The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991
David CATALAN, Neala HICKEY, Jasper NOOIJ, Emese NYITRAI, Levente NYITRAI, Bobbie SCHOEMAKER, Kristóf ZSIDI
Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Shira BORZAK, Lauren CRYSTAL, Botond CSELLE, Sonya COWELL, Péter János DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB, Kati DEPETRILLO, Doris DOMOSZLAI, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖRDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA, Kristína GABIKOVA, Zsófia GÖDE, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Ágnes HEVÉR, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Emily Jennifer HOLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU, Dean JOLLY, Annastiina KALLIUS, János KEMÉNY, András KISS, Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zardas LEE, Karina LEGRADI, Tara LOTSTEIN, Cynthia MANCHA, Viktor NAGY, Jennifer OTTERSON, Linda RICHTER, Zita Bettina VASAS, Dániel VÉKONY, Péter VUKMAN, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2012
At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The first part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1945 to 1952, but our goal is to publish the whole chronology covering the entire Cold War era up until 1991 in parts during the next two years. The years 1953–1955 will be available by September, 2012 and the years 1956–1968 by December, 2012.
The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come.
The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.
List of Sources
Hungary – 1951 (HC)
The first Hungarian publication of all works of Lenin is begun.
Romania – 1951 (PIR)
The General Direction for Metrology is organized under the State Committee for Technology. The Metrology Institute is founded; in 1957 it would be transformed into the State Office for Metrology.
Romania – 1951 (PIR)
Construction of the Bicaz Power Plants, which would have a projected capacity of 210,000 kW, starts. It is completed in 1960.
Romania – 1951 (PIR)
The Airplane Factory in Brasov is constructed.
Soviet Bloc – January 1951 (MMS) (NR)
A secret meeting is held in Moscow. Some observers claim Stalin tells the states of the Soviet Bloc to prepare for war, started by the West, in Europe.
Soviet Bloc / U.S. – January, 1951 (LBC)
Truman’s State of the Union address is given. He warns that the U.S. “will fight if fight we must, to keep our freedom and prevent justice from being destroyed”. He adds, “we are willing…to negotiate honorable settlements with the Soviet Union,” but will “not engage in appeasement”. According to Truman, the “only realistic road to peace” is for the U.S. and the rest of the free world to build up their strength to the point where “the Soviet rulers may face the facts and lay aside their plans to take over the world”. Washington will, if needed, prepare for war mobilization. The economic and military aid to the allies must continue. “The defense of Europe is part of our own defense,” he said.
Hungary – January-February 1951 (HC)
Collective farming campaign begins. According to the newspapers, more and more farmers enter the cooperative system every day.
Czechoslovakia – January 1, 1951 (KCA)
Czechoslovakia adopts a new industrial calendar in effect from this day forward that divides the year into four equal quarters of 91 days, making a total of 364 days, disposing of December 31. The new calendar will be applied only to economics and industry.
Hungary – January 1, 1951 (REV)
The Labor Code comes into force, superseding the collective agreements for each industry.
Hungary / Austria – January 1, 1951 (HC)
According to the census, the Hungarian minority population of Austria reaches 11,000.
Yugoslavia – January 5, 1951 (KCA)
The People’s Assembly of Macedonia, one of the Federative Republics of Yugoslavia, passes a law prohibiting Muslim women from wearing veils.
Hungary – January 6, 1951 (HC)
Decree 9/1951 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that a Folk Art Institute will be established in order to facilitate the development of folk art forms and initiate a popular folk art movement. Decree 10/1951 states that the Observatory Institution, the Linguistic Institution, the Biology Institution of Tihany and the History Institution will be administered by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – January 6, 1951 (PVC)
The Hungarian government sends another note to Yugoslavia protesting the ongoing incidents at the Hungarian-Yugoslav border.
Poland – January 8, 1951 (PSN)
The Polish Government nationalizes all pharmacies.
Poland / Soviet Union – January 8, 1951 (PSN)
A new Polish citizenship law states that Polish citizens can only be citizens of one country, and those who lost their citizenship due to border changes would need to take the citizenship of their new country, usually the Soviet Union.
Yugoslavia / Hungary – January 11, 1951 (PVC)
In Novi Sad verdict is reached in the case of eight alleged spies, most of whom are Hungarians. The accused are said to have organized subversive activities in Vojvodina.
Romania – January 13, 1951 (PIR)
The regime for milk collection is established.
Hungary – January 14, 1951 (HC)
Statutory rule 1951:2 by the Hungarian Presidential Council states that the sport organizations must be reorganized following socialist ideology. The National Physical Education and Sports Committee is founded.
GDR / West Germany – January 15, 1951 (KCA)
Adenauer replies to Grotewohl’s proposal at a press conference. While avoiding any direct reply to the East German Government, he indirectly rejects Grotewhol’s proposal and restates the conditions under which, in West Germany’s view, Germany should be reunited and all-German elections held.
Yugoslavia – January 17, 1951 (KCA)
The People’s Assembly of Serbia passes a law prohibiting Muslim women from wearing veils.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – January 17, 1951 (HWC)
The State Department urges the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development to give further loans to Yugoslavia, emphasizing its strategic importance, and the value of Greece and Turkey to Western defense strategy.
Poland – January 18, 1951 (PSN)
A new law abolishes May 3 as National Day and designates some church holidays as work days.
Hungary – January 19, 1951 (KCA)
The Hungarian Foreign Ministry notifies all foreign Embassies and Legations in Budapest that their staff’s movement throughout the country will be restricted.
Hungary – January 19, 1951 (HC)
The Hungarian Council of Ministers establishes the Thrift Committee.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – January 19-February 3, 1951 (PVC)
Leading Yugoslav Communist politicians Milovan Djilas and Vladimir Dedijer visit the United Kingdom. During their stay, Milovan Djilas, one of Tito's closest associates, makes the first official request for military aid from the United Kingdom.
Soviet Union / Germany / U.K. – January 20, 1951 (KCA)
In a note to the British Government, the Soviet Government accuses Britain and other Western powers of “re-creating a German army, preparing aggressive actions against the Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern Europe, as well as generally ‘remilitarizing’ Western Germany and seeking to rehabilitate Germany’s war industry.”
FRG – January 21, 1951 (KCA)
In a broadcast Dr. Schumacher, the Social Democratic Leader, defends the Federal Government’s attitude towards Grotewohl’s offer, condemning his letter as propaganda to produce all-German talks before a possible four-power conference.
Hungary – January 21, 1951 (KCA)
The Hungarian Government re-imposes the rationing of basic foodstuffs including sugar, flour, and starch products such as noodles.
Soviet Union / U.S. – January 21, 1951 (CWC)
Politburo member Peter Pospelov accuses the United States of aiming for war with the Soviet Union ever since the time of Woodrow Wilson.
Hungary – January 22, 1951 (KCA)
The new order restricting the movement of foreign diplomats comes into effect. It also applies to the Soviet Embassy and other Eastern European embassies.
Hungary – January 23, 1951 (HC)
The Central Statistical Office publishes the economic achievements of the 1950 plan. Industrial production was increased by 35.1%, grain production for bread grew by 9.2%.
Soviet Union / Western Bloc – January 23, 1951 (KCA)
The Western replies to the Soviet note of December 30, 1950 are handed to Vyshinsky. The notes are identical in terms and request clarification of the Soviet Government’s attitude regarding the scope of the proposed conference, repeating their earlier suggestion that the conference should have as wide of an agenda as possible.
Romania – January 24, 1951 (PIR)
The second anniversary celebration of the Militia’s founding takes place.
GDR – January 25, 1951 (PLC)
The GDR abolishes the German identity cards.
Poland / Vatican – January 25, 1951 (PSN)
A protest campaign is launched against the Vatican's anti-Polish policy. The newspaper Trybuna Ludu informs its readers that voices from a variety of the masses have called for the abolition of the extraordinary and provisional nature of the church administration in the western territories. The Government carries this through on January 27.
Romania – January 26, 1951 (PIR)
The resolution of the Political Bureau of the CC of PMR regarding the activity of the newspaper Scânteia is published. The press campaign against kulaks is intensified.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – January 26, 1951 (HWC)
At the meeting of the North Atlantic Council Deputies, the U.K. representative points out that his Government regards Yugoslavia as one of the chief danger points for 1951. The other NATO members hold the same view.
Austria / Yugoslavia – January 27, 1951 (KCA)
Austria and Yugoslavia sign an agreement providing for the restoration of normal diplomatic relations between the two countries and the appointment of Ministers in Vienna and Belgrade.
Poland – January 27, 1951 (KCA)
The Polish Government demands that the temporary Church administration of the former German dioceses in Western Poland be terminated and that the Polish Church authorities name permanent bishops to the dioceses concerned.
Poland – January 27, 1951 (KCA)
A decree is issued in Warsaw that introduces the first petrol rationing.
Romania – January 27, 1951 (PIR)
The State Archives are transferred from the Ministry of Public Education to the Ministry of the Interior.
Romania – January 28-February 7, 1951 (PIR)
The 9th edition of the World University Winter Games takes place in Poiana Braşov (Oraşul Stalin).
Hungary – January 29, 1951 (HC)
The Presidency of the National Confederation of Hungarian Trade Unions decides to establish trade union sport clubs based on a common system. These sport clubs will be: Vasas (iron industry), Bányász (mining), Vörös Lobogó (textile industry), Építõk (construction industry), Lokomotív (machine industry), Szikra (chemical industry), Petõfi (public servants), Kinizsi (food industry) and Vörös Meteor (trade and finance).
Hungary / France / U.K. / U.S. – January 29, 1951 (LBC)
In response to a Hungarian measure restricting the movement of U.S. diplomats to a 20 mile radius of the Hungarian capital, the U.S. restricts the movement of Hungarian diplomats to a radius of 18 miles from the White House. One week later Britain and France also impose travel restrictions on Hungarian diplomats.
Poland – January 30, 1951 (KCA)
An official announcement in Warsaw states that the five apostolic temporary administrators have left their dioceses and that five priests have been selected as Vicars-Generals to the five Archbishoprics.
Romania – January 31, 1951 (PIR)
Decree no. 16 against old exploiters, identified among bankers, big industrial owners, merchants and landowners.
Yugoslavia / France/ U.K. / U.S. – February 1951 (KCA)
Throughout February, the U.S., Britain and France assure Yugoslavia that they will consider acting in response to Soviet satellite threats made against the country.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – February 3, 1951 (HWC)
The Yugoslavs make another request for arms support from the U.S. This would require a departure from the policy of not supplying the Yugoslavs with arms.
Soviet Union / U.S. / West Germany – February 5, 1951 (CWC)
The Soviet Union responds to the American note of January 23, accusing the United States of rearming West Germany.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – February 5, 1951 (HWC)
The British Chiefs of Staff consider what action should be taken in the event of an isolated attack on Yugoslavia. They recommend that the great powers take interim measures: this would later facilitate U.N. action, and influence positively the votes of wavering states in the General Assembly, both of which would be difficult if Tito were overthrown by a puppet regime. The British suggestion is approved at Anglo-American military-political discussions in early March 1951.
Soviet Bloc / U.S. – February 8, 1951 (LBC)
Congress approves sending additional U.S. troops to Europe.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – February 10, 1951 (HWC)
The Yugoslavs give the British the first list of their arms and ammunition requirements.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – February 12, 1951 (HWC)
Anthony Eden, the Shadow Foreign Secretary, makes a Commons appeal to the Government to produce a statement about the threat to Yugoslavia, which he describes “as a Balkan-Korean problem”.
Austria / Yugoslavia – February 13, 1951 (KCA)
Yugoslavia and Austria sign a trade agreement providing for trade exchanges of $28 million in 1951.
Hungary – February 13, 1951 (HC)
The National Theatre in Budapest presents Az élet hídja (“The bridge of life”) by Gyula Háy.
Poland / Romania – February 14, 1951 (PIR)
Wojcech Wrosek, extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador of the People’s Republic of Poland presents his accreditation letters in Bucharest.
Poland / Soviet Union – February 15, 1951 (PSN)
An agreement regarding a change of borders between Poland and the Soviet Union is signed in Moscow. The agreement gives Poland a region in the Hrubieszow Mountains and the Soviet Union parts of the districts of Hrubieszow and the Zmosc region. The agreement is supposed to give Poland “access to oil reserves and solve community issues.”
Yugoslavia / Greece – February 15, 1951 (PVC)
The Greek-Yugoslav postal services are resumed and the first train from Skopje leaves for Greece.
Soviet Union – February 16, 1951 (KCA)
Moscow radio broadcasts the text of answers given by Stalin during an interview with the Soviet paper Pravda in which he denies a statement made three days before by Attlee stating that the Soviet Government had not demobilized its armed forces after the war.
Soviet Union – February 16 and 25, 1951 (KCA)
Elections to the Supreme Soviets take place in the 16 Republics of the USSR. It is subsequently reported that over 99% of the electorate voted, with 99.76% of the votes being cast for candidates of the joint Communist and non-party bloc.
Soviet Union / U.K. – February 17, 1951 (KCA)
The British Government sends a reply to the Soviet note of January 20, denying all of its charges.
Czechoslovakia / France – February 17, 1951 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government orders the French Consul-General in Bratislava to leave the country within 48 hours, as he is believed to be involved in economic, political, and military espionage.
Czechoslovakia / France – February 17, 1951 (KCA)
French Consul-General in Bratislava Etienne Manach is forced to leave Czechoslovakia.
Poland / Belgium / Denmark / Luxembourg / The Netherlands – February 17, 1951 (KCA)
It is announced in Warsaw that the Polish Government has sent notes to the Belgian, Danish, Netherlands and Luxembourg governments asking them to use their influence with the Great Powers to speed up the calling of a four-power conference to prevent German rearmament.
Soviet Union – February 17, 1951 (REV)
Pravda publishes an interview with Stalin, in which he states that he does not think a third world war is inevitable.
Yugoslavia – February 18, 1951 (PVC)
Tito delivers a speech at the party cell of the Yugoslav guards. He expresses his confidence in the Marxist line of Yugoslav domestic and foreign policy. He condemns the Chinese attack against Korea and assures his audience that Yugoslavia will fight for its independence in case of an enemy attack. Probably the main aim of Tito's speech is to gain the support of the hard liners within the army in case of a war.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – February 20, 1951 (PVC)
Admiral Manola's plane with United States markings mistakenly enters into Yugoslav territory from Austria. He leaves the Yugoslav airspace north of Subotica. The reaction of the Yugoslav authorities is surprisingly calm. First the Yugoslavs suspect that the incidents might be a deliberate Soviet provocation but later the United States apologizes for the disorientation of the American military plane.
Czechoslovakia – February 22, 1951 (KCA)
In a speech to the Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, President Gottwald accuses Vladimir Clementis, Foreign Minister until his dismissal in March 1950, of complicity in a plot to take over power in the Communist Party and overthrow the régime.
Hungary – February 22, 1951 (HC)
The Opera House in Budapest presents Csínom Palkó by Ferenc Farkas.
GDR / FRG – February 22, 1951 (KCA)
In preparation for the Four Power conference to take place in early March, it is announced that Adenauer will be informed to the fullest possible extent of any Four-Power discussions on Germany, and that the Powers will consider any views that the German Federal Government might wish to present.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – February 22, 1951 (HWC)
Tito publicly implies that Yugoslavia will fight on the side of the West if there is a Soviet attack through Austrian territory on Italy or Greece.
Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / U.K. / U.S. – February 23, 1951 (PVC)
The British Embassy in Washington informs the Foreign Office of an American note proposing that the governments of both the United States and United Kingdom formally accuse Hungarian, Romanian, and Bulgarian governments of violating their respecting peace treaties. The Foreign Office rejects the possibility of sending common notes of protest based on the above mentioned lines.
Poland / Belgium – February 24, 1951 (KCA)
The Belgian Government issues a response to the request of the Polish Government stating that, while it too wishes to prevent Germany from becoming a danger, interference by the Belgian Government is unnecessary because the four powers have already agreed to meet to discuss the issue.
Soviet Union / U.K. – February 24, 1951 (KCA)
The Soviet Government sends another note to the British Government, reiterating the earlier charges it made against the British and other Western governments.
Yugoslavia – February 24, 1951 (KCA)
Commercial and railway traffic between Yugoslavia and Greece resumes under an agreement between the two governments.
Hungary – February 25-March 2, 1951 (HC)
The 2nd congress of the Hungarian Workers’ Party takes place in Budapest. The indicators of the Five-Year Plan are significantly increased. It is stated that the most important aims of the party are industrialization, agricultural development, the consolidation of state power and the establishment of party organizations (mostly in rural areas). The statement also emphasizes the significance of class struggle and communist discipline.
Czechoslovakia – February 26, 1951 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Ministry of Internal Trade announces the reintroduction of bread and flour rationing.
Czechoslovakia – February 27, 1951 (KCA)
Contrary to the earlier belief that Clementis had escaped abroad, it is announced in Prague that he and other prominent Communists were arrested in the course of a widespread party purge, and that he will be charged with espionage, treachery and with working to set up a separate Slovak Republic.
Hungary – February 27, 1951 (KCA)
The Hungarian Government re-imposes the rationing of butter, fats, bacon and soap.
Yugoslavia / Hungary – February 27, 1951 (PVC)
The county court at Osijek passes a verdict in the trial of Hungarian agents and sentences the accused to up to 10 years of imprisonment.
Soviet Union – February 28, 1951 (KCA)
Under a decree issued by the Soviet Government and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR, Moscow announces that price reductions between 10-22% will be introduced starting on March 1.
Hungary – February 28, 1951 (HC)
Decree 59/1951 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that the supply of grease and soap will be regulated, and grease and soap stamps will be introduced.
Yugoslavia / U.K. / U.S. – February 28, 1951 (PVC)
The first American-British military talks on military help to Yugoslavia take place in Washington.
Yugoslavia – February 28-March 2, 1951 (KCA)
During its session, the Yugoslav National Assembly approves a new penal code, setting the maximum prison sentences to eight years for those officials guilty of unlawful imprisonment, abolishing forced labor camps and trials by administrative organs, and reducing to one year the maximum sentence for peasants failing to deliver their quota of agricultural produce. The National Assembly also confirms a Government decree dissolving the State Control Commission, transferring its power to the responsible elected bodies at all levels from factory committees to the Central Government.
Hungary – March, 1951 (HC)
Felszabadult Föld (“The liberated Land ”), a film directed by Frigyes Bán, is first shown.
Poland – March, 1951 (PSN)
Seven leaders of Jehovah's Witnesses are tried for subversion in the Warsaw District Military Court.
Hungary – March 2, 1951 (HC)
The first meeting of the recently elected new leaders of the Hungarian Workers’ Party takes place. General Secretary: Mátyás Rákosi. Members of the Political Committee: Antal Apró, Mihály Farkas, Ernő Gerő, József Harustyák, András Hegedüs, Márton Horváth, János Kádár, Károly Kiss, István Kovács, Imre Nagy, Mátyás Rákosi, József Révai, Sándor Rónai, István Szabó, Zoltán Vas, Sándor Zöld and Mihály Zsofinyecz.
Romania – March 2, 1951 (PIR)
The resolution of the CC of PMR and of the Government regarding the administrative and economic consolidation of GAC’s is issued.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – March 4-June 21, 1951 (LBC)
The meeting of the deputy foreign ministers of the four great powers takes place. The delegates manage to agree on the topics to be discussed. – June 9. The Western powers invite the USSR for a meeting of the four powers’ foreign ministers. The Soviet Union rejects the invitation. – The talks fail completely.
Czechoslovakia / India / UK – March 5, 1951 (KCA)
It is announced in New Delhi that Kratochvil, the Czechoslovak Ambassador in India, and his family left Bombay for the United Kingdom. The text of a letter left behind by Kratochvil, in which he states his dissatisfaction with the Communist régime in Czechoslovakia, is released.
GDR / Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – March 5, 1951 (KCA)
The preliminary conference of representatives of the four Powers opens in Paris. At the commencement of the conference, the representatives of the four countries receive a request from the East German Government to place the issue of a German peace treaty on the agenda.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – March 5, 1951 (HWC)
Ernest Bevin recommends that the Cabinet agrees in principle to supply Yugoslavia with arms and equipment subject to availabilities.
Romania – March 6, 1951 (PIR)
A great festive assembly at the Giuleşti Theater takes place in the presence of the members of the Council of Ministers, celebrating 6 years since the installation of the first democratic government.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – March 7, 1951 (LKT)
In its estimates written in “The Position of the United States with Respect to Yugoslavia”, the NSC envisions a more active role for the United States and NATO in sustaining Yugoslavia's independence. Later in the same month, President Truman approves its recommendation.
Czechoslovakia / Italy – March 9, 1951 (KCA)
It is officially announced in Prague that the Italian Cultural Institute has been closed down.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Bloc / France / U.K. / U.S. – March 9, 1951 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Ambassadors in Washington, London and Paris present an official Yugoslav White Book listing in detail the anti Yugoslav activities of the Cominform countries.
Hungary – March 10, 1951 (HC)
Decree 1003/1951 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that March 15 (the anniversary of the 1848 revolution) is no longer a Hungarian national day.
Romania – March 10, 1951 (PIR)
Unified hospitals and anti-epidemic sanitary centers are formed.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – March 10-17, 1951 (PVC)
A Yugoslav parliamentary delegation visits the United Kingdom on the invitation of the Interparliamentary Union.
Yugoslavia / Greece – March 17, 1951 (HWC)
The first Simplon-Orient express, re-routed to avoid Bulgaria, passes through Greece to Yugoslavia for the first time since World War II.
Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – March 17, 1951 (PVC)
The Bulgarian Government sends a note of protest to the Yugoslav Government stating that a Yugoslav aircraft entered into Bulgarian airspace on March 8 and stayed in Bulgarian airspace for more than half an hour. The note also protests that Todor Todorovic was stopped at Belgrade’s airport on March 3 despite his diplomatic immunity.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – March 17, 1951 (PVC)
The Hungarian Government sends another note to Yugoslavia protesting twelve new border incidents.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – March 17, 1951 (PVC)
British Ambassador Charles Peake is informed that a recall of reserve officers and soldiers begins on May 1 for a period of three months.
Romania – March 12, 1951 (PIR)
The directives of the CC of PMR regarding the election of party leadership organs are published. Excesses committed during the collectivization are unveiled on this occasion.
Soviet Union – March 12, 1951 (KCA)
The Supreme Soviet of the USSR passes a law for the defense of peace, condemning war propaganda of any kind and making it a severe legal offense.
Hungary – March 13, 1951 (KCA)
The Hungarian Government reintroduces milk rationing.
Romania – March 13, 1951 (PIR)
Elections for PMR leadership are organized. In Gheorghiu-Dej’s own words, the party had to be “Romanianized”, the best candidates being “workers who had demonstrated already the nature of their character in works requiring responsibility.”
Czechoslovakia – March 14, 1951 (KCA)
It is announced in Prague that General Reicin and Svermova have also been arrested for complicity in the plot to overthrow the régime.
Czechoslovakia – March 14, 1951 (KCA)
Prague radio announces that Archbishop Josef Beran, who has been held incommunicado in his place in Prague since 1949, has been banished from the capital and fined an undisclosed sum due to his “negative attitude” towards the church laws.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – March 16, 1951 (HC)
The Hungarian Government raises objections in a memorandum to Yugoslavia because of the border violations.
Poland – March 17, 1951 (KCA)
It is announced that Zygmunt Modzelewski, Foreign Minister since 1947, has been released from his post on ground of ill-health, and is being succeeded by Stanislaw Skrzeszewski.
Czechoslovakia / Vatican – March 18, 1951 (KCA)
The Vatican issues a declaration stating that all those responsible for the persecution of the Roman Catholic Church in Czechoslovakia have ipso facto incurred excommunication.
Hungary – March 18, 1951 (HC)
Statutory rule 1951:10 by the Presidential Council states the amount of the state collections of agricultural produce for 1951-1952.
GDR – March 20, 1951 (KCA)
The East German Ministry of the Interior announces that the Christian Science movement in Eastern Germany has been banned and its premises closed.
Romania / Soviet Union – March 20, 1951 (PIR)
Romania and the Soviet Union sign an agreement regarding the exchange of goods and payment for the year 1951.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – March 20, 1951 (CUY)
The latest National Intelligence Estimate on Yugoslavia entitled “Probability of an Invasion of Yugoslavia in 1951” is completed.
Yugoslavia / U.K. / U.S. – March 20, 1951 (PVC)
The note of the meeting of a joint U.S.-U.K. military planning committee states that the American delegation has examined the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing nuclear weapons in case Yugoslavia is attacked. The British Chief of Staff deals with the American proposal during its meeting on March 21 and suggests consulting with other members of the United Nations before any nuclear weapons might be used.
Czechoslovakia / U.K. – March 23, 1951 (KCA)
After receiving asylum in Britain, former Czechoslovak Ambassador to India Kratochvil arrives in London.
Bulgaria / Romania – March 25, 1951 (PIR)
A commercial accord between RPR and the People’s Republic of Bulgaria is signed.
Hungary – March 29, 1951 (HC)
The leaders of the Democratic Youth Association dismiss Lajos Szűcs. The new General Secretary is István Dénes.
Poland – March 29-April 6, 1951 (PSN)
Labor Party activists Antoni Antczak, Staniskaw Bukowski, Josef Kwasiborski, Jan Hoppe and Cecylia Weker are put on trial. The defendants allegedly had helped the Gestapo during the Second World War.
Soviet Union / U.S. – March 29, 1951 (PLC)
In the United States Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are found guilty of passing secret information about nuclear weapons to the Soviet Union and are sentenced to death.
Romania – March 30, 1951 (PIR)
The General Direction of the People’s Security is reorganized, incorporating external intelligence tasks and counter-espionage.
Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – March 30, 1951 (PVC)
The head of the Yugoslav diplomatic mission in Sofia is expelled from Bulgaria.
Poland / U.K. – April 2, 1951 (KCA)
It is announced in London that Poland has refused to pay the United Kingdom a first installment of 400,000 British pounds that was due March 31 as agreed in the Anglo-Polish Trade Agreement of 1949.
Soviet Union – April 2-6, 1951 (KCA)
Moscow announces the first awards of the International Stalin Peace Prizes for the year 1950, which were established in 1949 to commemorate Stalin’s 70th birthday.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – April 3, 1951 (PVC)
Hungary sends a note of protest to Yugoslavia claiming that the Hungarian Chargé d'Affaires was brutally insulted by the Yugoslav secret police.
U.S. – April 4, 1951 (LBC)
The U.S. Senate approves President Truman’s decision to place four U.S. divisions under Eisenhower’s command, but the President must consult with the Congress before sending any more divisions to Europe.
Hungary – April 5, 1951 (REV)
In the so-called Anti-Bolshevik Guard trial, Szilárd Gyimesi and Leó Matók are sentenced to death, and their associates are sentenced either to life imprisonment or prison terms of 3–17 years, for conspiracy against the state and acts of sabotage. The executions take place on October 13. Another 30–40 young people are arrested and sentenced in the same case during the year.
Bulgaria / Romania – April 5, 1951 (PIR)
Dobor Terpesev, Ambassador of Bulgaria in Bucharest, presents his accreditation letters.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – April 5, 1951 (HWC)
The British Cabinet approves another immediate credit of £4 million to Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia – April 6, 1951 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government issues a decree reducing its number of ministries from 34 to 19.
Yugoslavia / Greece – April 10, 1951 (OEH)
Yugoslavia concludes a trade and payments agreement with Greece.
Yugoslavia – April 11, 1951 (KCA)
As a further step in the decentralization of the economic structure, it is announced that 108 of Yugoslavia’s largest machine building factories, oil producing centers and six refineries will pass from Federal control to that of the six constituent Republics.
Yugoslavia / France – April 11, 1951 (KCA)
The French Government announces that “deliveries of a military character” will form part of French exports to Yugoslavia under their recent trade agreement.
Czechoslovakia / France – April 12, 1951 (KCA)
It is announced in Prague that the Czechoslovak Government has requested the French Government to close down the French Consulate-General in Bratislava before April 26 and to recall the French Vice-Consul in that city, Maurice Michelot. The Czechoslovak Government also announces its intentions to close the Consulate in Marseilles, and issues a note to the French Government demanding the closure of the French Institute in Prague.
Yugoslavia – April 12, 1951 (CUY)
The Yugoslav Government admits in a press statement that it is seeking arms from abroad through commercial channels.
Czechoslovakia / France – April 13, 1951 (KCA)
As a result of Czechoslovakia’s actions, the French Government demands that the Masaryk Institute in Paris and the Czechoslovak Consulate in Algiers be closed down.
Yugoslavia / France – April 14, 1951 (KCA)
Yugoslavia and France sign three agreements regulating commerce and trade between the two countries.
Hungary – April 15, 1951 (KCA/REV)
It is announced in Budapest that bread and meat rationing will be introduced.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – April 16, 1951 (KCA)
President Truman notifies the U.S. Congress that he has authorized the shipment of $29 million worth of raw materials and similar supplies to Yugoslavia under the 1949 Mutual Defense Assistance Act.
Soviet Union – April 16, 1951 (KCA)
The Soviet State Planning Commission and the Central Statistical Board announce the results of the 1946-1950 Five-Year Plan, stating that it had been “successful” and that principal targets had been “exceeded by a large margin.”
Yugoslavia / U.S – April 18, 1951 (KCA)
Washington announces that the Yugoslav Government has agreed to full U.S. supervision of the use of raw materials provided under the 1949 Act.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – April 18, 1951 (KCA)
Britain announces that it has granted Yugoslavia 4 million additional British pounds, bringing the total amount of British loans for Yugoslavia to 22 million British pounds.
Hungary – April 20, 1951 (HC)
The Hungarian Presidential Council dismisses Sándor Zöld. The new Interior Minister is Árpád Házi. According to the official announcement Sándor Zöld and his family committed suicide before he could have been arrested.
Hungary / U.S. – April 21, 1951 (KCA)
The Hungarian Government announces that it will release Robert Vogeler, who had been sentenced to 15 years’ imprisonment for alleged espionage in February 1950. Negotiations between the U.S. and Hungarian governments commenced several months before, the two negotiating the terms of Vogeler’s release.
Hungary / U.K. – April 23, 1951 (KCA)
A Foreign Office spokesman in London says that the British Legation in Budapest has been asked for a fresh report on the possibilities of obtaining Sander’s release.
Romania / Yugoslavia – April 23, 1951 (PVC)
According to Yugoslav charges, a Romanian border patrol crossed the border line close to Velika Kikinda and 30 other Romanian guards shot at the Yugoslav border guards.
Czechoslovakia / U.S. – April 25, 1951 (KCA)
The U.S. Embassy in Prague announces that it has requested the Czechoslovak Government to inquire into the whereabouts of William Oatis, a correspondent of the Associated Press in Prague who had been missing for several days. The Czechoslovak Government announces the next day that Oatis had been arrested on charges of carrying out various activities hostile to the Czechoslovak State.
Hungary – April 27-28, 1951 (HC)
The first congress of the Hungarian Writers’ Union in Budapest takes place. The socialist realist development of Hungarian literature is discussed, particularly considering the second congress’ resolution of the Hungarian Workers’ Party. The head of the association will be József Darvas, the secretary Lajos Kónya.
Hungary / U.S. – April 28, 1951 (HC)
The governments of Hungary and the United States reach certain agreements. Vogeler, an American citizen arrested on February 21, 1950, will be deported from Hungary. The Hungarian consulates in New York and Cleveland will be reopened. The service of Voice of America, a radio station broadcasted from Munich, will be stopped. Hungarian assets now in the American occupation zone of Germany can be brought back to Hungary.
Hungary – April 29, 1951 (HC)
The suburban railway line between Budapest and Csepel is opened
Hungary – May, 1951 (REV)
Resettlement of ‘former exploiters’ begins. More than 12,000 people in Budapest are forced to leave their homes. They are billeted on kulak families in small villages, where they often have to live in inhuman conditions under a social stigma.
Albania / Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 1951 (CUY)
The League of Albanian Political Refugees in Yugoslavia is formed. The U.S. sees it as Tito’s attempt to create an anti-Soviet, pro-Yugoslav regime in Albania and return to the status of 1944-1948.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 1951 (HWC)
Members of the U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee recommend early Yugoslav-American staff talks to coordinate the defense of the Ljubljana Gap in advance of the Julian Alps. See September 21.
Yugoslavia / France / U.K. / U.S. – May 1951 (LKT)
The Americans inform their partners that they would prefer bilateral talks with the Yugoslavs on the technicalities of military aid. The British and the French are not pleased about the American decision. The bilateral discussions take place in Washington in May and June 1951.
China / Yugoslavia / U.N. – May 1951 (HWC)
The Yugoslav leaders vote with the Western powers for the imposition of an arms and military materials embargo on China in the UN.
Europe / U.S. – May 1, 1951 (REV)
Radio Free Europe goes on the air with covert American government support. It broadcasts in the main languages of the Soviet bloc countries.
Czechoslovakia / US – May 3, 1951 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government announces that it will not permit the Associated Press to appoint another correspondent until the charges against Oatis are investigated.
Romania – May 3, 1951 (PIR)
The collection regime for agricultural products is established.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 4, 1951 (CUY)
The latest National Intelligence Estimate reviews the conclusions of NIE-29 “Probability of an Invasion of Yugoslavia in 1951”.
Yugoslavia – May 5, 1951 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government issues a decree, effective immediately, abolishing the compulsory delivery of milk, potatoes, peas, beans, lentils, hay and straw by farmers to the State. The same decree applies to meats, effective on July 1.
Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – May 5, 1951 (PVC)
Bulgaria sends another note to Yugoslavia protesting the ongoing border incidents.
Soviet Bloc / U.S. – May 6, 1951 (LBC)
According to a report by the U.N. Economic Committee, Western Europe sold $269 million worth of machinery to Eastern Europe in 1950, twice as much as in 1948. In the same period U.S. sales of the same products to Eastern Europe dropped by 93%. According to the State Department spokesman the Soviet export to the United States almost ceased to exist and consists of a few non-strategic materials. It dropped from the 1947 level of $150 million to $750 thousand in 1950.
Czechoslovakia / The Netherlands – May 9, 1951 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government releases J.A. Louwers, the Dutch businessman who had been sentenced to 15 years’ imprisonment in March 1950 on charges of economic sabotage and espionage.
Bulgaria – May 10, 1951 (KCA)
An official Government announcement states that Petko Kunin, former Minister of Finance and Industry, and Manol Sakelarov, former Minister of Public Works, were tried by the Sofia Supreme Court from April 26-30 on charges of taking part in the conspiracy of the late Traicho Kostov, using their offices to sabotage electrification and construction programs. They received 15 and 10 years’ imprisonment respectively. It is also announced that two other former members of the Central Committee, Ivan Maslarov and Peter Semerdzhev, were charged with complicity in the “Petkov plot”, receiving 15 and 12 years’ imprisonment.
Hungary – May 10, 1951 (HC)
Decree 172/1951 by the Economic Council announces that the cooperatives will be given aid in order to guarantee faster economic development.
Romania – May 11, 1951 (PIR)
The leader of PMR condemns abuses committed during the time of collectivization, affirming that coercion methods had been used and that gross deviations from the party line have occurred.
Czechoslovakia – May 12, 1951 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government issues a decree under which all children leaving school at the age of 14 can be legally directed into any branch of industry or agriculture as decided by school-leaving commissions.
Hungary – May 13, 1951 (KCA/HC)
It is officially announced in Budapest that the Hungarian Foreign Minister, Gyula Kállai has resigned and is succeeded by Károly Kiss, a member of the Politburo of the Hungarian Workers’ Party. The former Interior Minister János Kádár, the former Minister of Foreign Affairs Gyula Kállai, the former State Secretary Géza Losonczy, as well as Ferenc Donáth and Szilárd Újhelyi are arrested.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – May 14-25, 1951 (PVC)
A delegation of British MPs visits Yugoslavia. The visit is considered highly successful by members of the delegation.
Hungary – May 15-18, 1951 (HC)
Session of the Hungarian Parliament takes place. The Parliament passes Law 1951.I. about the establishment of the State Office for Churches, Law II. about the modified Five-Year Plan, and Law III. about the penal code.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 15, 1951 (PVC)
Yugoslav General Koca Popović arrives at the United States for a non-official visit.
Czechoslovakia / U.K. – May 18, 1951 (KCA)
It is announced in London that the Czechoslovak Government has informed the British Government that Ambassador Bystricky, recently recalled to Czechoslovakia, will not be returning to Britain.
Hungary – May 19, 1951 (HC)
The Ministry of Religion and Education is renamed the Ministry of Education, as it is no longer responsible for religious affairs.
Hungary / FRG – May 20, 1951 (REV)
Six inmates escape from the strictly guarded labour camp at Recsk. All but one are recaptured by the end of June. Gyula Michnay reaches West Germany, where he reads the names of over 600 prisoners at Recsk over Radio Free Europe. The recaptured escapees are returned to Recsk. Security around the camp is tightened and a much greater number of informers are recruited among the inmates.
Poland / Soviet Union – May 22, 1951 (KCA)
A Warsaw announcement states that Soviet Foreign Minister Vyshinsky and First Deputy-Premier in the Polish Cabinet Zawadski signed an agreement in Moscow under which Poland will receive a strip of Soviet territory in the Drohobyez region, near Przemysl, while the Soviet Union will acquire an equivalent area of Polish territory in the Lublin region.
Romania – May 22, 1951 (PIR)
The great lawyer N. Micescu, former Minister of External Affairs (1937-1938), dies in the Aiud prison.
Argentine / Yugoslavia – May 23, 1951 (KCA)
It is announced in Belgrade that the Yugoslav Government has sent a note demanding Argentina to extradite Anton Pavelic, both the former head of the ‘puppet’ State of Croatia and Yugoslavia’s “war criminal No. 1”, as a war criminal.
Soviet Bloc – May 23-June 5, 1951 (KCA)
The fourth session of the Danube Commission is held in Romania to discuss draft regulations for Danubian navigation.
Yugoslavia / Greece – May 24, 1951 (KCA)
Under the auspices of the International Red Cross, the Yugoslav Government repatriates 214 Greek children who had been taken to Yugoslavia by the Communists during the Greek Civil War.
Poland – May 25-26, 1951 (KCA)
The Polish Parliament meets and passes legislation to create a Ministry of State Farms and a Ministry of Small-scale Industry and Handicrafts.
Hungary – May 27, 1951 (HC)
Decree 1951:15 by the Hungarian Presidential Council announces that all children (age 6-14) must receive education. The systematic organization and functioning of primary schools are also regulated.
GDR / FRG – May 29, 1951 (KCA)
The Federal Ministry for All-German Affairs issues a report on armaments production in the Soviet Occupation Zone, stating that numerous countries in Eastern Germany are producing considerable amounts of defense and military materials. The report stated that the most important branch of armaments production is the mining of uranium, an industry employing 300,000 people in Eastern Germany.
Argentine / Yugoslavia – May 29, 1951 (KCA)
A spokesperson of the Argentine Foreign Ministry states that there is no possibility for Argentina to extradite Pavelic to Yugoslavia because the two countries do not have an extradition treaty.
Czechoslovakia / France – June 1, 1951 (KCA)
It is announced in Paris that the Prague office of the French news agency Agence France Presse has been closed down following the arrest by Czechoslovak authorities of Joseph Skricka, chief assistant to Gaton Fournier, the agency’s correspondent in Prague. This closure brings the number of Western correspondents in Czechoslovakia to two.
Hungary – June 1, 1951 (HC)
The Democratic Youth Association asks students to help in the building of the Dunai Vasmű (the ironworks in Dunapentele, later Sztálinváros-Stalingrad) or to look after crops during the summer holiday.
Hungary – June 1, 1951 (REV)
The Hungarian Army is renamed as the Hungarian People’s Army. September 29 is declared People’s Army Day.
Yugoslavia – June 1, 1951 (YPH)
The fourth plenary meeting of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia deals with the legality of the methods used by the armed forces. The meeting declares illegal the methods used at the Goli Otok camp and emphasizes that rules should be obeyed.
Czechoslovakia / U.S. – June 2, 1951 (KCA)
The U.S. Government imposes a ban on travel by American nationals to Czechoslovakia.
Hungary – June 2, 1951 (HC)
The leaders of the Vörös Brigád (‘Red Brigade), Éva Braun (not to be confused with Hitler’s mistress) and Ferenc Rónai, anti-fascist martyrs who were killed on January 13, 1945, are reburied at a special plot of the Kerepesi graveyard.
Yugoslavia / Hungary – June 2, 1951 (PVC)
Yugoslav authorities expel the Hungarian Chargé d'affaires from Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Bloc – June 2, 1951 (KCA)
After presenting a series of amendments to the draft regulations and having each one rejected, the Yugoslav delegation leaves the conference of the Danubian Commission.
Yugoslavia / Vatican – June 2, 1951 (PVC)
Talks between Aleš Bebler, Yugoslav Deputy Foreign Minister and Monsignor Oddi, the papal legate take place about the confinement of Archbishop Stepinac. The Yugoslav Government states its readiness to release Stepinac, on the condition that he leaves the country immediately.
Czechoslovakia – June 5, 1951 (KCA)
The dismissal of several government officials is announced in Prague.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – June 5, 1951 (PVC)
In a reply to the Yugoslav note of June 2, 1951, the Hungarian authorities expel the Yugoslav Chargé d'Affaires from Hungary.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – June 5, 1951 (PVC)
Yugoslavia officially informs the United Kingdom that Minister of Interior Aleksandar Ranković intends to make a private visit to London until June 19.
Bulgaria / Romania / Hungary / Yugoslavia / U.S. – June 8, 1951 (CUY/HWC/KCA)
Yugoslav Foreign Minister Kardelj announces that the Yugoslav Chief of General Staff Colonel-General Koča Popović has gone to the U.S. to investigate the possibilities of purchasing military equipment from the Western Powers in light of the excessive rearmament of Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria, a perceived threat to Yugoslavia.
Hungary – June 10, 1951 (HC)
Decree 1951:18 by the Hungarian Presidential Council states that the College of Foreign Languages will be founded.
Romania / Yugoslavia – July 13, 1951 (PVC)
Another incident takes place at the Yugoslav-Romanian border. Two Romanian border guards open fire on five unarmed Yugoslav citizens who are collecting hay in the field. One of them is killed.
Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – June 14, 1951 (PVC)
Another incident takes place at the Yugoslav-Bulgarian border. Bulgarian troops hijack Yugoslav border guard Osman Kapić at Dimitrovgrad.
Hungary – June 15, 1951 (HC)
The fundraising campaign called “let’s help the children of the Korean heroes” raises a total of 20,100,000 forints.
Hungary – June 16, 1951 (KCA)
The Hungarian Ministry of the Interior issues a statement announcing that 924 families of “undesirable elements” were removed from Budapest between May 21 and June 15.
Hungary – June 16, 1951 (HC)
Celebratory session of the National Peace Council at the Parliament takes place. The peace statement is signed by 7,148,000 Hungarian citizens.
Hungary – June 17, 1951 (HC)
Decree 128/1951 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that correspondence courses will be initiated at colleges and universities starting during the academic year of 1951-1952.
Romania – June 18, 1951 (PIR)
Through the MAN Decision no. 200, 4,580 ethnic Germans are, along with Romanians, dislocated from their home localities and assigned fixed mandatory residence in various districts in the South-East of the country. The official motivation was that 1,085 were kulaks, 76 were landowners, 982 were former collaborators of the SS and 2,537 were Schwabs living in the western part of the country, thus “not presenting guarantees for state security”.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – June 18, 1951 (PVC)
Army General Koča Popović arrives in the United Kingdom from the United States and has an official meeting with the British chiefs of staff the same day.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – June 18, 1951 (LBC)
According to a Belgrade report the U.S. delivered $1 million worth of weapons to Yugoslavia. – June 19. The Department of Defense of the U.S. affirms the report on the Yugoslav arms sale. According to the Pentagon, the U.S. and other Western countries wish to assist Yugoslavia in preserving its independence against growing Soviet pressure.
Hungary – June 19, 1951 (KCA)
It is announced in Budapest that Archbishop of Kalocsa József Grősz along with eight other defendants will be brought to trial on charges of conspiring to overthrow the democratic government.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – June 21, 1951 (HWC)
The British Cabinet approves their share in the tripartite grant aid project for the period of 1951 until the end of June 1952.
Hungary / U.S. – June 23, 1951 (LBC)
According to the State Department the trial of archbishop József Grõsz in Hungary “means the maintenance of communist pressure in order to suppress human rights and freedom” and to eliminate the moral influence of the church.
Hungary – June 26, 1951 (HC)
Statutory rule 1951:19 by the Hungarian Presidential Council states that a University of Transportation and Technology will be founded. Statutory rule 1951:28 moves the university to Szolnok.
Hungary – June 26, 1951 (HC)
Decree 1021/1951 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that every year the second Sunday of August will be the Railroad Workers’ Day.
Yugoslavia / France – June 27, 1951 (HWC)
The Conseil des Ministres decides at the urgent request of Robert Shuman to cede captured German arms to Yugoslavia.
Hungary – June 28, 1951 (KCA) (HC)
The court issues its sentences in the Grősz case. One man is sentenced to death after having been found guilty of killing a Russian soldier in 1944.
The Supreme Court sentences József Grősz, the archbishop of Kalocsa, to 15 years and his associates to 8-13 years. They are accused of creating a movement aiming to destroy the power of the democratically elected government, trafficking with currencies and helping others flee the country.
Hungary – June 28, 1951 (HC)
Decree 253 500/1951 by the Hungarian Minister of Nutrition states that the amount of food the farmers will be given depends on the amount they provide for the country. This decree will take effect July 1.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – June 28, 1951 (LYE)
President Tito presents a formal request for military aid to U.S. Ambassador George Allen.
Hungary / Vatican – June 29, 1951 (KCA)
The Vatican issues a decree excommunicating all of those people who had played a major part in the arrest, trial and conviction of Archbishop Grősz.
Yugoslavia / Romania – June 29, 1951 (PVC)
Politika publishes the latest Yugoslav note protesting the situation of the South Slavic minority in Romania. About 7,000 South Slavs are displaced from Northern Bačka.
Romania / Yugoslavia – June 30, 1951 (PVC)
The Romanian press publishes the latest note of the government. According to the note of protest, 30 border incidents took place during the last quarter of the year.
Soviet Bloc – June 30-July 3, 1951 (PLC)
In Frankfurt am Main the émigré social democratic parties of the Soviet Bloc countries form the Socialist International.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – July 1951 (PVC)
Tito meets Brian McMahon, Democrat member of the United States Senate from Connecticut. Among other things, they discuss the fate of Archbishop Stepinac.
Romania – July 1, 1951 (PIR)
The population of Romania numbers 16,464,000 inhabitants.
Czechoslovakia / US – July 2-4, 1951 (KCA)
William Oatis and three Czechoslovak nationals employed at the Associated Press are tried, charged with having engaged in political and military espionage in Czechoslovakia. It is reported that all plead guilty to the charges.
Hungary / U.S. – July 2, 1951 (HC)
In a note the Hungarian Government calls upon the United States to call back those officers from the US legation of Budapest who were ‘exposed’ in the Grősz trial.
Hungary – July 3, 1951 (HC/REV)
Statutory rule 1951:20 by the Presidential Council states how the most important religious officers will be chosen. The Presidential Council has to approve all appointed religious officers.
A declaration by the Roman Catholic episcopal body of Hungary is published stating the Church is ready to cooperate with the government. On July 21, the bishops take the oath of allegiance to the Constitution of the Hungarian People’s Republic.
Hungary / U.S. – July 3, 1951 (LBC)
At Hungary’s request the USIS closes its library in Budapest.
Czechoslovakia / US – July 4, 1951 (KCA)
The court sentences William Oatis to 10 years’ imprisonment, and the three Czechoslovak nationals to terms ranging from 10-18 years’ imprisonment. The U.S. State Department objects the trial and the sentences.
Yugoslavia / France / U.K. / U.S. – July 5, 1951 (KCA)
After discussions between Britain, France and the U.S., the three Powers agree to make substantial grants available to Yugoslavia for the purchase of raw materials, consumer goods, and other essential supplies, adding that it is of great importance to strengthen Yugoslavia’s resistance to pressure from the Cominform States.
Yugoslavia / France / U.K. / U.S. – July 5, 1951 (KCA)
Press reports announce the total value of the grants to be given to Yugoslavia at 50 million British pounds, 35 million provided by the U.S., 10 million by the British and 5 million by the French.
Yugoslavia – July 5, 1951 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government announces that it has agreed to release Archbishop Stepinac, who in May 1946 was sentenced to 16 years’ hard labor on charges of collaboration with the enemy and anti-national activities, on the condition that he leaves Yugoslavia immediately.
Hungary – July 7, 1951 (HC)
Decree 137/1951 by the Council of Ministers announces that university, college and vocational school graduates will be given jobs following an organized method.
France / UK / US – July 9, 1951 (REV)
The Allied western powers announce that they consider the state of war in Germany to have ceased.
Korea – July 10 1951, (REV)
Talks begin on a ceasefire in Korea.
Yugoslavia / Italy / Trieste / U.S. – July 11, 1951 (KCA)
The Italian Prime Minister De Gasperi reaffirms Italy’s claim to full sovereignty over Trieste and appeals for friendly discussions on the subject with the Yugoslav Government. The U.S. State Department announces that the U.S. Ambassador in Rome has been authorized to assure the Italian Government that American policy towards Trieste continues to be guided by the spirit of the tripartite declaration.
Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – July 12, 1951 (PVC)
Another Yugoslav border guard is taken hostage by Bulgarians north-east of Zaječar. He manages to escape back to Yugoslavia within 24 hours.
Poland / U.K. – July 14, 1951 (KCA)
The British Foreign Office and the Admiralty jointly announce that two oil tankers under construction at Sunderland for Poland have been requisitioned under the Defense Regulations.
Hungary / Poland / U.S. – July 15, 1951 (LBC)
In response to the expulsion of two U.S. diplomats from the U.S. Legation in Budapest, the U.S. calls on Hungary to recall two of its own diplomats. – August 9. The U.S. closes Poland’s information center in New York because Poland closed the U.S. information service in Warsaw.
Poland / U.K – July 17, 1951 (KCA)
The Polish Embassy announces that Polish Ambassador Michalowski had protested strongly against the requisitioning of the ships, which had been purchased by Poland, denouncing Britain’s act as a “systematic breach of the 1949 British-Polish agreement”.
GDR / France / U.K. / U.S. – July 17, 1951 (KCA)
The East German Government protests the decision of the U.S., Britain and France to officially end the state of war with Germany, claiming that the Western Governments’ decision was a preparatory measure to rearm Germany within the “aggressive North Atlantic Pact system.”
Yugoslavia / U.S. – July 17, 1951 (CUY)
It is agreed at a meeting of the International Security Affairs Committee that it is of great importance to the security of the United States to furnish additional economic aid to Yugoslavia under the authority of Section 408(c) of the Mutual Security Act of 1949.
Yugoslavia / Italy / Trieste – July 18-30, 1951 (NBT)
Talks between Italian and Yugoslav representatives take place in Rome on the settlement of the Trieste problem.
Czechoslovakia / U.S. – July 23, 1951 (KCA)
The State Department announces that Czechoslovakia has rejected the U.S.’ request to immediately release William Oatis, but adds that it will continue to press for his release.
Soviet Union – July 23, 1951 (KCA)
It is announced that Vice-Admiral N.G. Kuznetsov has been appointed Soviet Minister of the Navy, succeeding Admiral I.S. Yumashev who was relieved of his duties at his own request.
Hungary / U.S. – July 27, 1951 (KCA)
President Truman issues a statement charging the Hungarian Government with “infamous conduct”, declaring that the U.S. Government would “render the Hungarian Government accountable before the world” after Western press reports put the number of deportees from Hungary under inhumane conditions at more than 24,000.
Romania – July 27, 1951 (PIR)
The legal framework for the confiscation of goods from deported persons and for arrests during collectivization is established.
Hungary – July 28 1951, (REV)
About 4,300 C-category (politically unreliable) twenty-year-olds are conscripted into army supply units for labor service. (They serve a longer term of 27 months, until the autumn of 1953.)
Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – July 28, 1951 (KCA)
In a speech made at Knezice in Bosnia, Tito strongly denounces the Soviet Union in response to a violent verbal attack made in Warsaw on July 22 that harshly described the Yugoslav leaders and accused them of transforming Yugoslavia into a weapon of the Western Powers. Tito further declares that Yugoslavia itself had won its freedom by its own effort without the help of the Red Army.
Czechoslovakia / U.S. – July 31, 1951 (LBC)
The U.S. cancels the customs preferences granted to Czechoslovakia under the customs agreement of Geneva.
Poland – July 31, 1951 (KCA)
The trial of four Polish Generals and five other officers commences in Warsaw, each defendant being charged with forming a subversive and espionage organization.
Poland – July 31, 1951 (PSN)
Gomulka is secretly arrested.
Yugoslavia – August 1951 (ACY)
The World Council of Churches sends a delegation of eighteen, headed by Robert Tobias of Inter-Church Aid, on a mission of fellowship to the churches in Yugoslavia.
Hungary / U.K. – August 1, 1951 (KCA)
The British Government declares that the figure of 24,000 persons deported from Hungary is a conservative estimate, and condemns the callous action of the Hungarian Government.
Soviet Bloc / U.S. – August 1, 1951 (PLC)
The United States stops providing trade allowances to communist countries. The Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, the GDR, Hungary, Poland and Romania are the countries most affected by this decision.
Poland – August 2, 1951 (HDP)
Gomulka is imprisoned for nationalist deviation. He spends three years under house arrest.
Albania / Vatican – August 3, 1951 (KCA)
Tirana radio announces that under a new law approved by the Albanian National Assembly in June, the Roman Catholic Church has been constituted as a juridical body with an exclusively national character, prohibited from maintaining any contact with the Vatican.
Soviet Union / U.S. / Japan – August 6, 1951 (LBC)
A motion by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to ban atomic weapons is discussed. – August 7. The State Department rejects the proposal of the Supreme Soviet since it contains no new elements and Moscow does not keep its existing agreements. – August 8. According to Dean Acheson the Soviet proposal is directed at thwarting the Japanese peace treaty.
Hungary – August 7, 1951 (KCA)
Szabad Nép, the official organ of the Hungarian Workers Party, states that altogether 4,081 members of the former ruling class had been removed from the country, asserting that these people were all considered a danger to public safety and order.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – August 8, 1951 (KCA)
The successful completion of the $69 million American food relief program in Yugoslavia in November 1950 is announced.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – August 13, 1951 (LKT)
Truman informs the Foreign Affairs and Foreign Relations Committees of Congress of his recommendation that $30 million in economic assistance be extended to Yugoslavia, pending approval of the MSA.
Soviet Bloc / U.K. – August 15, 1951 (LBC)
According to the British Department of Commerce the United Kingdom must continue to trade with Eastern Europe.
Yugoslavia / France / U.K. / U.S. – August 15, 1951 (LBC)
The U.S., United Kingdom and France announce that throughout the end of 1951 they will provide a $50 million loan for Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia – August 22, 1951 (KCA)
The Government announces further relaxations in compulsory food deliveries to the State, stating that in 1952 only grain, olive oil, lard and wool will be subject to compulsory purchase, and that in 1953 the compulsory sale of grain and olive oil will likewise be abolished.
Romania / Soviet Union – August 24, 1951 (PIR)
A Romanian – Soviet accord regarding the exchange of goods and technical aid is signed in Moscow.
Soviet Bloc / Yugoslavia – August 24, 1951 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note to the Danube Commission stating that in view of the action of the Committee, it will draw up its own rules for navigation on the Danube which, while keeping with the Danube Convention, will also include all those provisions proposed by Yugoslavia and rejected by the majority of the session.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – August 25, 1951 (PVC)
Tito receives Ernest Davies, Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. During their meeting, the two politicians review the international situation and the main aims of Soviet foreign policy.
Czechoslovakia – August 26, 1951 (KCA)
At the end of a 23-day trial, five German war criminals are sentenced to death after being found guilty of various atrocities committed during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Hungary – August 26, 1951 (HC)
Decree 158/1951 by the Council of Ministers announces that manual workers and underage people will be given more bread in the food stamp program. In addition, bread can be freely traded.
Yugoslavia / France / U.K. / U.S. – August 28, 1951 (KCA)
Washington and Belgrade announce that as a result of the Anglo-U.S.-French discussions on economic aid to Yugoslavia, the three governments have agreed to provide Yugoslavia with $50 million over the next six months.
Hungary – August 31, 1951 (HC)
Statutory rule 1951:26 by the Presidential Council announces that a new system of academic qualifications will be established.
Yugoslavia – August 31, 1951 (PVC)
According to charges in the local press, pilgrims cut out the red star from the Yugoslav flag during a procession at Ptuj, Slovenia. As a result, the Bishop of Ljubljana is brutally beaten and the authorities turn the trial of the perpetrators into an anti-clerical mockery.
Albania / Yugoslavia – September 2, 1951 (PVC)
According to Yugoslav charges, 9 Albanian soldiers enter 200 meters into Yugoslav territory at Zhur, close to Prizren, and open fire at the Yugoslav border guards. Later 60 other Albanian soldiers join the group. The combat lasts for about an hour and one of the soldiers is killed.
Soviet Union / France – September 3, 1951 (KCA)
France and the Soviet Union sign an agreement regulating commercial relations between the two countries and the status of the Soviet trade mission in France, replacing the five year agreement concluded by both countries in 1945. The agreement is subject to ratification by the French Parliament.
Romania / Yugoslavia – September 5, 1951 (PVC)
The Romanian press publishes another note of protest from the Romanian Government. According to Romanian charges, Yugoslav border guards dressed as civilians crossed the border at the village of Cusici and killed a Romanian citizen.
Czechoslovakia – September 7, 1951 (KCA)
An official announcement from Prague states numerous changes agreed upon for the reorganization of the Communist Party.
Czechoslovakia – September 9, 1951 (KCA)
A further official statement is made announcing a major reshuffling of the Czechoslovak Cabinet and the creation of nine new ministries.
Hungary – September 9, 1951 (HC)
Statutory rule 1951:25 by the Presidential Council announces that the University of Chemical Industry will be founded in Veszprém.
Romania / Vatican – September 9, 1951 (PIR)
The case trial against the Vatican Nuncio – involving the Nuncio Patrick O’Hara, archbishop of Savannah – takes place; his situation in the ecclesiastical hierarchy prevented his condemnation and incarceration, hence he was added to the list of expulsed. He invested 2 bishops before leaving the country: Ioan Ploscariu from Lugoj and Ioan Dragomir from Baia Mare.
GDR / U.K. – September 10, 1951 (KCA)
British officials in East Germany publish a report on the development of the East German Para-military “People’s Police” during the last 12 months, emphasizing the present high number of officers, suggesting that existing forces are capable of rapid expansion, and declaring that the Bereitschaften are “clearly being trained as potential operational units instead of simply as police forces to maintain internal security.”
Romania – September 10-14, 1951 (KCA)
Ten Roman Catholic priests and laymen are tried before a military court in Bucharest on charges of espionage and anti-State activities. All of the defendants are said to have confessed.
Yugoslavia / Italy – September 10, 1951 (PVC)
Tito delivers a speech on Yugoslav Navy Day. He congratulates on the rebuilding of the Yugoslav Navy but speaks disapprovingly about the Italian journalists who respond with arrogance to Yugoslav good-will.
Yugoslavia / Hungary – September 11, 1951 (PVC)
Yugoslavia protests the 52 border incidents in its latest note to Hungary.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – September 11, 1951 (PVC)
Vice Chief of Naval Staff of the Admiralty John Edelsten takes a three-day visit to Split on board the Liverpool. During his trip, he even meets Tito. No such visit has taken place since the end of World War II.
Czechoslovakia / FRG – September 13, 1951 (KCA)
It is announced in Bonn that following discussions between the three Western Powers and the German Federal Government, the Allied Control Commission has informed the Czechoslovak Military Mission in Berlin that all Czechoslovak flight privileges in Western Germany are suspended until further notice.
Poland – September 13, 1951 (KCA)
The German battleship Gneisenau is raised by a Polish salvage crew. Its scrap, amounting to 20,000 tons of high quality steel, will be used for agricultural machinery, railway equipment, housing, and factory construction.
Soviet Union / U.K. – September 13, 1951 (KCA)
The United Kingdom and the Soviet Union sign an agreement under which the Soviet Union will supply 1 million tons of grain to the United Kingdom. The British defend their need to trade with the Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries after being criticized for signing the agreement with the Soviet Union.
Poland – September 14, 1951 (PSN)
The Warsaw Regional Military Court announces death sentences for Stanislaw Derkus, Henryk Gosik and Wladyslaw Kwiatkowski.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – September 14, 1951 (PVC)
The Hungarian Government sends a note to Yugoslavia, protesting the latest border incident at Katymár.
Hungary – September 15, 1951 (HC)
Decree 170/1951 by the Council of Ministers announces that a Religion Fund will be established in order to pay for the personal expenses of the employees of the church.
Czechoslovakia – September 16, 1951 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Military Mission protests to the Allied High Commission’s September 13 decision.
Czechoslovakia / Belgium /France – September 17, 1951 (KCA)
It is announced that Czechoslovakian Airlines has suspended its services between Paris and Brussels.
Romania – September 17, 1951 (KCA)
In the trial of Catholic priests four defendants receive the sentence of hard labor for life, one receives a sentence of 18 years’ solitary confinement, while the others receive 10-15 years’ imprisonment.
Romania – September 18, 1951 (PIR)
A resolution of the CC of PMR criticizes the errors in the politics of the socialist transformation of agriculture and stipulates the renunciation of the total collectivization, replacing it with a new form of association: agricultural comradely associations (întovărăşirile agricole). The resolution calls for the strengthening of political work inside the GAC and assimilation of the Soviet model.
Romania / Vatican – September 18, 1951 (KCA)
The Vatican denies the allegations against all of the defendants in the trial of Catholic priests, excommunicating all those in Romania who had in any way persecuted servants of the Roman Catholic Church.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – September 21, 1951 (HWC)
The Supreme Allied Commander in Europe (SACEUR) approves the U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee's earlier recommendation (May 1951) and recommends an agreement with Belgrade that Yugoslavia defend the Ljubljana Gap and block access to the Villach area through the Sava River.
Soviet Bloc / U.S. – September 24, 1951 (LBC)
The U.S. cancels the provisions of the Kem amendment for the NATO member states. (According to the Kem amendment, U.S. aid cannot be granted to states that fail to observe the export ban to the Soviet zone of products on the U.S. positive list). – October 11. According to new legislation passed in the House of Representatives, U.S. military and economic aid cannot be granted to countries that ship strategic materials to the Soviet bloc without US approval.
Yugoslavia – September 25, 1951 (KCA)
In a speech in Serbia, Tito expresses confidence at Yugoslavia’s ability to defend its territory against any Cominform attack, provided it receives sufficient arms and supplies from Western countries.
Hungary – September 27, 1951 (HC)
The Government calls for a second peace loan program.
Hungary – September 29, 1951 (HC)
On the anniversary of the Pákozd battle (September 29, 1848) the monument of the 1948 patriots is unveiled.
Yugoslavia / Trieste – September 29, 1951 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Foreign Minister addresses the National Assembly, indicating that the Yugoslav Government is willing to abandon its claims for the incorporation of the free territory into Yugoslavia, but is not willing to accept the tripartite declaration and is hence seeking a third solution to the Trieste question.
Hungary – September 30, 1951 (HC)
Decree 254510/1951 by the Minister of Nutrition regulates the trade and transportation of potatoes. Potatoes can be freely traded once the state requirements are collected.
Yugoslavia / Ethiopia – October 1951 (RYN)
Joža Vilfan heads the first goodwill mission to Ethiopia. Soon afterwards, the Minister of Industry and the Chief of the General Staff visit Ethiopia.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – October 1951 (LUY)
The United States Chief of Staff, General J. Lawton Collins, arrives in Belgrade to observe for himself the military situation in Yugoslavia.
Soviet Union / U.S. – October 3, 1951 (KCA)
President Truman states that a second atomic bomb has exploded in the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union – October 6, 1951 (KCA)
In an interview with Pravda, Stalin confirms that an atomic bomb test had taken place recently in the Soviet Union, and adds that atomic bombs of various calibers will continue to be tested.
Hungary / US / FRG – October 6, 1951 (REV)
The Hungarian Language Program of Radio Free Europe, headed by Gyula Dessewffy, begins its broadcasts from Munich.
Soviet Union / U.K. – October 7, 1951 (KCA)
The London office of the TASS Agency announces that the Soviet monitoring station at Barnet has been closed down by the British Government without explanation.
Hungary – October 7, 1951 (HC)
The Hungarian Democratic Youth Association publishes the first issue of its periodical, Új Március (New March).
Soviet Union / U.K. – October 7, 1951 (KCA)
A spokesperson of the British Foreign Office states that the British Government sent a note to the Soviet Government requesting the closing down of the Soviet monitoring station, given that a similar prolongation of wartime facilities has not been afforded to the British on Soviet territory.
Poland – October 8, 1951 (PSN)
The Warsaw Regional Military Court sentences five activists of The Polish Peasant Party who were allegedly spies and agents engaged in subversive activities and close collaborators of Mikolajczyk.
Poland – October 9, 1951 (PSN)
A trail of eleven persons including father Andrzej Bronislaw Szepelak, the provincial of the Bernardine order and three other monks opens before the Lublin Regional Military Committee.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – October 11, 1951 (HWC/LUY)
The Executive Board of the IBRD decides to approve a loan to Yugoslavia of $28 million. The decision is publicly announced on October 17, 1951.
Soviet Union / Norway – October 15, 1951 (KCA)
In a note to the Norwegian Government, Moscow accuses Norway of taking part in “large scale measures tending to implement the aims of the Atlantic alliance”.
Soviet Union / U.S. / Korea – October 17, 1951 (KCA)
The U.S. State Department releases the text of a statement made by the American Ambassador in Moscow that emphasized the necessity of improving U.S.-Soviet relations and asked the Soviet Union to use its good offices with the Chinese and North Koreans to bring about a successful conclusion to the Korean armistice discussions. It also releases Vyshinsky’s reply, which, after making several accusations and negative statements against the U.S. involvement in Korea, ultimately agrees to “strive to establish co-operation with all countries ready to co-operate with the Soviet Union”, agreeing to “examine with the participation of the U.S. Government all important and unsettled questions.”
Yugoslavia / U.K. – October 18, 1951 (PVC)
A farewell dinner is organized to honor the British Ambassador Charles Peake who leaves Belgrade for Athens. The most important members of the Yugoslav leadership attend the reception.
Poland – October 22, 1951 (PSN)
A decree is passed declaring identity cards to be the only documents every Polish citizen was obliged to have. Soldiers and those going abroad have to deposit their cards with the proper authorities.
Hungary – October 31, 1951 (HC)
The literary critics department of the Hungarian Writers’ Union discusses the activity of the periodical Csillag (Star).
Yugoslavia / Austria / FRG / Vatican – October 31, 1951 (PVC)
Tito’s press interview covering such subjects as Austria (Carinthia), the Vatican and German re-armament is published. He considers the Atlantic Pact a logical consequence of the aggressive Soviet foreign policy and assures the West that they can count on Yugoslav help in case of aggression. However, he excludes the possibility of a Greek-Turkish-Yugoslav regional pact.
Hungary – November 1951 (HC)
The movie Gyarmat a föld alatt (Colony under the ground) directed by Imre Jeney is first shown.
Soviet Union – November 1951 (KRI)
The Mingrelian Affair, a made up conspiracy about nationalist tendencies in the Mingrelian ethnic group in Georgia, which leads to mass repression, begins.
Romania – November 1951 (PIR)
Mircea Cancicov, former Minister of Finance (1936-1937, 1938), dies in Aiud penitentiary.
Hungary – November 1, 1951 (REV)
The mode of address between soldiers of the People’s Army is altered to ‘comrade’ (elvtárs). The size of the military now exceeds 115,000 men.
Hungary / Soviet Union – November 2, 1951 (HC)
The Council of Ministers approves the suggestion to rename Dunapentele and its newly built ironworks in honor of Stalin (Sztálinváros).
Hungary – November 2, 1951 (HC)
Two-year general certificate courses are started for workers, the first year being an evening school, and the second a full time one.
Hungary – November 3, 1951 (HC)
The Second Hungarian Fine Arts Exhibition opens in the Art Gallery of Budapest.
Soviet Union / Turkey – November 3, 1951 (KCA)
In a note to the Turkish Government, the Soviet Union warns Turkey of adhering to NATO, declaring that such adherence will be regarded by the USSR as an unfriendly act.
Soviet Bloc / U.S. – November 3, 1951 (LBC)
It is revealed that the U.S. passed the Mutual Security Act, which will enable President Truman to assist East European underground movements from a $100 million fund.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. / U.N. – November 6, 1951 (LBC)
The U.S., United Kingdom and France announce a joint disarmament and peace plan. According to the proposal, to be presented in the U.N. on November 8, a special formula would determine how many weapons each nation would need to disarm after having made an inventory of their arms based on weapon types. The arms would be inventoried step-by-step. - November 18. Compromises: the ban on nuclear weapons is an objective; peace in Korea and the settlement of other outstanding East-West disputes is not a precondition of disarmament; the U.N. Security Council will draft the disarmament agreement. – November 28. The U.S., British and French U.N. delegates propose a four-power disarmament plan. The Soviet Foreign Minister Vishinsky labels the plan hypocritical.
Hungary – November 7, 1951 (HC)
The first three plants of the Stalin Ironworks (today Danube Ironworks in Dunaújváros) are opened in Sztálinváros (the Hungarian Stalingrad).
Yugoslavia / U.S. – November 7, 1951 (LKT)
President Truman informs the necessary congressional committees that Yugoslavia meets the requirements of the Mutual Security Act and sends $77.5 million in military aid and additional amounts of economic aid to Tito's Government.
Soviet Union / Yugoslavia / U.N. – November 9, 1951 (PLC)
Yugoslavia complains to the U.N. that the Soviet Union is behaving like an enemy.
Hungary – November 10, 1951 (HC)
Decree 194/1951 by the Council of Ministers announces that a complaint book system will be introduced at the state institutions and factories.
Soviet Union – November 10, 1951 (KCA)
Moscow radio announces that Minister of Foreign Trade Menshikov has been released from his duties and transferred to other work, the nature of which is not disclosed, and will be succeeded by Mr. Kumykin, hitherto his deputy.
Hungary – November 11, 1951 (HC)
Statutory rule 1951:30 by the Presidential Council states that all workers will take part in a single social security and pension-system.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – November 11, 1951 (PVC)
The new British Ambassador to Yugoslavia Ivo Mallet presents his credentials to Yugoslav President Ivan Ribar. Tito received the new Ambassador a day earlier, on November 10, 1951.
Poland / U.S. – November 12, 1951 (LBC)
Truman permits General Motors to sell $216 thousand worth of non-strategic trucks and automobile parts to Poland.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – November 14, 1951 (KCA)
Yugoslavia and the United States sign an agreement under which the latter has agreed to furnish military aid to the former under the Mutual Security Act, whilst Yugoslavia has agreed to facilitate the production and export of raw and semi-finished materials required by the US.
Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – November 14, 1951 (PVC)
The Bulgarian Foreign Office denies the Yugoslav charges about border incidents in its latest note to Yugoslavia, and accuses the Yugoslav authorities of deliberately opening fire at Bulgarian border guards and obstructing railway and road transport between the two countries.
Soviet Union / France / U.S. – November 15, 1951 (LBC)
President Truman rejects a proposal by French President Vincent Auriol for a Pleven-Churchill-Stalin meeting.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. / U.N. – November 16, 1951 (LBC)
Vishinsky’s disarmament proposal: atomic weapons should be “disarmed under strict international control”. The U.S., the USSR, U.K. and France should reduce their armed forces within one year; all nations should reveal the number of their nuclear arms one month after the nuclear weapons are banned; an international committee supervised by the U.N. Security Council should control disarmament and the execution of the ban of nuclear weapons. – December 3. Vishinsky rejects the international supervision of Soviet atomic facilities.
Hungary / US / Soviet Union – November 19, 1951 (HC)
An American military plane enters Hungarian airspace and is forced to land by the Soviet air forces. The Hungarian Government protests in a note to the American Government on December 3. On 11 December the Hungarian Government protests in another note and the American excuse (that it occurred due to navigational error) is not accepted by the Hungarian side.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – November 20, 1951 (PVC)
In his speech at the House of Commons, Foreign Minister Anthony Eden mentions the basic lines of the new government's policy on Yugoslavia.
Romania – November 21, 1951 (PIR)
Ion E. Costinescu, former Minister of Labor, Health and Social Protection (1934-1937, 1938), dies in Sighet penitentiary.
Soviet Union / U.S. – November 21, 1951 (CWC)
The Soviet Union protests the Mutual Security Act passed on October 8, stating that the provision authorizing the $100 million to help refugees from Communist countries violates the 1933 agreement between Roosevelt and Soviet Foreign Minister Litvinov.
Soviet Union / Middle East / U.S. – November 21-22, 1951 (KCA)
The Soviet Government hands notes to Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Yemen, warning them against adhering to the projected Allied Middle East Command, describing it as “an aggressive instrument of its organizers, headed by the United States”.
Yugoslavia / Italy / Trieste – November 21, 1951 (NBT)
Negotiations start between Italy and Yugoslavia on the Trieste problem in Paris during the sixth regular session of the United Nations.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – November 22, 1951 (LKT)
Robert Joyce and other U.S. officials discuss the issue of military assistance with Vladimir Velebit.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 23, 1951 (HC)
The Hungarian Government raises objections in a note to Yugoslavia because of the serial border incidents.
Czechoslovakia – November 24, 1951 (PLC)
Rudolf Slansky, the former General Secretary of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, is arrested.
Soviet Union / FRG – November 24, 1951 (CWC)
The Soviet Union protests the Paris agreements that restore the sovereignty of West Germany in an article in Pravda.
Hungary / Yugoslavia / – November 24, 1951 (PVC)
The British legation in Budapest reports on the latest note of Hungary protesting 111 border incidents caused by the Yugoslavs. According to the note, Hungary considers the Yugoslav steps a systematic effort to undermine the stability of the Hungarian Government.
Hungary / U.S. – December 26, 1951 (LBC)
The U.S. announces that it is willing to pay ransom for the military personnel of the U.S. military plane that was forced to land in Hungary by a Soviet jet in November. Truman announces that there is nothing he can do about the matter. Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Tom Connally demands breaking off diplomatic relations with Hungary. – December 28. The four U.S. flyers are released for a $120 thousand ransom. Acheson announces a ban on the visit of U.S. citizens to Hungary, and the Cleveland and New York Hungarian consulates are closed immediately.
Soviet Union / Yugoslavia / U.N. – November 26-27, 1951 (RYN)
Milovan Djilas, Yugoslav delegate in the ad hoc Political Committee of the U.N. General Assembly, which deals with the anti-Yugoslav campaign of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites, sets forth the basis of the Yugoslav case against the Soviet bloc.
Czechoslovakia – November 27, 1951 (KCA)
Prague radio announces the arrest of prominent Communist party member Rudolf Slansky on charges of “conspiracy against the State,” informing of his resignation from the National Assembly and his dismissal from his former post of Deputy Premier.
Yugoslavia / UK – November 28, 1951 (PVC)
The telegram of Ivo Mallet, British Ambassador to Belgrad, to the Foreign Office about Drew Pearson's interview with Tito, is published in Borba, the official daily paper of the Yugoslav Communist Party. During the interview, Tito promises the settlement of the Stepinac question within a month or two.
Yugoslavia – November 29, 1951 (PVC)
Borba officially announces the release of Josip, Metropolitan of Skopje.
Yugoslavia / U.S. November 29, 1951 (LUY)
U.S. Delegate to the U.N. John Sherman voices political support to Yugoslavia in its case at the ad hoc Political Committee of the U.N. on the Cominform military pressure on Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia – December 1951 (BST)
The Yugoslav Army is renamed as the Yugoslav People's Army.
Hungary – December 1, 1951 (REV)
The Public Works Directorate (KÖMI) is established under the Justice Ministry to organize productive employment for prisoners and internees. Companies using KÖMI labor include mines (Szuhakálló, Ormosbánya, Farkaslyuk, Csolnok, Tatabánya Shaft 14, Komló and Várpalota), state farms (Baracska, Bernátkút and Pálhalma) and construction sites (Miskolc university town, Hejőcsaba Cement Works, Sajóbábony, Inota and Kalocsa).
Hungary – December 2, 1951 (HC)
Decree 1034/1951 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces the abolition of the food stamp system and the introduction of a new price and wage system. Agricultural goods will be allowed to be traded freely. This decree is based on the November 30 declaration of the leaders of the Hungarian Workers’ Party.
Yugoslavia – December 5, 1951 (KCA/PVC)
It is officially announced in Belgrade that Archbishop Stepinac has been released from prison after having served just over 5 years of a 16 year sentence. The archbishop is transferred to his native village, Krašnić, where he is put in charge of the local parish. Technically, he is placed under house arrest.
Yugoslavia / Vatican – December 6, 1951 (KCA)
Stepinac celebrates his first mass in public as an assistant priest, insisting that he is still the legitimate Archbishop of Zagreb and not the ‘former’ Archbishop, as he had been described by the Government. The Vatican organ Osservatore Romano expresses satisfaction at Stepinac’s release, also insisting that he is still the Archbishop.
Czechoslovakia – December 7, 1951 (KCA)
It is announced that two new members have been appointed to the reorganized Presidium of the Communist Party, Vaclav Kopecky, Minister of Information, and Antonin Novotny, a member of the party secretariat.
Soviet Bloc / Yugoslavia / Romania – December 10-19, 1951 (PVC)
The fifth session of the conference of the Danube Commission is under way at Galac, Romania.
Hungary – December 11, 1951 (HC)
Statutory rule 1951:33 by the Presidential Council states that a Committee of Cooperatives will be set up led by István Dobi.
Romania / China – December 12, 1951 (PIR)
The first accord for cultural collaboration between Romania and China is signed in Beijing.
Poland – December 14, 1951 (PSN)
The trial of Witold Pajor, Zygmint Ojrzynski, Stanislaw Nienaltowski and Andrzej Czystowski, who under Nazi occupation worked in the secret Polish investigation office within the State Security Corps, begins.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union / U.N. – December 14, 1951 (RYN)
The U.N. General Assembly recognizes the Yugoslav complaint against the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies, and passes a resolution directed at the Soviet bloc countries which calls on them to conduct their relations with other states in accordance with the provision of the Charter; to follow the usual laws and practices of diplomacy; and to solve all border difficulties through a mixed border commission or some other peaceful means.
Hungary – December 18, 1951 (HC)
The clothes factory in Zalaegerszeg is opened.
Hungary – December 18, 1951 (REV)
In the trial of János Kádár and associates, Sándor Haraszti is sentenced to death, Kádár to life, and Gyula Kállai and Ferenc Donáth to 15 years’ penal servitude (Haraszti is reprieved in January 1954).
Hungary – December 21, 1951 (HC)
The Hungarian Government sends a memorandum to the US Government stating the soldiers on the US airplane caught on November 19, 1951 will be tried in Hungary.
Hungary – December 21, 1951 (REV)
A giant statue of Stalin by Sándor Mikus is inaugurated on the site of the demolished Regnum Marianum Church in Budapest.
Yugoslavia – December 27-29, 1951 (JVJ)
The Yugoslav Parliament approves the first laws aiming to adopt some elements of a market-oriented economy.
Hungary / U.S. – December 28, 1951 (HC)
The American State Department notifies the Hungarian Foreign Ministry that the Hungarian consulates will be closed. The U.S. intends to protest in this manner against Hungarian authorities because they did not allow employees of the American legation of Budapest to visit arrested American soldiers who had violated Hungarian air space on November 19.
Yugoslavia – December 28, 1951 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Minister of Finance announces that, with the approval of the International Monetary Fund, the Yugoslav dinar will be devalued from January 1, 1952. The IMF announces new parities for its value against the U.S. dollar and fine gold.
Yugoslavia / Hungary – December 28, 1951 (PVC)
Borba publishes the latest Yugoslav note of protest to Hungary. According to the text, the Hungarians occupied an island, made recently by the current of the water, in the River Mura.
Yugoslavia / India – December 29, 1951 (PVC)
The British Embassy in Belgrade informs the Foreign Office that Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Joze Vilfan has recently been appointed Yugoslav Ambassador to India. The step signifies the importance of close Yugoslav-Indian relationships for the Yugoslav leadership.
Hungary – December 30, 1951 (HC)
Kis Újság, the newspaper of the Independent Smallholders’ Party is abolished.
Hungary – December 30, 1951 (REV)
The labor-service army supply units are organized into a construction brigade. Three punitive ‘special labor battalions’ are also formed for soldiers convicted of minor crimes, but these also are filled with Category C conscripts. Conscription raises the brigade’s strength to 10,400 men by February 1952.
Romania – December 31, 1951 (PIR)
The collectivization balance sheet: 1,089 GAC’s, made up of 75,379 families and a land surface of 301,690ha.
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2012