The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991
Péter BENCSIK, Péter VUKMAN
Babak ARZANI, Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Ádám BALOGH, Shira BORZAK,
Florian BRINK, Vanessa BUFFRY, David CATALAN, Sonya COWELL, Susan COOPER, Lauren CRYSTAL, Laura CSEKE, Botond CSELLE, Péter DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB,
Kati DEPETRILLO, Emanuele DI BELLO, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA,
Kristyna GABIKOVA, Evelina GELEZINYTE, Laura GOUSHA,Zsófia GÖDE, Brianna GREENWALD, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Ágnes HEVÉR,Neala HICKEY, Jennifer OLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU, Kitti Eszter JAKAB, Dean JOLLY, Victoria JONES, Annastiina KALLIUS, István KASZTA, Tomas KOLAR, Roman KOZIEL,Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Karina LEGRADI, Thomas KOLLMANN, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Cynthia MANCHA, Mike MANTZAVINOS, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Viktor NAGY, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Jennifer OTTERSON, Roland PAPP, Orsolya PÓSFAI, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Linda RICHTER, Martin ROMAIN, Lili SIKLÓS, Bobbie SCHOEMAKER, Anett SZŰCS, Sabine TOPOLANSKY, Dóra VERESS, Aniello VERDE, Zita Bettina VASAS, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, Kristóf ZSIDI
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013
At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The second part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1953 to 1968. The years 1969–1980 will be available by the end of 2014.
The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come.
The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.
List of Sources
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013
Soviet Union / Finland – 1960 (KCA)
Relations between the Soviet Union and Finland improve, characterized by the conclusion of a cultural agreement and a treaty for settling border disputes.
Romania – 1960 (RUR)
Industrial production is 67% above the 1955 level.
Romania – 1960 (RUR)
The government institutes many clear anti-Soviet measures. The names of streets are changed from Russian to Romanian and Russian language requirements are dropped from school curricula.
Romania – 1960 (RFN)
Romania supports the Soviet Union on all facts of the Congo crises.
Romania – 1960 (RFN)
Decision to de-Russifie and Romanize the language is approved. The constitution is changed in order to form a socialist state.
Romania – 1960-1965 (SRR)
All economic indices double. In certain areas of production, such as mining, electric power and machine building the rate of increase is even higher.
East Germany – January 1960 (KCA)
Firt Secretary of the SED, Walter Ulbricht directs that the socialization (collectivization of farms) should be complete before the end of the current seven-year economic plan and orders a blitz campaign, to run from January 15 to May 1, 1960, to achieve the objective. Despite Ulbricht’s “voluntary” basis, reports from German Church leaders agree with those from farmers who fled East Germany that peasants were forced to hand over their property and that ruthless methods were used to convince them to do so.
Soviet Union – January 1960 (KCA)
Two successful tests of a new rocket designed for inter-planetary flight are made by the Soviet Union. On January 7, Tass announces that Soviet scientist and designers are “working to develop a more powerful rocket to launch heavy earth satellites and undertake space flights to the planets of the solar system.” On January 8, the Soviet Foreign Ministry informs the Governments of all countries that the target area for rocket launches covers 43,000 square kilometers in mid-Pacific remote shipping lanes. On January 20, the first launch takes place. The rocket travels at over 26,000 km per hour and the nose cone hits the ocean near the pre-determined target. Devices within the rocket are able to transmit data to ground stations and ships throughout the flight. On January 31, the second launch occurs. It is reported that the two tests have “successfully completed the present stage of development work” and the target area is free for shipping and aircraft again.
Hungary – January 1, 1960 (HC)
A census puts Hungary’s population at 9, 977, 970 inhabitants.
Egypt / Soviet Union – January 9, 1960 (KCA)
Work on the Aswan High Dam officially begins. President Nasser thanks the Soviet Government for its technical and economic assistance.
South Korea / China – January 10, 1960 (KCA)
The South Korean Office of Marine Affairs announces that a South Korean coastguard vessel was attacked off Inchon by more than 10 Chinese armed junks.
Hungary – January 10, 1960 (HC)
Government resolution 1002/1960 setting out a 15-year construction plan for public housing is issued. (It specifies the construction of one million dwellings.)
The government also issues resolution 3/1960 providing for an additional rental charge in case of ineffective use of housing.
Czechoslovakia – January 13, 1960 (KCA)
A reorganization of the system of local government is announced.
Soviet Union / U.K. – January 13, 1960 (KCA)
Alexander Soldatov is appointed Soviet Ambassador to the United Kingdom, succeeding Jacob Malik.
Soviet Union – January 14, 1960 (CAC/LBC)
Khrushchev orders the reduction of Soviet armed forces by 1.2 million, from 3.6 million to 2.4 million. Khrushchev declares that the force reduction is made possible by the development of Soviet nuclear forces. According to the Soviet politician the air force and the navy lost its previous significance, the air force will be replaced by missile forces. Khrushchev opines that the forthcoming summit will reduce the danger of war. On January 19, the Soviet Communist Party and Government states that a large part of the savings obtained from reducing the armed forces will be used to increase health benefits to the population. An expenditure of 1,800 rubles will be spent on new hospitals, research centers, etc. Funding will be concentrated on the eradication of polio, combating heart and vascular disease, influenza, and measles. On January 27, a decree states that the reductions in defense expenditures will also be used to popularize a healthier diet. Also more food shops will be built and large amounts spent on refrigeration facilities. Also, it is announced in Moscow that the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs has been abolished and its functions transferred to the Ministries of Internal Affairs of the Union Republics.
Hungary – January 16, 1960 (KCA)
Changes to the Hungarian Government are announced. Gyula Kállai as First Deputy Premier, Pál Losonczi as Minister of Agriculture, Imre Dögei appointed Ambassador in Beijing, Rezső Nyers as Minister of Finance. György Marosán is relieved of his post as a Minister of State and will become a member of the Presidential Council. Kállai is a close associate of Kádár and was arrested for “Titoism” in the early fifties and imprisoned for three years. He held the post of Foreign Minister in 1949 until his imprisonment in 1951. The changes are regarded by the Western press as strengthening and consolidating the position of
Yugoslavia – January 17-29, 1960 (KCA)
A Franciscan monk is the leader of a group of individuals sentenced to lengthy prison terms after being convicted of endeavoring to establish an underground Croat nationalist organization and maintaining ties with Croatian émigrés abroad.
Yugoslavia / Cuba – January 17-20, 1960 (MOL)
The Foreign Minister of Cuba, Paul Roa visits Yugoslavia. Except the establishment of diplomatic missions, no concrete result is reached.
Egypt / Soviet Union – January 18, 1960 (KCA)
It is announced that the Soviet Union will participate in the second stage of the construction of the Aswan High Dam on the same basis as the first. Also on January 18 an agreement is signed providing for Soviet aid in the construction of a shipyard at Alexandria. In the end of 1959 around 20 contracts for designing, building, and supplying equipment for industrial enterprises in the U.A.R. were signed by Soviet export agencies.
Hungary / Great Britain – January 19, 1960 (HC)
Hungary and Great Britain sign a long- term economic trade agreement.
Re-organization of industrial sectors in support of light industry takes place in Budapest.
Soviet Union / Afghanistan – January 19, 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet Union signs an agreement in Kabul to provide technical assistance in carrying out the Jelalabad power project for Afghanistan. The project includes an 11,000-kilowatt hydro-electric station on the Kabul River, a 73ft. high dam, a 43-mile canal, five bridges, and three aqueducts. The project, which should take four years to complete, will irrigate 64,500 acres of land.
Soviet Union / India / Nepal – January 20-February 5, 1960 (KCA)
Soviet head of state Voroshilov visits India and Nepal.
Hungary – January 22, 1960 (HC)
A trade assembly on catering is organized by the Ministry of the Interior.
Soviet Union / U.S. – January 27, 1960 (LBC)
Soviet-American talks in Washington on lend lease are broken off since the Soviet ambassador demands the extension of the talks to the questions of a Soviet-American trade agreement and long-term U.S. loans to the Soviet Union. On behalf of the U.S. negotiators Bohlen states that a trade agreement and loans require the changing of U.S. laws and an agreement is needed on lend lease.
Soviet Union / Japan – January 27-March 1, 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet Government and the Japanese Government enter into conflict over relations with the United States. On January 23, the Soviet Government gives the Japanese Ambassador in Moscow a memorandum that protests the new treaty of mutual cooperation and security signed by Japan and the United States on December 19, 1959. On January 28, the Japanese Foreign Ministry accuses the Soviet Government of interfering in Japan’s domestic affairs and of trying to impose an additional condition on the Soviet promise of 1956. On February 5, the Soviet demand for the withdrawal of foreign troops in Japan is formally rejected by the Japanese Government. On February 24, a Soviet Note reaffirms the USSR’s position regarding foreign troops in Japan. On March 1, the Japanese Government denies that the U.S. - Japanese treaty violates any Japanese agreement with the Soviet Union.
East Germany / Soviet Union – February-March 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet Commander-in-Chief in Eastern Germany issues new passes to members of Allied military missions which results in a dispute between the Western and Soviet military authorities in Germany. The new passes entitle members of the U.S., British and French military missions to travel in the “German Democratic Republic,” where previously they had stated the “Soviet Zone of Germany.” This implies that holders of the passes are registered by the East German Ministry of the Interior, raising the question of recognition of the East German regime. On February 19, the Western Commanders-in-Chief send identical letters to the Soviet military missions stating that the new passes are “unacceptable.” The Soviet Embassy states that there is “no real change in the previously existing position.” The movements of the Soviet military missions to the French Army, the British Army, and the American Forces in Germany are restricted. On March 14, the dispute is ended when the Soviet military authorities withdraw the new passes and accept the validity of the old passes. All restrictions on the movement of the personnel of the Soviet military missions in Western Germany are lifted.
Soviet Bloc – February 2-3, 1960 (HC/MMS)
Socialist agriculture is the main topic at an assembly of the Communist Parties of the Socialist countries of Europe in Moscow.
U.S. – February 3, 1960 (LBC)
U.S. President Eisenhower announces that America is willing to sell atomic weapons to countries that stand by the U.S. against the apparently aggressive intent of communism. – February 18. U.S. secretary of state Christian Herter proposes a disarmament system, which would eliminate the threat of accidental war.
Soviet Union / U.K. – February 3, 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet Union stops jamming BBC broadcasts to the USSR. On February 5 an exhibition of Soviet books opens in London.
Warsaw Pact – February 4, 1960 (MMS/ CAC)
The WP Political Consultative Committee’s 3. meeting takes place in Moscow. Khrushchev’s optimistic assessment of the likelihood of Western concessions on Germany elicits criticism from the Chinese observer of what he sees as a Soviet policy of conciliation toward the West.
Soviet Union – February 4, 1960 (KCA)
Additional statistical information is released regarding the population census. The total population is recorded at 208,826,650. The urban population is 48 percent and the rural 52%. The Soviet Union is population by over 100 nationalities; the most numerous are Russians (114,588,000), Ukrainians (36,981,000), Byelorussians (7,829,000), and Uzbeks (6,004,000). Other Union nationalities and ethnic groups are included. Of non-Soviet nationalities other than Germans or Poles there are 324,000 Bulgarians, 314,000 Koreans, 253,000 Greeks, 155,000 Hungarians, 106,000 Romanians, 93,000 Finns, 35,000 Turks, 26,000 Chinese 25,000 Czechs, 21,000 Persians, and 14,700 Slovaks. A notable feature of the census returns is the significant expansion of the Russian population in the Non-Russian republics resulting from agricultural development in the Central Asian republics and the eastward movement of industry. For example, in Kazakhstan, the Russian population outnumber the Kazakhs 4,014,000 to 2,755,000. Nearly ¾ of the population was born after the October Revolution of 1917. 124,600,000 people gave their native language as Russian.
Hungary – February 4, 1960 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party announces the stabilization of collective farms.
Soviet Union / Cuba – February 4-14, 1960 (KCA)
First Deputy Premier Anastas Mikoyan visits Cuba and signs an agreement guaranteeing that the Soviet Union will buy 4,425,000 tons of sugar in 1960-1964; that the USSR will grant a loan of $100,000,000 for the purchase of Soviet machinery and materials; will offer technical assistance; and discussions of the resumption of diplomatic relations between the two countries will be held. On leaving Cuba, Mikoyan stated that if the Cuban Government requests military aircraft, the Soviet Government is willing to sell it to them. Additional Soviet-Cuban economic agreements are signed on June 18.
Soviet Union / Italy – February 6-11, 1960 (KCA)
President Gronchi of Italy visits the Soviet Union. This is the first visit by an Italian Head of State to the Soviet Union. A joint communiqué on his visit is issued in Moscow on February 9. On February 9 a cultural agreement is signed providing for exchanges of scientists, students, writers, artists, and journalists; exchange of scientific and technical documentation and information between the Soviet and Italian academies of science and other scientific institutions; and the promotion of tourism.
East Germany – February 10, 1960 (KCA/NNT)
The Volkskammer passes a Bill creating a 13-member National Defense Council (Nationaler Verteidigungsrat) under the chairmanship of Walter Ulbricht. The Council is responsible for coordinating the land, sea, and air defenses of the GDR.
Yugoslavia – February 10, 1960 (KCA)
Roman Catholic Archbishop of Zagreb and Primate of Yugoslavia, Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac dies in his hometown to which he has been restricted since 1951. He is succeeded by Mgr. Franjo Šeper.
Poland / U.S. – February 11, 1960 (KCA)
Poland and the U.S. sign an agreement under which the U.S. will sell to Poland a further 22,000,000 bushels of wheat under the U.S. farm surplus disposal program, at a cost of $41,500,000. Payment will be made in Polish zlotys. This agreement brings the total U.S. farm surplus products purchased by Poland since 1957 to $235,600,000.
Soviet Union / U.S. / U.K. – February 11, 1960 (KCA)
New American proposals for overcoming the deadlock at the three-Power Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear weapons tests are announced together with a statement from President Eisenhower. During the next month the U.S., British and Soviet representatives at Geneva had extensive but largely unsuccessful discussions concerning the new proposal and counter-proposals submitted by the Soviet representative. The American proposal was unacceptable to the Soviet Union because it left open the possibility of resuming underground nuclear explosions below the specified “threshold.”
Soviet Union / India / Burma / Indonesia / Afghanistan – February 11-March 5, 1960 (KCA)
Khrushchev, Gromyko, and Mikhailov (Minister of Culture) tour India, Burma, Indonesia, and Afghanistan and conclude agreements on economic and technical cooperation and cultural relations with India and Indonesia. On February 11, Khrushchev arrives in Delhi and addresses the Indian Parliament. In his speech he attacks “colonialism” describing Western aid to developing countries as a “new colonial policy.” He makes no reference to the territorial dispute between China and India. On February 12, Khrushchev has a long private talk with Nehru and then attends the signing of two agreements on further Soviet economic aid to India and Indo-Soviet cultural and technical cooperation. At a later speech in India Khrushchev claimed that only the Soviet Union provides true economic assistance. On February 16, a joint communiqué is issued at the end of Khrushchev’s visit to India. It affirms Khrushchev’s appreciation of India’s policy of neutrality and Nehru’s support for the Soviet Union’s proposals for disarmament . The Indo-Soviet economic agreement dealt with how India will use the Soviet credit of 1,500,000,000 rubles accepted by the Government in September 1959. On March 7, it is announced that India and the Soviet Union will work together on peaceful uses of atomic energy, including the design and construction of nuclear power stations. On February 16, Khrushchev flies to Rangoon. On February 18, a communiqué states that it had been agreed to conclude a cultural agreement between the Soviet Union and Burma in the near future and to draft a program for cultural and scientific exchanges in 1960. Burma supports Khrushchev’s disarmament proposals and calls for a suspension of nuclear tests and the communiqué refers to the Soviet approval of Burma’s policy of neutrality. On February 18, 1960, Khrushchev arrives in Jakarta for his first visit to Indonesia. While addressing university students on February 21, Khrushchev announces that the Soviet Government will establish a “People’s Friendship University” in Moscow for students from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. On February 22, while addressing a mass meeting, President Sukarno protests the fact that there will be no Asian representative at the forthcoming summit conference despite the fact there are 1,600,000,000 people in Asia and Africa who are neither in the Communist nor Western blocs. On February 26, Khrushchev addresses the Indonesian Parliament and expresses his support for President Sukarno’s appeal for an Asian representative. On February 28, a joint communiqué is issued in which it is stated that the Soviet Government has agreed to give Indonesia a $250,000,000 loan and an atomic reactor. Two agreements on Soviet-Indonesian economic and cultural cooperation are also signed. On March 2, Khrushchev arrives in Kabul for a short visit to Afghanistan during which he has a series of talks with King Mohammed Zahir Shah and the Afghan Prime Minister Sardar Mohammed Daud. On March 4, a joint communiqué states that Khrushchev and Sardar Daud discussed the future of the Pushtu people and “expressed their agreement that the application of the principle of self-determination on the basis of the U.N. Charter for settling this issue would be a reasonable way of easing tension and ensuring peace in the Middle East.” A Soviet-Afghan cultural cooperation agreement is also signed. On March 6, the Afghan Government announces that the USSR has given Afghanistan 50,000 tons of wheat. On March 6, responding to Khrushchev’s statement in a speech that “historically Pushtunistan has always been part of Afghanistan,” the Pakistani Foreign Minister expresses his regret that the USSR is interfering in another country’s internal affairs. He then challenges the Afghan Government to hold a referendum to judge whether the Pathans of Afghanistan wish to join Pakistan.
Poland / Czechoslovakia / Hungary / East Germany – February 12, 1960 (KCA)
Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and East Germany approve the creation of a television network, Intervision, linking the four countries. The Soviet Union, Romania, and Bulgaria are expected to join at a later date.
Yugoslavia – February 12, 1960 (KCA)
Yugoslavia becomes a member of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization.
Soviet Union / France – February 13, 1960 (LBC/PLC)
France carries out a successful nuclear test explosion. – The Soviet Union condemns the event and declares that it makes the problem of disarmament more difficult.
Hungary – February 14, 1960 (HC)
The government issues decree no. 6/1960 regulating benefits for elderly and disabled members of collective farm.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – February 16, 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet representative submits an alternative plan to the American submission on February 11 to the Geneva Conference including “temporary simplified criteria” for initiating on-site inspections which was considered by the Western representatives, but the ensuing discussions remain deadlocked on the criteria to be used to determine whether an explosion is eligible for on-site inspection.
Soviet Union / Egypt – February 19, 1960 (KCA)
It is stated in Moscow that more than 100 industrial projects will be built in the U.A.R. with Soviet support. The Aswan High Dam, six steel plants, six engineering works, oil, chemical, textile, and food industry establishments as well as irrigation systems are included in this assistance. 18 percent of the U.A.R.’s exports are going to the USSR and 15 percent of their imports come from the USSR. The total volume of Soviet aid to under-developed Afro-Asian countries is more than 7,000,000,000 rubles.
Soviet Union / U.S. – February 20, 1960 (LBC)
A Soviet delegation comprising of five prime ministers of Soviet republics and seven oblast presidents concludes its U.S. visit.
Soviet Union / U.S. – February 22, 1960 (LBC)
The U.S. secretary of commerce permits U.S. firms to hand over technological information to the USSR as part of commercial deals to build industrial plants.
Soviet Union / West Germany – February 25, 1960 (KCA)
The German Federal Republic and the Soviet Union sign a protocol regulating trade and payments between the two countries in 1960. Under the agreement, goods worth 620,000,000 rubles will be delivered by either side. The main Soviet exports will be wheat, food-grains, timber ores, oil and oil products, and raw cotton. The Soviet Union agreed to a major reduction in coal exports to West Germany because of difficulties in the West German coal industry. In return, West Germany increased its import quotas for Soviet oil and petroleum products. German exports will consist of industrial equipment and investment goods, chemical products, medical equipment, pharmaceutical products, artificial fibers and yarn, woolen textiles, footwear, and leather.
Yugoslavia – February 27, 1960 (KCA)
27 political prisoners, who had been sentenced in February and March 1958 on charges of conspiring to overthrow the regime, are released by the Yugoslav Government. The sentences were suspended subject to their good behavior; they were not technically pardoned or given amnesties. The four released prisoners are Alexandar Pavlović, Bogdan Krekić, Dragoslav Stranjaković, and Milan Zujović.
Romania – March 1960 (RUR)
First Secretary Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej merges the leadership positions of the government and the party. This is in direct conflict with the Soviet desire for collective leadership.
East Germany / Soviet Union – March 1-9, 1960 (KCA)
It was reported that the three Western Powers were considering flights above 10,000ft in the air corridors between the Federal Republic and West Berlin, but that the Soviet representative on the four-Power Air Safety Center in Berlin would be informed first. The Soviet Embassy states that no such notification has been received and that these flights would “violate the air sovereignty of the German Democratic Republic.” On March 3, the U.S. State Department confirms the flights had been considered but no decision taken. On March 7, the British Foreign Secretary also confirms this, and states that the issue is practical and not political as modern aircraft have higher operational altitudes. On March 9, the U.S. Secretary of State reports that President Eisenhower decided that there was no “operational necessity” for flights above 10,000ft in the corridors, but the Secretary also reaffirms that the Western Powers have the right to fly into West Berlin at any height.
Soviet Union / West Germany / Spain – March 4, 1960 (KCA)
Following widespread concern in the last week of February 1960 concerning press reports that the German Federal Government is negotiating with Spain for the establishment of German military supply bases in that country, the Soviet Government presents a Note to the West German Ambassador in Moscow which alleges that the “Spanish-West German intrigues” are aimed at “causing friction between the parties to East-West talks, sabotaging the work of the ten-Power Disarmament Committee, and complicating the work of the summit meeting.” The Note drew attention to the “grave consequences of its steps aimed at setting up Bundeswehr bases on foreign territories and establishing military cooperation with Franco Spain.” The USSR also sends notes to the U.S., British, and French Governments expressing the hope that they would “prevent the implementation of the military plans of the German Federal Republic.”
Bulgaria / U.S. – March 7, 1960 (KCA)
The American Legation in Sofia reopens. Edward Page arrives in Sofia as the first American Minister to Bulgaria since February 1950. Peter Vulov was previously appointed Bulgarian Minister in Washington.
Yugoslavia / India – March 11, 1960 (KCA)
India and Yugoslavia sign a cultural agreement in New Delhi.
Hungary / East Germany – March 12, 1960 (HC)
Hungary and the GDR sign an agreement on the peaceful usage of nuclear energy.
West Germany / U.S. – March 12-22, 1960 (KCA)
Adenauer visits the U.S. and Japan. In Washington between March 15-16 Dr. Adenauer and President Eisenhower discuss disarmament, East-West relations, and the problem of Germany and Berlin. The President and the Chancellor reaffirm their commitment to achieving the reunification of Germany and that the preservation of “the freedom of the people of West Berlin… must underlie any future agreement affecting the city.”
Yugoslavia – March 15, 1960 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government’s desire to normalize relations with all religious denominations in Yugoslavia is revealed in a statement released by the Federal Executive Council.
Hungary / Poland – March 15, 1960 (HC)
A governmental delegation, led by János Kádár travels to Poland. On March 20 both countries sign an economic trade agreement for the period 1961-1965.
Soviet Union / U.S. – March 15-June 27, 1960 (LBC)
The Geneva disarmament talks begin. The West puts forward a joint proposal. First step: The establishment of an international disarmament agency, which supervises the reduction of armed forces. The coordinated reduction of armed forces to 1.5 million men each by the United States and the Soviet Union, and to a proportionate level by the other powers; the national armed forces would be supervised by an international disarmament organization; the figures of national defense budgets would be placed at its disposal; the deployment of weapons of mass destruction in outer space would be precluded; the production of fissionable material for military purposes would be terminated; there would be measures against surprise attacks; an international organization would be created under U.N. auspices to avoid aggression, the agreement would be extended to other states. Second step: Appropriate measures against surprise attacks; the maximization of armed forces for the U.S. and the Soviet Union on 2.1 million and the stocking of the amount and types of weapons agreed upon. Third step: further reduction of armed forces at the level required by international security, so that no country or groups of countries could oppose international law. The ban and further reduction of nuclear arms, the use of fissionable material for peaceful purposes; the final liquidation of military missiles; the establishment of an international organization to supervise military expenditure; the final reduction of armed forces; the supervision of the production of all types of weapons. – March 21. Proposal by Soviet delegate Zorin, who suggests that the reduction of nuclear arms should take precedence over the reduction of conventional arms. (The Soviet Union opposes the three step Western plan because the size of the armed forces, 2.1 million, would be higher than the 1957 proposal (1.7 million); the participants would be able to withdraw the weapons from storage facilities found on their own territory; there is no concrete time frame for its realization. – March 19. Eisenhower assures Khrushchev that the U.S. will not give nuclear arms to its allies. – The USSR proposes a limited test ban treaty. – March 29. The U.S. and Great Britain accept the Soviet proposal for a test ban treaty. – April 4, 1960: The Soviet representative to the Geneva Conference categorically rejects the Western disarmament proposals and will not regard them as a basis for discussion. He also rejects a U.S. proposal for a bilateral U.S.-Soviet agreement to prevent the military use of outer space. – April 5, 1960: The French spokesman for the Western Powers at the Geneva Conference states that the Western Powers will not use the Soviet plan or any plan similar to it as the basis for discussions. He then listen the disarmament principles that are fundamental for the Western Powers. The Soviet representative at the Geneva Conference suggests that the Eastern and Western Disarmament Plans be scrapped the conference should discuss principles from the U.N. General Assembly resolution of November 1959. He then suggests five basic principles as a starting point for discussions. The Western powers reject them claiming they are the same as the original Soviet proposals.
Poland – March 16, 1960 (KCA)
Poland becomes a member of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization.
Yugoslavia / Austria – March 16-19, 1960 (MOL)
The Foreign Minister of Austria, Bruno Kreisky visits Yugoslavia.
U.N. – March 17-April 26, 1960 (KCA)
The second United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea takes place.
Yugoslavia – March 18, 1960 (KCA)
The Roman Catholic Bishop of Skopje is given a suspended sentence of 18 months on charges of receiving money from the Holy See, and therefore, violating currency regulations.
Soviet Union / U.S. – March 19, 1960 (LBC)
Eisenhower assures Khrushchev that the U.S. will not give nuclear arms to its allies. – The USSR proposes a limited test ban treaty.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – March 19, 1960 (KCA)
An important step-forward occurs when it is announced that the Soviet Union has, in effect, accepted the American “threshold” figure submitted to the Geneva Conference on February 11, and also the proposal for three-Power research and experimentation in exchange for the Western Powers accepting a voluntary moratorium on nuclear tests below the “threshold.”
Soviet Union / France – March 23-April 2, 1960 (KCA)
Khrushchev visits France. He engages in political discussions with General de Gaulle at the Elysee Palace and Rambouillet and takes an extensive tour of the French provinces. In nearly all of his speeches in France, Khrushchev emphasizes the danger of a revival of “German militarism” and the importance of Franco-Soviet cooperation. In his major speech on March 24, Khrushchev stresses that the Soviet Union did not wish to drive France and her allies, Britain and America, apart. On April 2, Khrushchev makes a television broadcast to the French people. In addition, three communiqués are published at the conclusion of Khrushchev’s visit covering Khrushchev’s conversations with President de Gaulle, Franco-Soviet scientific and technical cooperation, and cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy.
Soviet Union / Ethiopia – March 27, 1960 (KCA)
A protocol on Soviet aid to Ethiopia is signed by the two Governments in Addis Ababa. It provides that the Soviet Union will build a large oil refinery at the Red Sea port of Assab, construct a gold mine with a processing plant, undertake an extensive geological survey of Ethiopia, and explore the possibility of building an iron and steel plant in Ethiopia. This protocol lays down the details for the agreement reached in July 1959 between the Emperor Haile Selassie and the Soviet Government.
Hungary – March 27, 1960 (HC)
Governmental resolution 1006/1960 aiming to strengthen collective farms through technical expertise is issued.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – March 29, 1960 (KCA)
Camp David talks between US President Eisenhower and British Prime Minister Macmillan end with a joint declaration signed by both, which states that 1) once a treaty is signed banning all tests of nuclear weapons above a seismic magnitude of 4.75, the two countries will agree to a moratorium on smaller detonations for an agreed duration; 2) such agreement will be conditional on the USSR entering into joint arrangements for coordinated research on methods of detection. On March 31, the proposals are formally put forward at Geneva. The Soviet representative calls them “hopeful” and an “encouraging step forward”, adding that it will be meticulously studied by the Soviet side.
Romania / U.S. – March 30, 1960 (LBC)
Romania and the U.S. sign an agreement for the settlement of American private claims against Romania, which pays 24.5 million dollars. As a result of the treaty the Romanian private claims in the U.S. are released.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – March 30, 1960 (HC)
Hungary and Czechoslovakia sign a long- term economic trade agreement.
Poland / Cuba – March 31, 1960 (KCA)
A Cuban-Polish trade and technical cooperation agreement is signed in Havana. Among other products, it provides Cuba with Polish ships, fishing vessels, aircraft, helicopters, steel foundries, and agricultural machinery. Cuba will export sugar, coffee, tobacco, canned fruit, copper nickel, and other metals to Poland.
Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / Poland / Yugoslavia / U.K. – April-May 1960 (KCA)
The United Kingdom appoints new ambassadors to several Eastern-bloc countries. Sir Frank Roberts is appointed Ambassador to the Soviet Union, A.H. Lincoln as Minister in Bulgaria, C. C. Parrott as Ambassador in Czechoslovakia, Sir George Clutton as Ambassador in Poland, and Michael Justin Creswell as Ambassador in Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – April 1, 1960 (LBC)
Yugoslav-American treaty is signed on the peaceful use of atomic energy. The U.S. provides Yugoslavia with a small nuclear test reactor. - May 5. The U.S. gives Yugoslavia a 14.5 million dollar loan to purchase U.S. made locomotives.
Hungary – April 1, 1960 (HC/ KCA)
On the occasion of the 15th anniversary of the liberation of Hungary the Presidential Council issues decree no. 10:1960 granting a partial political amnesty. Remaining terms of imprisonment not exceeding six years are reduced to three years probation. Those serving life sentences for crimes against humanity before December 31st, 1952 are also granted amnesty. Those who have served at least ten years are released. Well-known writers Tibor Déry and Gyula Hay as well as Imre Nagy’s son-in-law, Ferenc Jánosi, are released. Former Defense Minister Mihály Farkas, sentenced to 16 years’ imprisonment for “serious violations of the law,” is also released.
East Germany – April 3, 1960 (KCA)
Churches make strong protests about the methods used for collectivization under First Secretary Walter Ulbricht’s plan that was supposedly “voluntary.”
Bulgaria – April 5, 1960 (KCA)
Bulgaria becomes a member of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization.
Soviet Union / East Germany / Poland – April 5, 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet State Commission for investigating war crimes issues a statement that Dr. Oberlander, the West German Federal Minister for Refugees, is guilty of committing war crimes and crimes against humanity for his participation in the massacre of Polish Jews and Ukrainians in Lvov. These allegations when investigated at The Hague, were found to be without foundation. The GDR tried him in absentia from April 20-29 and found him guilty. West Germany did not recognize these proceedings. Oberlander resigned on May 4 but strongly denied the allegations and asked for a committee of inquiry to clear his name.
U.S. – April 6, 1960 (KCA)
The U.S. Information Service releases a summary to show the divergent positions of the Western and Soviet Disarmament proposals as of March 15, the opening day of the 10-nation Disarmament Conference.
Soviet Union – April 6, 1960 (KCA)
After circling the earth for 691 days, the Russian satellite Sputnik III, which was put into orbit on May 15, 1958, enters the denser layers of the atmosphere and disintegrates.
Soviet Union – April 7, 1960 (PLC)
The USSR declares that the illegal possession of radios is a crime.
Cyprus – April 7, 1960 (PLC)
The Cyprian constitution is accepted.
Czechoslovakia – April 9, 1960 (HC)
A new territorial division is passed into law in Czechoslovakia.
Soviet Union / U.S. / Western Europe – April 12, 1960 (LBC)
The Western powers agree on the agenda of the Geneva summit: disarmament and nuclear test ban treaty; Germany and Berlin; other East-West problems. – April 14. The West offers to terminate the production of atomic and hydrogen bombs and the international control of atomic bombs. – April 26. The disarmament principles of the West are revealed: disarmament is progressive, it is not tied to any time limit and starts with the simplest things. Conventional and nuclear disarmament is linked so that neither side can gain superiority. Disarmament must be controlled by an international organ tied to the U.N., weapons must be banned from outer space, weapons of mass destruction and their delivery vehicles are to be banned. The West recommends the establishment of mobile supervising groups to control arms reduction. The groups comprised of Soviet and American observers would start their work immediately to control mutual troop reductions. – April 13. Great Britain announces that it is terminating its Blue Streak nuclear program because it could be launched from a stationary launch pad only. – April 14. The State Department reveals that the U.S. is planning to sell mobile Polaris type IRBMs to England and other NATO states.
Hungary – April 12, 1960 (HC)
Government resolution 11:1960 validates Hungarian Civil Law.
East Germany / Czechoslovakia / Hungary / Soviet Union – April 14, 1960 (KCA/NNT)
The East German Government announces that after beginning in 1952 collectivization of agriculture in the GDR is complete. The GDR is the second Eastern European country outside the Soviet Union to have completely collectivized. Czechoslovakia and Hungary have “socialized” 70% of all farmland in each country and in Poland 88% of land is still worked by individual proprietors.
Indonesia / Hungary – April 14, 1960 (HC)
Sukarno, President of the Indonesian Republic arrives in Hungary for a four-day visit.
East Germany / West Germany – April 15, 1960 (KCA)
5,023 refugees arrive in the West, among them many peasant families, craftsmen, artisans, and small businessmen. For the whole of April 17,000 individuals fled to the West, the highest monthly total in a year and a half.
Yugoslavia – April 18-22, 1960 (KCA/MOL)
The Fifth Congress of the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Yugoslavia meets in Belgrade. President Tito opens the congress with a summary of economic developments since 1953 and of the Five-Year Plan for 1961-1965. He also spoke about the Yugoslav theory on the development of Socialist society, peaceful coexistence and the internal situation in Yugoslavia. The Congress decides that they should extend Alliance membership eligibility to all Yugoslav citizens who enjoy the right to vote. Minister of Interior Alexander Ranković is elected general secretary of the Alliance. Many foreign Socialist and nationalist delegations attended. None of the Eastern European Communist parties sent representatives but the Hungarian Patriotic People’s Front, the East German National Front, and the Polish National Unity Front sent observers.
Czechoslovakia – April 18-July 11, 1960 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Constitution undergoes changes. On April 18, Czechoslovakia publishes its new draft Constitution after the Czechoslovak Communist Party’s Central Committee has approved it. It replaces the Constitution adopted in 1948 and makes a number of changes. On July 5-6 the draft is submitted to a two-day Communist Party conference in Prague. President of the Republic, Antonin Novotny, proposes an amendment to the Constitution that officially describes Czechoslovakia as a “Socialist Republic” and not a “people’s democracy.” On June 12, general elections are held but prior to the elections a law reduces the membership of the National Assembly to 300. The Prime Minister is Viliam Siroky. On July 11 the new Constitution is unanimously adopted by parliament. Several Ministries are changed, renamed, merged, combined, or abolished.
Soviet Union / New Zealand – April 18-24, 1960 (KCA)
The New Zealand Prime Minister, Walter Nash, visits the Soviet Union at the invitation of the Soviet Government. He has discussions with Khrushchev at the Black Sea resort of Gagri on April 20; attends a luncheon given in his honor by the Soviet Government; talks with Mikoyan and Gromyko; calls on Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, Kliment Vorshilov; tours Moscow, Leningrad, and Kiev; and visits scientific and cultural institutions and places of historic interest. A joint Soviet-New Zealand communiqué is issued.
China – April 21, 1960 (PLC)
The Chinese communist Party announces its ultra-revolutionary theses on Lenin’s anniversary.
East Germany / West Germany – April 22, 1960 (KCA)
The German Federal Government reports that over 100,000 refugee farmers were already settled in West Germany after the war and 70,000 are already waiting for land. The current refugees will probably never farm again.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – April 25, 1960 (KCA)
The Geneva Conference resumes after the Easter recess and the Soviet representative is informed that America and Britain are ready to being a meeting of experts on May 11 to plan a three-Power seismic research program. The Soviet representative states that the Soviet Government hoped to accept that date or one near it.
Hungary – April 29, 1960 (KCA)
The ban on travel by American citizens to Hungary is lifted. It was implemented on February 3, 1956.
Albania / Soviet Union – May 1960 (KCA)
After the trial of Rear-Admiral Teme Sejko who was accused of leading a pro-Soviet group that planned a coup d’etat against Albanian leadership, relations between Soviet Union and Albania, already strained, further deteriorate.
Soviet Union / U.S. – May 1, 1960 (CAC/LBC/HC)
A U-2 type U.S. reconnaissance plane is shot down over the Soviet Union. Its pilot, Francis Gary Powers is captured. Initially the U.S. tried to deny the truth, later they admitted that the plane was performing military reconnaissance. – May 5. Khrushchev claims that the purpose of the mission was to torpedo the summit. – Khrushchev’s warning: the countries that permit reconnaissance planes to take off from their territories risk destruction by Soviet missiles. – May 16. The summit collapses on the opening day, since Eisenhower would not formally apologize for the U-2 incident, although it publicly suspended all U-2 flights. – The Soviet Union rejects the U.S. explanation to the effect that the U-2 mission served defense and security objectives. – May 26. The U.N. Security Council rejects by a 7:2 vote the Soviet Union’s draft resolution to condemn the U.S. for the U-2 incident. – May 27. At a Senate hearing Secretary of State Herter acknowledges that no separate decision was made to suspend the U-2 flights because of the upcoming summit. According to the U.S. the Soviet Union is continuously spying – in 1959, 300 agents had to be expelled – at the same time it would not agree to an “open skies” agreement which would make spying redundant.
West Germany / France / U.K. / U.S. – May 1, 1960 (KCA)
The three Western Commandants in Berlin issue a statement expressing concern at the “militaristic demonstration in the Soviet Sector” of Berlin for May Day celebrations.
East Germany / U.K. / U.S. – May 2, 1960 (KCA)
A British Foreign Office statement expresses the sympathy of the British Government with those subjected to collectivization – “a further tragic consequence of the inability of the Germans in the Soviet Zone to elect a government of their own choice.” The U.S. State Department expressed deep sympathy and “sorrow and indignation over this suppression of basic human rights.”
Poland / Czechoslovakia / Greece – May 2, 1960 (KCA)
For the first time since the war, the Greek Government resumes full diplomatic relations with Poland and Czechoslovakia and appoints Ministers to the Greek Legations in Warsaw and Prague. This follows the signing of important economic agreements by Greece with Poland and Czechoslovakia in March. The Greco-Polish agreement provides for the construction by a Polish group of a sugar-beet factory in northern Greece with a capacity of up to 2,000 tons per day. The cost of the factory, 90,000,000 drachmas, will be paid in the form of Greek products exported to Poland, and the remaining 10 percent will be paid in foreign currency to the Polish group. A contract signed between the Hellenic Telecommunications Organization and a Czechoslovak business provides for $3,000,000 worth of telephone equipment from the Czechoslovak business to be used for the extension of telephone exchanges in the leading cities of Greece. Payment to Czechoslovakia for the equipment will be made entirely in Greek tobacco exports.
Soviet Union / Burma – May 4, 1960 (KCA)
In an exchange of Notes, the Burmese and Soviet Governments agree to abandon the implementation of three of the Soviet “gift projects” agreed upon in 1957. They include a sports stadium, a theater, and agricultural and industrial exhibition buildings. The technological institute, a hotel, and a hospital agreed on will be completed.
Soviet Union – May 4, 1960 (KCA)
The following changes in the USSR Council of Ministers and in the leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union are announced: Frol Kozlov is relieved of his duties as First Deputy Premier of the Council of Ministers and becomes a secretary of the central committee of the CPSU; Alexei Kosygin becomes a First Deputy Premier in the Council of Ministers; Nikolai Ignatov becomes a Deputy Premier in the Council of Ministers; Ekaterina Furtseva becomes Minister of Culture; Vladimir Novikov comes a Deputy Premier in the USSR Council of Ministers and concurrently chairman of Gosplan; Alexei Kosygin, Nikolai Podgorny, and Dimitri Polyansky become members of the presidium of the central committee of the CPSU; A. B. Aristov and P. N. Pospelov are relieved of their duties as secretaries of the central committee, but Aristov remains a member of the party presidium and Pospelov as an alternate member; Nikolai Belyaev and Alexei Kirichenko are dropped from the presidium of the CPSU; Arseny Zverev, the Minister of Finance since 1946, asked to be relieved because of ill health. He is replaced by Vasily Garbuzov.
May 7, 1960: Marshal Voroshilov requests to be relieved of the chairmanship of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet on the grounds of ill health. Leonid Brezhnev is unanimously approved as his successor by the Supreme Soviet.
May 4, 1960: In the same session of the Supreme Soviet, Khrushchev announces the Government’s decision to abolish income taxes on the wages and salaries of factory and office workers, to be enacted between 1960-1965; abolish the tax on single men and women, people living alone, and those with small families; complete the change to the six or seven hour workday; make a start in 1964 to reduce the work day to six or five hours.
May 5, 1960: The central committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers has decided to revalue the ruble by raising “the purchasing power of the Soviet monetary unit tenfold and to raise the gold content of the ruble and its rate of exchange in relation to foreign currencies.” From January 1961 new currency will replace the current banknotes and with the issue of new currency all prices, charges, wages, pensions, etc. will be re-calculated on the scale of ten to one. The change has no real external effects as the Soviet currency is not exchangeable against foreign currencies in the non-communist world.
Soviet Union / Israel – May 4, 1960 (KCA)
The Israeli Foreign Ministry announces that the Soviet Government has rejected a request by Ben-Gurion for a meeting with Khrushchev in view of “statements by Israeli public figures, and even Ministers of the Government, that are not conducive to the furthering of peace.”
Yugoslavia / U.K. – May 5, 1960 (KCA)
An exchange of notes is published that provides for the British export to Yugoslavia of British books, films, and other educational and cultural material up to an annual value of £125,000.
Soviet Union / Togo – May 5, 1960 (KCA)
A joint communiqué issued by the Soviet Union and the Republic of Togo announces the agreement to establish diplomatic relations at the ambassadorial level following Togo’s proclamation of independence.
Soviet Union / Czechoslovakia – May 6, 1960 (KCA)
The man who assassinated Leon Trotsky in 1940 and was sentenced to 20 years’ imprisonment under the name of Jacques Mornard is released by the Mexican government and immediately deported. “Mornard” flew to Havana on a Czechoslovak passport accompanied by two officials of the Czechoslovak Embassy. He is expected to sail for Europe.
Soviet Union – May 7, 1960 (KCA)
Riga-born Soviet chessmaster Mikhail Tal becomes chess champion of the world at 23 after winning the title from Mikhail Botvinnik.
Soviet Union / Cuba – May 8, 1960 (KCA)
Embassy level diplomatic relations are resumed between Cuba and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Ambassador to Cuba, Sergei Kudriavstev, arrives on August 18.
Hungary – May 13, 1960 (HC)
The glass factory Zagyvapálfalva in Nógrád County is opened.
Soviet Union / U.S. – May 14, 1960 (KCA)
The International Academy of Astronauts is formed with both American and Soviet scientists as members.
Soviet Union – May 15, 1960 (KCA)
A 4.5 ton space ship with a pressurized cabin carrying a dummy pilot is launched in the Soviet Union. It is put into orbit at a height of about 200 miles and circled the earth every 91.2 minutes. Clear signals are received in many parts of the world including the Soviet Union, the United States, and Britain.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – May 16, 1960 (KCA)
The Summit Conference is supposed to convene in Paris, but breaks down before the opening session owing to demands made by Khrushchev to President Eisenhower in connection with the U-2 incident. At a private meeting, Khrushchev asserts that U.S. reconnaissance flights over Soviet territory “have been and remain the calculated policy of the United States.” Therefore, the Soviet Union cannot participate in the Summit Conference unless the U.S. Government immediately stops these flights over Soviet territory, apologizes for the past flights, and punishes the persons responsible. Khrushchev also proposes that the conference be postponed for six to eight months. Khrushchev also states that the “provocative and aggressive” actions of the U.S. towards the Soviet Union make it inadvisable for the President to visit the USSR in June. President Eisenhower responds that the flights had been stopped and will not be resumed and are not an issue for the Summit Conference. Khrushchev had accused that the conference had been “torpedoed” by “American reactionary circles” and the President responds that Khrushchev, after “brushing aside all arguments of reason,” came “all the way from Moscow to Paris with the sole intention of sabotaging this meeting on which so much of the hopes of the world have rested.” Subsequent attempts by President de Gaulle and Macmillan to save the conference fail and the U.S. President, the British Prime Minister and the Soviet Prime Minister leave Paris on May 19.
Hungary – May 17, 1960 (KCA/HC)
General Géza Révész, Minister of Defense since 1957, has been appointed Ambassador in Moscow and will be succeeded at the Defense Ministry by Lieutenant-General Lajos Czinege.
Soviet Union – May 18, 1960 (KCA)
While still in Paris after the failed Summit meeting of May 16, Khrushchev holds a press conference. During the question session Khrushchev confirms that the Soviet Union will continue to participate in the Geneva negotiations but “About the disarmament talks – we are almost convinced that our partners in Geneva do not want disarmament…. What is happening in Geneva is merely procrastination.” He states that if the procrastination continues the Soviet Union will take the issue to the U.N. General Assembly. He also announces the intentions of the Soviet Union to conclude a separate peace treaty in Berlin.
Romania / Eastern Block – May 20-27, 1960 (HC)
An assembly of the Communist parties of the Socialist countries takes place in Bucharest.
Soviet Union / East Germany – May 20-30, 1960 (KCA)
Khrushchev visits East Berlin for discussions with East German leaders. In a speech at which Walter Ulbricht, Prime Minister Otto Grotewohl, and Marshal Malinovsky are present, Khrushchev reiterated that the Summit meeting of May 16 was wrecked by U.S. actions but emphasized that the USSR would “do nothing to worsen the international situation and bring it back to the worst time of the Cold War.” His speech in East Berlin is moderate and contains an assurance that the Soviet Union will “continue to follow the Leninist policy of peaceful co-existence.” He also maintained the Soviet Union’s right to conclude a peace treaty with Eastern Germany, but indicated that the present situation in Berlin would have to be maintained until a new summit conference can be held. On May 30, Marshal Malinovsky states that he has ordered the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Rocket Forces to strike at any base used by an intruder plane if the Soviet Union’s airspace is violated.
Hungary – May 27-28, 1960 (HC)
The Second National Congress of the Patriotic People’s Front takes place in Budapest.
Soviet Union – May 30, 1960 (KCA)
The newspaper Izvestia, published by the Soviet Government, appears for the first time as an evening paper instead of a morning paper.
Soviet Union – May 30, 1960 (KCA)
Acclaimed novelist, poet, and Dr. Zhivago author Boris Pasternak dies near Moscow.
Romania – June 20-25, 1960 (SRR)
The Party’s third congress is held in Bucharest. Gheorghiu-Dej summarizes the country’s economic achievements and outlines future economic goals. He urges the acceptance of a proposed six-year plan and claims that the rate of growth in industrial production is the fastest in Eastern Europe, the collectivization of agriculture is virtually complete. Romania proclaims to have reached a sufficient level of socialist development that entitled the country to major status in the Soviet bloc and COMECON.
Yugoslavia / Indonesia – June 1960 (MOL)
Indonesian President Sukarno visits Yugoslavia.
Soviet Union / U.S. – June 2, 1960 (CAC/LBC)
The Soviet Union makes a proposal for general and complete disarmament. The Soviet Union puts forward a new three step disarmament plan. Disarmament would be supervised by an international organ, the members of which would receive the right to veto certain issues. Disarmament would be controlled from the air and the ground, international observers would have to be allowed to visit any territory. In the first step the accumulation and production of nuclear weapons would be banned and nuclear arms delivery vehicles would be destroyed. The second phase would maximize the armed forces of the USSR and the U.S. to 1.7 million; in the third step all armed forces except limited militias would be eliminated. – June 17. Critique of the Soviet plan: if in the first step nuclear arms would be liquidated, the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Europe would upset the military balance and the small countries of Europe would be at the mercy of the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union – June 3, 1960 (KCA)
At a Kremlin press conference, Khrushchev announces a new disarmament proposal that would have been presented by the USSR at the Summit Conference in Paris that was aborted on May 16. He also makes a personal attack on President Eisenhower, calling his presidency a “dark period” in American and world history. Though he expressed support for the Soviet disarmament proposal of September 1959 (presented to the United Nations) he stated that the Soviet Government were “prepared to agree on a different sequence for carrying out disarmament measures, if that sequence is more acceptable to the Western Powers.” A draft of a disarmament treaty was sent by Khrushchev to the Heads of Governments of all countries.
Finland – June 4, 1960 (MKM)
An equestrian statue of Former Finnish President Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim is unveiled in Helsinki city centre.
Soviet Union – June 7, 1960 (KCA)
It is announced in Moscow that Professor Vassily Emelyanov has been appointed chairman of the State Atomic Energy Committee of the USSR Council of Ministers. Professor Emelyanov was chief of the Central Atomic Energy Board, which was recently reorganized under the above name.
Yugoslavia / Egypt – June 7-24, 1960 (KCA/MOL)
President of the United Arab Republic Gamal Abdel Nasser makes State visits to Greece and Yugoslavia. On June 13 he makes his third trip to Yugoslavia and begins discussions with President Tito on non-alignment and neutrality at the Isle of Brioni. At the end of Nasser's visit, on June 20, a joint communiqué is released covering several issues: world peace being a task for all countries, not just the Great Powers; the value of Soviet disarmament proposals; the desire to increase efforts for the development of emerging countries; the ending of the Algerian war based on self-determination; and the construction of a joint ministerial committee between Yugoslavia and the UAR to increase cooperation in economic, technical and commercial fields.
East Germany / Soviet Union – June 8, 1960 (KCA)
The Committee of Free Jurists in West Berlin announces that Dr. Walter Linse, the former leader of the Free Jurists died in the Soviet Union on December 15, 1953 following his kidnapping and transport to East Berlin in July 1952. The death of Dr. Linse had been reported by the Soviet Red Cross in response to inquiries from the West German Red Cross. The Soviet authorities had previously denied all knowledge of the matter. The kidnapping was carried out by the East German security services. Dr. Linse was reported to have been handed over to the Russians in the autumn of 1952 and sentenced to 25 years’ imprisonment.
Soviet Union / Switzerland – June 9, 1960 (KCA)
Josef Kuzmin is appointed ambassador to Switzerland on June 9,and is replaced as chairman of the State Scientific and Economic Committee by Alexander Zasyadko. On June 15, Kirichnko is dismissed as party secretary in the Rostov region. Belyaev is dismissed from his post in Stavropol on June 26.
Czechoslovakia / Cuba – June 10, 1960 (KCA)
Cuba and Czechoslovakia sign an economic and trade and payments agreement in which Czechoslovakia grants Cuba up to $20,000,000 in credit for the purchase of industrial plants and machinery. Eight factories in Cuba will be built by the Czechoslovak Technoexportorganization.
Soviet Union / China – June 13-16, 1960 (PLC)
Sino-Soviet tensions increase at the socialist countries’ meeting in Bucharest on the eve of the Communist Romanian Workers’ Party’s upcoming 8th congress (June 20-25). Only the Albanian Communist Party supports the CPC.
Soviet Union / Switzerland – June 16, 1960 (KCA)
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announces an agreement for exchanging scientists with the Nuclear Research Center at Dubna. Three Soviet scientists will arrive in Geneva for a six-month stay and in the future three CERN scientists will travel to Dubna.
Poland / Cuba – June 19-25, 1960 (KCA)
Captain Nunez Jimenez visits Warsaw, meets with Gomulka and other Polish Ministers. Diplomatic relations between Cuba and Poland will resume. An agreement for the expansion of Cuban-Polish trade and scientific and technical cooperation is signed.
Soviet Bloc / Asia – June 20-25, 1960 (CAC/KCA)
Party leaders of all the Eastern European and Asian Communist countries except for Yugoslavia met at the third congress of the Romanian Workers’ Party. On June 24, the twelve countries release a communiqué restating their support for Khrushchev’s policy of “peaceful coexistence” and their view that the current state of the world reaffirms the correctness of the Marxist-Leninist theses. Khrushchev addresses the leaders and defends his actions at the Summit conference as there was criticism in some communist countries of his actions. There a division of opinion between the Soviet and Chinese Communist parties is apparent. During the Soviet–Chinese row at the Romanian party congress, Albania sides with China.
Romania / Soviet Union – June 21, 1960 (LBC)
Prime Minister Khrushchev’s speech at the Congress of the Romanian communist party: Contrary to Lenin’s statement war is not inevitable among present circumstances, the only way is peaceful coexistence.
Greece / Turkey / Yugoslavia – June 24, 1960 (PLC/KCA)
The Greek Foreign Ministry announces that the 1954 Balkan alliance between Greece, Yugoslavia, and Turkey has “ceased functioning in its original form.” This supports an earlier Yugoslav declaration that the Pact had basically ceased to exist.
Soviet Union / Warsaw Pact – June 24, 1960 (KCA)
Marshal Andrei Grechko succeeds Marshal Ivan Koniev after he is relieved of his post as Commander-in-Chief of the joint armed forces of the Warsaw Treaty countries. Marshal Koniev requested to be relieved for health reasons.
Soviet Bloc – June 24, 1960 (MMS)
Summit meeting of the Soviet Bloc leaders in Bucharest.
Soviet Union / U.S. – June 25, 1960 (LBC)
The Senate Foreign Relations Committee’s report on the U-2 incident on the basis of the hearings: the U.S. government, in view of the Soviet tradition of secrecy should have stopped the U-2 mission in view of the upcoming summit even though report came of “important information” (the committee was not informed of this); President Eisenhower made a mistake by taking responsibility for the incident when based on Khrushchev’s remarks he could have avoided it. Because of the U-2 incident the summit was canceled.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – June 25, 1960 (MOL)
Yugoslav spokesman Drago Kunc condemns First Secretary of the CPSU Nikita S. Khrushchev for his incorrect assessment of Yugoslav foreign policy at the third congress of the Romanian Workers' Party.
Poland / India – June 27, 1960 (KCA)
India and Poland sign a shipping agreement providing for a regular service to operate between the two countries with 12 yearly trips each way.
Soviet Union – June 27, 1960 (LBC)
The Soviet Union unilaterally cancels the Geneva disarmament talks. The reason: the West did not consider seriously the Soviet disarmament proposal of June 2. The Soviet delegates and the East European participants left the meeting despite the fact that the Western side announced through informal channels that a new proposal would be presented in a couple of days. – The new disarmament proposal is revealed, which places the main emphasis is on measures against surprise attacks, the annihilation of nuclear delivery vehicles and the strict supervision of all stages of disarmament. The compromise proposal aims at general and full disarmament, only an armed international contingent for peace supervision would remain.
Yugoslavia / The Netherlands June 29, 1960 (MOL)
The Foreign Minister of the Netherlands visits Yugoslavia.
Soviet Union / East Germany – June 30, 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet Government issues notes to the three Western ambassadors protesting against the use of West Berlin for West Germany’s military preparations. These follow similar notes issued by the GDR on June 6. The West Berlin Government denies that the Budeswehr is recruiting in West Berlin, an allegation in the note.
Soviet Union / Austria – June 30-July 12, 1960 (KCA)
Khrushchev and his delegation arrive in Vienna on June 30 on a state visit to Austria. Khrushchev’s delegation tours the country and meets with members of the Austrian Government. He gives many speeches and a press conference in which he criticizes the U.S. and West Germany, states that the NATO bases in Italy are a threat to Austria, that the Soviet Union will defend Austria’s neutrality, and attacks Adenauer. Khrushchev gives a television broadcast on July 7 on the Soviet Union’s economic progress and the issue of disarmament. On July 8 a joint Austro-Soviet communiqué is issued. After receiving notification of the U.S. and West German concerns regarding the failure of the Austrian Government to disassociate itself from the attacks made by Khrushchev, Raab distances himself from Khrushchev’s attacks on West Germany, Italy, the U.S., and particularly, Adenauer. He also states that protecting Austria’s neutrality is exclusively an Austrian affair. On July 12 an Austrian Cabinet communiqué states the rejection of the US and West German protests as the Austrian government had no way to alter Khrushchev’s speeches on Austrian territory but that it did not agree with the substance of them.
COMECON – July 1960 (CEC)
The 13th session of COMECON is held in Budapest. The main topics are the specialization in agriculture, agricultural engineering, farm chemicals and engineering. The unification of long term plan period with 1980 horizon is envisaged. A commission is set up on use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. The COMECON Rules of Procedure are agreed.
Hungary – July 1960 (KCA)
Preliminary statistics from the January 1, 1960 census taken in Hungary are published. The population was 9,977,879 of which 5,160,515 are women. 5,300,000 people are employed, 1,860,000 of these work in agriculture. The populations of the largest cities are included and Budapest has a population of 1,807,299.
Yugoslavia / Greece – July 1960 (MOL)
The Foreign Minister of Greece, Constantine Karamanlis visits Tito.
Yugoslavia / U.N. – July 1960 (RYN)
Yugoslavia supports the U.N. intervention in Congo. It responds promptly to U.N. Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld's request for technical personnel, contributing pilots and mechanics to the United Nation Operation in the Congo (ONUC).
Soviet Union / Western Bloc / U.N. – July 1960 (KCA)
On July 1, an American RB-47 out of a base in Britain is shot down by a Soviet fighter while on an electro-magnetic survey flight over the Arctic Ocean. The American search for the plane was called off on July 7. On July 11, the Soviets present Notes to Norway, Britain, and the U.S., stating that they had shot down the plane, killing four of the six crewmen. Soviet authorities claim the plane violated Soviet airspace and territorial waters. The U.S. maintains that it was shot down over international waters and had not violated Soviet airspace and demands the return of the two surviving crewmembers. At a Kremlin press conference on July 12, Khrushchev accuses the U.S. of “openly provoking a serious war conflict.” Gromyko sends a message to the Security Council president on July 13 asking for an urgent meeting of the Council to consider the incident. The Security Council holds a debate on the issue from July 22-26. The debates end with Soviet vetoes of a U.S. draft resolution on an investigation of the incident and an Italian draft resolution on allowing the International Red Cross to have access to the two survivors. On July 26 the Soviet, American, and Italian resolutions all fail due to lack of support or veto.On July 13, a separate aide-memoireis sent to the U.S. by the Soviets protesting the repeated “buzzing” of Soviet ships by American aircraft. The U.S. denies these allegations. The same complaint was made to the U.K., Canada, France, Norway, and Denmark.
Indonesia / Czechoslovakia / Hungary / Romania – July 1960 (KCA)
On his tour of Eastern Europe, the Indonesian Prime Minister signs an agreement on Soviet aid to Indonesia on the use of atomic energy and a long term trade agreement. In Prague the Minister concludes an economic agreement under which complete factories, industrial equipment, and other capital goods of a total value of 12,000,000 rupiahs will be provided by Czechoslovakia. In Hungary, in it agreed that a Hungarian delegation will visit Indonesia within the year to negotiate a technical and scientific cooperation agreement covering mining, oil prospecting, communications and other fields. In Romania the Minister and the Romanian Prime Minister agree to exchange trade missions to explore the possibility of concluding a long-term trade agreement between the two countries.
Cyprus / Greece / Turkey / U.K. – July 1, 1960 (PLC)
Treaty of guarantee between the Republic of Cyprus and Greece, the United Kingdom and Turkey, and alliance treaties between Cyprus and Greece and Cyprus and Turkey signed, thereby making Cyprus an indirect NATO member.
Poland / U.S. – July 2, 1960 (KCA)
The U.S. and Poland sign a further agreement for the sale of U.S. surplus farm products to Poland. Including $10,500,000 in ocean freight charges, the total amount involved is $130,000,000. Also $61,000,000 of credit is extended to the Polish Government by the Export-Import Bank intended for purchasing medical supplies, industrial equipment, and farm products.
Soviet Union – July 5-7, 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet Union launches two successful tests of a multi-stage ballistic rocket designed for space flight.
Italy – July 5-7 (KCA)
During a series of Neo-Fascist, Anti-Fascist, and Communist demonstrations in Italy a Molotov cocktail is thrown into the gardens of the Soviet Trade Office in Rome and explodes and a large bomb is found in the courtyard of the Soviet Embassy in Rome. Another bomb is found outside the Hungarian legation.
Soviet Union / Cuba / U.S. – July 9, 1960 (KCA)
Khrushchev states the Soviet Government’s total support for the Cuban revolution, accuses the U.S. of plotting against Cuba, and criticizes the U.S. reduction of the Cuban sugar quota. Khrushchev implies that the USSR would respond with rockets if the U.S. attempts a military intervention in Cuba. President Eisenhower issues a statement declaring that the U.S. will never allow the establishment of a Communist regime in the Western Hemisphere.
Soviet Union / U.S. – July 11, 1960 (LBC)
The Soviet air defense shoots down an RB-47 type aircraft, which was allegedly performing air reconnaissance over Soviet territory. The U.S. denies this and questions whether the plane strayed over Soviet territory. – July 12. Khrushchev’s war threat: The U.S. is increasing international tension; it is threatening with war. He holds Eisenhower personally responsible, just like the British and the Norwegian prime ministers for providing the spy plane with bases. – The U.S. announces: the plane was over international waters and never got 30 miles closer to Soviet waters. The plane was carrying out electromagnetic observations going on for ten years. – Britain announces it will discuss the question of bases with the U.S. – The democratic platform is announced in the U.S.. According to this the U.S. cannot live in armed camps with totalitarian ideologies. A lasting peace is needed in which the universal values of human dignity, the law secures justice. Therefore America’s military, political economic and moral strength must be restored. In the field of disarmament the banning of nuclear tests must be accomplished, outer space can be used for peaceful purposes only, the possibility of surprise attack and accidental war must be avoided. – For the captive nations: the U.S. strives for lasting friendship with these nations, which penetrates deeper than ideology and politics and promotes a better world. The U.S. wants better relations through personal, cultural, commercial and non-government links. – July 15: the Soviet Union’s note to the U.S.: Moscow rejects the U.S. claim according to which the U.S. RB-47 was conducting legal experiments over the Barents Sea. – July 18. The American response: the USSR shot down the plane illegally and the crew’s release is demanded. – July 19. British Prime Minister MacMillan’s letter to Khrushchev: “due to mistakes or accidents we can all end up in a situation we cannot escape”.
Czechoslovakia – July 11, 1960 (PLC)
According to its new constitution, Czechoslovakia’s new name is Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
Soviet Union / U.S. – July 12, 1960 (CWC)
At a press conference, Khrushchev states that the Monroe Doctrine has died and it should be buried. He also states that rumors that the Soviet Union wants bases in Cuba are incorrect. The Soviet Union does not want to interfere in Latin American affairs and Dr. Castro’s regime is not communist, he states. In response, a reaffirmation of the Monroe Doctrine’s principles is issued by the U.S. State Department. The statement also says the Soviet accusations of U.S. aggression against Cuba are a non-existent threat. On August 10, President Eisenhower states that if Cuba or any other country falls under the control of international Communism, definite action by the U.S. will be required.
East Germany – July 14, 1960 (KCA)
It is announced that the East German Deputy Premier and Defense Minister is relieved of his Defense portfolio and given the task of “coordinating and controlling the execution of, the decisions of the central committee of the Socialist Unity Party and the Council of Ministers.” Colonel-General Heinz Hoffmann becomes the new Defense Minister. Several other cabinet changes are made.
Soviet Union – July 16, 1960 (KCA)
It is announced that Leonid Brezhnev has been elected as chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and will no longer be secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party. Former head of state Marshal Voroshilov had requested to be relieved from membership of the Presidium for health reasons, but he is still a member of the Supreme Soviet.
Poland / U.S. – July 16, 1960 (LBC/PSN)
Under the Polish-American agreement Poland will pay $40 million in twenty years installments to American citizens for property which has been nationalized in Poland. Poland starts talks on the compensation of American owners of 45 million dollars worth of bonds issued by the Polish government in the interwar years. The U.S. releases one million dollars worth of Polish property frozen after World War II. – July 21. A Polish-American aid agreement is signed which envisions the sale of 130 million dollars of American agricultural commodities for zlotys. This included in the past four years the U.S. sold 426 million dollars of agricultural goods to Poland.
Cuba / Eastern Europe – July 17-21, 1960 (KCA)
Major Raul Castro visits Moscow on his “goodwill tour” of Eastern Europe. On July 21, a communiqué is issued that states Major Castro’s gratitude, on behalf of the Cuban Government, for the political and moral support of the USSR. It also states Khrushchev’s confirmation that the Soviet Union will use all means to prevent a military intervention in Cuba by the U.S.
Hungary – July 19, 1960 (HC)
An international pest control conference takes place in Budapest.
Soviet Union / U.S. / U.N./ Belgium – July 20-21, 1960 (KCA)
At the Security Council debate, the Soviet representative at the United Nations accuses Belgium of “continuing an open struggle against the legitimate Government of the Congo Republic.” He also submits a draft resolution that proposes the immediate end to armed intervention in the Congo and the withdrawal of the forces and calls on the U.N. to respect the territorial integrity of the Congo Republic. He later asserts that the U.S. is mistaken if it thinks it can “bully” the Soviet Union in regards to the Congo. The USSR later withdrew its proposal.
U.S. / U.N. – July 21, 1960 (KCA)
The U.S. requests a convening of the U.N. Disarmament Commission to continue discussions following the breakup of the 10-nation talks by the Soviet Union. August 16-18: The U.N. Disarmament Commission holds a three-day meeting at the initiative of the U.S. Government on July 21 and unanimously adopts a resolution to continue efforts for the earliest possible continuation of negotiations to find a solution to the question of disarmament under international control.
East Germany / Cuba – July 21, 1960 (KCA)
The East German News Agency reports that 15 complete factories will be built for Cuba by the GDR. This is an attempt to make Cuba independent of Western imports in certain fields.
Soviet Union / U.S. – July 22, 1960 (LBC)
Soviet U.N. representative Kuznetsov on the RB-47 incident: “this is not yet war, but preparation for war”. According to Kuznetsov England and Norway became “accomplices” by placing their bases at the U.S.’s disposal. – July 25. According to Kuznetsov the RB-47 was obviously on an aggressive mission. – July 26. The U.N. Security Council rejects the Soviet draft proposal to condemn the U.S. for performing intelligence flights over the USSR. At the same time the USSR vetoes the U.S. proposal to investigate the incident on the spot and rejects an Italian proposal for the Red Cross to contact the American crew on a humanitarian basis. – U.N. representative Cabot-Lodge claims there is proof that a Soviet fighter wanted to force the RB-47, which was flying 50 miles north of the USSR to fly over Soviet territory and then at time different from the one signaled by the Soviet Union shot it from Soviet territory. According to Lodge the Soviet Union is carrying out extensive spying close to the American coast with specially equipped ships and planes.
July 25, 1960 (CAC)
Soviet Marshal Andrei Grechko replaces Marshal Ivan Konev as Warsaw
Pact supreme commander.
COMECON – July 26-29, 1960 (HC/MMS)
The 13th session of the COMECON takes place in Budapest.
Czechoslovakia / Indonesia – July 27, 1960 (KCA)
A weekly air service between Prague and Jakarta via Ciaro, Bombay, and Rangoon comes into operation.
Cyprus – July 31, 1960 (PLC)
First Cyprian parliamentary elections mirror ethnic cleavages: Greek Cypriotes gain
35, Turkish Cypriotes gain 15 mandates.
Hungary / Italy – August 25-September 11 1960 (HC)
The XVII Summer Olympic Games take place in Rome. Hungarian athletes win six gold, eight silver and seven bronze medals.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – August 1960 (MOL)
U.S. Deputy Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Dillon visits Yugoslavia. According to Hungarian sources, the Yugoslavs suggest the signing of a new 5-year barter agreement between Yugoslavia and the United States and ask for further credit for the Yugoslav economy and planned currency reform.
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 1, 1960 (LBC)
The U.S. rejects a Soviet proposal to continue disarmament talks within the U.N. – August 16. The USSR rejects the U.S. proposal for nuclear arms reduction, which recommended that the two powers hand over 30 thousand kilograms of U-235 for peaceful aims.
Soviet Union / U.K. – August 3, 1960 (KCA)
Khrushchev replies to Macmillan’s letter of July 19 regarding the British Prime Minister’s concern over new trends in Soviet policy following the breakdown of the Summit meeting. Khrushchev’s letter agrees that relations have deteriorated but blames this and the wrecking of the meeting in Paris on the United States.
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 4, 1960 (KCA)
Although the Soviet Union did not reply to a U.S. note sent on May 10 or an aide-memoire on July 11, regarding the trial and treatment of U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers, it did reply to a second note sent on July 30. On August 4 the Soviet Foreign Ministry stated that the Power’s family’s attorneys would not be allowed to participate in the case but that his family could meet with the lawyer provided to Powers.
Soviet Union – August 5, 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet Union issues a decree proclaiming that the Soviet Union’s territorial waters will extend 12 nautical miles from the coastal base lines but that different limits may be set under special agreements between the Soviet Union and other countries.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – August 12, 1960 (KCA)
British, French, and U.S. notes are sent to Moscow and refute the Soviet accusations made in Soviet notes sent on June 30.
Albania – August 13, 1960 (PLC)
Enver Hoxha rejects Khrushchev’s invitation to Moscow.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – August 13, 1960 (MOL)
An announcement is issued on the discussions between the representatives of the British Labor Party and the League of Communists of Yugoslavia.
Hungary / U.S. – August 13, 1960 (LBC)
The State Department does not allow the Hungarian military attaché to return to the U.S. after vacation. He is accused of wanting to acquire secret military information.
Cyprus – August 16, 1960 (PLC)
After 82 years of British rule, Cyprian independence is declared. Greek archbishop Makarios III sworn in as president, Turkish Fazıl Küçük becomes vice-president.
Hungary/Cuba – August 16, 1960 (HC)
Hungary and Cuba sign a long-term economic trade agreement for the period 1961-1965 in Havana.
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 17-19, 1960 (KCA)
The trial of American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers begins in Moscow. Powers is charged under Article 2 of the Law on Criminal Responsibility for Crimes against the State. If convicted he could be sentenced to death or to imprisonment for up to 15 years. The indictment gives the full details of the flight and crash and states that Powers has confessed his guilt. August 19: Following the presentations by the prosecution, and the defense and Powers’ testimony the judges deliberated for four hours and then sentenced Powers to ten years confinement, the first three to be served in prison. A personal appeal for clemency is filed by Powers to Khrushchev and a similar appeal will be sent to Soviet head of state Brezhnev by the Powers family.
Soviet Union – August 19-21, 1960 (KCA)
A second Soviet spaceship is put into orbit with mice, rats, two dogs, plants and other organisms aboard on August 19. The ship travels 700,000 kilometers and is brought back to earth on August 21 with the animals unharmed.
East Germany / Burma – August 25, 1960 (KCA)
Notes are exchanged in Rangoon between the East German Deputy Premier and the Burmese Foreign Minister providing for the opening of consular relations between the two states. However, Burmese officials state that this does not imply Burmese diplomatic recognition of the German Democratic Republic.
Soviet Union / Ghana – August 25, 1960 (KCA)
A Soviet-Ghanaian cultural agreement and a protocol on cultural exchanges between the USSR and Ghana for 1960-61 are signed. On August 28 an economic and techtnical cooperation agreement is signed in Moscow.
Soviet Union / Egypt – August 27, 1960 (KCA)
The U.A.R. and the USSR sign an agreement providing for Soviet economic and technical assistance in completing the final stage in building the Aswan High Dam. A long-term loan of 900,000,000 rubles is included.
East Germany / West Germany – August 30, 1960 (KCA)
The East German Government announces that from midnight August 30-31 until midnight September 4-5 only West German citizens with valid residence visas are permitted to cross into the Eastern zone. These restrictions are intended to prevent the use of territory of the GDR for militaristic and revanchist meetings. This is in reference to German Association of Ex-prisoners of War and Missing Person’s Relatives’ rally and the German Federal Refugee Association’s rally to be held in West Berlin from September 1-4. West Berlin citizens are exempted from the ban.
Soviet Union / India – August 30, 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet Government grants India an additional 500,000,000 rubles of credit for India’s Third Five-Year Plan.
East Germany – August 31, 1960 (KCA)
The Three Western Commandants in Berlin protest the restrictions announced by the Soviets on August 30 to the Soviet Commandant as a violation of the agreements of June 20, 1949. A statement is issued in Bonn condemning the East German actions in Berlin as illegal and that the organizations holding rallies were neither militaristic nor revanchist. – The Eastern sector of Berlin is sealed off from all West German citizens without special permits. On September 1, the restrictions are extended to the border between East and West Germany. The rallies pass quietly.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – September 1, 1960 (HC)
Visa requirements for travel between Hungary and Czechoslovakia are eliminated.
East Germany / West Germany / France / U.K. / U.S. – September 3, 1960 (KCA)
The British, French and American Ambassadors in Bonn issue statements condemning the East German action and reaffirming the right of the Western Allies to decide who may travel in the air corridors to Berlin.
Finland / Soviet Union – September 3, 1960 (KMP)
The sixtieth birthday celebration of President Urho Kaleva Kekkonen’s, in which the Soviet First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev also participates, takes place. During the meeting Khrushchev states that the Soviet Union will not complicate the ongoing negotiations of Finland’s EFTA membership but in return will expect her to keep the Soviet Union as the most-favored nation in trade.
East Germany / West Germany – September 5, 1960 (KCA)
The Ban on travel of West Germans to East Berlin is lifted but the East German News Agency warns that the West Germany is planning “new provocations” and that Ulbricht has declared that no representative of the West German Government has any reason to be in Berlin.
France – September 5, 1960 (LBC)
Speech by French President Charles de Gaulle on NATO: NATO will have to be changed in at least two respects: it must be extended to the Middle East and Africa, secondly, beside integration defense must receive a national dimension. According to the President it has to be founded on European cooperation and the “reality” of the nation state. – October 9. According to de Gaulle without an independent nuclear force France would not be a European power or sovereign state, only an integrated satellite.
Soviet Union / Austria – September 5, 1960 (KCA)
Vyacheslav Molotov arrives in Vienna as the new permanent Soviet representative to the International Atomic Energy Agency; unlike his predecessor, Molotov is granted ambassadorial status.
Soviet Union / U.N. – September 5, 1960 (KCA)
UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld questions the Soviet delegation to the U.N. about the direct Soviet aid sent to Lumumba’s government in the Congo.
Soviet Union / U.S. – September 6, 1960 (KCA)
Wlliam H. Martin and Berron F. Michell, two mathematicians employed by the American National Security Agency appear in Moscow after disappearing in June. They have defected to the USSR and at a press conference state the reasons for their defection and attack the U.S. Government its policies “dangerous to world peace.” Their statement alleges that the U.S. has deliberately violated the airspace of other nations for many years. Their position within the NSA and the information they had access to “could in no way be prejudicial to the security of U.S. communications” reports the Pentagon. The Soviet Union has granted them citizenship. On the same date, in a statement, President Eisenhower describes the two men as “self-confessed traitors” and the U.S. Department of Defense issues a statement denying the allegations of the two mathematicians.
East Germany – September 7, 1960 (KCA)
President of the German Democratic Republic, Wilhelm Pieck, dies at age 84.
Soviet Union / U.S. – September 7, 1960 (KCA)
President Eisenhower states that the U.S. views the Soviet supply of aircraft and other material to Lumumba’s government in the Congo very seriously and urged the Soviet Government to stop its unilateral actions and support the collective efforts of the U.N.
Soviet Union / Congo / U.S. / U.N. – September 8, 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet Tass Agency publishes an attack on the U.N. Command in the Congo, accusing the U.N. of conspiring with the “deposed President” Kasavubu who is an “instrument of imperialist policy.” It alleges that the U.S. and other Western Powers are using the flag of the U.N. in order to intervene in the Congolese internal affairs. On September 9 an urgent meeting of the Security Council is held at the request of Hammarskjold. The Soviet Union and Yugoslavia had also requested meetings. The Soviet Union requested a meeting in a statement demanding the replacement of the present U.N. Command in the Congo and for the airfields and Leopoldville radio to be returned to Lumumba’s Government.
East Germany – September 8, 1960 (AGD)
The GDR submits a plan for the disarmament and neutrality of Germany to the United Nations General Assembly.
East Germany – September 8, 1960 (KCA)
New restrictions on free travel in Berlin are imposed by the East German Council of Ministers. West German citizens need permits for any entry into East Berlin. Brandt warns the West Berlin Senate that further East German restrictions are to be expected. A British Foreign Office spokesman denounces the East German restrictions.
Yugoslavia / U.N. – September 8, 1960 (KCA)
The Yugoslav permanent delegate to the U.N., Dobrivoje Vidić, criticizes the actions of the U.N. Command in the Congo in a letter to the Security Council President.
East Germany / West Germany / France / U.K. / U.S. – September 9, 1960 (KCA/ADG)
The French Commandant and acting Allied chairman personally protests to General Zakharov on the instructions of the British, American and French governments. A three-Power working committee meets to agree on counter-measures to the restrictions to East Berlin. The Allies agree to refuse temporary travel permits to certain groups of East Germans wishing to travel to the West.
Soviet Union / Mongolia – September 9, 1960 (KCA)
Khrushchev and the Mongolian Prime Minister, Marshal Zedenbal, sign an agreement under which the Soviet Government is responsible for granting additional economic and technical aid to Mongolia to assist in the implementation of Mongolia’s third Five Year Plan. The Soviet Union also grants Mongolia a long-term credit of 615,000,000 rubles.
Soviet Union / U.S. / U.N. – September 10, 1960 (LBC)
In a memorandum the U.S. leadership informs the Soviet U.N. mission that in order to guarantee his personal security Khrushchev’s freedom of movement at his appearance at the U.N. General Assembly will be limited to New York City’s Manhattan district. According to the memorandum the problem of Khrushchev’s personal security is complicated by his hostile remarks and the shooting of an American plane over international waters. – Similar messages are delivered to the U.N. missions of Albania and Hungary, in which the personal movement of Mehmet Shehu and János Kádár is restricted. – September 13. The Soviet Union protests against the limitation of Khrushchev’s movement and deems it an intervention into the normal functioning of the Soviet U.N. mission, which calls into question the further operation of the international organ on American territory. – The State Department rejects the Soviet note.
East Germany – September 12, 1960 (KCA/KGD)
Following the death of Wilhelm Pieck (September 7) an amendment to the Constitution abolishing the office of State President and replacing it with a Council of State is unanimously passed by the East German Volkskammer. Walter Ulbricht is then unanimously elected as Chairman of the new Council of State.
East Germany – September 13, 1960 (KCA)
East German radio announces that the GDR Government will no longer recognize West Berlin passports held by citizens of West Berlin as valid. West Germans who wish to travel to the GDR will need an ID card with a special East German permit attached.
Soviet Union / U.S. – September 14, 1960 (KCA)
Nikolai Fedorovich Artamonov appears before the U.S. House Committee on Un-American Activities. Before his defection in June 1959, Artamonov was commander of a Soviet destroyer. His testimony states that Khrushchev’s disarmament proposals are inconsistent with Soviet military strategy which is based on surprise nuclear attack.
East Germany / West Germany – September 14, 1960 (KCA)
German Federal Government decides to prevent West German restrictions from visiting the Leipzig Fair as long as the East German restrictions remain in place. Also, General Zahkharov rejects the Western protests.
OPEC – September 14, 1960 (PLC)
Organization of Petrol Exporting Countries (OPEC) founded in Baghdad.
Western Europe / Soviet Bloc – September 14, 1960 (KCA)
A report for the Council of Europe prepared by Dr. Agnes Maxsein states that there are now over 2,000 jamming units divided into 225 stations in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The report presents ways for Western countries to counteract the increased jamming.
East Germany / Czechoslovakia / Poland – September 15, 1960 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak and Polish military missions in West Berlin state that their countries will also not recognize West Berlin passports held by West Berliners.
Hungary / Cuba – September 16, 1960 (KCA)
Hungary and Cuba sign an economic agreement in Havana providing for an $8,000,000 credit from Hungary to Cuba. A technical and scientific cooperation agreement is also signed; it provides for an exchange of experts.
USA – September 19, 1960 (HC)
On board the ocean liner Baltika, a delegation from the Soviet Union led by Nikita Khrushchev, a Hungarian delegation led by János Kádár, a Bulgaria delegation led by Todor Zivkov and a Romanian delegation led by Gheorghiu-Dej travel to New York city for the 15th session of the United Nations.
Soviet Union / U.S. / Laos – September 21, 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet Government issues a declaration condemning the interference of the U.S., and SEATO in Laos. The U.S. denies the accusations.
Soviet Union / U.S. – September 22, 1960 (LBC)
The U.S. President’s speech in the U.N.: the Geneva disarmament talks must be resumed, which must concentrate on accidental war and the growing number of nuclear weapons. The U.S. is willing to stop producing fissionable material as soon as an international observation committee begins to operate; it is ready to place its nuclear materials under international control on a mutual basis. – Khrushchev’s speech: the U.S. replaces international law with piracy and honest talks with perfidy. The USSR puts forward a new disarmament plan, which in many ways meets the Western proposal “half way”. The first phase resembles the one of June 2: it wishes to reduce the size of the armies to 1.7 million for the U.S. and the Soviet Union, in contrast to the American proposal, which plans this reduction for the second phase. – October 13. Khrushchev’s farewell speech in the U.N.: he demands general and full disarmament, threatens to boycott the disarmament talks in case this aim is not accepted. Khrushchev warns: the Soviet Union will quit the political committee of the GA, the U.N. Disarmament Commission and the Geneva disarmament talks unless the political committee works out the principles of disarmament based on the Soviet proposal. Khrushchev threatens Britain: “the well-known…unsinkable aircraft carrier would cease to exist on the first day of… war”. – October 18. According to presidential candidate John F. Kennedy Eastern Europe is the “most vulnerable” spot of the Soviet Union, where the U.S. could launch an offensive against communism. Kennedy criticizes the administration for not having forged a closer relationship with Poland and Hungary in 1955-1956. According to Kennedy the U.S. must “identify with” the freedom aspirations of Africa, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. According to Kennedy, American strength diminished in the last year as compared to that of the communists.
Yugoslavia / U.N. – September 22, 1960 (RYN/MOL)
In his speech before the U.N. General Assembly, President Tito condemns the Western countries for seeking to perpetuate their economic exploitation of the Congo behind a facade of independence and deplore the ineffectiveness of the United Nations in securing the independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of the beleaguered Congo. Tito also criticizes the rearmament of the Federal Republic of Germany and supports the Soviet suggestion for non-proliferation.
U.N. – September 23, 1960 (HC)
The procedural committee of the General Assembly of UN returns “Hungarian Questions” to its schedule.
Soviet Union / U.N. – September 25, 1960 (KCA)
It is announced that Valerian Zorin has been appointed the permanent representative at the United Nations and Soviet member of the Security Council. He replaces Arkady Sobolev who returned to the USSR in July after a sudden illness.
West Germany – September 26, 1960 (KCA)
The Public Prosecutor in Bonn has dropped the criminal proceedings against Professor Oberlander after the extensive investigation produced no evidence to support the charges.
Romania / U.N. – September 27, 1960 (CAC)
At the United Nations, Romania, with Soviet support, proposes a Balkan collective security treaty, and a nuclear- and foreign base-free zone.
Bulgaria – September 28, 1960 (CAC)
Bulgarian party chief Todor Zhivkov urges a reduction of forces in the Balkans to the level of border guards, and calls for the Balkans to be the first area of general and complete disarmament.
Soviet Union / U.N. – September 30, 1960 (PLC)
Khrushchev stands up for Romanian membership in his speech at the U.N.
Soviet Union / Somalia – September 30, 1960 (KCA)
The Somali Republic and the Soviet Union establish diplomatic relations at the
ambassadorial level between the two countries.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – October 1960 (KCA)
The Geneva Nuclear Test Negotiations enter their third year without any further progress having been made on any of the substantive questions.
Soviet Union / U.S. – October 1960 (KCA)
Since the 1959 accident with a U-2 aircraft, a number of American and Soviet diplomats have been expelled after allegations of espionage. On October 16, 1959 Russell Langelle, chief security officer at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow is expelled by the Soviet Government for carrying out intelligence activities in the Soviet Union; on July 22, 1960 Pyotr Yezhov, Third Secretary of the Soviet Embassy in Washington is declared persona non grata and expelled from the U.S. after being accused of abusing his diplomatic status; on August 10, 1960 Colonel Edwin Kirton the U.S. Embassy’s Air Attaché in Moscow is expelled from the Soviet Union on charges of engaging in intelligence activities; on August 14, 1960 Valentin Ivanov, the Soviet Embassy’s First Secretary in Washington is expelled from the U.S. for violating the norms of diplomatic behavior. He is the highest ranking official to be declared persona non grata; on August 26, 1960 U.S. Embassy in Moscow Economic attaché George P Winters is expelled from the USSR; on October 27, 1960 Igor Melekh, a senior Soviet official of the U.N. Secretariat is arrested on charges of trying to obtain intelligence data.
Poland / Soviet Union / U.S. – October 1, 1960 (LBC)
Presidential candidate John F. Kennedy’s speech at the meeting of the Polish-American congress: it is the “task” of the U.S. to help the satellites break away from the Soviet Union and “to pursuea policy of patiently encouraging freedom and carefully pressuring tyranny, a policy that looks toward evolution, not revolution – a policy that depends on peace, not war”. He calls the Republican doctrine of liberation an empty phrase.
Soviet Union – October 1, 1960 (KCA)
The People’s Friendship University in Moscow opens. It is for students from Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
Yugoslavia / U.N. – October 1, 1960 (RYN)
At the session of the U.N. General Assembly, India, the United Arab Republic, Ghana, Indonesia, and Yugoslavia attempt to sponsor a meeting between Premier First Secretary of the CPSU Nikita S. Khrushchev and President Eisenhower. The leaders of the five nonaligned states request the United States and the Soviet Union to „renew their contacts, interrupted recently, so that their declared willingness to find solutions of the outstanding problems by negotiation may be progressively implemented.”
Soviet Union / Algeria – October 2, 1960 (KCA)
Khrushchev has talks with the Foreign Minister of the “Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic”, Ferhat Abbas, while attending the U.N. General Assembly in New York. At a press conference, Khrushchev declares that President de Gaulle had recognized the existence of the Provisional Government by entering into negotiations with it but refused to state whether the Soviet Union recognized it.
Hungary / U.N. – October 3, 1960 (HC)
In a speech to the General Assembly of the U.N. János Kádár speaks about peace within the colonial system, the “Hungarian question”, and expresses support for Chinese memberships of the United Nations.
Soviet Union / Algeria – October 6-7, 1960 (KCA)
Ferhat Abbas, Foreign Minister of the “Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic” flies to Moscow on October 6 and at a reception at the Tunisian Embassy he makes an appeal for Soviet aid to the insurgents in Algeria. On October 7 Khrushchev announces that meetings with the Provisional Government represent de facto recognition of the Governemnt and pledge to give the maximum aid “which will help them to win their freedom.”
Bulgaria / Cuba – October 8, 1960 (KCA)
The Bulgarian and Cuban Governments agree to establish embassy-level diplomatic relations and sign a credit agreement, a five-year commercial treaty, and a technical and scientific aid agreement.
COMECON – October 11-13, 1960 (HC/MMS)
The first session of the committee on nuclear co-operation within the COMECON takes place.
Soviet Union / Italy – October 11, 1960 (KCA)
It is announced that the Soviet Union and Italy have signed an agreement under which the USSR will supply Italy with 12,000,000 tons of oil over the next four years. In exchange, Italy will supply steel tubes, oil pipeline equipment, and synthetic rubber. The total amount involved is $200,000,000.
Soviet Union / Laos – October 13, 1960 (KCA)
The new Soviet Ambassador to Laos arrives in Vientiane, he meets with Prince Souvanna on Oct. 15 and on the 17th it is announced that the Soviet Government has offered financial aid to Laos.
Soviet Union – October 20, 1960 (KCA)
The Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet issues a decree ratifying the Antarctic Treaty.
Soviet Union – October 22, 1960 (KCA)
A four-mile underground railway in Kiev begins operating. This is the third underground in the Soviet Union.
Czechoslovakia / Iraq – October 23, 1960 (KCA)
It is announced that the Czechoslovak and Iraqi Governments have signed an economic cooperation agreement. The agreement provides for a Czechoslovak credit of 12,000,000 dinars to Iraq and the Czechoslovak construction of oil refinery installations and thermal and hydroelectric plants in Iraq.
Soviet Union – October 24, 1960 (KCA)
The Supreme Commander of Soviet Rocket Forces is killed in an air crash. He is succeeded by Marshal Kiril Moskalenko.
Norway / Soviet Union – October 24, 1960 (KCA)
Norwegian Foreign Minister Halvard Lange makes a statement in the Storting on Norway’s foreign and defense policies with direct reference to Norway’s relationship with the Soviet Union. He contests any attempts by the Soviet Union to dictate Norway’s Foreign Policy.
Albania / China – October 24, 1961 (KCA)
Representatives from Albania and China sign economic agreements. In addition, the two governments state their ideological affinity and reaffirm their hostility to the “Tito clique.”
Soviet Union / India – October 24, 1960 (KCA)
India and Soviet Union agree to double their trade in three years.
Czechoslovakia / Cuba – October 25, 1960 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government increases its credit to Cuba from the $20,000,000 agreed upon in June to $40,000,000 to be used for Cuban development of its machine-building industry.
Hungary / U.K. – October 25, 1960 (KCA)
Britain and Hungary sign a civil aviation agreement in London that provides for through services between London and Budapest beginning in April 1961 and consisting of two flights a week in each direction.
Soviet Union / U.S. / Laos – October 27, 1960 (KCA)
Prince Souvanna of Laos states that the Laotian government the Soviet unconditional financial aid offer but also that U.S. military aid will resume without delay and US general economic aid will be increased to its normal level.
Soviet Union / North Korea – November 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet Government signs a protocol agreeing to relieve North Korea of repayment of Soviet credits worth 760,000,000 rubles and to postpone the repayment of a 140,000,000 ruble credit.
Soviet Union / Cuba – November 1, 1960 (KCA)
In Moscow, talks begin on the expansion of Soviet-Cuban trade.
Hungary/Soviet Union – November 3-December 4, 1960 (HC)
A Hungarian delegation visits the Soviet Union led by First Secretary János Kádár.
USA – November 8, 1960 (HC)
In the United States of America the Democrat John Fitzgerald Kennedy is elected President.
Romania / U.K. – November 10, 1960 (KCA)
Britain and Romania sign a financial agreement under which the Romanian Government will pay £1,250,000 as a full and final settlement of British claims arising from the Peace Treaty with Romania and claims for British property and interests affected by Romanian nationalization. The payment will be made in annual installments and the total amount is due January 31, 1967. A three-year trade agreement between Britain and Romania is also signed.
Soviet Bloc /Communist parties – November 10-December 1, 1960 (PLC/JVJ/MMS/KCA)
Moscow meeting of 81 Communist and workers' parties. Declaration by 81 Communist Parties. Reaffirmation of Coexistence Policy. The Sino-Soviet Ideological Controversy.
There are delegations from 81 countries (Yugoslavia has not been invited). The conference, characterized by heated debate, reaches agreements which deal with controversial issues such as peaceful coexistence and the inevitability of war, and puts forward plans for future Communist tactics. Sino–Soviet controversy threatens to split international Communist movement: Albania sides with the Chinese, East Germany and Czechoslovakia are thought to have reservations on Soviet policies. The main dividing issues:
- Soviets think that Lenin’s theory of inevitability of war under capitalism is no longer valid, while Chinese maintain that it is a “naïve illusion”.
-Soviets emphasize that nuclear war would prove disastrous for every party concerned and are in favor of peaceful coexistence between the two blocs, while Chinese think that China could survive a nuclear war, which would result in further victories for communism.
-Soviet Union is more cautious than China in assisting nationalist movements in colonial and underdeveloped countries in view of their possible repercussions on international situation.
-Soviets contend that in underdeveloped countries communists should ally themselves with bourgeoisie in the struggle for national independence, which would pave the way for the transition to socialism. China disagrees.
- Soviets maintain that intensive industrialization is the essential prerequisite for the transition from Socialism to Communism, while the Chinese affirm that agricultural expansion is the one essential base.
After reaching his most acute point in August 1960, the contrast during September and October tends to calm down.
The final declaration states, inter alia, that:
- the time is not far off when Socialism’s sphere of world production will be greater than that of capitalism; as long as imperialism exists there would be soil for wars and aggression; the meeting regards as a main duty of all the countries of socialist camp to defend the German Democratic Republic from Western Germany provocations; the aggressive nature of capitalism has not changed but real forces have appeared that are capable of foiling its plans of aggression: war is not fatally inevitable but, should capitalists decide to wage it, the peoples will sweep capitalism out of existence and bury it; peaceful coexistence between different social system does not imply conciliation between the Socialist and the bourgeois ideologies, but ideological and political disputes between States have not to be settled through war.
-as for colonial and underdeveloped countries, the collapse of colonial system is deemed imminent and the urgent tasks of national rebirth cannot be effectively accomplished unless a determined struggle is waged against imperialism by all the patriotic forces of the nation, united in a single national democratic front. Socialist countries consider their internationalists duty to help the peoples strengthening their independence.
-as for forms of transition to socialism, the choice of its social system is deemed as the inalienable right of people of each country. The working class can defeat the reactionary anti-popular forces, securing a firm majority in Parliament, and create the necessary conditions for peaceful realization of the Socialist revolution.
-as for revisionism and dogmatism, Yugoslavs are characterized as revisionists.
Repeating the 1957 formula, revisionism remains the main danger but “dogmatism and sectarianism in theory and in practice could also become the main danger at some stages of development of individual parties.”
The Moscow Conference also adopts a peace appeal, which calls for cooperation between Communists, Socialists, trade unionists, and others in support of the immediate prohibition of the testing, manufacture, and use of nuclear weapons, and the conclusion of a treaty on general disarmament. In his November 16 speech, Enver Hoxha attacks the CPSU for intervening in the internal affairs of the Albanian Communist Party, and leaves the conference the day after. Hoxha relates that he was pressured by the Soviets to side with the USSR against the Chinese. The meeting again strongly criticizes the revisionism in Yugoslav politics. The relationships between Yugoslavia and the Soviet satellites are on a new low. The Yugoslav Communist Party does not participate, the Chinese Communists only sign the conclusions after long debates.
Romania / Soviet Union – November 11, 1960 (KCA)
In Moscow, the Soviet Union and Romania sign an agreement providing for Soviet technical assistance to Romania in constructing and extending several industries.
Soviet Union – November 14, 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet Union announces a new external value for the ruble and the fixing of its gold content. The Soviet Finance Minister also indicates the discontinuation of the “two-tier” exchange rate. On January 1, 1961 these changes will come into effect along with the change of the internal value of the ruble and new rubles will also be introduced. On November 15 explanations for the changes were published in Pravda.
Soviet Union / Morocco – November 15, 1960 (KCA)
It is announced that the Moroccan Government has accepted the Soviet Union’s offer of military aid. This aid will primarily consists of the delivery of jet fighters; the delivery of 12 Mig fighters and two Ilyushin bombers will compose the first phase of the aid program.
Poland / U.S. – November 17, 1960 (HDP)
Poland regains the status of most-favored-nation in trade with the United States.
Soviet Union / Cambodia – November 21, 1960 (KCA)
Cambodian Prince Sihanouk has talks with Khrushchev and other Soviet leaders. Both express concern the situation in Laos and call for complete disarmament under international control.
France – November 22, 1960 (LBC)
The French National Assembly passes a law that includes de Gaulle’s plan to build an independent French nuclear force.
Finland / Soviet Union – November 20—24, 1960 (KMP)
U. K. Kekkonen travels to Moscow for a five-day visit. During the meeting it is officially agreed that the Soviet Union wouldn’t oppose Finland’s EFTA membership and that the Soviets are willing to rent the Saimaa canal to Finland for 50 years.
Yugoslavia / Austria – November 24-27, 1960 (MOL)
The Foreign Minister of Yugoslavia, Koča Popović visits Vienna. The joint declaration states that the discussions took place in friendly atmosphere.
East Germany / Soviet Union / Poland – November 28, 1960 (KCA)
Poland, the Soviet Union, and East Germany sign an agreement on shipping on their inland waterways. It provides for opening a permanent shipping line to the Berlin river ports from Kaliningrad, conditions for transit shipments between the Soviet Union and Poland and guarantees that all three countries will receive equal profits from shipments.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – December 1960 (LUY)
The United States leads a condominium of Western governments and agencies in underwriting Yugoslavia's third five year plan due to begin in 1961 in the amount of 275 million dollars. The Americans guarantee 100 million dollars of this amount from the Export-Import Bank, the Development Loan Fund and the Mutual Security Program. The International Monetary Fund underwrites 75 million dollars and some Western European governments and banks make up to balance of 100 million dollars.
Yugoslavia / Italy – December 1960 (MOL)
The Foreign Minister of Yugoslavia, Koča Popović visits Rome.
Bulgaria / Soviet Union – December 1, 1960 (KCA)
In Moscow, a protocol providing for Soviet technical aid to Bulgaria is signed. Under the protocol Soviet assistance will be provided in order to expand the Lenin iron and steel works, an oil refinery, a copper smelting works, and a power station.
Soviet Union / Mauritania – December 4, 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet Union vetoes Mauritania’s application for membership of the U.N. This is because the Council decided to proceed without placing the admission of Mongolia on the agenda alongside Mauritania as the Soviet Union had requested. This is the 91stveto the USSR has cast in the Security Council.
Yugoslavia / Poland – December 5, 1960 (MOL)
A 5-year long term agreement is signed between Yugoslavia and Poland.
Poland / East Germany – December 6, 1960 (PLC/HDP)
Polish census places the country’s population at 29.7 million. No questions about ethnicity are asked in the questionnaires. Germany places the number of ethnic Germans living East of the Odera-Neisse border – the so-called former Eastern territories of Germany – at 1.6 million.
Yugoslavia / U.N. – December 7, 1960 (RYN)
The Yugoslav delegate at the United Nations informs Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld that because of the impermissible attitude of the U.N. forces in not actively supporting the legally-constituted Lumumba Government, Yugoslavia “does not wish in any way to bear or share the responsibility for what is now happening in the Congo.” Accordingly, it is withdrawing its diplomatic mission from Leopoldville and “its pilots and other personnel stationed in the Congo at the request of the United Nations.”
Hungary – December 8, 1960 (KCA)
The Minister of Agriculture gives a statement before the Hungarian National Assembly in which he announces plans to socialize the remaining 23 percent of agricultural land still in individuals farms in the upcoming winter. Compared with 30.7% in 1958, 77% of arable land “ now belongs to the socialist sector of agriculture.”
Romania / U.S. – December 9, 1960 (LBC)
An American-Romanian agreement is signed on exchange programs in science, industry, post-graduate studies, theater, cinema, sports and tourism.
Yugoslavia / East Germany – December 13, 1960 (MOL)
A five-year long term agreement is signed between Yugoslavia and the German Democratic Republic.
Soviet Union / U.S. / Laos – December 13, 1960 (KCA)
The Soviet Union accuses the United States of supporting Prince Boun Oum’s government in the civil war in Laos. In response, the U.S. accuses the USSR of helping left-wing forces.
U.N. – December 14, 1960 (PLC)
General Assembly accepts a U.N. resolution on dissolution of the colonial system. The 16 newly independent African countries and Cyprus are granted membership (“Africa’s Year”). Power relations within the U.N. shift.
OEEC – December 14, 1960 (PLC)
As the legal successor of the OEEC, 18 European countries, the U.S. and Canada create the Paris-based Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), comprising the developed countries of the world. The official date of foundation is September 30, 1961. Among others, Japan (1964) and Finland (1969) join the organization.
East Germany – December 15-17, 1960 (ADG/KGD)
At the 11th session of the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED), Walter Ulbricht demands a peace treaty with the FRG for ten years. The 1961 economic plan is changed to reflect the fact that its goals have proven to be unattainable.
U.S. / NATO – December 16, 1960 (LBC)
At the Paris meeting of the NATO Council Secretary of State Herter offers five nuclear submarines armed with Polaris nuclear missiles for the establishment of a NATO nuclear force. He makes the offer contingent on whether NATO will accept a command system based on a consensus for the planned nuclear force and whether it will purchase 100 nuclear missiles for the member states. – Although according to U.S. law the U.S. must retain control over the nuclear warheads given to NATO, it is the primary political aim of the U.S. to station American nuclear weapons on NATO territory under American control in order to carry out the accepted defense plans. Herter proposed that NATO should begin to work out the multilateral control system of a nuclear force, which would provide common defense in the area of MRBMs. He stated that in order to set up an independent NATO nuclear force Congressional approval had to be sought for a law, which would make U.S. participation possible. – December 13. Pravda calls the plan to set up an independent NATO nuclear force “a terrible plan” the aim of which is to increase the arms race and to arouse conflict in Central Europe.
Hungary – December 16-18, 1960 (HC)
The first congress of the Hungarian Communist Youth Alliance is held in Budapest.
Hungary / Romania – December 19, 1960 (PLC)
The Magyar Autonomous Region in Romania renamed Mureş-Magyar Autonomous Region. Share of the Hungarian population decreases to 62.2%, while that of the Romanian population increases to 35%.
Romania – December 19-20, 1960 (PLC)
Romanian Communist Party leadership discusses the outcome of the discusses the outcome of the conference of communist and workers parties in Moscow.
Albania – December 21, 1960 (PLC)
As a demonstration of anti-Soviet propaganda, Albania commemorates Stalin’s birthday.
Poland – December 22, 1960 (KCA)
The Polish Government passes constitutional and electoral law amendments. These amendments institute the simultaneous holding of elections for the Sejm and local councils at all levels, and fixes the maximum number of members of the next Sejm at 460.
Soviet Union / Ghana – December 23, 1960 (KCA)
A protocol is signed as an annex to the Soviet-Ghanaian agreement of August 28 on economic and technical cooperation between the two countries.
Soviet Union / North Vietnam – December 23, 1960 (KCA)
An agreement on Soviet assistance to North Vietnam is signed in Moscow. The Soviet Union will help North Vietnam build infrastructure. In addition, a trade agreement is also signed, with hope for an increase of commercial exchanges.
Soviet Union / North Korea – December 24, 1960 (KCA)
An agreement on Soviet technical assistance to North Korea is signed in Moscow. Under this agreement the Soviet Union will supply North Korea with machinery and equipment and other goods necessary for the development of North Korea’s economy, while North Korea will deliver some goods and commodities to Soviet Union.
Hungary / Romania – December 19, 1960 (PLC) –» December 24.
The Magyar Autonomous Region in Romania renamed Mureş-Magyar Autonomous Region. Boundaries of the region were also modified, Hungarian-speaking territories were detached and Romanian-speaking area were attached to it. Share of the Hungarian population decreases from 77.3% to 62.2%, while that of the Romanian population increases to 35%.
Hungary – December 25, 1960 (HC)
Népszabadság, the official newspaper of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party publishes an article by János Kádár about the assembly of Moscow.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – December 27, 1960 (KCA/LBC)
The Yugoslav Secretary of Finance, Mincev, announces in the Federal Assembly a monetary and trade reform involving the progressive liberalization of imports and the creation of a uniform exchange rate with the U.S. dollar. To facilitate the reforms, credits from IMF, the U.S., and Western European countries have been allocated. Yugoslavia receives a 275 million dollar Western loan to launch its economic reform program. Yugoslavia reevaluates the dinar, introduces a new five-year-plan, reduces the state control of foreign trade, plans to join GATT and promotes competition within Yugoslav industry.
Hungary/Vietnam – December 29, 1960 (HC)
Hungary and Vietnam sign a long-term economic agreement.
Poland – December 29, 1960 (KCA)
The Polish Council of State decides that elections shall be held on April 1961.
Poland / Canada – December 31, 1960 (KCA)
An agreement is signed between Canada and Poland for the return of the Polish art treasures smuggled out of Poland after the German invasion and deposited in Quebec. The Polish “government in exile” strongly protests against the agreement.
Finland – December 31, 1960 (PLC)
Census in Finland. 92.4% of the country’s 4.1 million inhabitants are Finnish, 7.4% Swedish.
East Germany / West Germany – December 31, 1960 (KGD)
199,188 people flee from the GDR to the FRG and West Berlin in 1960.
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013