sudeten-German inhabitants.
Hungary – December 31, 1946 (KCA)
An official announcement in Budapest reveals that there has been a discovery of an “anti-governmental” conspiracy. Large-scale arrests of army officers and right-wing members of the Smallholders’ Party take place.
Hungary – December 30, 1946 (HC)
The Council of Ministers makes a conceptual proposal about the elimination of cartels.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – December 31, 1946-January 4, 1947 (LKT)
The Yugoslav Government tries eight employees of the U.S. Embassy in Belgrade for espionage. The prosecution names Harold Shanz, Counselor at the Embassy from 1945 to 1946; Eric Pridonov, economic analyst at the Embassy in 1945; and Lt. John D. Kosunic, Assistant Naval Attaché in 1945, as the Americans to whom the accused Yugoslavs passed their information. The court finds all of the defendants guilty of carrying on political warfare by giving state and military secrets to foreign spies. The court sentences Milutin Stefanović, the translator considered most active in the ring; Želko Sušin, a former Partisan officer; and Branko Jovanović, a journalist, to death. They are executed on 14 January 1947. The remaining five defendants receive prison terms.
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2012