The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Associate editors

 Assistant editors
Gabriella HERMANN
Jasper NOOIJN,

Babak ARZANI, Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Ádám BALOGH, Shira BORZAK, Florian BRINK, Vanessa BUFFRY, David CATALAN, Sonya COWELL, Susan COOPER, Lauren CRYSTAL, Laura CSEKE, Botond CSELLE, Péter DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB, Kati DEPETRILLO, Emanuele DI BELLO, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA, Kristyna GABIKOVA, Evelina GELEZINYTE, Laura GOUSHA,Zsófia GÖDE, Brianna GREENWALD, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Ágnes HEVÉR,Neala HICKEY, Jennifer OLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU, Kitti Eszter JAKAB, Dean JOLLY, Victoria JONES, Annastiina KALLIUS, István KASZTA, Tomas KOLAR, Roman KOZIEL,Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Karina LEGRADI, Thomas KOLLMANN, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Cynthia MANCHA, Mike MANTZAVINOS, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Viktor NAGY, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Jennifer OTTERSON, Roland PAPP, Orsolya PÓSFAI, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Linda RICHTER, Martin ROMAIN, Lili SIKLÓS, Bobbie SCHOEMAKER, Anett SZŰCS, Sabine TOPOLANSKY, Dóra VERESS, Aniello VERDE, Zita Bettina VASAS,  Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, Kristóf ZSIDI

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013

At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The second part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1953 to 1968. The years 1969–1980 will be available by the end of 2014.

The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968


List of Sources


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013

Chronology 1962

Romania – 1962 (RFN)
There is no visible sign of any Romanian deviation from the Soviet Union. Romania and the Soviet Union express similar positions in Security Council on two critical issues - Kashmir and the Cuban missile crisis.

Romania – 1962 (SRR)
The educational and professional standards reach levels of high competence, adequate for the constantly rising expectations of a rapidly developing industrial society.

Soviet Union / Finland – 1962 (PLC)
Throughout the year, the USSR grants Finland shipping rights to the Saimaa Channel.

Eastern Bloc / Western Bloc – 1962 (LBC)
According to reports trade between the free world and the communist states reached an all time peak: 4.1% of the aggregate trade of Western world, its value was 5.2 billion dollars. The communist export to the U.S. was 125.2 million dollars in 1962, 0.7% of its 21.7 billion dollar turnover. This region represents 3.6% in French and 3.5% in British trade.


January 1962

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 1962 (KCA)
Khrushchev suggests that the USSR and the U.S. should pool their efforts to explore the outer space.

Yugoslavia – January 1, 1962 (MOL)
The delegation of Kršto Popivoda, member of the Federal Executive Council, arrives back from Tanganyika. In a press release he expresses his confidence that his meeting with Tanganyikan leaders will open wide prospects for the political, economic, cultural and other cooperation between the two countries.

Yugoslavia / Burma – January 1, 1962 (MOL)
Mirko Milutinović is Yugoslavia's new ambassador to Burma.

East Germany – January 2, 1962 (KCA)
The Federal German Ministry for Refugees and Expellees announce that during 1961 a total of 207,026 refugees from Eastern Germany have arrived in Western Germany. Walter Ulbricht admits, in a Pravda interview, that the departure of so many workers has caused the loss of a 40% of national income.

Cuba – January 3, 1962 (PLC)
The Pope excommunicates Cuban leader Fidel Castro.

Hungary – January 4, 1962 (HC)
The first Hungarian-manufactured 50mW hydrogen cooling turbo-generator is created in the Klement Gottwald factory of Budapest.

Yugoslavia / India – January 7, 1962 (MOL)
The delegation of Vida Krumić, Chairman of the Foreign Exchange Committee leaves for India to sign a barter agreement for the fiscal year of 1962.

Yugoslavia / Morocco – January 7, 1962 (MOL)
It is announced that Yugoslavia is shipping medical equipment in the value of 24 million dinars to Morocco for Algerian refugees.

Yugoslavia – January 7, 1962 (MOL)
Hundreds of houses collapsed in the vicinity of Makarska due to a strong earthquake.

Yugoslavia – January 7, 1962 (MOL)
The commercial ship Šabac collides and sinks on the English Channel. Of the 33 member crew, 28 people lost their lives.

Hungary – January 7, 1962 (HC)
500 professionals are dispatched to collective farms to strengthen the leadership of common economic units.

Yugoslavia / Pakistan – January 9, 1962 (MOL)
Yugoslav foreign trade companies offer $10 million loan to Pakistan for the purchase of hydro energetic and other industrial machinery.

Yugoslavia / East Germany – January 9, 1962 (MOL)
Negotiations start in Belgrade between the delegations of Yugoslavia and the German Democratic Republic for a barter agreement for the fiscal year of 1962.

Yugoslavia – January 9, 1962 (MOL)
An Austrian delegation arrives in Belgrade for concluding a barter agreement for the fiscal year of 1962.

Albania – January 9, 1962 (KCA)
An editorial article in the Albanian Communist Party newspaper expresses the Albanian Government’s desire to resume diplomatic, trade and cultural relations with all Western countries, even with Greece, provided the Greek Government abandon its claim on South Albania. The Albanian Government had maintained diplomatic relations only with Italy, France and Austria. Some Greek nomads, who were in Albania since 1949, have been repatriated.

Yugoslavia – January 10, 1962 (MOL)
The new Yugoslav ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary presents his credentials to the Mongolian president.

Soviet Union / U.K. – January 10, 1962 (KCA)
The Soviet Government in an aide-mémoire to the British Government condemns “the gross interference” of the United States in South Vietnam’s internal affairs.

Hungary – January 10, 1962 (HC)
The first Hungarian anti-pressure industrial power plant is initiated in the Paper Factory of Csepel.
The Minister of Culture and Education is held responsible for the registration of names, marriages and other family-related ceremonies.

Yugoslavia / U.N. – January 11, 1962 (MOL)
Mišo Pavičevičev, permanent member of the Yugoslav U.N. delegation, is elected president of an U.N. aid agency for the developing countries.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 11-23, 1962 (LBC)
Kennedy’s state of the union address: the U.S. continues to support nations in choosing their own futures, political systems if it does not violate the rights of others. America’s military position is continually improving but its strength is put to trial on several levels and must be prepared to meet a conventional attack with conventional forces. – Kennedy expresses his concern about the conclusion of a report on scientist training in the Soviet Union and asks the Scientific Advisory Committee to make recommendations for the society’s complex need for the necessary amount of well-trained scientists and engineers.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 12, 1962 (CWC)
U.S. Ambassador Thompson and Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko meet in Moscow to discuss the issue of Berlin.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – January 13, 1962 (MOL)
Negotiations for a Hungarian-Yugoslav road traffic agreement conclude in Budapest.

Finland – January 15, 1962 (KPV)
Presidential elections to choose electors begin.

Albania / China – January 16, 1962 (PLC)
Albania and China sign a commercial treaty. The PRC’s share in Albanian foreign trade increases from 1960’s 4.3% to 46.6%.

Soviet Union – January 22, 1961 (KCA)
Sergei Lapin is appointed Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister.

Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – January 23, 1962 (MOL)
A Bulgarian delegation arrives in Belgrade to negotiate on the construction of the Niš-Dimitrovgrad road.

East Germany – January 24, 1962 (KCA/AGD)
The People’s Chamber (Volkskammer) unanimously approved a bill introducing general military conscription, and another setting up a Military Criminal Code. Under the first bill, men between 18 and 26 years will have to serve for 18 months on active duty. This law has been preceded by another law which gives the government full power to undertake measures deemed necessary to counteract the “increased war preparation of West German militarists”. The Volkskammer introduces laws on the right of the military to strike and an increase in the powers of the State's attorney.

Hungary – January 26, 1962 (HC)
In the Kerepesi Cemetery of Budapest a memorial to the martyrs of Vörös Brigád (the Red Squad) is opened.

Yugoslavia – January 27, 1962 (MOL)
Socialism and War by Edvard Kardelj is published in London.

Soviet Union / U.S. / U.N. – January 29, 1962 (KCA)
The Geneva test ban conference breaks up in complete deadlock and mutual recriminations. It has lasted for more than three years without results. The U.S. and Britain withdraw from the conference because of long-standing Soviet refusal to negotiate a test-ban treaty on the basis of verified international controls, whilst the Soviet delegate accuses the Western Powers of wrecking the conference because they have failed to secure “espionage facilities under the guise of international control”.

Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – January 30, 1962 (MOL)
An agreement on scientific cooperation is signed between Yugoslavia and Bulgaria in Belgrade.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 30, 1962 (LBC)
U.S. President Kennedy negotiates with the editor-in-chief of Izvestia, Khrushchev’s son in law Adzubei in the White House. Kennedy confides that he is aware of Adzubei’s special relationship with Khrushchev and calls the talks frank.

Warsaw Pact – January 30-February 1, 1962 (MMS)
The WP ministers of defense meet in Prague.


February 1962

Yugoslavia / Egypt – February 1962 (RYN)
Yugoslav President Tito and President of the United Arab Republic Gamal Abdel Nasser again discuss, inter alia, ways of eliminating barriers to international trade.

Yugoslavia / France – February 2, 1962 (RYN)
The French government demands the recall of the Yugoslav ambassador because Yugoslavia has extended de jure recognition to the Provisional Government of Algeria at the time of the Belgrade Conference of nonaligned nations.

Hungary – February 2, 1962 (HC)
The National Solidarity Committee is formed in order to support people fighting for freedom in the world.

Finland – February 3-4, 1962 (KPV/TPE)
Parliamentary elections are held. As a result the Agrarian League strengthens its position towards the other two biggest parties in the country namely the Social Democratic Party and Finnish People’s Democratic League (SKDL).

Yugoslavia / Egypt – February 4, 1962 (KCA)
President Tito and President Gamal Abdel Nasser agree on consultations between non-aligned countries in view of the tense international situation.

Czechoslovakia – February 6-7, 1962 (KCA)
Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior, Rudolf Barak, has been expelled from the Communist Party for “misuse of his office as Minister of the Interior and illegal administrations of State funds.”

Yugoslavia / Hungary – February 8, 1962 (MOL)
An agreement on road traffic regulations between Yugoslavia and Hungary is signed in Budapest.

Hungary – February 9, 1962 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party discussed the development of economic leadership.

Soviet Union / U.S. – February 10, 1961 (KCA)
Captain Powers, the pilot involved in the U-2 accident, although being sentenced to jail, is handed over, in an “act of clemency”, the American authorities in exchange for Colonel Rudolf Abel, who was sentenced to 30 years’ imprisonment in the U.S. on charges of espionage activity for the USSR.

Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – February 10, 1962 (KCA)
Khrushchev welcomes the joint message of President Kennedy and Harold Macmillan, who proposed that Geneva disarmament conference should begin at Foreign Minister Level. The Soviet leader proposes that the three heads of government should personally take part in the opening phases.

Soviet Union / U.S. – February 13, 1962 (LBC)
The West rejects Khrushchev’s plan for the forthcoming Geneva talks on the highest level but they are willing to raise the talks to the foreign minister level. The talks would be pursued on a higher level if they promise success. – February 21. Khrushchev sends another note in which he renews his demand to hold the Geneva talks on the prime ministerial or head of state level in even stronger wording. – February 24.-25. Kennedy rejects Khrushchev’s demands for the Geneva talks again. On March 3 Khrushchev agrees that the conference should begin at Foreign Ministers’ level.

Poland – February 15, 1962 (PSN)
The Sejm passes the Supreme Court Act under which the Supreme Court becomes “the highest judicial body which supervises the functioning of the general and special courts of law in the sphere of judicial decisions”.

Poland – February 15, 1962 (PSN)
The Sejm passes a new Citizenship Act under which “acquisition of the citizenship of a foreign state entails the loss of Polish citizenship”.

Soviet Union / Cuba – February 18, 1962 (CWC)
The Soviet Union expresses its support for the regime of Fidel Castro in Cuba.

U.S. – February 20, 1962 (PLC)
Space pilot John H. Glenn becomes the first American in outer space.

Soviet Union / U.S. – February 21, 1962 (LBC)
In a letter Khrushchev offers for the U.S. and the USSR to discover space together, with the pooling of scientific, technical and material resources. In his response the President welcomes Khrushchev’s proposal for Soviet-American cooperation in space research. Kennedy informs Khrushchev that he will give the appropriate instructions to responsible officials to prepare new and concrete proposals for the immediate plans of cooperation. – March 7. Kennedy proposes a five-point plan for cooperation in space research to the Soviet Union.

Hungary / Egypt – February 21-March 7, 1962 (HC)
Jenő Incze, Minister of Foreign Trade travels to Cairo and negotiates a deepening of the economic relations between the two countries.

Yugoslavia / Egypt – February 21, 1962 (MOL)
Yugoslav President Tito arrives in Cairo as guest of Gamal Abdel Nasser.

Soviet Union / Sri Lanka – February 22, 1962 (KCA)
A three-year trade agreement between the Soviet Union and Ceylon is signed.

Soviet Union – February 22, 1962 (KCA)
Marshall Kirill Moskalenko claims that the Soviet Union has successfully solved the problem of destroying enemy rockets in flight.

Soviet Union / Norway – February 22, 1962 (KCA)
A Soviet-Norwegian fisheries agreement is signed in Moscow.

Soviet Union / Czechoslovakia / East Germany / Hungary / Poland – February 22, 1962 (KCA)
The first southern section of the 2,500-mile east European pipeline, the “Friendship Oil Pipeline” project designed to link the USSR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Eastern Germany is completed.

Bulgaria – February 25, 1962 (KCA)
Elections take place. All the candidates for the 321 seats in the National Assembly are nominated by the Fatherland Front. The vast majority of them are members of the Communist Party.

Soviet Union – February 27, 1962 (KCA)
A decree published in the bulletin of the Supreme Soviet extends death penalty tocorruption, rape and attacks on police.


March 1962

Yugoslavia – March 1962 (RNF)
The executive bureau of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia holds a closed session to discuss the political directions of the system. The session sees sharp political conflicts but ultimately produces a decision to take concrete steps to address certain problems and shortcomings. Among these problems are localism, chauvinism, and national particularism.

Finland – March 1, 1962 (SFF/LJF)
Presidential elections: Urho Kekkonen secures his second term as a President. The Soviet note has had its greatest impact on the outcome of the election by breaking the unity of Kekkonen’s opponents whose common candidate, Olavi Honka, withdrew his candidacy in the name of national unity, ensuring Kekkonen’s reelection by a wide margin. 

Yugoslavia / Egypt – March 1, 1962 (MOL)
An agreement is signed between the competent agencies of Yugoslavia and the United Arab Republic on the establishment of direct radio and telephone contact between Cairo and Belgrade.

Yugoslavia / Tunisia – March 5, 1962 (MOL)
A five-year cultural agreement is signed between the representatives of Yugoslavia and Tunisia.

France – March 5, 1962 (LBC)
France announces that it does not wish to participate in the Geneva arms reduction talks, since it sees no point in sending representatives to a conference where there is no hope of a solution.

Hungary / East Germany – March 5, 1962 (HC)
Hungary and GDR establish an Economic and Scientific Co-operation Agreement in Leipzig.

Yugoslavia / North Africa – March 6, 1962 (MOL)
President of the Federal Distance Planning Committee Avdo Humo leaves for Mali, Morocco, Tunisia and Libya.

Hungary / Cyprus – March 6, 1962 (HC)
Hungary and Cyprus sign an agreement on trade and finance.

Yugoslavia / Turkey – March 7, 1962 (MOL)
An agreement on trade in the value of $22 million for 1962 is signed in Ankara between the representatives of Yugoslavia and Turkey.

Soviet Union – March 8, 1962 (CAC)
The Soviets make a proposal for general and complete disarmament.

Soviet Union / U.S. – March 8, 1962 (LBC)
An agreement for a two-year Soviet-American scientific-cultural exchange program is signed. – An agreement is made on the production of a Soviet-American movie. – May 30. The first concert of Benny Goodman’s seven week tour of the Soviet Union in Moscow. – July 6. The State Department lifts strict travel restrictions for Soviet tourists and the participants of exchange programs.

Hungary / Guinea – March 8, 1962 (HC)
Hungary and Guinea sign a long-term trade agreement in Budapest.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – March 9, 1962 (MOL)
A Secretary of the U.N. European Economic Committee Vladimir Velebit arrives in Moscow on the invitation of the Soviet government.

Hungary / U.K. – March 9, 1962 (KCA)
A cultural agreement between Great Britain and Hungary is signed in London.

Hungary – March 9, 1962 (HC)
The National Technical Committee holds its inaugural session in Budapest.

Soviet Union / Great Britain / U.S. – March 11, 1962 (LBC)
East-West talks on the foreign minister level begin in Geneva on Berlin, disarmament and the ban of nuclear tests. Participants: Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko, British Foreign Secretary Home and Secretary of State Rusk.

Yugoslavia / Albania – March 12, 1962 (MOL)
A trade agreement for the financial year of 1962 is signed in Tirana between the representatives of Yugoslavia and Albania.

Yugoslavia – March 13, 1962 (KCA)
The Yugoslavian Parliament unanimously approves a bill granting an amnesty to some 150,000 Yugoslav refugees abroad.

Hungary – March 14-16, 1962 (HC)
Academic delegates from the Socialist countries hold negotiations in Warsaw on various forms of co-operation.  

Soviet Union / U.S. – March 14, 1962 (LBC)
With the participation of 17 nations a disarmament conference begins in Geneva. Originally 18 countries were meant to take part, but France failed to send a representative. According to the Soviet proposal national armed forces should be liquidated in four years. – According to the U.S. plan nuclear vehicles should be reduced by 30% in three years; the Soviet Union and the US should each divert 50 thousand kilograms of fissionable material for peaceful use; measures to reduce the risk of war by accident, miscalculation, surprise attack, or communication problems; working out acceptable methods to forestall violation of the disarmament agreement. The U.S. wants to inspect all phases of the troop and arms reduction, just like the number of the remaining troops and weapons. The USSR rejects the inspection of remaining troops. – The U.S. wants to control disarmament with the aid of an international organization, which would be led by a committee comprising of many nations and would be administered by an executive body. The Soviet Union wants to see the participation of three nations (troika principle) in the control organ, wants a two-thirds majority in voting and wants veto rights through the U.N. – The U.S. wants a 2.1 million maximal level for the armed forces, the USSR wants 1.7 million. – In the first phase the U.S. would reduce nuclear vehicles by 30%, while the Soviet Union wants to see their total liquidation. The U.S. wants to stop the production of fissionable material in the first phase, while the USSR in the second. – March 28. Washington and Moscow are unable to agree on the agenda. The Soviet Union demands the establishment of nuclear free zones in Central Europe and Africa; a non-aggression treaty between NATO and the Warsaw Pact; a nuclear non-proliferation treaty. The U.S. demands: nuclear test ban treaty and the reduction of the production of fissionable materials; measures against surprise and accidental war. – March 27. The White House on U.S. strategy: the West must stop a possible Soviet attack “with all means at its disposal,” but under no circumstances would the U.S. carry out a first strike.

Soviet Bloc – March 14-16, 1962 (MMS)
Delegations of Academies of Sciences of the Eastern Bloc take part in a meeting in Warsaw (also represented: Mongolia and Vietnam)

Soviet Union – March 16, 1962 (KCA)
Khrushchev claims that the Soviet Union has developed a “global rocket” capable of striking any target from any direction. According to him, this rocket has made all early-warning systems obsolete.

Soviet Union – March 16-28, 1962 (KCA)
Five Soviets Sputniks are launched as part of a program to study the ionosphere.

Romania – March 17, 1962 (KCA)
It is officially announced that the process of agricultural collectivization has been
completed and private farming is brought to an end.

Soviet Union / U.S. – March 17, 1962 (KCA)
The Soviet Government sends a statement to the participants in the Geneva Conference of 1954 stating that the introduction of U.S military personnel and equipment into South Vietnam violates the Geneva Agreement. The statement urges the British Government to call upon the U.S to cease interfering in the internal affairs of South Vietnam and violating the Geneva Agreement.

Yugoslavia – March 17, 1962 (MOL)
A delegation of Svetozar Vukmanović, member of the Executive Committee of the Federal Committee of the Socialist Alliance, leaves for Western Africa.

Hungary – March 18, 1962 (KCA/HC)
The body of Count Mihály Károlyi, first president of the short-lived Hungarian Republic in 1918–1919, is back from London and placed in the Károlyi burial in a public ceremony at Kerepesi Cemetery in Budapest.

Soviet Union – March 18, 1962 (KCA)
Elections take place throughout the USSR for the two Houses of the Supreme Soviet. Over 70% of the candidates stand for the first time.

Soviet Union / U.S. – March 20, 1962 (KCA)
Khrushchev says that Soviet-American cooperation in major projects such as lunar or interplanetary exploration would necessarily be dependent on a prior disarmament agreement.

Yugoslavia / Tunisia – March 20, 1962 (MOL)
A long-term loan agreement between Yugoslavia and Tunisia is signed as part of the economic cooperation between the two countries.

East Germany – March 21-23, 1962 (KCA)
Walter Ulbricht states that it has been decided to change some of the targets in the Seven-year Plan due to shortages in raw material supplies. The economic situation had deteriorated considerably during 1961 as a result of agricultural difficulties and of large-scale emigration to Western Germany.

Soviet Union – March 22, 1962 (KCA)
The Soviet Communist Party and the Council of Ministers jointly announce that major changes will be introduced in the management of agriculture. This includes the establishment of nation-wide agricultural committees responsible for agricultural development. Food prices are subjected to a drastic increase.

COMECON / Soviet Union – March 22-26, 1962 (HC)
The Central Statistical Offices of COMECON countries meet in Moscow to discuss co-operation.

Hungary – March 25, 1962 (HC)
Governmental order number 9/1962 eliminates registration and tuition fees for medium-level schools.

 East Germany / West Germany – March 25, 1962 (KGD)
The SED admits the reunification of Germany in the “National Document”. However, its precondition is the “victory of Socialism” in the GDR and later in the FRG as well. Walter Ulbricht mentions the possibility of a “German confederation”, including the GDR, the FRG and West Berlin, lying “in the territory of the GDR”.

Soviet Union / Cuba / U.S. – March 27, 1962 (KCA)
The U.S. State Department declares that there is “no evidence that the Soviet Union has supplied Cuba with missiles, or that missile bases are under construction in Cuba.’

Soviet Union / The Netherlands – March 27, 1962 (KCA)
Dr. Alexei Golub, a Soviet scientist who has sought political asylum in the Netherlands, causing a strain in Soviet-Netherlands relation, returns to the Soviet Union.

Hungary – March 28-30, 1962 (HC)
An extended session of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party takes place in Budapest. The scheduled topics include agriculture, the competitiveness of labor and foreign policy.

Poland – March 29, 1962 (KCA)
Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński renews his request for the appointment of a parliamentary commission to investigate relations between Church and State and to ensure that the Government conforms to the provisions of the Constitution on religious freedom. The same day, the Sejm adopts a new law on public assemblies, which must be authorized in advance by the Ministry of the Interior with the exception of religious services held in churches.

Hungary – March 29-31, 1962 (HC)
The 5th Congress of the National Alliance Co-operative Society takes place in Budapest.


April 1962

Romania – April 1962-December 1964 (RUR)
Party membership increases dramatically.

Poland / U.S. – April 1, 1962 (KCA)
An agreement in Washington with U.S. has been reached on joint medical research program.

Yugoslavia – April 1, 1962 (MOL)
Yugoslav President Tito gives an interview to Observer on the new Yugoslav constitution and Yugoslav foreign policy.

Soviet Union – April 2, 1962 (KCA)
A Russian moon rocket, Lunik IV, is launched. On April 5, it passes within 5,280 miles of the moon and goes into a planetary orbit around the sun. Seven more unmanned Cosmos earth satellites were launched by the USSR between December 22, 1962 and May 24, 1963.

Hungary – April 3, 1962 (HC)
A light-metal foundry is opened in Székesfehérvár.

Yugoslavia / Senegal – April 4, 1962 (MOL)
Discussions on economic cooperation between Yugoslavia and Senegal start in Belgrade.

Yugoslavia – April 7-12, 1962 (KCA/MOL)
Milovan Djilas is rearrested, less than 15 months after his release. His arrest is connected with a book he has written, Conversations with Stalin.

Hungary – April 10-13, 1962 (HC)
An international crude oil conference takes place in Budapest with 300 domestic and 100 international participants.

Yugoslavia – April 11, 1962 (MOL)
It is announced that Yugoslav Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Koča Popović pays an official visit to Brazil between May 8-13, 1962.

Finland – April 13, 1962 (KMP)
A new conservative government is formed under Ahti Karjalainen. It includes the Agrarians, the National Coalition, the People’s Party of Finland and the Swedish People’s Party of Finland (RKP).

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – April 14-15, 1962 (HC)
The Hungarian Workers’ Cultural Club of Czechoslovakia holds its 8th National Assembly in Bratislava/Pozsony.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – April 16, 1962 (MOL)
The Foreign Minister of the Soviet Union Andrei A. Gromyko arrives in Belgrade on an official visit. He stays in Yugoslavia until April 21. Tito personally meets him on April 18.

Soviet Union / U.S. – April 18, 1962 (LBC)
The U.S. presents a general disarmament plan in Geneva, the aim of which is full and general disarmament. The process of disarmament would be controlled by an international disarmament organization, which would be established by within the U.N. after the agreement is signed. In the first phase most weapons would be reduced by 30%, the rest would be reduced by 30% in the second stage, while all would be destroyed in the third stage. In the first phase the production of fissionable material suitable for military use would be stopped and a certain amount would be handed over for peaceful use (according to the American proposal 50 thousand kilos of U-235). A nuclear non-proliferation treaty would be signed. In the second stage the remaining fissionable material would be reduced. In the third phase all nuclear weapons, the fissionable material suitable for their production and production facilities would be destroyed. In the first phase the U.S. and the USSR would reduce their troops to 2.1 million each, the other designated countries to a proportionately lower level, while the remaining ones to 100 thousand or 1% of their population. In the second phase the two great powers would reduce their armies to 50% of the remainder the rest to a predetermined percent. At the end of the last phase only militias and U.N. peace-keeping forces would remain. – Some of the foreign military bases would be closed in the second stage, the rest in the third one. – In the first phase measures would be taken to avoid accidental war, or armed conflict by miscalculation. – U.N. peace keeping: first phase: preparation to set up UN forces, the determination of its composition, size, control, command, training reserve and financial supply. Nations would use all means for the peaceful resolution of conflict, including forums outside the U.N. and would accept the jurisdiction of the International Court. In the second phase the U.N. peace-keeping force would be erected and would reach its full size in the third phase. The international disarmament organ would control disarmament. – April 24. The Soviet Union rejects the plan. According to Valerian Zorin the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court and the U.N. peace keeping force is illegal. In his view the U.N. peace force could be used at the instruction of the U.N. Security Council only. The document constitutes a violation of the U.N. charter and would legalize espionage.

Yugoslavia / Indonesia – April 19, 1962 (MOL)
According to the agreement concluded in Jakarta, Yugoslavia gives a $15 million loan to Indonesia.

Yugoslavia – April 19, 1962 (MOL)
A delegation of Yugoslav Muslims leaves for Mecca.

Poland / U.S. – April 19, 1962 (KCA)
An additional agreement to the one signed on December 1961 for the sale of U.S. surplus farm products is concluded in Washington.

Soviet Union / China – April 20, 1962 (KCA)
An agreement on Sino-Soviet trade exchanges is signed in Beijing. It mainly concerns commodity exchanges.

Soviet Union – April 20, 1962 (KCA)
General Ivan Yakubovski is appointed Soviet Commander-in Chief in succession to Marshal Ivan Konev. He already held this post prior to August 1961.

Czechoslovakia – April 20, 1962 (KCA)
Rudolf Barak is sentenced by a military court in Prague to 15 years’ imprisonment.

Hungary – April 21, 1962 (HC)
Népszabadság reports that Hungarian, Romanian and Soviet military units are performing military training exercises in Hungary.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – April 21, 1962 (LBC)
A Yugoslav-American treaty is signed in Belgrade: almost 25 million dollars worth of agricultural goods are sold to Yugoslavia. Out of this dinars are paid for 14.5 million dollars worth of wheat and lemon, the rest is to be paid for in dollars in 15 years.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – April 22, 1962 (MOL)
An agreement on American loan to Yugoslavia is signed in Belgrade between the representatives of the two countries.

Soviet Union – April 23-25, 1962 (KCA)
The new elected Supreme Soviet of the USSR holds its first session.

Hungary / Italy – April 23-May 7, 1962 (HC)
A delegation of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party led by László Orbán, a member of the Central Committee of the Party, visits Italy.

Soviet Union / Greece – April 25, 1962 (KCA)
A new three-year trade agreement, which concerns commodities exchanges, is signed in Moscow between Soviet Union and Greece.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – April 26, 1962 (MOL)
Osman Karabegović and Filip Bajković, Chairmen of the Executive Committee of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro, respectively, arrive in Washington as guests of the State Department.

Hungary / Soviet Union – April 29, 1962 (HC)
The construction of the Hungarian phase of the Béke electric transmission line is completed connecting the Hungarian and the Soviet energy systems.


May 1962

Soviet Union – May 1962 (KCA)
It is announced that the first Soviet hovercraft will go into service in the summer of 1962.

Yugoslavia – May 1962 (ACY)
Russian Orthodox Patriarch Alexei returns the visit of the Serbian Orthodox patriarch the previous autumn. Alexei and the other members of his delegation are received by President Tito, and both Alexei and Bishop Nikodim, who accompanies him, are given decorations.

Yugoslavia – May 1962 (LUY)
Milovan Djilas' new book, Conversations with Stalin is published in the United States.

U.S. / NATO – May 5, 1962 (LBC)
The U.S. provides NATO command with five nuclear submarines and 80 Polaris missiles. The submarines remain under the control of the U.S. navy, but its commands are received through NATO high command. The warheads belonging to the missiles remain under the exclusive control of the American President. – The NATO states receive all information on nuclear weapons accumulated on their territory and data needed for political decisions.

Hungary – May 5, 1962 (HC)
The The government issues order number 12/1962 is establishing technical higher education institutions.

 East Germany / West Germany – May 5, 1962 (KGD)
12 GDR citizens flee to West Berlin through a tunnel under the Berlin Wall.

Yugoslavia – May 6, 1962 (RYE/RNF)
Yugoslav President Tito delivers an important address in Split, highlighting the dangers associated localism and telling his audience that there is real danger that each republic is just out for itself, ignoring the interests of the Yugoslav community as a whole. Tito's speech is interpreted as signaling a pro-centralist hard line in Yugoslav economic policy.

Yugoslavia / South America – May 8, 1962 (RYN/MOL)
Koča Popović starts his visit in Latin America and becomes the first Yugoslav foreign minister to visit the region. He visits Brazil, Chile, Bolivia, and Mexico.

Czechoslovakia – May 9, 1962 (PSČZ)
President Antonín Novotný announces the amnesty for political prisoners, who had not been released in 1960.

Soviet Union – May 12, 1962 (KCA)
One of the largest Soviet development projects, the Kara Kum canal, has been completed.

Yugoslavia – May 14, 1962 (PLC)
Milovan Djilas, who was rearrested on April 7, is sentenced to another five years imprisonment.

U.S. / France – May 15, 1962 (LBC)
De Gaulle states at a press conference that no matter what happens France will be a nuclear power and will have a part in the formulation of its own fate. According to observers de Gaulle’s remark refers to the fact that France no longer believes in the U.S. promise for Europe’s nuclear defense. – June 4. French prime minister Georges Pompidou states at a WEU meeting that Europe’s growing military and economic power makes it necessary to reorganize NATO to reflect the changes in the balance between Europe and the U.S.. The age when NATO was built on a U.S. with atomic monopoly and a France enfeebled by war is over. – May 17. Kennedy refutes de Gaulle’s views: the U.S. does not believe in the series of nuclear deterrents, but that NATO’s strength provides sufficient defense. The moment a nation starts to think that nuclear deterrence ensures its independence, we are in a very dangerous situation.

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 19, 1962 (LBC)
Khrushchev’s speech in Sofia: he asks whether President Kennedy wants to compete in “who will be first to press the button?” “We do not want such a competition.” “We want only to keep our powder dry and be ready.” The speech came in response to the outline of U.S. strategy given by Kennedy, which the Soviets – in spite of Kennedy’s denial – interpreted in such a way that the U.S. is ready to launch a nuclear war against the Soviet Union.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 19, 1962 (MOL)
A supplementary agreement is reached between the United States and Yugoslavia. According to the agreement, the United States is going to ship cotton to Yugoslavia in the value of $7 million.

Yugoslavia – May 23, 1962 (MOL)
A new law on social security is passed by the federal parliament.

East Germany / West Germany – May 25, 1962 (KCA)
The East German Government states that it desires the West German Government to make deliveries of hard coal, machinery, chemicals and foodstuffs, and allow East Germany to make payment for the extra goods at a later date by means of reciprocal deliveries. Adenauer states that it cannot consider any credits to the East German regime unless freedom of passage between East and West Berlin is restored.

Hungary – May 25, 1962 (HC)
For his 50th birthday, the First Secretary of the Hungarian Workers’ Party János Kádár is awarded the Hero of the Socialist Labor and the Distinction of the Hungarian People’s Republic.  

Hungary – May 26, 1962 (HC)
Work begins on the re-construction of the railroad bridge over the river Dráva.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 30, 1962 (MOL)
Yugoslav Foreign Minister Koča Popović meets U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk. George Kennan, who is also in Washington, elaborates that Yugoslavia is a completely free country and will remain such.

Yugoslavia / Mali – May 30, 1962 (MOL)
The first ambassador of the Republic of Mali to Yugoslavia arrives in Belgrade.

Hungary – May 31-June 2, 1962 (HC)
The 25th session of the World Alliance of Labor Unions takes place in Budapest. Peaceful coexistence and disarmament are the scheduled topics of discussion.


June 1962

Romania – June 1962 (RUR)
The Soviets increase the pressure on the Romanian leadership. They require greater economic planning and supranational planning in the frame of COMECON.

Poland – June 1, 1962 (KCA)
Wycech is elected chairman of the central committee of the Polish United Peasant

Soviet Union – June 1-3, 1962 (PLC)
Workers’ demonstrations in Novocherkassk against price rise – cheering for Lenin in opposition to Khrushchev – put down by the military. Estimated number of casualties is 70-80.

Soviet Union – June 2-July 23, 1962 (KCA)
At the Geneva Conference, Khrushchev expresses satisfaction for Laos’ stabilization. An international agreement guarantees its neutrality.

Albania – June 4, 1962 (KCA)
General elections are held. They result in a 100% vote for the single list of candidates
put forward by the communist Party and the Communist-controlled National Front.

Hungary – June 5-12, 1962 (HC)
Representatives of agricultural research facilities of the Socialist countries hold an assembly in Budapest.

Soviet Bloc / Mongolia – June 6, 1962 (CAC/CEC/HC/MMS/PLC)
Meeting of the COMECON countries’ leaders in Moscow. Amendments to the Charter are approved. Mongolia is admitted to full membership. The Executive Committee is established, along with three more Standing Commissions and the Institute of Standardization.
The summit ratifies the basic principles and decides, in principle to create a common bank and monetary unit. The repercussions of the Sino-Soviet dispute and problems with Albania and Romania are also discussed.
Soviet proposal is accepted for a division of labor within the economic grouping; it is opposed by Romania – currently following an ambitious Six Year plan (1960-1965) – and the dispute later contributes to Bucharest’s taking a dissident position within the Warsaw Pact.

Warsaw Pact – June 7, 1961 (CAC)
A PCC meeting in Moscow publicly urges the conclusion of a peace treaty with Germany although Khrushchev has already given up on the idea.

Soviet Union / U.S. – June 8, 1962 (CWC)
The Soviet Union and the United States sign an agreement on cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space.

Yugoslavia – June 10, 1962 (MOL)
The Serbian parliament elects Slobodan Penezić new Secretary of the Executive Council of Serbia. Meanwhile, the Slovenian parliament elects Vida Tomšič president of the Slovenian parliament.

Yugoslavia – June 11, 1962 (RYN)
Invitations are issued in the name of six countries – Yugoslavia, the United Arab Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Sudan, and Guinea – asking developing countries to come to Cairo the following month to discuss a variety of common economic concerns.

Soviet Union / Canada – June 14, 1962 (KCA)
The Soviet Government presents a note to Canadian leadership in Ottawa protesting against what it describes as the “preparation of Canada for nuclear armament.” Canada dismissed the note as an  “inadmissible interference in internal affairs.”

Yugoslavia / Italy – June 15, 1962 (MOL)
A delegation of Yugoslav Minister of Interior Aleksandar Ranković leaves for Italy to discuss further cooperation between Yugoslavia and Italy.

Hungary – June 15, 1962 (HC)
In Budapest, the modernized Déli railway station is opened to the public.

Hungary – June 16, 1962 (HC)
Decree number 1962:13 mandating education from years six through ten is issued.

Hungary – June 18-21, 1962 (HC)
A delegation from Dahomey visits Hungary. The two countries sign an agreement establishing diplomatic relations. They also sign agreements on trade, finance, technical & scientific assistance and cultural exchanges.

Soviet Union – June 19, 1962 (KCA)
It is announced in Moscow that the Supreme Soviet has lowered the registration age for call-up from 18 to 17. It is given no reason for the change.

Yugoslavia – June 20, 1962 (MOL)
Rear Admiral David McDonald, Commander of the Sixth American Fleet visits Dubrovnik.

Hungary/Senegal – June 21-23, 1962 (HC)
A delegation of the government of Senegal visits Hungary.

Yugoslavia / U.N. – June 21, 1962 (MOL)
Mišo Pavičević, permanent Yugoslav representative to the U.N., informs the Secretary General that Yugoslavia is going to participate in the preparatory work of an international agreement prohibiting the use of nuclear energy for military ends.

Yugoslavia – June 22, 1962 (MOL)
As a result of discussions between the Yugoslav Investment Bank and the International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) Yugoslavia receives $30 million for the construction of the Bajina-Bašta water plant.

Soviet Union / Egypt – June 23, 1962 (KCA)
New three-year trade agreements between the Soviet Union and the United Arab Republic are signed in Moscow.

East Germany / Iraq – June 24, 1962 (KCA)
A Consulate-General of the GDR is opened in Baghdad. Iraq states that this does not imply any recognition of the German Democratic Republic under international law.

Poland – June 28-29, 1962 (KCA)
The Sejm approves a bill authorizing the taking-over by the state of neglected farms which offer no prospect of improved output under their present owners.

Hungary – June 30, 1962 (HC)
A national place conference takes place in Budapest to elect participants for Hungarian delegations to the World Peace and Disarmament Conference. Government resolution 1016/1962 establishes the Institution of Culture Relationship support the development of foreign cultural relations.


July 1962

Soviet Union / India / China – July-August 1962 (KCA)
An agreement for the delivery of Soviet Mig fighters is signed between India and the Soviet Union. In October 1962, China invades the territory of India. During the Sino-Indian conflict, no Soviet fighters are delivered to India. October 25, 1962: The Soviet Union, according to an article in Pravda, urges India to accept China’s proposals of settlement after the Himalayan border crises. On November 5, 1962, the Soviet Union calls for a cease-fire and immediate round-table talks between India and China.

East Germany – July-August 1962 (KCA)
Persistent food shortages are experienced, leading to the introduction of rationing measures, which rationed certain commodities.

Yugoslavia – July 1962 (RYE)
The Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia assembles for its 4th Plenum. The plenum adopts unexceptionable recommendations on short-run reflationary measures to get the economy moving again and a firm statement that decentralization and economic integration to achieve economies of scale through mass production are not incompatible goals. The principal theses and the preliminary draft of the new constitution are submitted and then approved by the plenum.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – July 3, 1962 (LUY)
Secretary of State Dean Rusk outlines the position of the administration toward aid and trade with Yugoslavia in an interview with John Scali on Issues and Answers.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – July 3-6, 1962 (MOL)
Yugoslav-Soviet discussions on the barter agreement for 1963-1965 are underway in Moscow.

Poland / Egypt – July 5, 1962 (KCA)
An economic cooperation agreement between Poland and the United Arab Republic is signed in Warsaw. It provides for the delivery by Poland of industrial plants and equipment.

East Germany / Cambodia – July 7, 1962 (KCA)
A Consulate-General of the GDR is opened in Phnom Penh. Cambodia states that this does not imply any recognition of the German Democratic Republic under international law.

Soviet Union – July 9-14, 1962 (HC)
The Congress of Peace and Disarmament takes place in Moscow. The Hungarian delegation is led by Árpád Szakasits, the Secretary the National Peace Committee. 

Yugoslavia / Egypt – July 9-18, 1962 (RYN)
The Cairo Economic Conference declares itself „resolutely in favor” of a world trade conference which should deal with such vital issues as the expansion of trade, primary commodity trade, and relations between developing and developed countries. At Yugoslav urging, it also calls upon the developing countries to break out of the capital accumulation vise in which they found themselves by expanding mutual trade among themselves and by promoting various other forms of mutual economic cooperation.

COMECON – July 10-12, 1962 (HC)
The first session of the executive committee of the COMECON takes place in Moscow. The Hungarian delegation is led by Antal Apró, the Vice Chairman of the Council of Ministers. The subject of the session is the international regulation of machinery.

Czechoslovakia – July 10-11, 1962 (KCA)
The Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party has abandoned the third Five-Year Plan and replaces it by a One-Year Plan for 1963 and a Seven-Year Plan for 1964-1970. Targets have not been reached in agriculture and in certain fields of industry.

Czechoslovakia – July 11, 1962 (KCA)
Governmental changes are announced in Prague.

Soviet Union – July 17, 1962 (KCA)
It is announced in Moscow that Dymshitz, the first Jew to be appointed to a leading governmental post since the dismissal of Lazar Kaganovich, has been appointed new chairman of state planning committee. He substitutes Nikolai Novikov, who became permanent Soviet representative on the executive committee of COMECON, which has been set up in June as part of a drive by the Communist countries to counter the European Common Market by a more effective integration of their economies.

Hungary – July 21, 1962 (HC)
Decree no. 1962:18 mandates the tapering-off cure treatment for alcoholics.

Soviet Union – July 22, 1962 (KCA)
It is announced that the Soviet Union will resume nuclear tests. The Soviet Union claims its right to resume tests because the “United States was the first to start nuclear weapon tests and has held many more of them than has the Soviet Union.”
Nuclear tests took place, mostly over Novaya Zemlya, without prior announcement. In the period from August 5 to December 22, 1962, 35 tests were detected by the Atomic Energy Commission. Tests continued until December 25. On November 7, Khrushchev announces that tests will end on November 20, although Soviet scientists will continue working on future experiments until the test ban treaty is signed.

Soviet Union / U.S. – July 23, 1962 (LBC)
Moscow proposes the establishment of a direct telephone link between the Kremlin and the White House. – Kennedy’s response: he is not planning a direct link with the Kremlin since the main problem between them is not in communication but understanding.

COMECON – July 25, 1962 (HC)
The member countries of the COMECON sign an agreement establishing a dispatch system in Prague. 

Finland – July 29-August 5, 1962 (KMP/HC)
The seventh World Festival of Youth and Students, which is known for its leftist roots, takes place in Helsinki. Urho Kekkonen intends not to participate in the festival but after the erupted riots and assaults, which are opposing the festival, he decides to take part in the Hungarian national concert as a kind of apology.


August 1962

Hungary – August 1962 (HC)
Diplomatic Letters of Hungarian Foreign Policy is published.

Romania / Soviet Union – August 1962 (RUR)
Khrushchev authors an article in a Soviet magazine calling for greater cooperation among COMECON members, directed mainly to Romania.

Hungary – August 6-10, 1962 (HC)
The 5th congress of the International Journalist Alliance takes place in Budapest.

Hungary – August 8, 1962 (HC)
A Peace Assembly of Hungarian Protestants Churches takes place in Budapest.

Soviet Union – August 11-15, 1962 (KCA)
The first double space flight is successfully carried out by two Russian cosmonauts, Major Nikolayev and Lieutenant-Colonel Popovich.

Hungary – August 14-16, 1962 (HC)
An extended session of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party takes place. The scheduled topics include guidelines for congress; modification of congressional protocol and the settling of unlawful court cases begun in the period of the personality cult against participants of the workers’ movement.  

East Germany – August 17, 1962 (KGD)
The 18-year old Peter Fechter is shot while attempting to escape at the Berlin wall. He bleeds to death in the border zone because people on both sides of the wall fail to come to his aid.

Hungary – August 18, 1962 (KCA)

In Budapest the expulsion from the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ (Communist) Party of Mátyas Rákosi, the former party leader and Ernő Gerő, the former Deputy Premier and First Secretary is announced. The expulsion is part of a process of de-Stalinization in the Soviet Bloc.

Soviet Union – August 22, 1962 (CWC)
The Soviet Union announces that it will abolish the post of Soviet commandant in Berlin.

Poland – August 26, 1962 (KCA)
Relations between the Polish Government and the Roman Catholic Church undergo a further deterioration during the latter half of 1961, arising primarily from the ending of religious instruction in State schools and the introduction of measures for State supervisions outside schools. Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, the primate of Poland, strongly attacks the new Education Law, who, according to him, is violating the 1956 agreement on Church-State relations.

Soviet Union – August 27-September 3, 1962 (HC)
Marxist economists of 23 European, Asian and American countries hold an assembly in Moscow. They discuss state monopoly capitalism and the new conditions confronting the working class.

Soviet Union / Finland – August 27, 1962 (KCA)
A Soviet-Finnish agreement providing for the lease to Finland of the Soviet part of the
Saimaa Canal is initialed in Helsinki.

Soviet Union / Cuba – August 27, 1962 (PLC)
Soviet-Cuban agreement on immediate weapons shipment.


September 1962

Soviet Union / Cuba – September 3, 1962 (KCA)
It is announced in Moscow that the Soviet Union has agreed to deliver arms to Cuba in view of the threats of “imperialist quarters” against that country. Soviet technical experts have joined Cuba.

Soviet Union / U.S. – September 4, 1962 (KCA)
The Soviet Government protests to the U.S. Government against an alleged violation of Soviet Airspace over Sakhalin Island by an American U-2.  The U.S. Government admits it, but it affirms that there were very bad climatic conditions.

Soviet Union / U.S. – September 11, 1962 (KCA)
The United States is denounced by the USSR for preparing an “act of aggression” against that country. They are given a warning that any attack on Cuba would “be the beginning of unleashing of war.”

Hungary – September 11-15, 1962 (HC)
An international mathematic conference is organized in Tihany (at Lake Balaton) with 40 foreign and 16 Hungarians participants.

Hungary – September 12-15, 1962 (HC)
An international scientific conference takes place in Budapest attended by scientists from 16 countries. 

Hungary – September 15, 1962 (HC)
Decree no. 1962:21 on public roads is issued by the Presidential Council.

Soviet Union / Iran – September 15, 1962 (KCA)
The Persian Government gives the Soviet Government an assurance that Persia will not allow “any foreign Power to establish rocket-launching sites of any kind on Persian territory.” In reply, the Soviet Government expresses its satisfaction at the decision, which will ” further the promotion of peace in the area.”

Hungary – September 16, 1962 (HC)
Decree no. 1962:22 on higher education institutions is issued by the Presidential Council.

Hungary – September 17, 1962 (HC)
Crude oil from the Volga region begins arriving in Hungary through the Friendship Pipeline.

Soviet Union / France / West Germany – September 18, 1962 (KCA)
The Soviet Government issues a statement denouncing what it describes as  the “Bonn-Paris axis” following President de Gaulle’s recent State visit to Western Germany. The Soviet Government accuses the axis of collusion “aimed at worsening the international situation and stepping up the arms race.”

Soviet Union – September 18, 1962 (KCA)
It is officially announced in Moscow that a new Soviet foreign trade organization, Litsenzintorg, has been set up to sell abroad patents to Soviet inventions and licenses for their use, and also to negotiate for the use of foreign patents by the Soviet Union. Therefore, the Soviet Union is willing to end the “pirating” of patents which has hitherto freely carried out.

Hungary – September 21, 1962 (HC)
The Collage of Education in Nyíregyháza opens.

Yugoslavia – September 22, 1962 (MOL)
Modification of the Yugoslav constitution.

Soviet Union / Turkey – September 22, 1962 (KCA)
Nearly 1,000 Cossacks, the descendants of families who have lived in Turkey for more than a century, return to the Soviet Union.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – September 23-October 3, 1962 (JVJ)
First Secretary of the CPSU Nikita S. Khrushchev visits Yugoslavia to improve relations between the two countries. A barter agreement is signed for the fiscal year of 1963 and a joint communiqué is published at the end of his visit. The Belgrade Declaration of 1955 is affirmed.

Soviet Union – September 24, 1962 (KCA)
The Supreme Soviet decides to postpone the reduction and abolition of income tax for factory and other workers.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – September 24, 1962 (KCA)
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Brezhnev pays an official visit to Yugoslavia, which marks a major advance in the improvement in relations between the two countries which was in progress since 1959 and especially since 1960, when the controversy over “revisionism” was overshadowed by the one over the “dogmatism” of the Chinese and Albanian Communist Parties. The first high-level contact between the two countries since 1957 was in April 1961. President Tito says that “certain differences” need not be an obstacle to lasting cooperation between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. On September 25 Brezhnev denounces West Germany revenge seekers, and on October 2, President Tito gives a strong warning against the danger of a revival of German militarism. At the end of the visit a strong increase in the volume of trade between the two countries is agreed. However, in China Brezhnev’s visit provokes an intensification of anti-Yugoslav propaganda.

Soviet Union – September 25, 1962 (KCA)
It is announced in Moscow that the reorganization of Ministry for Construction of Power stations has been decided in order to improve the industry’s management and ensure the complete electrification of the country.

Soviet Union / Cuba – September 25, 1962 (KCA)
Castro announces that Soviet Union will build a port in Cuba as a base for its Atlantic fishing fleet.

Soviet Bloc – September 25-26, 1962 (MMS)
Meeting of the COMECON Executive Committee in Moscow.

Soviet Union / Finland – September 27, 1962 (KCA)
The Soviet-Finnish agreement providing for the lease to Finland of the Soviet part of the Saimaa Canal is signed in Moscow.


October 1962

Romania / Poland / East Germany / Soviet Union – October 1962 (RCW)
The ministry of armed forces of Romania issues detailed report on events in Poland. Military maneuvers of troops of the Soviet Union, Eastern Germany and Poland are held in order to regroup their forces.

Romania / Soviet Union – October 2, 1962 (RFP)
Khrushchev presents the Basic Principles of the International Socialist Division of Labor, which, in effect, relegates  the less-developed  East European states to the status  of suppliers of raw materials to the more advanced countries in order to construct  a world Socialist economy. Romania opposes. The division of work is incompatible with Romanians national requirement for a speedyindustrialization, creation of a supra-national planning is a new formula for Soviet domination.

Romania / Cuba / Soviet Union / U.S. October 4, 1962 (RFP)
A Romanian diplomat declares to the U.S. that Romania had not been consulted over the Soviet decision to place nuclear missiles in Cuba and is not therefore a party to the dispute. Romania would remain neutral in any conflict generated by such actions as the Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba.

Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – October 5, 1962 (KCA)
Todor Zhivkov arrives in Belgrade to discuss closer economic cooperation between Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. It is a significant improvement in the relations between the two countries, since Bulgaria is the Eastern bloc country that has denounced Yugoslav revisionism the most strongly.

Italy – October 11, 1962 (PLC)
Second Vatican Council for reviewing the basic tenets of Catholic faith begins under Pope John XXIII.

Hungary – October 11-12, 1962 (HC/KCA)
A lengthy session of the Central Committee of the Hungarians Workers’ Party takes place in Budapest. György Marosán is dismissed from his party positions. October 14. – György Marosán, a former Social Democrat who spent several years in prison during the Rákosi regime, has been expulsed from the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party. There was a conflict between Marosán and the Central Committee on September 1, which led him to submit his resignation from that body without waiting for the Central Committee’s decision.

Hungary / COMECON – October 13, 1962 (KCA/HC)
The Hungarian section of the ”Friendship Oil Pipeline” built under the auspices of the
COMECON is officially opened.

Cuba – October 14, 1962 (CAC)
The discovery of Soviet nuclear-capable missiles on Cuba marks the start
of the Cuban missile crisis

U.S. / Cuba – October 15, 1962 (PLC)
The U.S. learns about Soviet missile deployment in Cuba.

Soviet Union – October 18, 1962 (KCA)
Reports are confirmed that the best-known victims of Stalin’s purges (Bukharin, Rykov, Tomsky, Pyatakov and Radek) have been rehabilitated.

Czechoslovakia – October 19, 1962 (KCA)
Ten days after closing the Gottwald Mausoleum, the statue of Stalin in Prague is demolished.

Hungary / U.S. – October 20, 1962 (PLC)
Hungarian-American agreement: the “Hungarian question” is removed from the U.N. General Assembly’s agenda on December 20. General Amnesty granted in Hungary March 22, 1963.

Hungary – October 21, 1962 (HC)
Decree no. 1962:24 from the Presidential Council establishes regulations on communal courts.

Hungary/Soviet Union – October 21- November 15, 1962 (HC)
Hungarian-Soviet economic negotiations take place in Moscow. Both parties sign an agreement on the production of aluminum through 1980.

U.S. / Cuba – October 22, 1962 (PLC)
Kennedy announces a blockade around Cuba, taking effect October 24. The Cuban Missile Crisis begins.

 Cuba / Soviet Union – October 22, 1962 (CAC)
Marshal Grechko informs Warsaw Pact representatives about the Cuban situation and the Warsaw Pact orders an alert that lasts until November 21.

Soviet Union / U.S. / Cuba – October 22-29, 1962 (KCA/LBC/PLC).
The Cuban Missile Crisis. October 23. According to the Soviet government Cuba’s blockade could lead to a thermonuclear war.  It is decided to raise the “military preparedness” of the Warsaw pact countries. The Soviet Government issues a statement denouncing the American” blockade” of Cuba as “an act of piracy.” It is asserted that Soviet arms supplied to Cuba are solely for defensive purposes. – October 24. U Thant, General Secretary of United Nations, suggests to President Kennedy and Khrushchev a “truce” of two or three weeks for negotiations, during which the U.S. should suspend its quarantine of Cuba and the Soviet Union should suspend all arms shipments to that country. Through the British philosopher Bertrand Russell Khrushchev offers a summit to Kennedy to solve the crisis.  – October 25. Khrushchev welcomes the U Thant initiative. Valerian Zorin, the Soviet delegate at the United Station, refuses to answer the American delegate: he asked the Soviet delegate whether Soviet missiles bases in Cuba exist. – October 26. U Thant sends Khrushchev a message expressing “grave concern” lest Soviet ships already on their way to Cuba “might challenge the quarantine imposed by the United States” and aggravate the crisis. Khrushchev says that he agreed with the Secretary-General’s request and has ordered Russian vessels to stay out of the interception area as a “purely temporary move” which could not last long. Khrushchev sent a letter to President Kennedy, which is not made public. It is understood to have offered the removal of Soviet missiles for Cuba if the U.S. discontinue its naval quarantine and give assurances against an invasion of Cuba. – October 27. Khrushchev sends another letter to President Kennedy. He proposes that the Soviet Government should remove from Cuba “those means which you regard as offensive” and make a declaration to this effect to the United Nations; that the U.S. should “remove its similar means from Turkey” an make a corresponding pledge. Kennedy replies to the first unpublished letter and agrees that the U.S. should remove the naval quarantine and give assurances against the invasion of Cuba and that Soviet weapons systems should be withdrawn from Cuba. – October 28. In a letter to Kennedy, Khrushchev announces that the Soviet Government decided to cease further works at the weapons sites in Cuba, to dismantle the weapons themselves and their return to Soviet Union. Castro makes no comment on the U.S.S.R. decision: he has apparently not been consulted. – October 29. The U.S. suspends the blockade.

Finland / France – October 24—November 4, 1962 (KMP)
Urho Kekkonen visits France and President Charles de Gaulle assures that he fully understands Finland’s will to preserve her neutrality and competitiveness in the common market equal to the other Scandinavian countries.

Poland – October 24, 1962 (PSN)
Poland issues a pro-Soviet statement criticizing the U.S. blockade of Cuba.

Hungary – October 25, 1962 (HC)
A three-day gerontology conference takes place in Budapest.
Yugoslavia – October 30, 1962 (LUY)
President Tito expresses the Yugoslav and non-aligned position on the Cuban missile crisis in a carefully worded letter to Acting Secretary General of the United Nations U Thant.


November 1962

Greece – November 1, 1962 (PLC)
Greece becomes an associate member of the Common Market.

Soviet Union – November 2, 1962 (KCA)
The first space probe directed towards Mars is successfully launched in the Soviet

Hungary / Indonesia – November 5, 1962 (HC)
The Parliament passes the 1961 Hungarian-Indonesian Friendship Agreement into law. 

Bulgaria – November 5-14, 1962 (KCA)
The eighth congress of the Bulgarian Communist Party is held in Sofia. The prime minister, Anton Yugov, and a deputy premier, Georgi Tsankov, are expelled from the central committee. Vulko Chervenkov, who was the prime minister before Anton Yugov, is expelled from the party. The congress ended the previous crisis inside the communist party leadership between Stalinist leaders and the Zhivkov faction. The Congress is interrupted while Todor Zhivkov visits Moscow to negotiate with Khrushchev to secure support for a purge in the Bulgarian party leadership. The main dispute inside the party concerns the Soviet Union-China issue. On November 14, Zhivkov makes a speech in which he proposes peaceful co-existence as the solution to the conflict. The new committee of the party is elected. On November 14, the Secretariat and Politburo are elected as follows: Boyan Bulgaronov, Dimiter Ganev, Mitko Grigorov, General Ivan Mikhailov, Encho Staikov, Stanko Todorov, Boris Velchev, Todor Zhivkov, and Zhivko Zhivkov as full members, and Dimiter Dimov, Pencho Kubadinsky and Tano Tsolov as candidate members. On November 19, the Bulgarian National Assembly formally relieves Yugov of the Premiership and elects Zhivkov to succeed him.

Hungary – November 7, 1962 (HC)
János Kádár, the First Secretary of the Socialist Workers’ Party makes a three-day official visit to Moscow.

Hungary/Austria – November 8, 1962 (HC)
Hungary and Austria sign a five-year trade agreement.

Soviet Union / Cuba – November 11, 1962 (KCA)
The Soviet Union provides Cuba with Soviet aid, especially in the form of raw materials. In 1961, Cuba also signed long-term trade agreements with many countries of the Eastern bloc.

Hungary – November 12-14, 1962 (HC)
An international aluminum industry conference takes place in Budapest.

Soviet Union / Sri Lanka – November 14, 1962 (KCA)
The Soviet Union establishes a regular shipping service with Ceylon.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 15, 1962 (HC)
Hungary and Soviet Union sign agreement on industrial production. Hungary signs the Geneva declaration on the construction of major international roads.

Hungary – November 17, 1962 (HC)
An electrified railway between Budapest and Miskolc is opened to the public.

Yugoslavia / Poland – November 19-24, 1962 (KCA)
The Polish Foreign Minister Adam Rapacki makes an official visit to Yugoslavia and expresses his satisfaction with the friendly co-operation between Poland and Yugoslavia.

Soviet Union – November 19-23, 1962 (KCA)
A plenary session of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party is held in Moscow. Radical changes to the party are approved. The changes to the organization of the economy are intended to increase the efficiency of industry and agriculture. The organization of the party based on territorial basis will be replaced by organization „from top to bottom“ along production lines. All industrial research will be placed under the State Committee of the Council of ministers. The work of the Academy of Science will be concentrated on the most important tasks. The state planning Committee will no longer supervise the annual fulfillment of long-term plans, but the task will be transferred to a new body: The National Economic Council. The Scientific and Economic Council will be renamed the State Planning Committee and will become responsible for long-term planning.

Hungary – November 20-24, 1962 (HC/KCA)
The 8th congress of the Socialist Workers’ Party takes place in Budapest. János Kádár remains First Secretary. The members of the political committee are János Kádár, Antal Apró, Béla Biszku, Lajos Fehér, Jenő Fock, Sándor Gáspár, Gyula Kállai, Zoltán Komócsin, Ferenc Münich, Dezső Nemes, Sándor Rónai, Miklós Somogyi, István Szirmai. The congress opens with a speech from János Kádár, Prime Minister and First Secretary of the Party. He emphasizes the importance of drawing all sections of the nation into public life. Many prominent non-Communist Hungarians are invited to the congress as guests. Kádár expresses hope that co-operation with Yugoslavia will improve further and that relations with the U.S. will normalize. Turning to the situation in Hungary, Kádár claims that the basis of Socialism was laid in the area of industry and agriculture. The congress concludes on November 24 and fully endorses “the policy of one nation,”which Kádár had put forward in December 1961, and "the policy of liberalization policy and de-Stalinization measures.”

Soviet Union / U.S. / Cuba – November 20, 1962 (PLC)
Following the assurance of the removal of Soviet medium and inter-medium missiles
from Cuba, the U.S naval blockade of Cuba is lifted.

Romania – November 26, 1962 (KCA)
It is announced that a Franco-British consortium has secured a contract for the building of a state-plate mill in Romania.

Eastern Europe / U.S. – November 27, 1962 (LBC)
The report of the subcommittee of the Foreign Relations Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives on U.S. policy towards Eastern Europe. The chairman of the subcommittee, Edna F. Kelly declares that the State Department and the Voice of America (VOA) did not do everything “to sustain the spirit of resistance in Eastern Europe and nationalistic aspirations of the captive nations” of Eastern Europe. As an example Kelly cited that the VOA failed to broadcast the subcommittee’s hearings. – Furthermore the report is critical of the government’s reluctance to persuade the U.N. to condemn “colonialism” in Eastern Europe and urged that in order to counter the threat to Berlin to demand the settlement of East-Central European problems on the lines of the treaties signed by the allies after World War II.

Yugoslavia / France / U.K. – November 27, 1962 (MOL)
Financial talks with Great Britain and France.

Yugoslavia / China – November 28, 1962 (MOL)
Yugoslavia sends a note of protest to China because of the anti-Yugoslav campaign in Chinese press. According to Yugoslav charges, the campaign started in 1958 and 272 article in 6 journals were published between January 1 and November 10, 1962.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – November 28, 1962 (KCA)
A contract has been concluded by two British companies for the supply of steel-making and rolling-mill equipment for a new integrated State steelworks in southern Yugoslavia.

Soviet Union / Finland – November 30, 1962 (KCA)
The protocol on Finnish-Soviet trade in 1963 under the five-year agreement is signed.


December 1962

Yugoslavia – December 1962 (RYE)
Conference of the Yugoslav Association of Economists is convened to discuss the economic implications of the new Constitution, then in the final drafting stage. While several points of views are expressed, the dominant one holds that the recession is primarily the consequence of excessive liberalization, unequal rates of regional development and in-supportive increases in personal incomes.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union / Hungary – December 2 (MOL)
On his way to the Soviet Union, Yugoslav President Tito travels through Hungary. Chairman of the Presidential Council István Dobi gives a dinner in his honor in Budapest.

Hungary – December 2-28, 1962 (HC)
A Hungarian government delegation travels to Guinea, Mali, Dahomey, Guinea, Nigeria, Algeria and Morocco. Gyula Kállai, one of the Deputy chairmen of the Council of Ministers, leads the delegation.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union / Hungary – December 2-21, 1962 (KCA/LUY)
President Tito leaves Belgrade to visit the Soviet Union. The visit is probably designed to serve several purposes. First, it is in return of the visit by Soviet head of state Brezhnev the previous October. Second, it is aretaliation to the discriminatory Section 231 of the United States Trade Expansion Act of 1962 and an attempt to cement closer economic relations with the Soviet Union and the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON). And thirdly, it is a direct ideological slap at Communist China by both the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, particularly in regard to Cuba and the Sino-Indian border dispute. Despite the fact that the journey was officially described as a holiday, he was accompanied by vice-president Aleksandar Ranković and other political, economic and military experts. On the way, Tito stops to have dinner with János Kádár in Hungary. On December 4, Tito arrives in Moscow. On December 5-6, negotiations on the international situation and on relations between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union led by Tito and First Secretary of the CPSU Nikita S. Khrushchev take place in the Kremlin. Ranković, Gromyko, Ansatas Mikoyan and Andropov also take part in the talks. On December 18-20, Tito visits Kiev accompanied by Khrushchev. On December 21, the tour concludes in Budapest with talks with János Kádár. After returning to Belgrade, Tito claims that Yugoslavia will not change its foreign policy, but it will develop closer co-operation with Socialist countries and peaceful co-existence with all countries regardless of their social system. Tito expresses optimism about the policy of the Soviet Union, although he admits that there are still some issues on which they do not agree. On January 10, 1963, in Belgrade, an agreement for increased cooperation is signed.

Poland / U.K. – December 4, 1962 (KCA)
The Polish embassy in London announces that the Polish Government has repaid part of the Polish sterling debts under the Anglo-Polish financial agreement of November 11, 1954.

Czechoslovakia – December 4-8, 1962 (KCA)
The 12th congress of the Czechoslovak Communist Party is held in Prague. The congress is marked by heated disputes between the Czechoslovak leaders and the Chinese delegation over questions of policy and ideology. A Chinese Note of November 17 protests the cessation of supplies from Czechoslovakia without prior warning. --December 5. A Czechoslovak Note protests the retention of Czechoslovak technicians and their families in China, apparently as a reprisal for the suspension of exports. Antonín Novotný, the president of the Republic, remains in control and no de-Stalinization measures are approved. The five-year plan is cancelled due to a region-wide economic crisis since early 1961. Instead a seven-year plan (1964-1970) is accepted, with a provisory three-year plan until 1964. December 8. The congress elects a new central committee without any major changes. – January 5, 1963. The new Cabinet is implemented with František Krajčír as a deputy prime minister.

Soviet Union / U.S. / U.N. – December 5, 1962 (KCA)
The U.S. and Soviet representatives at the United Nations sent a join letter to U Thant announcing that the two countries reached an agreement for cooperation in space research.

Hungary – December 6, 1962 (HC)
Népszabadság publishes a framework for international co-operation; a Hungarian space research facility is established.

Hungary – December 7, 1962 (HC)
The Presidential Council schedules parliamentary and municipal elections. The University of Forestry and Timber industry opens in Sopron.

Soviet Union / Cuba – December 10-19, 1962 (KCA)
Trade negotiations between Cuba and the Soviet Union take place in Moscow. On February 2, the trade protocol for 1963 is signed by Senor Carlos Rafael Rodriguez and Ansatas Mikoyan.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – December 12, 1962 (KCA)
Khrushchev speaks to the Supreme Soviet on foreign policy. In his speech, he replies at length to the Chinese and Albanian allegations that the Soviet Union had pursued an appeasement policy towards the United States during the Cuban Crises. Khrushchev also speaks about relations with Yugoslavia. He admits that “the most of the guilt for the deterioration is borne by Stalin,” but he emphasizes that “Yugoslav comrades bear their share of guilt” also. He expressed the necessity to cooperate with Yugoslavia as “it is impossible to deny that it is a Socialist country.” Khrushchev regards as reasonable China’s unilateral cease-fire concerning the Sino-Indian border conflict. Tito, having heard of Khrushchev’s speech, agrees with him on basic lines.

Soviet Union / U.S. – December 12, 1962 (LBC)
The U.S. delegation in Geneva urges the establishment of a direct fax or telephone line between the White House and the Kremlin. Kennedy supports the idea. According to the President the war crisis showed that in the atomic age there is need for rapid communication between the leading powers of the world. In the course of the crisis communication was slow many times they had to rely on open communications and this lasted for hours.

Soviet Union / U.N. – December 13, 1962 (KCA)
Nikolai Fedorenko, a career diplomat and a specialist in Far Eastern Affairs, has been appointed Soviet permanent representative at the United Nations in succession to Valerian Zorin, who has been the Soviet permanent representative since September 1960.

NATO – December 13-15, 1962 (LBC)
The Paris meeting of the NATO council affirmed that the main task of the organization is to develop conventional forces. The council expressed its readiness to promote East-West talks in the midst diminishing international tension.

COMECON – December 14-20, 1962 (CEC/KCA) –» December 1962
The 17th session of COMECON is held in Bucharest. The Executive Committee of COMECON agrees to establish a system of multilateral settlements among COMECON member-countries; preliminary discussions on setting up International Bank for Economic Cooperation (IBEC);  approval of a plan for the construction of a common pool of good wagons; approval of certain measures for co-operation in the field of shipping; continuation of the system of price–fixing agreed to in 1958; and standardization of the provisional statute of the COMECON. December 22. Albania ceases its participation in the work of COMECON.

Poland / Syria – December 20, 1962 (KCA)
As Poland plays an increasingly important part in Syria’s cotton export, an economic co-operation agreement between Poland and Syria is signed in Damascus.

U.N. – December 20, 1962 (KCA)
The General Assembly of the United Nations decides to end the appointment of Sir Leslie Munro as its special representative for Hungary, citing the fact that Hungary has not cooperated sufficiently with the representative. Consequently, it was announced that Secretary General U Thant has received an official invitation to visit Budapest during 1963. Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union are elected to the Economic and Social Council for 1963, together with Argentina, Austria, Japan and the United Kingdom.

France / U.K. / U.S. – December 21, 1962 (LBC)
Joint announcement by the U.S. and Great Britain on an agreement to develop a joint Western nuclear force. American and British nuclear arms and military unit will be sent to a multilateral nuclear force, which will be established after consultation with the NATO member states. – The British nuclear force is placed under NATO command except when, according to the government, national interests are at stake. – December 27. France rejects Kennedy’s offer to equip France with Polaris missiles to form a French nuclear force linked to NATO.

China / Mongolia – December 26, 1962 (KCA)
Chinese Prime Minister, Chou En-lai, and Monoglian Prime Minister, Marshal Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal, sign an agreement delimiting the 2,500-mile frontier between China and Mongolia. Marshal Tsedenbal gives a speech supporting the policy of the Soviet Union towards Cuba.

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013