The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991
Péter BENCSIK, Péter VUKMAN
Babak ARZANI, Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Ádám BALOGH, Shira BORZAK,
Florian BRINK, Vanessa BUFFRY, David CATALAN, Sonya COWELL, Susan COOPER, Lauren CRYSTAL, Laura CSEKE, Botond CSELLE, Péter DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB,
Kati DEPETRILLO, Emanuele DI BELLO, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA,
Kristyna GABIKOVA, Evelina GELEZINYTE, Laura GOUSHA,Zsófia GÖDE, Brianna GREENWALD, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Ágnes HEVÉR,Neala HICKEY, Jennifer OLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU, Kitti Eszter JAKAB, Dean JOLLY, Victoria JONES, Annastiina KALLIUS, István KASZTA, Tomas KOLAR, Roman KOZIEL,Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Karina LEGRADI, Thomas KOLLMANN, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Cynthia MANCHA, Mike MANTZAVINOS, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Viktor NAGY, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Jennifer OTTERSON, Roland PAPP, Orsolya PÓSFAI, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Linda RICHTER, Martin ROMAIN, Lili SIKLÓS, Bobbie SCHOEMAKER, Anett SZŰCS, Sabine TOPOLANSKY, Dóra VERESS, Aniello VERDE, Zita Bettina VASAS, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, Kristóf ZSIDI
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013
At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The second part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1953 to 1968. The years 1969–1980 will be available by the end of 2014.
The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come.
The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.
List of Sources
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013
East Germany – 1955 (NNT)
Industrial production is doubled and labor productivityis increased by 55% by the end of the first five-year plandemonstrating the acceleration of the nationalization of industry.
Finland / Soviet Union – 1955 (HJH)
The Soviet leaders are exhibiting a change of attitude with respect to the role that neutral Finland could play in Scandinavia.
Poland – 1955 (HDP)
Successful intelligentsia discussion club Crooked Circle Clu is established in Warsaw. The meetings are held in the Warsaw Old City Market until its closing in 1962.
Soviet Union – January 1955 (KRI)
Khrushchev starts his “corn campaign” to increase corn output for use as silage for livestock.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – January 1955 (CUY)
With U.S. encouragement, Yugoslavia formally applies for observer status in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OEEC).
Yugoslavia / Algeria / Saudi Arabia / U.N. – January 1955 (RYN)
The Yugoslav delegation votes in favor of a Saudi Arabian proposal to bring the Algerian problem before the Security Council.
Hungary – January 1, 1955 (HC)
The Magvető, the publishing house of the Hungarian Writers’ Union is founded.
Soviet Union / U.S. – January 1, 1955 (CWC)
In a press conference, Soviet Prime Minister Malenkov states that the Soviet Union wants to cultivate closer relations with the U.S. but that the actions of the latter with regard to Germany make this difficult.
Soviet Union / China – January 1, 1955 (KCA)
The Soviet shares in the former joint Sino-Soviet undertakings are transferred to the Chinese People’s Government, as agreed on October 11, 1954.
Soviet Union / Iraq – January 3, 1955 (KCA)
A Soviet note is presented in Baghdad after the Iraqi decision to suspend diplomatic relations between the two countries.
Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – January 5, 1955 (KCA)
A Soviet-Yugoslav commercial and payments agreement is signed.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – January 5, 1955 (KCA)
An agreement for the sale of U.S. surplus farm commodities to Yugoslavia is signed in Belgrade.
Yugoslavia / Burma – January 6-17, 1955 (RYN)
President Marshall Tito visits Burma.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – January 6-8, 1955 (PVC)
General Cook, Deputy Commander of U.S. Forces in Europe visits Belgrade.
Czechoslovakia / East Germany / Hungary / Yugoslavia / U.S. – January 10, 1955 (LBC)
The U.S. gives food aid to Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany and Yugoslavia, the latter to the value of $32 million.
Soviet Union / China – January 10, 1955 (KCA)
Belgrade announces that diplomatic relations to embassy level will be established between Yugoslavia and the Chinese People’s Republic.
Soviet Union / Belgium / France / Holland / Italy / Luxembourg / U.K. – January 11, 1955 (KCA)
The Soviet Government sends a note to Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Holland and Luxembourg, alleging that the Paris agreements violate the Geneva Protocol of 1925 by permitting the Western European countries to stockpile bacteriological and chemical weapons. The Western Powers answer that the allegations of the Soviet Union are unjustified.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – January 14, 1955 (KCA)
A Yugoslav-Hungarian trade agreement is signed.
Soviet Union – January 14, 1955 (KCA)
The Soviet Government issues a statement claiming that the first industrial electric power station working on atomic energy has gone into operation in the USSR in 1954. Furthermore, the Soviet Union is willing to submit scientific and technical experience findings to the international conference on the peaceful utilization of atomic energy in Geneva in 1955.
Soviet Union / East Germany / West Germany – January 15, 1955 (CWC)
The Soviet Union issues a statement criticizing the Paris agreements restoring sovereignty to West Germany. The Soviet Union states that Germany would remain divided if the agreements were ratified.
Yugoslavia / Burma – January 16, 1955 (RYN)
Tito gives a speech at Rangoon University. He specifically includes references to the common revolutionary heritage and quest for security and independence of the two countries. He also calls attention to the vast changes wrought by decolonization.
Czechoslovakia / East Germany / Poland / Romania / Soviet Union – January 17, 1955 (KCA)
Moscow announces its readiness to give scientific and technical assistance to Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland and Romania in the utilization of atomic energy for peaceful purposes.
Poland – January 17, 1955 (KCA)
The dismissal of three leading officials, Jacek Rozanski, Roman Rokowski and Anatol Feygin, of the Ministry of State Security of Poland is announced in the official newspaper of the Polish Communist Party, Trybuna Ludu.
Yugoslavia / Burma – January 17, 1955 (KCA)
It is announced that President Tito has offered to supply the Burmese infantry brigade with equipment as a gift, and that Burma in return would supply Yugoslavia with rice.
East Germany – January 18, 1955 (NNT)
A law on “The Establishment of the National People’s Army” (Nationale Volksarmee) is passed.
Hungary – January 20, 1955 (HC)
Decree 101/1955 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that a fund for rural development will be established.
Poland – January 21- 24, 1955 (PSN)
A plenary meeting of the Central Committee of the Polish Communist Party looks into “distortions in the functioning of state and the state administration”. It concludes that the security services “interfered in various spheres of state and social life in situations that do not justify such interference”. This action is meant to separate the party from the secret police in public opinion.
Hungary – January 23, 1955 (KCA)
Zoltán Vas is removed from the post of First Secretary to the Council of Ministers and is appointed Deputy Minister for Foreign Trade. He is succeeded by Gergely Szabó.
Soviet Union – January 24, 1955 (KCA)
Anastas Mikoyan resigns from his post as Minister of Trade, and is succeeded by Dimitri Pavlov.
Yugoslavia – January 24, 1955 (KCA)
The trial of Djilas and Dedijer takes place. Both are accused of attempts to damage Yugoslavia’s reputation and create difficulties in its international situation in the hope of bringing about foreign interference in its internal affairs. Both accused admit making the incriminating statements, and both are found guilty of having conducted propaganda hostile to Yugoslavia. Djilas and Dedijer are sentenced to 18 and six months' imprisonment respectively.
Yugoslavia / France – January 24, 1955 (PVC)
Tito accepts an invitation to visit France.
Soviet Union – January 25, 1955 (KCA)
The Soviet Union ends the state of war with Germany.
East Germany / Soviet Union – January 25, 1955 (KGS)
The Soviet Union officially announces the end of war with Germany.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – January 26-February 15, 1955 (PVC)
A party of senior Yugoslav trade unionists visits the U.K..
Hungary – February 1955 (HC)
The Hintón járó szerelem (“Love travels on a chaise”), a film directed by László Ranódy, is first shown.
Poland – February 1955 (PSN)
In the February issue of Nowe Drogi, the theoretical organ of the party, Jerzy Morawski, the newly appointed Secretary General of the party, admits that innocent people had been arrested by the security services.
Yugoslavia / Egypt – February 1955 (RYN)
The first meeting between Presidents Tito and Nasser takes place. The meeting is held on Tito's yacht (Galeb), as it passes through the Suez Canal.
Poland / Germany – February 1, 1955 (KCA)
The Polish Government announces the termination of the state of war with Germany.
Soviet Union – February 3-9, 1955 (KCA)
Marshal Bulganin is appointed as the Prime Minister and Marshal Zhukov as the Defense Minister of the Soviet Union.
Czechoslovakia / Germany – February 3, 1955 (KCA)
Prague radio announces that the Czechoslovak Government has ended the state of war with Germany.
Romania – February 6, 1955 (PIR)
Constantin Argetoianu, former Prime Minister of Romania (1939), dies in the Sighet penitentiary.
Yugoslavia / France / U.K. / U.S. – February 7, 1955 (KCA/LBC)
The diplomatic representatives of Britain, France and the U.S. inform the Yugoslav Government that the countries intend to continue to give economic assistance to Yugoslavia during the current year, a combined sum of $89 million.
Soviet Union – February 8, 1955 (CWC/LBC)
In a speech to the Supreme Soviet, Molotov claims that the Communist states are getting stronger under the leadership of the Soviet Union and China and that the Soviet nuclear arsenal is growing. He states that if the West goes to war it would mean the end of capitalism. Subsequent reactions to the speech include Eisenhower stating that there is hopeful speculation, although no actual evidence, that Russia’s hold on Red China and its European satellites is weakening. Averrill Harriman thinks, “It now appears that the Kremlin [is] into the Stalinist policy of developing heavy industry and armament at the expense of consumer goods”.
Soviet Union – February 8, 1955 (KCA)
The Supreme Soviet of the USSR announces the resignation of Malenkov from the post of Chairman of the Council of Ministers and the appointment of Marshal Bulganin as the Prime Minister.
Soviet Union / Austria – February 8, 1955 (PLC)
At the session of the Supreme Soviet Molotov announces that there is no reason to further postpone the declaration of an Austrian state. Later he adds that there is one condition, that Austria must become neutral.
Hungary – February 10, 1955 (KCA)
The official Communist Party organ Szabad Nep aligns with Soviet Policy in an article declaring the need to strengthen heavy industry and military potential.
Romania / Yugoslavia – February 10, 1955 (PIR)
The accord between Romania and Yugoslavia regarding the establishment of navigation rules in the common sector of the Danube is signed in Belgrade.
Yugoslavia / India / Burma – February 12, 1955 (PVC)
President Tito returns to Belgrade from his tour of India and Burma.
Yugoslavia / Poland – February 12, 1955 (PVC)
Yugoslavia and Poland sign a one-year trade and payments agreement.
Czechoslovakia – February 14, 1955 (KCA)
Siroky, Czechoslovak Prime Minister, announces that heavy industry will be the basis of Czechoslovak industry in the future, and that an extra 500,000 acres of land should be brought under cultivation by 1957. To overcome the rural labor shortage, he also urges the mass recruitment of women for agricultural work.
Romania – February 14-15, 1955 (PIR)
Romanian emigrants, led by sculptor Oliviu Beldeanu, attack the Romanian Legation in Bern in order to liberate political detainees who had been taken hostage.
Bulgaria – February 18, 1955 (KCA)
Bulgarian Prime Minister Chervenkov announces that the country’s agricultural development will be ensured “on the basis of its industrialization”.
Soviet Union / U.S. – February 19, 1955 (LBC)
The Soviet Government announces that it will propose the freezing of the armed forces of each nation based on the level of January 1, 1955, the liquidation of nuclear arms and the convening of a conference on disarmament under U.N auspices. Western powers refuse the proposal because it would impede the rearmament of West Germany and the U.S. would have to surrender its nuclear arsenal, which balances Soviet conventional superiority.
Hungary – February 20, 1955 (HC)
Decree 1023/1955 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that the health care system and the situation of doctors will be improved
Hungary – February 20, 1955 (KCA)
Imre Nagy, the Prime Minister of Hungary, is officially reported to be seriously ill with coronary thrombosis, and is unable to return to work before the end of April.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. / Canada – February 25, 1955 (LBC)
The subcommittee of the U.N. Disarmament Committee begins talks on disarmament and nuclear control in London. Participants: the U.S., France, the U.K., the Soviet Union and Canada.
February – 27, 1955 (KCA)
It is announced that Ferenc Jánosi, the son-in-law of the Hungarian Prime Minister Nagy, has been relieved of his post as Chief Deputy Minister in the Ministry of Popular Culture (the Propaganda Ministry) and has been succeeded by a strong supporter ofMátyás Rákosi, György Hon.
Yugoslavia / Greece / Turkey – February 28-March 2, 1955 (KCA)
The first meeting of the Permanent Council of the Balkan Alliance Treaty is held in Ankara, Turkey.
Romania – March 1955 (RFP)
The first protest marches are intended to force the Soviet leadership to withdraw its troops from Romania. Because the brutality of the response, the Romanians entrench themselves, waiting for a more favorable moment.
Soviet Union – March 1955 (KRI)
Lazar Kaganovitch, a Malenkov ally, loses his post as the head of economic planning.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – March-April 1955 (KCA)
Statements indicating the possibility of a four-power conference on international problems are issued by governmental leaders of Britain, the U.S., Soviet Union and France.
Hungary – March 1955 (HC)
Liliomfi, a film directed by Károly Makk, is first shown.
Bulgaria / Germany – March 1, 1955 (KCA)
The state of war between Bulgaria and Germany ends.
Soviet Union / U.K. – March 1, 1955 (KCA)
Pravda and Izvestia disclose that theBritish atomic scientist Dr. Bruno Pontocorvo, who disappeared in 1950, has since been working for the Soviet Union with “research work in the sphere of using atomic energy for peaceful purposes”.
Soviet Union / U.K. – March 1, 1955 (LBC)
Churchill gives a speech at the House of Commons where he states that the British Government’s decision on developing the H-bomb is the “only sane policy” for the West´s “defense through deterrence”. He also states that the East-West atomic arms race might “lead to a stage…where security will be the sturdy child of power and survival the twin brother of annihilation”.
Yugoslavia / Greece / Turkey – March 3, 1955 (KCA)
An official communiqué of the Balkan pact discloses that the negotiations in Ankara resulted in an agreement to establish a Balkan Consultative Assembly and strengthening the tripartite cooperation between Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey.
Hungary – March 4, 1955 (HC)
Decree 18/1955 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that those farmers who join the cooperative farms will not have to pay income taxes in 1955.
Hungary – March 4, 1955 (KCA)
The Central Committee of Hungarian Workers' Communist Party condemns Prime Minister Imre Nagy for “rightist deviation” in implementing the “new course” economic policy introduced in June 1953. A resolution is passed in which the decisions of 1953 are seen as correct and valid, but “distorted” by the “rightist deviationist, anti-Marxist and opportunistic attitude” of Nagy, especially in belittling the role of heavy industry.
Soviet Union / U.K. – March 4, 1955 (KCA)
Nuclear scientist Dr. Pontecorvo gives a press conference to foreign correspondents, disclosing that he relinquished his British nationality and became a Soviet citizen in 1952.
Albania / U.S. – March 7, 1955 (KCA)
Tirana announces that Albania has rejected a U.S. food offer to alleviate the current food shortage on grounds that it is unacceptable foreign interference in internal affairs.
Romania – March 7, 1955 (PIR)
The MAN Presidium adopts a decree regarding the end of the state of war between Germany and Romania (declared on August 24, 1944).
Yugoslavia / Burma / Egypt / India – May 7, 1955 (RYN)
Tito delivers a speech to the National Assembly in his meetings with leaders of India, Burma and Egypt.
Romania / Germany – March 8, 1955 (KCA)
The state of war between Romania and Germany ends.
Yugoslavia – March 8, 1955 (PVC)
A major foreign policy speech by President Tito is given to the Federal Assembly.
Hungary – March 11, 1955 (KCA)
Addressing a meeting of the Budapest Committee of the Party, Mátyás Rákosiassociates himself with the Central Committee’s condemnation of Nagy.
Soviet Union – March 11, 1955 (KCA)
Moscow Radio announces the appointment of ten new Marshals of the Red Army and Air Force and the promotion of Marshal Zhigarev, chief of the Red Air Force, to the new rank of Chief Marshal.
Albania / Germany – March 14, 1955 (PLC)
Albania declares in a decree that it is no longer at war with Germany.
Soviet Union / U.K. – March 14, 1955 (KCA)
Prime Minister Attlee, Herbert Morrison, and other Labour members speak to the House of Commons, urging the British Government to approach the Governments of the U.S. and USSR to arrange high-level meetings that lessen world tension and prepare for effective world disarmament.
Yugoslavia – March 15, 1955 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Federal Executive Council decides to set up a Federal Nuclear Power Commission to coordinate development of nuclear research for peaceful purposes in Yugoslavia.
Soviet Bloc / U.S. – March 16, 1955 (LBC)
At a press conference President Eisenhower signals that in the case of war the U.S. would not hesitate to use tactical nuclear weapons. According to Eisenhower, the probability of war is now greater than it used to be.
Hungary / Germany – March 18, 1955 (HC)
Decree no. 1955:9 by the Hungarian Presidential Council states that Hungary is no longer at war with Germany.
Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – March 18, 1955 (PVC)
The signing of a one-year Yugoslav-Bulgarian trade agreement in Belgrade takes place.
Hungary – March 19, 1955 (HC)
Mihály Károlyi, the President of the first People’s Republic of Hungary, dies in France.
Soviet Union – March 19, 1955 (KCA)
Moscow announces that the Soviet Navy’s highest rank, Admiral of the Fleet, is to be raised to that of Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union, with no promotions made to the new rank.
Yugoslavia / Greece / Turkey – March 19, 1955 (KCA)
An agreement on postal communications between Greece, Turkey and Yugoslavia is signed, providing for a reduction of postal and telephone tariffs.
Albania / Eastern Europe – March 21, 1955 (KCA)
The Soviet Foreign Ministry announces that an agreement on the principles of a mutual defense treaty is reached between the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Eastern Germany, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania.
Czechoslovakia – March 21, 1955 (KCA)
The economic plan for 1955 states that the planned yields for 1954 have not been met, partly because of bad weather.
Romania / Eastern Europe – March 21, 1955 (KCA)
The Soviet Foreign Ministry announces an agreement on the principles of a mutual defense treaty reached between the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Eastern Germany, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania.
Soviet Union / Poland – March 21, 1955 (KCA)
Moscow announces that Professor Alexandrov, the Minister of Culture, has been dismissed and succeeded by Nilolai M. Mikhailov, Ambassador to Poland.
Soviet Union – March 22, 1955 (KCA)
In the Soviet Union, V. V. Kuznetsov is appointed as a First Deputy Foreign Minister, and MM. V. Semeonov and M. K. Fedorenko as Second Deputy Foreign Ministers.
Soviet Union / U.S. – March 23, 1955 (KCA)
Speaking at a press conference, President Eisenhower supports the idea of exploratory talks between the U.S., Britain, the Soviet Union and France on all questions affecting world peace, excluding Communist China and Germany from the conference, and proposes setting up an agenda in advance. President Eisenhower also emphasizes that the U.S. Government desires to see positive results from a four-power conference.
East Germany – March 25, 1955 (KCA)
The East German Government issues a declaration announcing that it has begun to take “measures to protect the German Democratic Republic” as a result of the ratification of the Paris agreements by the West German Government. It stresses the cancellation of the Paris treaty which is a prerequisite for German unification.
Soviet Union / U.S. – March 26, 1955 (KCA)
Marshal Bulganin, the Soviet Prime Minister, is asked by a Tass correspondent to comment on President Eisenhower’s statement. Bulganin replies in support of such a conference.
Hungary – March 27, 1955 (HC)
The Chairman of the Budapest City Council announces in Népsport that Budapest will apply for the right to organize the 17th Summer Olympics.
East Germany – March 27, 1955 (KGS)
The first SED initiation rites (Jugendweihen) are held in East Berlin.
Soviet Union / U.K. – March 29, 1955 (KCA)
Sir Winston Churchill is asked by a Labour representative whether he would make “fresh proposals for a four-power conference”. Churchill replies that things have taken a “friendly turn”, and expresses his wish for such a conference, but gives no proposal for a date.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – March 29-31, 1955 (PVC/ LKT)
Admiral Cassidy, U.S. Commander-in-Chief of the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Fleet, visits Yugoslavia and holds bilateral talks with Tito and other Yugoslav officials.
Czechoslovakia – March 30, 1955 (KCA)
The Czechoslovakian Government orders price reductions affecting 1,600 items, largely consumer goods.
East Germany / Soviet Union – March 30, 1955 (KCA)
Moscow announces the return of 750 paintings to the Zwinger Museum in Dresden which had been taken by the Red Army to the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union – March 30, 1955 (KCA)
Moscow announces that K. M. Sokolov, Chairman of the State Committee for Building, has been released from his post and succeeded by V. A. Kucerenko, his deputy.
Hungary – March 31, 1955 (HC)
The Borsodi Vegykombinát (chemical industry) is tested.
Yugoslavia / Italy – March 31, 1955 (KCA)
A number of economic and financial agreements between Italy and Yugoslavia are signed in Rome.
Hungary – April 1955 (HC)
Díszelõadás (“Gala performance”), a film directed by Márton Keleti, and Budapesti tavasz (“Spring in Budapest”) by Félix Máriássy are first shown.
Soviet Union / France – April 1955 (KCA)
French Prime Minister Edgar Faure gives an interview to Pravda where he describes Marshal Bulganin’s statement as “an important, positive event”.
Soviet Union – April 1955 (KCA)
Moscow officially announces that a Permanent Commission on Interplanetary Communications has been set up in the Soviet Union by the Astronomical Council of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Hungary – April 1-4, 1955 (HC)
Nationwide celebrations on the 10th anniversary of the country’s liberation take place.
Hungary – April 1, 1955 (HC)
Szabadság, szerelem (“Freedom, love”) by Jenõ Huszka is presented at the Opera House.
Soviet Union – April 2, 1955 (KCA)
A new Ministry of the General Machinery Industry, under Peter Goremykin, is set up by the Soviet Government.
East Germany – April 3, 1955 (KCA)
Neues Deutschland, official organ of the Socialist Unity Party in the German Democratic Republic, announces that East German youths between the ages of 18 and 22 will be called up for two years’ service in the garrisoned People’s Police for “the protection of homeland”.
Soviet Union – April 3, 1955 (KCA)
Moscow announces that a Soviet scientific expedition led by N. A. Volkov of the Soviet Arctic Research Institute has left to set up “Station North Pole 5” on an Arctic ice flow.
Yugoslavia – April 3, 1955 (PVC)
In an interview, Vice-President Aleksandar Ranković states that the basic plans for the utilization of nuclear energy now exists in Yugoslavia.
Poland – April 5, 1955 (PSN)
A law is passed which transfers some of the offenses under the domain of the military courts to civilian courts.
Soviet Union – April 6, 1955 (KCA)
A new Ministry for Construction in the Coalmining Industry, under Melnikov, is created by the Soviet Government.
Hungary – April 14, 1955 (HC)
Session of the leaders of the Hungarian Workers’ Party takes place. Imre Nagy is excluded from the Political Committee and dismissed from all his offices because of his anti-Marxist ideology and anti-party activities. Mihály Farkas, a supporter of Imre Nagy, is also excluded from the Political Committee and dismissed from his offices. István Kovács and József Mekis are elected to be members of the Political Committee. László Piros will be a deputy member.
Soviet Union / Austria – April 15, 1955 (PLC)
The Austrian-Soviet memorandum is signed in Moscow, stating that Austria will become neutral.
Soviet Union / Romania – April 15, 1955 (PIR)
A.A. Gromyko and Marshal G.K. Zhukov visit Romania.
Poland – April 17, 1955 (KCA)
Warsaw announces that Franciszek Jozwiak-Witold has been relieved of his post as Minister of State Control and has been appointed a Deputy Premier, whilst Ramon Zambrowski succeeds him in this post.
Yugoslavia – April 17, 1955 (PVC)
Formation of a commission of the Federal Executive Committee for nuclear energy is established.
Hungary – April 18, 1955 (KCA)
Imre Nagy, the Hungarian Prime Minister, is dismissed from the Premiership by a unanimous vote of the National Assembly, the decision being taken on the joint recommendation of the Government and the party’s central committee on the grounds that Nagy had “not fulfilled his duties altogether satisfactorily”. Nagy is succeeded by András Hegedüs.
Hungary – April 19, 1955 (KCA)
Hungarian Prime Minister András Hegedus outlines to the National Assembly the Government’s Policy, and stresses the development of heavy industry and his support for the socialist sector of agriculture.
Soviet Union / U.S. – April 21, 1955 (KCA)
Washington announces that the Soviet Union has agreed to return 62 small naval vessels to the U.S. which were obtained under Lend-Lease during the Second World War.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – April 21, 1955 (PVC)
In an interview with President Tito, British Ambassador Ivo Mallet mentions, among other things, the possibility of resuming defense talks. Tito says that such talks would not in present circumstances be useful.
Bulgaria – April 22, 1955 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Government orders price reductions for a number of foodstuffs and consumer goods.
Poland – April 22, 1955 (KCA)
The Polish Government issues price reductions for commodities and services.
Romania – April 22, 1955 (PIR)
The Decision of the Council of Ministers number 661: “The Regulations regarding the maintenance and employment of monuments of culture” which stipulates that “the demolition of monuments of culture cannot take place without the previous accord of the Council of Ministers given to the competent organ,” a law flagrantly broken precisely by those who had issued it.
Soviet Union / Austria / U.S. – April 22, 1955 (CWC)
The U.S. accepts a Soviet proposal that the Ambassadors to Austria of the Western powers, meet with the Soviet and Austrian representatives to complete the Austrian treaty.
Finland – April 23, 1955 (PIP)
In an interview with a correspondent from Die Welt, a daily newspaper published in West Germany, Prime Minister Urho Kaleva Kekkonen refers to the development of the policy of neutrality and to the desire of neutrals to remain outside power groups.
Soviet Union / Austria – April 24, 1955 (KCA)
The Soviet Government informs the Austrian Government that as a token of its wish “to contribute to a further strengthening of friendship and cooperation between the Soviet and Austrian peoples”, it would release 613 Austrian prisoners held in the USSR. Furthermore, 74 prisoners would be handed over the Austrian authorities as "war criminals", and another 39 Austrians would be handed over when the Soviet occupation forces would leave Austria.
Yugoslavia – April 24, 1955 (KCA)
The Yugoslav National Assembly elects three new members of the Federal Executive Council, Colonel-General Peko Dapčević (Chief of Staff), Milentije Popović (Chairman of the Assembly’s Economic Committee) and Velimir Stojnić (Secretary of the Assembly).
Yugoslavia / Greece / Turkey – April 24, 1955 (KCA)
The Yugoslav National Assembly ratifies the agreement on creating a Balkan Constituent Assembly.
Czechoslovakia – April 25, 1955 (KCA)
A reorganization of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Slovak Communist Party is announced.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – April 25, 1955 (KCA)
Plans for a Western approach to the Soviet Union for a four-power conference are issued in London, Washington and Paris.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – April 25, 1955 (PVC)
In an interview with the U.S. Ambassador, President Tito repeats his refusal to hold defense talks but suggests that high-power political talks in June might be useful.
East Germany – April 27, 1955 (KCA)
The East German Government Press office announces the formation of a civil air service named the Deutsche Lufthansa.
Soviet Union / France / Germany / U.K. / U.S. – April 27-May 5, 1955 (KCA)
A preparatory conference of British, French, American and German for the upcoming four-power conference is held in London.
Yugoslavia – April 27-28, 2955 (PVC)
First congress of the Yugoslav War Veterans' Federation is held in Ljubljana.
Soviet Union / Austria – April 28, 1955 (KCA)
The Soviet Union relaxes controls on Danubian shipping and on personal travel as well as goods traffic between the Soviet and Western occupation zones of Austria.
Soviet Union / Czechoslovakia / East Germany / Romania / China – May 1, 1955 (KCA)
Moscow Radio announces that agreements on Soviet aid for atomic research with China, Czechoslovakia, East Germany and Romania have been signed.
Soviet Union / U.S. / West Germany – May 1, 1955 (LBC)
Soviet Minister of Defense Zhukov’s speech states that Soviet politics “is aimed at solving controversial international questions by peaceful means,” but West German rearmament “hampers the lessening of international tension”.
East Germany – May 1, 1955 (JWG)
Worker’s Militia (Betriebskampfgruppen) appear for the first time at May Day celebrations under the slogan “Ready for work and the defense of the homeland”.
Hungary – May 3, 1955 (HC)
The State Peace Council presents to the Hungarian Presidential Council the peace memorandum containing 7,146,800 signatures.
Yugoslavia – May 3, 1955 (KCA)
It is announced that President Tito has appointed Lieut.General Ljubo Vučković to succeed Colonel-General Dacevič as Chief of Staff of the Federal Executive Council of Yugoslavia.
Hungary / Soviet Union – May 4, 1955 (KCA)
Budapest announces that the Soviet Government has offered assistance to Hungary in developing atomic research for peaceful purposes, and that the offer has been accepted.
Yugoslavia / Turkey – May 4-9, 1955 (KCA)
A Turkish delegation, headed by Prime Minister Menderes, visits Belgrade for discussions with President Tito, Kardelj (Vice-President of the federal Executive Council) and Popovič (State Secretary for Foreign Affairs).
Soviet Union / Poland – May 5, 1955 (KCA)
Moscow announces that Poland will receive in 1956 a 2,00-kilowatt reactor for nuclear research work.
Yugoslavia – May 5-9, 1955 (PVC)
The third congress of the Yugoslav Trade Unions is held in Sarajevo.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. – May 7, 1955 (KCA)
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union issues two decrees abrogating the treaties of mutual assistance concluded between Britain and the USSR on May 26, 1942, and between France and the USSR on December 10, 1944.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. / West Germany – May 8, 1955 . (LBC)
On the anniversary of Victory in Europe (VE) day, Zhukov states in Pravda that Anglo-American ruling circles are planning nuclear war against the Soviet Union and its allies, and attacks West German rearmament.
Yugoslavia / Turkey – May 8, 1955 (KCA)
A communiqué issued in Belgrade says that in the Yugoslav-Turkish talks “special consideration was given to the development of cooperation” and “stress was laid on the role played by the Balkan alliance”.
Czechoslovakia – May 9, 1955 (KCA)
A far-reaching political amnesty is announced in Prague on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of Czechoslovakia’s liberation from German occupation.
Soviet Union / U.S. / West Germany – May 9, 1955 (LBC)
The Federal Republic of Germany enters NATO. U.S. veterans arrive in Moscow to commemorate their meeting the Red Army at the river Elbe at the end of World War II.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – May 10, 1955 (KCA)
The French, British, and American Ambassadors to Moscow present identical notes to the Soviet Government, inviting it to a “two-stage” conference of heads of Government and Foreign Ministers.
Bulgaria / Eastern Europe – May 11-13, 1955 (KCA)
The Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Eastern Germany, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania hold a three-day conference in Warsaw resulting in signing a 20-year treaty of friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance and the creation of a unified military command except for Eastern Germany. Marshal Ivan Koniew of the Soviet Army is appointed Commander-in-Chief of the joint armed forces.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 12, 1955 (PVC)
Agreement is reached between the U.S. and Yugoslavia on programming of balance of U.S. aid for 1954/55 and delivery of surplus wheat.
Czechoslovakia May 14 ,1955 (DCO)
Viliam Siroky, the prime minister of Czechoslovakia claims, on the occasion of the Conclusion of the Warsaw Treaty, that the Pact is based on principles of peaceful relations and represents the guarentee that Czechoslovakia will not be attacked by any aggressor in the future.
Eastern bloc – May 14, 1955 (CAC/UNW)
Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Poland, Rumania Hungary and the Soviet Union sign an agreement on friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance – the Warsaw Pact.The signatories are joined by China, North Korea and North Vietnam as observers.
Romania / Austria – May 14, 1955 (KCA)
An agreement regulating Danube traffic between Austria and Romania is signed in Bucharest, opening the way for free navigation along the whole lengths of the Danube from the Austro-German border to the Black Sea.
Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – May 14, 1955 (KCA)
It is simultaneously announced in Belgrade and Moscow that the Soviet and Yugoslav Governments have agreed on a meeting of their representatives at the highest level in Belgrade in May in order to improve relations between the two countries. The Soviet delegation, it is announced, will be led by Khrushchev and the Yugoslav mission by Tito.
Yugoslavia / U.K –. May 14, 1955 (PVC)
Agreed minute on trade covering the year April 1955 to March 1956 is signed between the U.K. and Yugoslavia, after talks in Belgrade.
Soviet Union / Austria / France / U.S. – May 15, 1955 (HC)
The foreign ministers of the U.S., the U.K., France and the Soviet Union sign the Austrian state treaty in Vienna. Austria will become an independent, democratic and neutral state as of July 27.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – May 15, 1955 (PVC)
In a speech at Pula, President Tito welcomes the decision of the Soviet leaders to visit Belgrade, but makes it clear that Yugoslavia can only talk to them as an independent country on equal footing, and that the Soviet leaders have accepted talks on this basis.
Yugoslavia / Albania – May 17, 1955 (PVC)
Trade and payment agreements are signed with Albania in Belgrade.
Hungary – May 18, 1955 (HC)
Session of the leaders of the National Council of the Patriotic People’s Front takes place. Pál Szabó, the Chairman, announces that Imre Nagy, Ferenc Jánosi and Iván Boldizsár abdicate from their posts. The new General Secretary will be Ernõ Mihályfi.
Hungary – May 21, 1955 (HC)
The renovated Budapest-Újpest Danube rail bridge is opened.
Yugoslavia – May 21, 1955 (PVC)
President Tito speaks to the First Proletarian Division at Postojna, Slovenia, and stresses the importance of Communist leadership in national life.
Yugoslavia / West Germany – May 23, 1955 (PVC)
A parliamentary delegation from West Germany leaves Yugoslavia after a week's visit.
Yugoslavia / Greece – May 23, 1955 (PVC)
The Greek Chief of Staff arrives for a short formal visit to Yugoslavia.
Soviet Union – May 24, 1955 (KCA)
The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union decrees the of a new Commission to advise the Council of Ministers on questions concerning labor and wages, the task of the Commission being “to strengthen State control over the work of Ministries and Directorates and to improve their work in all questions of labor and wages”.
Hungary – May 25, 1955 (KCA)
The Hungarian National Assembly ratifies the Warsaw Treaty.
Soviet Union – May 25, 1955 (KCA)
Moscow announces that the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet has decided to divide economic planning into two different sectors and to set up a State Commission for Long-Term Economic Planning, Gosplan, and a State Commission for Current Economic Planning, Gosekonkommissia.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – May 26, 1955 (KCA)
The Soviet delegation arrives in Belgrade for a high-level meeting between the Soviet and Yugoslav Governments. The delegation stays until June 3, 1955.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – May 26, 1955 (KCA)
The proposals of three Western powers for a “Big Four” conference of Heads of Government and Foreign Ministers are accepted by the Soviet Government.
Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – May 29-30, 1955 (KCA)
Discussions between Soviet and Yugoslav Governments take place at Marshal Tito’s villa on the Island of Brioni.
Romania – May 30, 1955 (PIR)
MAN ratifies the Warsaw Treaty.
Soviet Union / Bulgaria – June 1955 (KCA)
An agreement on Soviet assistance in establishing atomic energy installations in Bulgaria for peaceful purposes is signed between the USSR and Bulgaria.
Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – June 2, 1955 (KCA)
A joint declaration of the Soviet and Yugoslav governments is issued, saying that the negotiations had taken place “in a spirit of friendship and mutual understanding”. The two governments agree on mutual respect and non-interference in internal affairs, development of mutual and international economic cooperation, taking all necessary measures for the normalization of Soviet-Yugoslav relations.
Soviet Bloc / U.S. – June 5, 1955 (LBC).
The Warsaw Pact enters into force. According to U.S. Secretary of State Dulles, Moscow may use the Warsaw Pact for a new type of occupation of its satellites.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – June 6, 1955 (KCA)
The western Powers present notes in Moscow proposing that the four-Power conference should be held in Geneva from July 18 to July 21, 1955, and stating that the Swiss Government has agreed to hold the conference.
Yugoslavia / Burma – June 6-16, 1955 (PVC)
Prime Minister U Nu from Burma pays a visit to Yugoslavia. A joint declaration is issued on June 16.
Hungary – June 7-8, 1955 (HC)
Session of the leaders of the Hungarian Workers’ Party takes place. The amnesty for some political prisoners is discussed.
Soviet Union / West Germany – June 7, 1955 (KCA)
The Soviet Government presents a note to the Federal German Government inviting Chancellor Adenauer to visit Moscow and proposing the normalization of relations between the USSR and the Federal Republic.
Yugoslavia – June 9, 1955 (PVC)
A Yugoslav delegate attends the meeting of the OEEC Council in Paris for the first time as an observer.
Hungary / Austria / Romania / Soviet Union / U.S. – June 10, 1955 (LBC)
US Secretary of State John F. Dulles states in the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that the US seriously considers requesting the USSR to withdraw its forces from Romania and Hungary when the Austrian occupation ends.
Yugoslavia / Finland – June 10, 1955 (PVC)
Yugoslav-Finnish trade agreement is agreed upon.
Soviet Union / Western Europe – June 13, 1955 (KCA)
The Soviet Government agrees that the “summit” talks should take place in Geneva in July.
Soviet Union / U.S. – June 17, 1955 (KCA)
Washington announces that the U.S. Government has withdrawn three Assistant Military Attachés from their Embassy in Moscow in accordance with the request from the Soviet Government.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – June 17, 1955 (PVC)
The direct Belgrade-London air service opens .
Soviet Union / U.S. – June 22, 1955 (LBC)
Two Soviet fighters open fire on the U.S. Neptune type aircraft which was on patrol over the Bering-straits. According to the U.S., the plane was making a routine flight over international waters in the Bering-strait area. The plane was forced to make a crash landing and three out of the four-member crew were injured. The White House issues the announcement on June 24. President Eisenhower instructs Secretary of State Dulles to discuss the issue with Molotov who is in San Francisco on the U.N anniversary. On June 25 Molotov presents a note to the U.S. Government in which the Soviet Government expresses its sorrow over the incident and its willingness to pay 50% of the damages. Dulles expresses his satisfaction over the Soviet Government’s statement, although the Soviet offer is less than requested amount in light of the information it received. According to the Secretary of State, this is the first time the Soviet Union publicly expressed its sorrow at the action of its own armed forces.
Poland / India – June 23–27, 1955 (PSM)
Prime Minister of India Jawaharlala Nehru visits Poland. In joint declaration issued on June 25 Poland states that it accepts and supports the Pancza Szila as the basis of peaceful coexistence of nations. A year later, on June 10 – 15, 1956 Vice-Prime Minister of India Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan visits Poland. In this period many protocols and agreements are signed, among them a trade agreement (April 3, 1956) and a cultural agreement (on March 27, 1957).
Romania – June 23, 1955 (PIR)
The Decision of the Council of Ministers no. 1160, defining the statues of historical monuments as goods “of archeological, historical, architectonical or artistic importance, representing material evidence of the development of culture on the territory of our country” is decided upon. The decision however, does not impede the demolition of statues, buildings and even churches of historical value .
Soviet Union / U.S. – June 23, 1955 (KCA)
A Soviet aircraft opens fire on a U.S. navy plane over the Bering Straits, crashing on St. Lawrence Island in the U.S. territory.
Yugoslavia / France / U.K. / France – June 24-27, 1955 (KCA)
A meeting takes place between Prica, Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs in the Yugoslav Government, and the Ambassadors in Belgrade of the U.K., the U.S. and France, dealing with the international situation and “questions of direct mutual concern”.
Yugoslavia / Sweden – June 25, 1955 (PVC)
Yugoslavia signs a one-year trade agreement with Sweden.
Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia / Hungary – June 28, 1955 (KTS)
Tito delivers a speech at Karlovac sharply criticizing the Czechoslovak and Hungarian leadership, without explicitly mentioning Mátyás Rákosi, hindering the possibility of the normalization of bilateral relations with Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – June 28, 1955 (PVC)
It is announced that President Tito has accepted an invitation to visit the Soviet Union .
Yugoslavia / Greece – June 28, 1955 (PVC)
Yugoslav Instrument of Ratification for the establishment of a Balkan Consultative Assembly is deposited with the Greek Government.
Soviet Union / U.S. – June 29, 1955 (LBC)
At a press conference US President Dwight Eisenhower declares that “there can be no real peace in the world,” as long as the peoples of the satellite states cannot choose their own form of government.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – June 29-July 20, 1955 (PVC)
A delegation of Yugoslav mayors visits the U.K..
Czechoslovakia – June 30, 1955 (KCA)
The Central Committee adopts resolutions calling for increased food production, mainly by creating new collective farms.
East Germany – June 30, 1955 (KCA)
The Tägliche Rundschau, organ of the Soviet High Commission in Eastern Germany since 1945, ceases publication.
Soviet Union – June 30, 1955 (KCA)
The Supreme Soviet of the USSR decides to join the Inter-Parliamentary Union and to form a “national parliamentary group” for this purpose, headed by Dimitri Shepiloc, chairman of the Foreign Affairs Commission and the editor of Pravda.
Yugoslavia / India – June 30-July 7, 1955 (PVC)
Indian Prime Minister Nehru visits Yugoslavia. A joint declaration is issued on July 7.
Poland – July 1955 (KCA)
The Palace of Science and Culture is opened in Warsaw.
Soviet Union – July 1955 (KRI)
Foreign Minister Molotov is forced to admit mistakes on his resistance concerning the restoration of relations with Yugoslavia and the Austrian state treaty.
Soviet Union / Burma – July 1, 1955 (KCA)
A three-year trade agreement between the Soviet Union and Burma is signed in Rangoon.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – July 1, 1955 (PVC)
The head of the Yugoslav air force, General Ulepić, leaves Belgrade to spend ten days in Moscow at the invitation of the Soviet Minister of Defense after earlier visits to Paris and The Hague.
Albania / Greece – July 2, 1955 (KCA)
The Albanian News Agency announces that Albania has asked the U.N. Secretary-General, Dr. Hammarskjöld, to convey to the Greek Government, Albania’s desire to establish “normal diplomatic and good neighborly relations” with Greece.
Poland – July 4- 6, 1955 (PSN)
Trial of former Minister of Food Distribution Wladyslaw Lechowicz begins, despite the steps taken against such show trials.
Romania – July 5, 1955 (PIR)
A portion of the former dignitaries, arrested on May 5-6 1950 and imprisoned at Sighet as political detainees, are set free.
Soviet Union / China – July 5, 1955 (KCA)
Beijing radio announces that the Chinese People’s Republic and the Soviet Union have signed an agreement for the exchange of scientific and technical information.
Czechoslovakia – July 6, 1955 (KCA)
Changes take place in the Slovak board of Commissioners.
East Germany / Poland – July 6, 1955 (KCA)
An East German-Polish joint statement declares that the frontier between Poland and Germany has been “definitely and irrevocably” fixed on the rivers Oder and Neisse.
Albania / Italy – July 7, 1955 (KCA)
Rome announces that the negotiations between Italian and Albanian Governments for the settlement of Italian reparation payments to Albania have been concluded, and that the total payment has been reduced to $2.6 million from $5 million.
Soviet Union / U.S. – July 7, 1955 (KCA)
Washington announces U.S. Government acceptance of the Soviet offer to pay half of the damage sustained by the crashed US aircraft on June 23, 1955.
Soviet Union / U.S. – July 7, 1955 (LBC)
Some details of Dulles’ secret speech come to light. According to the politician, “the Soviets are overextended;…now they are seeking…new policies which will grant them some respite against strains which they have been under in trying to…keep up the pace which has been set by the free world”.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – July 7, 1955 (PVC)
In his speech at Strasbourg, British Foreign Secretary Macmillan welcomes the possibility of Yugoslav association with the Council of Europe.
Hungary – July 8, 1955 (HC)
Decree 38/1955 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that the state purchase of bread grain will be regulated. The producers are required to give all their surplus production to the state. The free trade right will be given only to those villages which completed every state requirement.
Soviet Union – July 8, 1955 (KCA)
The Soviet representative to the U.N Economic and Social Council in Geneva announces that the USSR intends to rejoin the World Health Organization, and will make its first contribution to UNICEF amounting to 2 million rubles ($500.000).
Czechoslovakia / U.K. – July 9, 1955 (KCA)
Mrs. Phyllis Sispera, the British-born wife of a Czechoslovak pilot, is allowed to leave Czechoslovakia with her three children after a number of appeals have been made on her behalf by the British Government.
Romania – July 10, 1955 (PIR)
The Committee for nuclear energy is founded as an annex to the government.
Yugoslavia – July 10, 1955 (KCA)
The Vice-President of the Federal Executive Council of Yugoslavia announces that the Yugoslav Government has decided to increase the price of grain as an incentive to the peasants to grow and sell more grains to the State. It would also end the subsidies for lard and oil, introduce higher retail prices for bread, fats and tobacco, increase passenger transport fares and finally increase wages, pensions, invalid benefits and children’s allowances.
Romania – July 12, 1955 (PIR)
Romania is initiated into the U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
Soviet Union – July 12, 1955 (KCA)
Tass Agency announces that the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party has appointed two new members to its Presidium, Alexei Kirichenko, First Secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party, and Mikhail Suslov, Secretary of the Central Committee.
Yugoslavia /U.K. – July 15, 1955 (KCA)
Four British destroyers, two submarines and a frigate arrive at Split to take part in the first combined exercises to be held with Yugoslav naval squadron.
Hungary – July 16, 1955 (KCA)
Budapest announces that the Hungarian Government has agreed to “interrupt” the life sentence of Cardinal József Mindszenty, Primate of Hungary, on grounds of ill health in response to a request by the Hungarian bench of bishops.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – July 16-August 6, 1955 (PVC)
A group of Yugoslav journalists visits the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union / U.S. – July 16, 1955 (LBC)
A 12 member Soviet agricultural delegation arrives in the U.S. According to the opinion of the Soviet delegation, the American agricultural methods are more economical than Soviet methods, but they are not more efficient.
Hungary – July 17, 1955 (HC)
The media announces that the Minister of Justice allowed the prison sentence of József Mindszenthy, Archbishop of Esztergom, to be reduced.
Germany / Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. / West Germany – July 18-23, 1955 (LBC)
A summit of the great powers takes place in Geneva. The agenda of the conference is German reunification, European security, arms reduction and East-West relations. In his opening speech President Eisenhower criticizes “artificial barriers such as new interfere” with East-West communication. He brought up “the right of peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live and of restoring sovereign rights and self-government to those who have been deprived of them”. “The American people feel strongly that certain peoples of Eastern Europe…have not yet been given the benefit of this pledge of our wartime declaration, reinforced by other wartime agreements.” French Prime Minister Faure states that the key for international harmony is the solution of the German question. Soviet Prime Minister Bulganin states that a debate over the East European governments would “move us towards interference in the internal affairs of these states”. German unity must be preceded by the establishment of an all-European security system, since “the remilitarization of the FRG and her integration into military groupings of the Western powers is the main obstacle” to German reunification.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – July 18, 1955 (PVC)
Combined exercises of British and Yugoslav navies begin off the shores of Split.
Hungary – July 19, 1955 (HC)
Decree 1065/1955 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces details regarding the maternity leave of members of cooperative farms. The maternity support is 400 Forints after the first child and 300 Forints for further children.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – July 20, 1955 (KCA)
In the Geneva Conference, the Heads of Government agree that the Foreign Ministers should draft directives for further study of the questions of European Security and the reunification of Germany, as well as the following: The unification of Germany, with regard to the security of all concerned; A security pact for Europe or a part of Europe; The limitation and inspection of forces and armaments in Germany and bordering countries;
The possibility of creating a demilitarized area.
Hungary / Soviet Union / U.S. – July 21, 1955 (LBC)
President Eisenhower’s disarmament plan is as follows: the U.S. and the Soviet Union should exchange the full description of military installations found in the two states. As the next step the possibility of supervision by way of aerial photographs must be ensured. Yet on August 14, 1955, according to Budapest radio, 15 people are tried for espionage on behalf of the U.S. The sentences range from ten years in jail to death sentence.
Poland – July 21, 1955 (PSN)
The Soviet Government hands over the Palace of Science and Culture to Poland
Soviet Union / U.S. – July 21, 1955 (CWC)
Eisenhower makes his “Open Skies Proposal” to the Soviet Union, calling for an exchange of military blueprints and for the two nations to freely and legally launch reconnaissance flights.
Soviet Union / U.S. – July 21, 1955 (CWC)
Premier Bulganin suggests that the NATO and WTO states sign a mutual non-aggression agreement until a more permanent European security agreement can be reached.
Yugoslavia / U.K. / U.S. – July 21, 1955 (PVC)
Pro-Memoria, suggesting bilateral negotiations for scheduling the repayment of Yugoslavia's post-war debts, is delivered to the French, British and American embassies in Belgrade.
Soviet Union / U.S. – July 22, 1955 (LBC)
The U.S. President on the normalization of East-West relations states that lowering barriers to “the interchange of information and ideas between our peoples,” lowering the barriers “which now impede the opportunities for people to travel anywhere…for peaceful, friendly purposes, so that they all will…know each other face-to-face,” creation of conditions “to increase the exchange of peaceful goods throughout the world” is urged.
Poland – July 23, 1955 (PSN)
Prime Minister Bierut receives a delegation of expatriate Poles and declares that “we do not remember, nor want to remember, faults and transgressions. Everyone who sincerely wants to return to their motherland may do so in peace”.
Soviet Union / Western Powers – July 23, 1955 (KCA)
The four-Power conference in Geneva ends with an agreement to a meeting between foreign ministers in Geneva in October 1955.
Soviet Union – July 24, 1955 (KCA)
Moscow announces that the Ministry of the Automobile, Tractor and Agricultural Machine-Building Industry will be divided into two separate Ministries, one for the Automobile Industry under Strepin and another for the tractor and agricultural machine-building industry under Khlamov.
East Germany / Soviet Union – July 24-26 (KCA)
Marshal Bulganin and Khrushchev visit East Berlin for discussions with East German Prime Minister Grotewohl. A joint statement declares that the Soviet Government has informed the East German Government about the Geneva discussions with special reference to the German question.
Czechoslovakia / Burma – July 25, 1955 (KCA)
It is announced that the Burmese and Czechoslovak governments have decided to establish full diplomatic relations.
East Germany / Soviet Union – July 26, 1955 (HWD)
The Soviet leaders Nikita Khrushchev and Nikolai Bulganin unveil the “Two-State Theory” in East Berlin. They declare that the Soviet Union should agree a reunification of Germany only if the “socialist achievements” of the GDR are preserved.
Bulgaria / Israel – July 27, 1955 (KCA)
Bulgarian fighters near the Greco-Bulgarian frontier shoot down a constellation airliner of Israel Airlines, killing all 51 passengers.
Yugoslavia – July 27, 1955 (PVC)
President Tito makes an important speech at Karlovac. It is notable for its carping tone and sour remarks about aid from Western countries.
Yugoslavia / France – July 27, 1955 (PVC)
France and Yugoslavia agree upon an economic co-operation in Paris.
Bulgaria / Israel – July 28, 1955 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Government issues a communiqué on the Israeli plane shot down by Bulgarian fighters, saying that the airliner had “departed from its route and entered Bulgarian airspace without warning”, and that a ministerial committee of investigation has been set up under Foreign Minister Neichev. The Israeli Government sends two strong notes to Bulgaria denouncing the shooting as “shocking recklessness” and demanding a punishment for those responsible and compensation for the families of the victims.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – July 28, 1955 (KCA)
President Tito of Yugoslavia makes a speech at the celebration of the tenth anniversary of Yugoslavia’s liberation from German occupation. In his speech he announces that the Soviet Union has cancelled the Yugoslav debt of over $90 million, criticizes West Germany’s attitude in negotiations with Yugoslavia, and contrasts the new attitude of the Soviet Union towards Yugoslavia with that adopted by some “satellite” countries.
Yugoslavia / Cominform – July 28, 1955 (PVC)
An article in Komunist by Velko Vlahović calls, among other things, for the disbanding of the Cominform.
Bulgaria / Israel – July 29, 1955 (KCA)
In a note to the Israeli Government, the Bulgarian Government reiterates its regret in shooting down an Israeli aircraft and expresses its willingness to accept responsibility “for part of the material damage caused”.
Hungary – July 29, 1955 (HC)
The Borsod Thermal Power Station is opened.
Soviet Union / U.S. – July 29, 1955 (LBC)
The White House announces that the U.S. is planning to launch small satellites around the earth in the framework of the International Geophysical Year. The results of the research will be placed at the disposal of all scientists, (including Soviet) around the world since the plan has civilian and not military objectives. The move prompts criticism from Republican and Democrats alike, both citing the security risks involved.
Bulgaria / Israel – July 30, 1955 (KCA)
Three Israeli civil aviation experts are allowed to enter Bulgaria to inspect the wreckage of the Israeli plane that was shot down by Bulgarian fighters on July 27, 1955.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – July 30, 1955 (PVC)
The joint British-Yugoslav naval exercise is concluded.
Austria / Soviet Union – July 31, 1955 (KCA)
The Soviet Defense Minister, Marshal Zhukov, announces that all Soviet occupation troops will be withdrawn from Austria by October 1, 1955.
Bulgaria / Israel / U.K. – August 1, 1955 (KCA)
Israeli civil aviation experts publish their report on the shot down Israeli aircraft, stating that the plane was riddled by machine-gun bullets, that the Bulgarian authorities had tampered with the wreckage in an obvious attempt to remove incriminating evidence, and that the investigators were allowed to stay in Bulgaria only for six hours. The British Government sends a note to Bulgaria condemning the incident.
Romania – August 1955 (RUR)
Khrushchev visits Romania. Khruschev disagrees with Gheorghiu-Dej in the question of collective leadership. Khruschev insists on a division of function between the party and the state.
Romania – August 1, 1955 (PIR)
The Ministry of Collecting (Ministerul Colectărilor), responsible for collecting quotas from peasants, is founded.
Soviet Union – August 1, 1955 (KCA)
Pravda announces that Kazakov, Minister for Heavy Mechanical Industries, has been relieved of his duties and replaced by Constantine Petukhov.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – August 1-23, 1955 (PVC)
A Yugoslav parliamentary delegation led by Vladimir Bakarić visits the Soviet Union.
Albania / Greece – August 3, 1955 (KCA)
The Greek Government informs the U.N. Secretariat that under certain conditions, it is ready to resume normal diplomatic relations with Albania, as proposed on June 30.
Bulgaria – August 3, 1955 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Government issues a statement admitting that the Israeli airliner was shot down by two Bulgarian fighters. The Government pledges to “discover and punish those responsible for the catastrophe” and pay compensation to the families of the victims.
Soviet Union / West Germany – August 3, 1955 (KCA)
A Soviet note welcomes the German Federal Government’s willingness to discuss the establishment of diplomatic, trade, and cultural relations between the USSR and the Federal Republic.
Soviet Union – August 4, 1955 (KCA)
Marshal Bulganin gives a report on the Geneva conference of Heads of Government to the Supreme Soviet. He states that the conference took place in an atmosphere of cooperation and mutual understanding among the Four Powers, all of whom showed the desire to end “the cold war”, and that the conference marked a turning point in the relations between the Soviet Union and the West. The Supreme Soviet unanimously adopts a resolution approving the work of the Soviet delegation at the Geneva conference.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – August 6-27, 1955 (PVC)
Edith Summerskill and John Cooper of the Trade Unions’ Congress Executive Commission visit Yugoslavia on invitation of the Socialist Alliance.
Hungary – August 7, 1955 (HC)
Decree 1070/1955 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that a State Technical Development Committee will be established.
Romania – August 8-21, 1955 (PIR)
Romania participates in the first International Geneva Conference regarding the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes.
Romania / Syria – August 9, 1955 (PIR)
Romania and Syria establish diplomatic relations at the level of legation.
Bulgaria / U.S. – August 11, 1955 (LBC)
In a note Bulgaria expresses its sorrow to the U.S. concerning the 12 American victims of an Israeli civilian airliner shot down by Bulgaria.
Hungary – August 11, 1955 (HC)
The first ocean liner made in Hungary after the war is launched.
Romania – August 12, 1955 (KCA)
Romanian Prime Minister Gheorghiu-Dej, announces that Soviet troops will continue to be stationed in Romania after the withdrawal of the Soviet occupation forces from Austria.
Soviet Union / West Germany – August 12, 1955 (KCA)
The German reply to the Soviet note of August 3, 1955, suggests that Soviet-German talks should begin in Moscow on September 9, 1955, accepting the agenda suggested by the Soviet Government, to discuss the question of German Unity and the release of those Germans still held in the USSR.
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 12, 1955 (LBC)
The USSR announces that until December 15 it will reduce its armed forces by 640 thousand. According to Dulles it is hard to evaluate the military significance of the announcement when lacking information on the size of the Soviet armed forces. However the Soviet army will still remain larger than the U.S. armed forces
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 14, 1955 (LBC)
According to presidential disarmament advisor Harold Stassen, the U.S. is unable to work out an efficient method to identify and control nuclear arms, but is willing to combine Soviet proposals for ground control with the Eisenhower plan.
Bulgaria / Greece – August 16, 1955 (KCA)
An agreement to avoid incidents between Bulgaria and Greece is signed by the joint border commission of representatives of the two countries.
Poland – August 19, 1955 (PSN)
The weekly Nowa Kultura publishes Adam Wazyk's A Poem For Adults. The Poem is considered to be too critical by the authorities, and the editor of the publication is fired.
Soviet Union / West Germany – August 19, 1955 (KCA)
In a further note the Soviet Government agrees that the Moscow talks between the USSR and West Germany shall begin in Moscow on September 9, 1955, but makes no specific mention of the German prisoners of war.
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 19, 1955 (LBC)
The USSR announces the release of three U.S. political prisoners.
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 20, 1955 (LBC)
A three member Baptist delegation to the USSR returns to the U.S..
Romania / Soviet Union – August 22, 1955 (PIR)
Khrushchev delivers a speech in Bucharest on the occasion of the 11th anniversary of the “liberation” of Romania “with the support of the USSR”.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – August 23-September 1, 1955 (KCA)
A meeting takes place in Moscow between a Yugoslav delegation headed by Svetozar Vukmanović and a Soviet delegation led by Mikoyan, dealing with commercial exchanges and economic cooperation between the two countries. It is agreed that: Soviet-Yugoslav trade exchanges during the next three years will amount mutually to $70 million; an agreement will be signed as soon as possible on technical cooperation and the exchange of technical knowledge; Soviet credit and loans will be administered to Yugoslavia .
Czechoslovakia – August 24, 1955 (KCA)
Prague Radio announces that the Czechoslovak armed forces will be reduced by 34,000 men by the end of 1955 as a result of “certain lessening of international tension”.
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 24, 1955 (LBC)
In a speech delivered in Philadelphia, the President points out that oppression of the captive people due to security reasons is no longer justifiable.
Romania / Greece – August 25, 1955 (PIR)
Romania and Greece sign an economic accord and a declaration regarding the resumption of diplomatic relations in Athens.
Hungary – August 29, 1955 (KCA)
The Hungarian Government issues a decree setting up a new Ministry of State Supervision, appointing Árpád Házi as Minister of State Supervision. It is stated that the new Ministry will supervise the implementation of the Second Five-Year Plan and deal with infringements of the law and with mistakes and deficiencies in carrying out the Government’s economic policy.
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 29, 1955 (LBC)
A five-power disarmament conference begins in New York in the framework of the U.N Disarmament Committee. The U.S. urges the acceptance of Eisenhower’s plan for the exchange of information, which would be based on aerial reconnaissance. The Soviet representative cites the lack of confidence as the main obstacle to disarmament.
Czechoslovakia / Austria – August 30, 1955 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak National Assembly unanimously approves the accession of Czechoslovakia to the Austrian State Treaty.
Romania – August 30, 1955 (KCA)
The Romanian Government announces that the strength of Romanian armed forces will be reduced by 40 thousand men by December 1, 1955, due to the recent easing of international tension.
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 30, 1955 (LBC)
The Soviet Union seeks large exchange of tourists with the U.S. if the financial arrangements can be agreed upon by both sides. According to Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Valerian Zorin, the Soviet Union wants to open tourist offices in the U.S..
Albania / Czechoslovakia / Hungary / Poland / Romania / Soviet Union – August 30-September 7, 1955 (LBC)
Poland, Hungary, Romania and Albania announce arms reductions. The Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia had done the same at an earlier date.
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 31, 1955 (LBC)
Soviet Deputy Prime Minister Kaganovich and Deputy Minister Malenkov claim that the Soviet Union is ready to give information on the USSR’s strategic mineral reserves. The pledge is made to Senator Malone.
Soviet Union / China / U.S. – August 31, 1955
The Soviet disarmament plan is announced. The U.S., China and the Soviet Union should reduce their armed forces to 1.5 million troops each; nuclear weapons should be banned after 75% of the troops reduction has been carried out; a full ban and liquidation of nuclear arms after the remaining 25% reduction is carried out. In the meantime the West may use nuclear arms only in cases deemed aggressive by the U.N. Security Council. There should be an immediate ban on nuclear tests.
Hungary – September, 1955 (HC)
Gázolás (“Crush”), a film directed by Viktor Gertler, is first shown.
Yugoslavia – September 1955 (KCA)
Belgrade and Cairo announce that the Yugoslav and Egyptian Governments have decided to raise their respective Legations to Embassies.
Hungary / U.S. – September 1, 1955 (LBC)
The U.S. Government orders Hungary to end all propaganda activities in the U.S. in retaliation for restrictions on American activities in Budapest.
Yugoslavia – September 1, 1955 (PVC)
The new law on communes enters into force.
Hungary – September 2, 1955 (HC)
The leaders of the Hungarian Workers’ Party choose Béla Szabadi to be secretary. Replacing him at his previous position, as of September 8, Józsefné Nagy will be the Minister of Light Industry.
Yugoslavia – September 2, 1955 (PVC)
Opening of the Zagreb fair takes place.
Albania – September 3, 1955 (KCA)
The Albanian Government announces the reduction of Albanian armed forces by 9,000 men.
Poland – September 3, 1955 (KCA)
The Polish Government announces the reduction of Polish armed forces by 47,000 men.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – September 3, 1955 (KCA)
An agreement is signed between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union on reestablishing air services between the two countries.
Poland – September 4, 1955 (PSN)
The September 4 issue of Po prostu, until that time a weekly publication for students, appears with a new subtitle, “A Weekly for Students and Young Professionals”. The editorial states that they are a group of dissatisfied people who want more, who want wisdom.
Soviet Union / U.S. – September 5, 1955 (LBC)
Senator Malone declares in Moscow that he found no proof that the people are rebelling against the Soviet system and thus it is propaganda spread by American organizations in order to increase dissatisfaction and to incite resistance.
Bulgaria – September 6, 1955 (KCA)
The Georgi Dimitov hydroelectric scheme in the Kazanluk plain between the Balkan and Sredna Gora mountain ranges is officially opened.
Hungary – September 6, 1955 (HC)
The Pest county committe of the Hungarian Workers’ Party chooses János Kádár to be the First Secretary of the County Political Committee.
Hungary – September 7, 1955 (KCA)
The Hungarian Government announces the reduction of the Hungarian armed force by 20,000 men.
Poland – September 8, 1955 (PSN)
Hugon Hanke, the recently appointed Prime Minister of the Polish émigré Government returns to Poland.
Yugoslavia / Greece – September 8-14, 1955 (KCA)
King Paul and Queen Frederika of Greece pay an official visit to Yugoslavia at the invitation of President Tito.
Soviet Union / West Germany – September 9-13, 1955 (KCA)
A meeting between the Chancellor of the German Republic Adenauer, and the Prime Minister of the USSR Marshal Bulganin, is held in Moscow, resulting in an agreement on the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries. Marshal Bulganin also declares that the Soviet Government would return nearly 10,000 prisoners to Germany, who committed war crimes on Russian territory during the Second World War.
Poland – September 10, 1955 (KCA)
Warsaw Radio broadcasts a statement by Hanke in which he explains his reasons for returning to Poland, criticizing the émigré Government in London, and appeals to all Polish émigrés to return to Poland.
Poland – September 12, 1955 (KCA)
The Polish Council of National Unity in London issues a statement describing Hanke’s return to Poland as an “act of treachery and stupidity” and calling upon Polish émigrés to resist Communist appeals to return to Poland.
Soviet Union / U.S. – September 12, 1955 (LBC)
Soviet Prime Minister Bulganin and First Secretary Khrushchev inform five U.S. Senators that the Soviet Union is willing to develop commercial relations with the U.S.. According to Khrushchev, trade would improve political relations .
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – September 13-October 14, 1955 (PVC)
A delegation of Soviet journalists visits Yugoslavia.
Soviet Union / Yugoslavia / U.S. – September 13, 1955 (LBC)
U.S. Senator Bridges recommends aid to those nations alone that participate in the fight against communism. He quotes a congressional resolution that denies more aid to Yugoslavia because Belgrade has improved its relations with Moscow despite obtaining several hundreds of million dollars in aid.
Finland / Soviet Union – September 15, 1955 (HJH)
President Juho Kusti Paasikivi visits the Soviet Union. The trip results in an extension for twenty years of the 1948 Treaty between Finland and the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union / West Germany – September 15, 1955 (KCA)
Moscow announces that the Soviet Government regards Germany’s present frontiers as immutable .
Yugoslavia / Greece – September 15, 1955 (KCA)
In an interview with Greek press, President Tito expresses Yugoslavia’s support for Cypriot independence and concern for anti-Greek rioting in Turkey.
Czechoslovakia / Finland – September 16-19, 1955 (KCA)
President Paasikivi and Prime Minister Kekkonen of Finland, together with other members of the Finnish Government, visit Moscow. The meetings result in signing an agreement extending the Finnish-Soviet treaty of friendship and mutual assistance for another 20 years, and an agreement whereby the Soviet Government will evacuate and return to Finland the naval base of Porkkala, leased to the USSR for 50 years under the Finnish Peace Treaty.
Soviet Union – September 17, 1955 (KCA)
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet issues a decree granting amnesty “to those Soviet citizens who, from faint-heartedness or irresponsibility, collaborated with the invaders during the 1941-1945 war.”
Soviet Union / East Germany – September 17-20, 1955 (KCA)
Discussions between the Soviet Government and the Government of the German Democratic Republic are held in Moscow. The Soviet Union is represented by Marshal Bulganin and Khrushchev, and East Germany by Prime Minister Grotewohl. At the end of the talks Bulganin and Grotewohl sign an agreement providing for mutual respect of sovereignty, strengthening economic, scientific and cultural relations, and contributing to finding a solution to the German question.
Soviet Union / U.S. – September 19, 1955 (CWC)
The Premier of Bulgaria writes to Eisenhower that the Soviet Union conditionally accepts an exchange of military blueprints, but any reconnaissance agreement would have to be part of a comprehensive arms control package.
Soviet Union / Austria – September 19, 1955 (PLC)
The last Soviet troops leave Austria.
Soviet Union / Finland – September 19, 1955 (PLC)
The 1949 Finnish-Soviet treaty on friendship and mutual assistance is prolonged for 20 years. The Porkkala Udd military base is given back to Finland, but the Karelia area remains a part of the Soviet Union.
Bulgaria – September 20, 1955 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Government announces the reduction of Bulgarian armed force by 18,000 men.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – September 20, 1955 (PVC)
U.S. Senator Kefauver visits Belgrade and is received by President Tito.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – September 20-October 4, 1955 (PVC)
Anastas Mikoyan, Soviet First Deputy Prime Minister, visits Yugoslavia.
Poland – September 21, 1955 (PSN)
The Government announces a resolution on assistance to repatriates.
East Germany / Soviet Union / West Germany - September 22, 1955 (KCA/PLC)
West German Chancellor Adenauer announces the Hallstein doctrine, stating the termination of diplomatic relations with all states recognizing the German Democratic Republic. The Soviet Union is not included in the doctrine.
Soviet Union / U.S. – September 23, 1955 (LBC)
Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs Molotov declares at the U.N. General Assembly that his country is studying the Eisenhower plan, which Molotov deems as the “sincere manifestation” of the will to disarm.
Soviet Union / Libya – September 25, 1955 (KCA)
The Libyan Foreign Minister announces that the Soviet Union and Libya have agreed to establish diplomatic relations.
Soviet Union / U.S. – September 26, 1955 (LBC)
A Chicago dentist arrives in Moscow in a car with a trailer. According to U.S. sources the dentist, who wanted to reach Afghanistan through the Soviet Union, is the first tourist that has arrived in the USSR by car since the war.
Hungary – September 27, 1955 (HC)
Decree 18/1955 by the Minister of Agriculture announces that the farmers joining the cooperative farms will be paid in exchange for the animals, equipment or forage they provide to the cooperative farm.
Romania – September 27, 1955 (PIR)
The replacement of Gheorghiu-Dej from the function of President of the Council of Ministers and his election as First Secretary of the Central Committee of PMR, and the appointment of Chivu Stoica as Prime Minister, are discussed in the session of the Political Bureau.
Hungary – September 27, 1955 (HC)
The Council of Ministers calls for the 6th peace loan program. The program ends with 1,510 million forints.
Yugoslavia – September 27, 1955 (PVC)
In a speech at Zvornik, President Tito speaks of a new economic policy that emphasizes the production of consumer goods and a general relaxation of industrial development.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – September 27-October 1, 1955 (LKT)
U.S. Deputy Under-Secretary of State, Robert Murphy, discusses both military and economic aid with Tito and other Yugoslav officials. The Murphy mission ends with each side affirming its desire for ''friendly cooperation'' in economic and military matters. Economic discussions, which result in an additional $260 million for the Yugoslavs, are concluded later in Washington.
Soviet Union / East Germany / West Germany – September 28, 1955 (KCA)
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet announces in response to the requests made by the Governments of the German Democratic Republic and the German Federal Republic, that it has decided to release and repatriate 8,877 German citizens who are serving sentences for war crimes and to hand over to the East or West German governments 749 German war criminals.
Hungary – September 30, 1955 (HC)
Decree 12/1955 by the Minister of State Collection announces that grain can be traded freely.
Romania – September 30-October 1, 1955 (PIR)
Plenary of the Central Committee of PMR through which Gheorghiu-Dej returns at the head of PMR.
Romania – September 30 – October 1, 1955 (PIR)
The 2nd Congress of PMR is convoked for the date of December 26, 1955.
Soviet Union / U.S. – September 30, 1955 (LBC)
The Soviet pianist Emil Gilels arrives in the U.S.. He is the first Soviet musician who visited the U.S. since WWII.
Romania – October 1955 (TCR)
Gheorghiu-Dej reassumes the position of First Secretary, Constantinescu is removed as head of the State Planning Commission. The premiership is entrusted to his subservient Chivu Stoica.
Romania – October 1955 (RFP)
The Soviet army in Romania consists of 35 000 soldiers, 2000 soldiers in security troops, the infantry troops, 111 jet planes and 10 transport planes.
Soviet Union – October 1955 (KRI)
Molotov is forced to make a public apology after stating that the Soviet Union has “only laid the foundations for a Socialist society”.
Yugoslavia – October 1, 1955 (KCA)
Belgrade issues an official statement on Yugoslavia’s new economic policy, stressing further social and economic development and gradually improving the standard of living.
Romania / Korea – October 2-5, 1955 (PIR)
An official Romanian delegation headed by Gheorghiu-Dej visits the Peoples Democratic Republic of Korea.
Romania – October 3, 1955 (PIR)
Chivu Stoica replaces Gheorghiu-Dej as the President of the Council of Ministers. Emil Bodnãraº, Miron Constantinescu and Petre Borilã are appointed Prime Vice-Presidents of the Council of Ministers.
Romania – October 6, 1955 (PIR)
General Constantin Ilasievici dies in the Vãcãresti prison.
Romania / Mongolia – October 6-8, 1955 (PIR)
A Romanian delegation led by Gheorghiu-Dej visits the People’s Republic of Mongolia.
Soviet Union – October 8, 1955 (KCA)
A letter by Molotov, dated September 16 1955, is published in Communist. The letter admits that Molotov made a statement that was “theoretically mistaken and politically harmful” before the Supreme Soviet on February 8, 1955, the day that Malenkov resigned as Prime Minister.
Soviet Union / U.S. – October 10, 1955 (LBC)
According to Dulles the historical record shows that unilateral disarmament does not bring peace. According to the Secretary of State it is unclear whether Soviet politics means a real change in the aims or whether it is purely a maneuver: “The U.S.must prepare for both eventualities. The U.S. cannot refuse a change the whole world desires, at the same time it cannot expose itself to mortal danger either”.
Soviet Union / U.S. – October 12, 1955 (LBC)
President Eisenhower conditionally accepts the Soviet proposal concerning arms inspection teams to be sent to American and Soviet territory. Beside the U.S. plan for aerial inspection, Eisenhower accepts that based on a previous Soviet proposal, control units would be sent to Soviet and American areas of key importance.
Hungary – October 13, 1955 (KCA)
Budapest officially announces the release of Archbishop Grosz, The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Kalocsa, sentenced to 15 years of imprisonment in 1951 for “conspiring to overthrow the democratic regime”.
Soviet Union / Austria – October 13, 1955 (KCA)
About 350 industrial enterprises which were seized by the Soviet Government as former German property at the end of the Second World War are formally handed over to Austrian public administration.
Soviet Union / Egypt – October 17, 1955 (KCA)
The Egyptian Ambassador in Washington announces that the Soviet Union has offered Egypt a loan of $200 million for building a dam on the Nile.
Poland – October 18, 1955 (PSN)
The society for Contacts with Emigrants is established in Warsaw with Stanislaw Kulczyknski, Deputy Speaker of the Diet and activist of the Democratic Party, elected as speaker.
Romania – October 18, 1955 (PIR)
Gavril Vatamaniuc, leader of the anti-communist resistance in the Mountains of Bukovina, is arrested.
Soviet Union / Finland – October 19, 1955 (KCA)
An aviation agreement is signed, providing a direct Moscow-Helsinki airway.
Yugoslavia / U.N – October 20, 1955 (PVC)
Yugoslavia is elected to the Economic and Social Council of the U.N.
Austria – October 21, 1955 (PLC)
The last Western troops leave Austria
Hungary – October 23, 1955 (HC)
Decree 1092 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that a Wage and Labor Committee will be established.
Yugoslavia / Italy / Greece / Turkey – October 23, 1955 (KCA)
The Yugoslavian National Assembly ratifies the Italo-Yugoslav agreement on Trieste and the treaty of alliance concluded between Greece, Turkey and Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia / Greece – October 23, 1955 (PVC)
A delegation of the Serbian Orthodox Church, led by the Patriarch, leaves for Greece.
Yugoslavia / U.N. – October 24, 1955 (RYN)
Speaking on the occasion of U.N. Day, Kardelj states that ''there can be no doubt'' that Moscow's making amends with Yugoslavia ''has freed many peoples of fears for their independence, and enabled the alleviation of bloc antagonisms, while increasing prospects for international cooperation and the creation of the necessary conditions for active coexistence of peoples with different social systems[...].''
Soviet Union / Poland – October 25, 1955 (KCA)
Moscow reports that the Soviet Government has agreed to release 3,000 Polish officers, some of whom have been kept in captivity in the Soviet Union since 1939. (14588C)
Austria – October 26, 1955 (HC)
Austria announces permanent neutrality.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – October 27, 1955 (KCA)
The Geneva four-power Foreign Minister conference begins with the agenda of European security and German reunification, disarmament, and contacts between the East and the West.
Finland – October 28, 1955 (PLC)
Finland joins the Northern Council.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – October 28, 1955 (CWC)
The Soviet Union introduces a proposal for a European security treaty. The Western powers reject the proposal.
Soviet Bloc / U.S. – October 31, 1955 (LBC)
The U.S. announces the cancellation of the restrictions that were introduced in 1952 on travelling to Iron Curtain countries. This does not include Bulgaria or Albania, countries with which the U.S. does not maintain diplomatic relations.
Hungary – November, 1955 (HC)
A 9-es kórterem (“Ward 9”), a film directed by Károly Makk, is first shown.
Poland / Burma – November 1955 (PSM)
Poland and Burma establish diplomatic relations.
Yugoslavia – November 1955 (KCA)
The Federal Council of the Yugoslav National Assembly ratifies Yugoslavia’s accession to the Austrian State Treaty.
Hungary – November 2, 1955 (HC)
Decree 1095 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that the payment of the employees of machine stations will be modified. The price of using the machinery will also be changed.
Soviet Bloc / U.S. – November 3, 1955 (LBC)
The U.S. Secretary of Commerce announces that from the end of 1955 the licensing procedure of non-strategic commodities to the Soviet bloc will be similar to those for non-communist countries. According to present rules each shipment requires a separate license. After the changes, a “general licensing system” will be introduced.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – November 5, 1955 (PVC)
A Yugoslav Trade Union delegation leaves for a visit to Moscow.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – November 6, 1955 (LBC)
A meeting between President Tito and US Secretary of State Dulles takes place. One of the themes of the discussion is the future of the satellite states. They agree about having to reinstate these countries’ independence. Romania – November 7, 1955 (RFP)
Khruschev suddenly leaves Romania. Romanian leaders have to postpone any discussion about a Soviet withdrawal from Romania. Gheorghiu-Dej refuses to take part in the protest on November 7, appointing Bodnaras as a chief of the delegation. Bodnaras returns to Bucharest, announcing that Khruschev and Bulganin agree with the Romanian position to withdrew its troops in 2 years.
Soviet Union / U.S. – November 7, 1955 (LBC)
For the first time a U.S. President greets the Soviet Union on the anniversary of the Great October Revolution. According to Minister of Defense Zhukov, the Soviet Union is threatened by aggressive Western circles. At the reception given in the honor of November 7, Molotov expresses his doubts concerning the Geneva meeting.
East Germany / Poland – November 8, 1955 (KCA)
An agreement between the Polish and East German governments is announced, with Poland agreeing to return to the GDR the eastern part of the city of Görlitz, whilst the East German Government undertakes to settle in that district of the city Germans who are at present living in Poland. The opening of Polish consulates in Leipzig, Dresden, Görlitz, Erfurt and Rostock, and opening of East German consulates in Gdansk and Wroclaw is also agreed upon.
Soviet Union / U.S. – November 8, 1955 (LBC)
The USSR rejects the Western plan for German unification. As its precondition Moscow wants the dissolution of Western integrations (NATO, WEU).
Bulgaria – November 9, 1955 (KCA)
Sofia announces that the Bulgarian Government has decided to reduce the period of military service from May 1, 1956, as follows: from three to two years for all men serving in the Army and Air Force and from four to three years for men serving in the Navy.
Hungary – November 9-12, 1955 (HC)
Session of the leaders of the Hungarian Workers’ Party takes place. János Matolcsi is dismissed from his office as Secretary of the Party, because he is the new Minister of Agriculture. István Kovács and Gyula Egri become secretaries.
East Germany – November 10, 1955 (KCA)
The East German Government announces that it has entrusted responsibility for all atomic questions to Deputy Prime Minister Willi Stop, and that a Scientific Council for the Peaceful Application of Atomic Energy has been set up under Professor Dr. Gustav Hertz.
Yugoslavia / Austria – November 11, 1955 (PVC)
The Federal Assembly ratifies the Austrian State Treaty.
Albania – November 12, 1955 (KCA)
Tirana radio announces that the population of Albania is 1,394,310.
Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – November 12, 1955 (KCA)
A barter agreement between Yugoslavia and Bulgaria is signed.
Poland / Yugoslavia – November 14, 1955 (KCA)
A number of economic agreements are signed in Warsaw.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – November 14-20, 1955 (KCA)
Edvard Kardelj, Senior Vice-President of the Yugoslav Federal Executive Council, visits London.
Yugoslavia / Poland – November 14, 1955 (KCA)
A number of economic agreements are signed in Warsaw.
Hungary – November 15, 1955 (HC)
János Matolcsi will be the new head of the Agricultural Portfolio. Ferenc Erdei is chosen to be Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers.
Soviet Union – November 15, 1955 (KCA)
Leningrad’s first underground railway, the V.I. Lenin Metro, is opened.
Soviet Union / Syria – November 16, 1955 (KCA)
A one-year trade and payments agreement is signed in Damascus, and the Syrian and Soviet Governments decide to raise their respective Legations in Damascus and Moscow to the rank of Embassies.
Soviet Union / India – November 18, 1955 (KCA)
Bulganin and Khrushchev arrive for an official visit to India.
Soviet Union / U.S. – November 18, 1955 (LBC)
Dulles’ evaluation of the Geneva meeting of foreign ministers is as follows: The danger of war has been diminished, the cold war continues in the spirit of competition, the military and the mutual security policy of the U.S. remains unchanged, the doctrine of “long haul” is maintained.
Soviet Union / India – November 21, 1955 (KCA)
Bulganin and Khrushchev address a joint session of the two Houses of the Indian Parliament.
Soviet Union / U.S. – November 21, 1955 (LBC)
According to New York Governor Harriman, the spirit of Geneva lived for only three months, while the Soviets achieved what they wanted: the reduction of tension for their own purposes without yielding in any of the basic issues.
Yugoslavia / Italy – November 21, 1955 (PVC)
Yugoslav Vice-President Aleksandar Ranković strongly attacks the forthcoming trial of certain former partisans in a speech at Udine, Italy.
Romania – November 22, 1955 (KCA)
Bucharest announces a reduction in the period of military service from three to two years, and in the Navy from four to two years.
Soviet Union – November 22, 1955 (KCA)
Tiflis radio announces that six leading security officials in Georgia, including two former Ministers of the Georgian Soviet Republic, have been executed after being found guilty on charges of “high treason, terrorism and counter-revolutionary activity”.
Soviet Union / India – November 23-24, 1955 (KCA)
Bulganin and Khrushchev visit Bombay.
Soviet Union / India – November 25, 1955 (KCA)
Bulganin and Khrushchev visit the Indian National Defense Academy at Kharakvasla.
Soviet Union – November 26, 1955 (KCA)
Moscow officially announces that hydrogen bomb tests have been carried out in the Soviet Union, and wide research has also been carried out on the protection of the population in case of a hydrogen bomb explosion.
Soviet Union / India – November 27, 1955 (KCA)
Khrushchev confirms from India that the Soviet Union has exploded a bomb “of unprecedented power” and reiterates that the USSR desires the total prohibition of all atomic and thermo-nuclear weapons.
Soviet Union / U.S. – November 27, 1955 (LBC)
A five-member Soviet delegation arrives in New York in order to purchase hybrid maize and agricultural machines.
Yugoslavia – November 27, 1955 (PVC)
President Tito expounds at length the new economic policy in a statement before the 4th plenum of the Federal Committee of the Socialist Alliance.
Soviet Union – November 28, 1955 (KCA)
A Moscow Radio Commentator declares that the Soviet Union cannot discontinue the production and testing of nuclear weapons as long as the U.S. and Britain continue to do the same.
Soviet Union / India – November 29-30, 1955 (KCA)
Bulganin and Khrushchev visit Calcutta.
Finland / Soviet Union – December 1955 (FFS)
The Soviets changes their vote on Finland’s admission to the United Nations.
Hungary – December 1955 (HC)
The Sixth Hungarian Fine Arts Exhibition opens in Budapest.
Romania – December 1955 (TCR)
Gheorghiu-Dej asserts his determination to adapt Marxist-Leninist principles to the specific national interests and problems of Romania. The intellectuals are downgraded, the workers, both in industry and in agriculture, are heralded as the actual leaders of the massive process of socialist construction.
Romania – December 1955 (RUR)
The Second Party Congress is held. Gheorghiu-Dej states that the party completely supports the idea of peaceful coexistence and interest of party to maintain ties with other Eastern bloc countries.
Soviet Bloc – December 1955 (CEC)
The six session of the COMECON Assembly meets in Budapest, Hungary. Coordination of production plans to 1960, long term trade agreements and engineering specialization are discussed.
Hungary – December 1, 1955 (HC)
Governmental decree 2253/1955 announces that a History of Literature Institute will be established.
Romania – December 1, 1955 (PIR)
The Council of Ministers of the People’s Republic of Romania decides the reduction of the country’s armed effectives with 40,000 men.
Soviet Union / U.S. / West Germany – December 1, 1955 (LBC)
In a speech given in Burma, Khrushchev accuses the Western powers of unleashing Nazi Germany on the Soviet Union in 1941. He states it is not unimaginable that they are preparing for something similar with West Germany now.
Yugoslavia / Egypt / Ethiopia – December 1, 1955 (PVC)
President Tito, accompanied by the Foreign Secretary Koča Popović, Petar Stambolić and others, leaves Belgrade for his State visit to Ethiopia and Egypt.
Hungary – December 3, 1955 (HC)
The Hungarian Workers’ Party excludes Imre Nagy from the party.
Romania – December 7, 1955 (PIR)
The Decision of the Council of Ministers no. 2694 stipulates the return of goods, houses and terrains to the Schwabs in Banat, formerly deported in Bãrãgan.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – December 7, 1955 (PVC)
A delegation led by Gustav Vlahov returns from London after talks on the conclusion of the Anglo-Yugoslav Agreement on Social Security.
Romania – December 8, 1955 (PIR)
Romania recognizes the “permanent neutrality” of Austria.
Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / Greece – December 8, 1955 (RFN)
The Greek government expresses the view that Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary does not fulfill the undertaking they assumed under the Treaties of Peace signed in Paris on February 10, 1947.
Hungary – December 12, 1955 (HC)
The Borsodi Vegykombinát (chemical industry) is opened in Kazincbarcika.
Poland – December 12, 1955 (PSN)
Hilary Minc declares, a few days before the end of the Six-Year Plan, that “Polish industry as a whole has exceeded the plan and attained targets specified to it”. Later it is admitted that the plan did not succeed in agriculture and that agricultural production had fallen from 1951 to 1953.
Soviet Union – December 12, 1955 (KCA)
Moscow Radio announces that the Soviet Union has reduced the armed forces by 640 thousand men to aid industry and agriculture.
Czechoslovakia – December 13, 1955 (KCA)
The new National Assembly of Czechoslovakia meets and unanimously re-elects Dr. Zdenek Fierlinder as its President.
Finland / Soviet Union – December 13, 1955 (GNI)
The Soviet Union vetoes Finland’s application to the United Nations for a third time.
Soviet Union – December 13, 1955 (PLC)
Citizenship rights are given back to the German minority relocated from the Volga area.
Yugoslavia – December 13, 1955 (PVC)
Decision by the Federal Executive Council establishes an Informational Secretariat of the Council.
Albania / Austria / Bulgaria / Finland / Hungary / Romania – December 14, 1955 (PLC)
Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Albania, Austria, Finland, Italy, Spain, Portugal and Ireland join the U.N.
Finland / Soviet Union – December 14, 1955 (LJF)
The Soviets drops their opposition to Finland’s membership in the Nordic Council.
Soviet Union / Afghanistan – December 15-18, 1955 (KCA)
Bulganin and Khrushchev visit Afghanistan.
Romania – December 15, 1955 (RFN)
Romania assumes its seat at the plenary meeting of the 10th regular session of the General Assembly.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – December 16, 1955 (PVC)
Talks on the conversion of Yugoslav debts to the U.K. are initiated in London.
Yugoslavia / Italy – December 18, 1955 (KCA)
An Italo-Yugoslav agreement is signed, which regulates all economic and financial obligations arising from the Italian Peace Treaty and lays down the framework for a number of economic agreements.
Yugoslavia / U.N. – December 20, 1955 (PVC)
After 36 inconclusive ballots, Yugoslavia is elected to the vacant seat on the U.N. Security Council, on the understanding that it will resign after one year in favor of the Philippines.
Hungary – December 23, 1955 (HC)
The Madách Theater in Budapest presents Szeptember (“September”) by Imre Sarkadi.
Romania – December 23-28, 1955 (PIR)
The 2nd Congress of PMR (and 7th of PCR) reconfirms Gheorghiu-Dej as First Secretary of the Central Committee of PMR. In the report presented, Gheorgiu-Dej accuses Ana Pauker, Vasile Luca and Teohari Georgescu of “a combination of right wing deviation and an adventurist orientation towards the left” and of “the ridicule of the principle of voluntary peasant participation in the socialist transformation of agriculture”. The report additionally contains data relating to the party situation, the propagandist activity, and the relation between the party and the working class. The Congress added to the composition of the Central Committee Iosif Chiºinevschi, Nicolae Ceauºescu, Janos Fazekas and Ion Cosma.
Soviet Union / U.S. – December 23, 1955 (LBC)
The USSR permits the distribution of 500 thousand Russian language “America” journals in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Embassy in Washington may issue its information bulletin in the U.S. again.
Yugoslavia / Egypt / Ethiopia – December 24, 1955 (PVC)
President Tito leaves Ethiopia for Egypt. A joint communiqué is issued on general principles agreed.
Soviet Bloc / U.S. – December 25, 1955 (LBC)
Eisenhower on Eastern Europe: “The American people recognize the trials under which you are suffering, join you in your concern for the restoration of individual freedoms and political liberty and share your faith that right in the end will prevail to bring you once again among the free nations of the world.”
Romania – December 26, 1955 (KCA)
Bucharest announces the immediate abolition of food and clothes rationing, and of fixing prices of goods above the previous level, but still lower than the prices prevailing in the free peasants’ market.
Yugoslavia / China – December 27, 1955 (PVC)
A delegation of Yugoslav journalists arrives in Beijing.
Yugoslavia / Egypt – December 28, 1955-January 6, 1956, (RYN)
Tito's first visit to Egypt. He strongly upholds Egypt's opposition to the Baghdad Pact and Nasser's purchase of Soviet arms as a legitimate exercise of the right of self-defense.
Yugoslavia / Romania – December 28, 1955 (PVC)
A Yugoslav-Romanian trade agreement is concluded in Bucharest.
Soviet Union / U.S. – December 29, 1955 (LBC)
In a speech given to the Supreme Soviet, Khrushchev rejects Eisenhower’s “Open Skies” plan. The “Open Skies” plan would have been directed at increasing confidence between the two superpowers by allowing almost unlimited reconnaissance in each other’s airspace. According to Khrushchev the Eisenhower plan fails to devote substantial attention to disarmament. Khrushchev denounces Eisenhower’s December 25 speech devoted to the East European people.
Albania / Yugoslavia – December 29, 1955 (PVC)
A Yugoslav-Albanian trade agreement is concluded in Tirana.
Soviet Union / U.S. – December 30, 1955 (LBC)
According to the Press Secretary of the White House, Eisenhower and Dulles declare that the peaceful liberation of the captive people will continue to be the main goal of American foreign policy until this effort is successful. According to Dulles, the year 1955 did a lot for peace and 1956 will bring more liberty to the world. Bulganin’s view is as follows: The year 1956 will bring new success in the struggle agai nst the cold war. According to the historical example the American and Soviet people are capable of living peacefully side by side.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – December 30, 1955 (PVC)
Notes are exchanged in London postponing the repayment to the U.K. of the December installment of Yugoslav debts for three months.
Hungary – December 31, 1955 (HC)
Decree no. 1955:71 by the Hungarian Presidential Council determines the details of the workers’ health insurance. It is decided that complete health care will be provided.
East Germany / Germany– December 31, 1955 (KGD)
252,870 people flee to the FRG and West Berlin in 1955.
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013