The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991
Péter BENCSIK, Péter VUKMAN
Babak ARZANI, Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Ádám BALOGH, Shira BORZAK,
Florian BRINK, Vanessa BUFFRY, David CATALAN, Sonya COWELL, Susan COOPER, Lauren CRYSTAL, Laura CSEKE, Botond CSELLE, Péter DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB,
Kati DEPETRILLO, Emanuele DI BELLO, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA,
Kristyna GABIKOVA, Evelina GELEZINYTE, Laura GOUSHA,Zsófia GÖDE, Brianna GREENWALD, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Ágnes HEVÉR,Neala HICKEY, Jennifer OLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU, Kitti Eszter JAKAB, Dean JOLLY, Victoria JONES, Annastiina KALLIUS, István KASZTA, Tomas KOLAR, Roman KOZIEL,Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Karina LEGRADI, Thomas KOLLMANN, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Cynthia MANCHA, Mike MANTZAVINOS, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Viktor NAGY, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Jennifer OTTERSON, Roland PAPP, Orsolya PÓSFAI, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Linda RICHTER, Martin ROMAIN, Lili SIKLÓS, Bobbie SCHOEMAKER, Anett SZŰCS, Sabine TOPOLANSKY, Dóra VERESS, Aniello VERDE, Zita Bettina VASAS, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, Kristóf ZSIDI
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013
At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The second part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1953 to 1968. The years 1969–1980 will be available by the end of 2014.
The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come.
The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.
List of Sources
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013
Romania / Vietnam / U.S. – 1964 (RCN)
Bucharest offers its services to mediate in the North Vietnam conflict, Corneliu Bogdan, Romania’s ambassador to the United States, agrees to carry messages via Bucharest to Hanoi. A plan called “Packers” is active until the Tet offensive in early 1968, which ends all negotiations.
Romania / Sweden / Italy / Japan / U.S. – 1964 (RFP)
Number of conventions are signed between Romania and Western states (Sweden, Italy, Japan, the United States) to raise diplomatic offices to the rank of embassies.
Romania – 1964-1967 (ABR)
Romania refuses to participate in the Warsaw Pact.
COMECON – January 1964 (KCA/CEC)
The IBEC starts operations.
Yugoslavia – January 1, 1964 (RYE)
The principal agency of federal control of savings and investment, the GIF, which handled between a third and a quarter of gross investment financing, is abolished along with corresponding republican and local investment funds. Their assets and liabilities are transferred to the banks which administered them.
COMECON – January 1, 1964 (HC)
The International Bank of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance begins operations.
Soviet Union / U.S. – January 2, 1964 (LBC)
In his New Year speech Khrushchev calls on the world for the sake of an agreement that would prohibit the military settlement of territorial disputes. Neither differences in social or political systems, nor the existence or absence of diplomatic relations can justify the violation of the territorial integrity by one state of the other. – The Soviet Union signs the first part of the wheat deal: it purchases one million tons of wheat at a price, 65 million dollars – subsidized by the U.S. government. This price counterbalances the high cost of shipment. – The Department of Commerce gives permission for three more wheat purchases. – January 7. Soviet-American talks start on a cultural exchange program.
East Germany – January 2, 1964 (KGD)
New identity cards are issued bearing the rubric: “Citizen of the German Democratic Republic”.
East Germany – January 2, 1964 (CAC)
A GDR proposal for the denuclearization of both German states preempts the Gomułka Plan.
Soviet Union / U.S. – January 5, 1964 (LBC)
Senator Barry Goldwater’s program for the presidential campaign: Khrushchev should make it possible for the East European states to choose their own political systems.
U.S. – January 8, 1964 (LBC)
President Lyndon B. Johnson’s state of the union address: new steps must be made towards arms control and disarmament world trade must be extended. Johnson envisions the reduction of the military budget.
Warsaw Pact – January 8–9, 1964 (CAC)
Warsaw Pact consultations in Moscow about the Gomułka Plan are subsequently sidetracked by the Soviet Union.
Poland / Soviet Union – January 10–14, 1964 (CAC)
At a confrontational meeting with Khrushchev, Gomułka accuses Khrushchev of pursuing Soviet interests in Germany at Poland’s expense and urges reconciliation with China.
Hungary / Soviet Union – January 13, 1964 (HC)
Hungarian-Soviet negotiations begin about the 1966-1970 five-year plan.
Soviet Union / U.S. – January 21, 1964 (LBC)
The U.S. offers to the Soviet Union to start East-West talks on freezing the number and types of nuclear arms that would include all the nuclear vehicles. The proposal was made at the opening of the new session of the disarmament talks in Geneva. The Soviet side wants to negotiate on the reduction of Soviet and Western troops in Germany, on the increase of observation positions, on averting an attack from Germany, the denuclearization of German territory, the reduction of military expenditures and a NATO-Warsaw Pact non-aggression treaty. – The U.S. would negotiate on banning the use of force, the controlled freezing of the number of nuclear arms, stopping the production of fissionable materials and the liquidation of its production capacity, on avoiding war stemming from accident, false miscalculation or surprise.
Soviet Union / Cuba – January 23, 1963 (CWC)
Fidel Castro visits the Soviet Union. At the end of the visit a joint communiqué is issued, in which the Soviet Union guarantees help to Cuba in case of American attack.
Soviet Union / France – January 28, 1964 (LBC)
A five-year Soviet-French commercial treaty is signed in Moscow. From January 1963 to October France bought 101 million dollars of goods from the Soviet Union and sold 50 million’ worth. – March 2. A member of the CPSU Politburo, Nikolai Podgorny visits Paris. He expresses the USSR’s “unswerving desire” to improve Soviet-French relations and praised de Gaulle’s “realistic” stance on international relations.
Romania – January 30, 1964 (RCW)
The memorandum issued by Radio Free Europe's (RFE's) New York headquarters to the Paris RFE bureau directing the Paris bureau to use its broadcasts to subtly encourage Romania to adopt foreign policies which would lead to greater independence from the USSR.
Hungary / Sweden – January 31, 1964 (HC)
Hungary establishes ambassadorial relations with Sweden.
Yugoslavia / Hungary – January 31-February 3, 1964 (MOL)
Hungarian-Yugoslav discussions take place in Budapest between János Kádár and Deputy President Aleksandar Ranković.
Romania / Soviet Union / China – February 1964 (SRR)
Romanian mediator efforts in the Sino-Soviet conflict fail.
Hungary / Soviet Union – February 2-6, 1964 (HC)
A Soviet delegation led by Deputy Prime Minister M.A. Leschenko, visits Hungary. The two countries sign a contract outlining Hungarian-Soviet economic co-operation.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – February 2, 1964 (MOL)
An agreement on postal services between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia is signed in Moscow.
Yugoslavia / Austria – February 2, 1964 (MOL)
Austrian Vice Chancellor Bruno Pittermann leaves Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia / Romania – February 3, 1964 (MOL)
As a reciprocal visit of the Romanian trade unionist delegation of the previous year, a Yugoslav trade unionist delegation, led by Svetozar Vukmanović, visits Romania.
Soviet Union / U.S. – February 4, 1964 (KCA)
Yuri Ivanovich Nosenko, an official attached to the Soviet delegation at the Geneva Disarmament Conference, defects to the West and gains political asylum in the U.S.
Yugoslavia / Austria – February 5, 1964 (MOL)
The Austrian Ministry of Education gives an aid of 1 million schilling to school buildings and educational equipment to Skopje where a serious earthquake nearly completely destroyed the city in July 1963.
Soviet Union / U.S. – February 6, 1964 (LBC)
The U.S. calls on the Soviet Union to refrain from passing technical information relating to nuclear arms or their production to countries that do not have them. – February 13. The U.S. proposal on the reduction of the production of fissionable materials needed for nuclear weapons is repeated. The U.S. is ready to divert 60 thousand kilos of fissionable material for peaceful use. – February 18. The Soviet Union rejects the American proposal to freeze nuclear delivery vehicles since it would not terminate the danger of nuclear war in the early phase of disarmament. – March 17. The U.S. repeats its reasons for rejecting the Soviet Union’s plan to annihilate the larger part of nuclear delivery vehicles in the first phase of disarmament: it would radically alter the East-West military balance; the proposal contains no provision to check whether one or the other contracting party does not keep nuclear missiles deployed. It demands the elimination of foreign bases, including those that ensure the East-West balance.
Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – February 8, 1964 (MOL)
On his way home from Warsaw, Yugoslav Secretary of Finance Kiro Gligorov arrives at Prague as guest of Czechoslovak minister of finance.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – February 10, 1964 (MOL)
Colonel Paul Freemann, commander of the European land forces of the United States arrives in Belgrade to participate in the ceremony, during which the houses constructed by the American Army are given to the victims of the earthquake in Skopje.
Soviet Union / China – February 10-15, 1964 (HC)
At a session of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party proposals about the activities of the Chinese Communist Party and the unity of the international Communist movement are approved.
Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – February 11, 1964 (MOL)
Yugoslav secretary of finance Kiro Gligorov meets Jozef Lenárt, Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia.
Yugoslavia – February 11, 1964 (MOL)
Bogdan Čolnik, member of the Federal Committee of the Socialist Alliance leaves for Chile to take part at the twentieth congress of the Chilean Socialist Party.
Greece / Turkey – February 11, 1964 (PLC)
A Greek-Turkish armed conflict takes place in Limassol after ethnic clashes.
Yugoslavia – February 12, 1964 (MOL)
An air traffic agreement between Yugoslavia and Denmark is signed in Copenhagen.
Yugoslavia / East Germany – February 13, 1964 (MOL)
The representatives of Yugoslavia and the German Democratic Republic sign an agreement on consular affairs in Berlin.
Yugoslavia / Romania – February 13, 1964 (MOL)
Chairman of the Romanian State Council Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej meets the members of the Yugoslav trade unionist delegation. The delegation returns to Yugoslavia the next day.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – February 15, 1964 (MOL)
Talks begin in Moscow between the representatives of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia on concluding an agreement on scientific cooperation.
Greece – February 16, 1964 (PLC)
Parliamentary elections are held in Greece (81.7% turn-up). Georgios Papandreou’s Centre Union wins with 57% of the votes. The United Democratic Left (EDA) places third with 11.8%.
Bulgaria / Soviet Union – February 16-21, 1964 (KCA)
A Bulgarian delegation led by Todor Zhivkov, the first Secretary of the
Communist Party and Chairman of the Council of Ministers, visits the Soviet Union
for discussions on economic and political questions.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – February 17-19, 1964 (HC)
Negotiations on Hungarian-Czechoslovakian economic and technical co-operation take place in Prague.
Yugoslavia / Africa – February 18, 1964 (MOL)
A Yugoslav party and cabinet delegation, led by Lazar Koliševski, leaves for an African tour. The delegation visits Mali, Ghana and Guinea.
Yugoslavia / India / Burma / Cambodia / Afghanistan – February 19-March 23, 1964 (MOL)
Led by Joze Brilej, an economic delegation leaves for India, Burma and Cambodia and talks on the possibilities of further economic cooperation.
Yugoslavia / West Germany – February 19-20, 1964 (MOL)
Oscar Schlitter, ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany is in Belgrade to negotiate on the renewal of diplomatic discussions stopped in 1963. No major breakthrough is reached.
Soviet Union / Denmark – February 19, 1964 (KCA)
The Danish Prime Minister, Jens Otto Krag, arrives in Moscow on an official visit. Talks are held among Krag, Khrushchev, Gromyko and Nikolai Patolichev. – February 27. An agreement on the settlement of mutual financial, property and other claims connected with the annexation by the Soviet Union of the Baltic Republics and the western regions of the Ukraine and Byelorussia is signed. A new building contract is also signed. A six-year trade agreement, the first of its kind between Denmark and the Soviet Union, is signed on November 22, 1963, in Moscow.
Hungary – February 20-22, 1964 (HC)
An extended session of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party takes place in Budapest. It officially condemns the policy of the Chinese communist leadership.
Yugoslavia / Guinea – February 20, 1964 (MOL)
A delegation lead by Minister of Economic Development Ismail Touré arrives Yugoslavia from Guinea. A protocol on economic cooperation is signed at the end of the discussions.
Yugoslavia / Nigeria – February 22, 1964 (MOL)
A Nigerian goodwill mission led by Minister of Agriculture Mamadru Majdah arrives in Yugoslavia to sign an agreement on economic and cultural cooperation between the two countries.
Soviet Union / Sri Lanka – February 22, 1964 (KCA)
An air agreement between Ceylon and the Soviet Union is signed in Colombo.
Soviet Union / U.S. – February 22, 1964 (LBC)
The U.S. and the Soviet Union sign the fourth two-year cultural exchange program. The agreement envisions exchange programs in the field of industry, agriculture, performing arts and public health, but the number of students is reduced from 50 to 40 per country.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – February 24, 1964 (MOL)
An agreement on scientific cooperation is signed between the representatives of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia in Moscow.
Soviet Union / COMECON – February 25-28, 1964 (HC)
The Eleventh session of the Executive Committee of the COMECON takes place in Moscow The extension of technical-scientific cooperation; the standardization of regulations; the water economy and plans for 1966-1970 are discussed.
Soviet Union / U.S. – February 25, 1964 (LBC)
Dean Rusk’s speech on U.S. policy toward communism. Three objectives are identified: to stop the communists from extending their domain, by making it more and more costly, dangerous and futile for them to try; the signing of agreements that reduce the chance for destructive wars; the promotion of the evolution of the communist world towards national independence, peaceful cooperation and open societies. According to Rusk this can be achieved by the U.S. “adjusting our policies to the changing behavior of the different communist states”. According to Rusk it is not enough to contain communism and to sign certain agreements to reduce the risk of war. U.S. policy toward communism changed because “some communist governments have become responsive in varying degrees…to the aspirations of their subjects…the communist bloc is no longer a single flock of sheep following blindly behind one leader”.
Poland – February 26, 1964 (LBC)
Proposal by Polish party first secretary Gomułka for the freezing of nuclear arms on the territory of the GDR, the FRG, Czechoslovakia and Poland. The Western part of Germany would not need to establish official links with the Eastern part to sign.
Yugoslavia / India – February 28, 1964 (MOL)
The Yugoslav delegation led by Joze Brilej finishes its discussions in India.
Yugoslavia – February 29, 1964 (MOL)
The Royal Shakespeare Theatre arrives in Belgrade and holds four performances in the National Theatre.
Poland / Soviet Union – February 29, 1964 (CAC)
The Gomułka Plan is submitted but the USSR opposes the verification measures proposed in the plan.
Poland – February 29, 1964 (PSM)
Wladyslaw Gomułka officially presents his plan about freezing the nuclear armament on the territory of Poland, Czechoslovakia and both part of Germany. Similarly to the Rapacki Plan, the suggestion of Gomułka is rejected by the Western leaders.
Romania / China / North Korea – March 2-13, 1964 (RFP)
A high-level Romanian delegation makes an official trip to China and North Korea, where they talk with the leaders of the two Communist parties.
Hungary/Soviet Union – March 2-11, 1964 (HC)
A Soviet delegation led by the Secretary of the Central Committee Yuri Andropov visits Hungary.
Romania / Soviet Union / China – March 2-10, 1964 (PLC)
Romanian leaders’ mediating mission in Beijing and Moscow.
Romania / China – March 3, 1964 (RFP)
Western diplomats began to inquire into the agenda of the Romanian-Chinese
Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – March 3, 1964 (MOL)
Czechoslovak Minister of Machinery Jozef Pesl arrives in Belgrade and meets Industrial Secretary of State Filip Bajković.
Cyprus / U.N. – March 4, 1964 (PLC)
The U.N. Security Council decides to send forces to Cyprus in order to separate the fighting parties.
Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – March 5, 1964 (MOL)
An agreement on establishing new border crossings is signed by the representatives of Bulgaria and Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia / Algeria – March 6, 1964 (RYN/MOL)
Ahmed Ben Bella, during this visit to Yugoslavia, remarks that he goes there because the Yugoslavs „have taken the kind of road to socialism” which they „regard as the best of all, since it pays attention to democracy and harmonizes socialism and democracy.” Actually, it is Ben Bella's first visit in Europe. Official discussions between Yugoslavia and Algeria start on March 7.
Greece – March 6, 1964 (PLC)
The Greek king Paul dies. His heir is Constantine II (1964-1967 and 1973).
Yugoslavia / Brazil – March 7, 1964 (MOL)
A parliamentary delegation arrives in Belgrade from Brazil.
Hungary / Bulgaria – March 9-14, 1964 (HC)
A Bulgarian government delegation led by Todor Zhivkov, the Secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party visits Hungary.
Soviet Union / U.S. – March 10, 1964 (KCA)
A Soviet fighter in East Germany shoots down a U.S. military plane. The first incident of this kind happened on January 29. – March 31. The U.S. announces that all training flights are banned within a 70-mile wide zone in West Germany along the East German border.
Yugoslavia / East Germany – March 10, 1964 (MOL)
Opening of the East German Short Film Festival in Belgrade.
Finland / Estonia – March 11, 1964 (SPS)
President Urho Kekkonen travels to Estonia for an official state visit. Kekkonen’s welcoming addressing speech in Estonian language in Tartu University is interpreted as a proof of Finland’s support for Estonian culture and identity.
Finland / U.N. – March 12, 1964 (CTC)
Cabinet committee agrees to make the necessary preparations for the provision of troops for the U.N. peace-keeping operation in Cyprus. The agreement is confirmed by a telegram from Helsinki telling Ottawa that Finland is willing to participate.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – March 13, 1964 (MOL)
Talks on economic and technical cooperation between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia starts in Moscow.
East Germany – March 13, 1964 (HWD/JWG)
Professor Robert Havemann, a critic of the regime, is removed from Humboldt University and the SED.
Yugoslavia / India – March 13, 1964 (MOL)
An exhibition on Yugoslav drawings, photographs and books opens in India.
Yugoslavia / Norway – March 14, 1964 (MOL)
It is announced that the Norwegian government is going to build a childcare's hospital in Skopje for the value of $300 thousand.
Hungary – March 14, 1964 (HC)
Decree no. 1964:6 establishing standardization in the health care system comes into effect.
Poland – March 14, 1964 (PLC)
A Letter of protest against the state’s cultural policies is signed by 34 Polish intellectuals. Prime Minister Józef Cyrankiewicz receives the “Letter of 34”. The authorities see the letter as “hostile”; no agreement is reached.
Finland / U.N. – March 14, 1964 (CTC)
Cabinet Committee makes an official announcement that Finland intends to participate in UNFICYP.
Yugoslavia / Brazil – March 15, 1964 (MOL)
A Yugoslav delegation of foreign trade leaves for Brazil.
Yugoslavia / Norway – March 16, 1964 (MOL)
Discussions on Yugoslav-Norwegian cultural cooperation are underway in Belgrade.
Yugoslavia – March 16, 1964 (RYE)
The Party Central Committee assembles for its 6th Plenum, the main purpose of which is to set the date and begin preparations for the 8th LCY Congress. The leadership has before them a document entitled Basic Directives for the Pre-Congressional Activities.
Soviet Union / Yemen – March 16-24, 1964 (KCA)
President Abdullah al-Sallal of Yemen visits the Soviet Union. – March 21. A treaty friendship is signed. Sallal and Khrushchev also sign an agreement on economic and technical co-operation and an agreement on the construction by the Soviet Union of a hospital, a health centre and three schools in Yemen.
Yugoslavia / Pakistan – March 17, 1964 (MOL)
Pakistani Minister of Economics arrives in Belgrade for a 3-day visit to talk about the economic cooperation between the two countries.
Yugoslavia / Brazil – March 17, 1964 (MOL)
Talks on economic cooperation start in Rio de Janeiro between Yugoslavia and Brazil to facilitate the exchange of goods and raise the economic cooperation to a higher level.
Yugoslavia / Algeria / Tunisia – March 18, 1964 (MOL)
Led by Rato Dugonjić, Chairman of the Parliament of Bosnia-Herzegovina, a delegation leaves for Algeria and Tunisia. Another Yugoslav delegation leaves for Colombo to participate in the preparatory meeting of the non-aligned foreign ministers.
Hungary – March 19-20, 1964 (HC)
The Third Congress of the Patriotic People’s Front is convened in Budapest. Gyula Kállai chairs the proceedings while Ferenc Erdei is General Secretary.
Yugoslavia March 23, 1964 (MOL)
After visiting India, Burma, Cambodia and Afghanistan, the Yugoslav economic delegation led by Joze Brilej returns to Belgrade.
Switzerland / United Nations – March 23-June 5, 1964 (HC)
A U.N. world trade and economic development place in Geneva. József Bíró Minister of Foreign Trade leads the Hungarian delegation.
Yugoslavia / Norway – March 24, 1964 (MOL)
It is announced that the Norwegian government is going to build a 100-bed hospital for TBC patients in Skopje.
Yugoslavia / Brazil – March 25, 1964 (MOL)
A Brazilian parliamentary delegation arrives in Yugoslavia to familiarize with the work of the federal parliament and examine the possibilities of bilateral economic cooperation.
Yugoslavia / Congo – March 25, 1964 (MOL)
The goodwill mission of the Republic of Congo arrives in Belgrade from Czechoslovakia, led by Foreign Minister David Ganao. The delegation meets Secretary of Foreign Trade Nikola Dzušverović and discuss the possibilities of economic cooperation between the two countries.
Soviet Union / U.S. – March 25, 1964 (LBC)
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee William Fulbright states his views on the foreign policy of the U.S.: a radical change came about in the links within the communist world and between the communist and the Western world. The cold war is not the same: the Soviet Union is no longer as aggressive as it used to be, both sides renounced complete victory; the U.S. has strategic superiority that the USSR tacitly accepts. According to Fulbright the U.S. must forget myths such as the monolithic nature of communism, that all communist states are inveterately evil, and the uncompromising foe of the free world, that trading with the communist states is like dealing with the devil, we either win the cold war or bury it straight away. – According to Secretary of State Dean Rusk, Fulbright’s views do not reflect the administration’s policies. – According to Senator Barry Goldwater, Fulbright’s views lack all reality.
Finland / U.N. – March 25, 1964 (UTE)
Finnish Ambassador Sakari Tuomioja is appointed the first U.N. arbitrator in the Cyprus crisis.
Poland / Yugoslavia / U.S. – March 26, 1964 (LBC/MOL/PLC) –» April 5.
U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson extends the most favored nation treatment to Poland and Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia / Cuba – March 27, 1964 (MOL)
As a present, Yugoslavia sends 250 Liter anthrax injections to Cuba for the victims of hurricane Flora.
Yugoslavia / Algeria – March 28, 1964 (MOL)
A delegation of party and cabinet members, led by Mihajko Todorović, leaves for Algeria. – April 3. The delegation returns to Yugoslavia on.
Yugoslavia / Brazil – March 31, 1964 (MOL)
President of the Federal Parliament Edvard Kardelj meets the members of the Brazilian parliamentary delegation.
Hungary – March 31-April 5, 1964 (HC)
The Eighth congress of the International Alliance of Democratic Lawyers takes place in Budapest.
Hungary / Soviet Union / Poland – March 31-April 10, 1964 (HC/KCA)–»March 31.
A Soviet government delegation led by Khrushchev, First Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party visits Budapest, Hungary. During this visit, he attacks Chinese ideology several times. – April 3. Khrushchev awards János Kádár, First Secretary of the HSWP the Lenin Order and the Golden Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union. In April, the Soviet Union appeals again for a World Communist Conference. Gomułka visits the Soviet Union on April 13-15 and states that Poland will welcome a conference.
Romania – April 1964 (RFP)
A meeting of the Politburo is held. The subject is Romanian detachment from the Soviet Bloc. It takes place on three levels: economic, political and technological. It includes the gradual elimination of the ‘Kremlin people’, those educated in Moscow.
Romania – April 1964 (SRR)
Romania rejects the Russian domination of the Soviet Bloc. It seeks economic cooperation with China, but the Chinese are unable to offer viable economical alternatives. Romania leans more towards the West. Hoping to secure the acceptance of its views on the equality of all socialist states, Romania adopts a neutral position in the Sino-Soviet conflict.
Romania / U.S. – April 1964 (RCN)
U.S. president Lyndon B. Johnson notifies Bucharest that the U.S. is willing to start negotiations on a trade agreement.
East Germany / West Germany – April, 1964 (HWD)
East Berlin announces its willingness to distribute West German newspapers such as Die Zeit and Die Süddeutsche Zeitung in the GDR, if the SED organ Neues Deutschland is also distributed in the FRG.
Yugoslavia / Liberia / Tunisia / Algeria – April 1-9, 1964 (MOL)
A Yugoslav parliamentary delegation visits Liberia, Tunisia and Algeria.
Yugoslavia / Brazil – April 7-13, 1964 (MOL)
A Brazilian parliamentary delegation visits Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia / Italy – April 8, 1964 (MOL)
Talks begin between Yugoslavia and Italy on a new trade agreement and on an agreement controlling border traffic.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – April 9, 1964 (LBC)
It is announced in Moscow that four U.S. military attachés and one British attaché may not leave Moscow for 90 days. – April 10. It is announced in Washington that until July 1 no Soviet attaché may leave Washington unless the Soviet restriction is revoked.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – April 10, 1964 (MOL)
Two-day discussions between Yugoslav and American economists start in Boston for the widening of exchange of goods.
Poland / Soviet Union – April 13-15, 1964 (KCA)
A Polish governmental delegation visits Moscow. Gomułka, Józef Cyrankiewicz and Adam Rapacki represent the Polish side and Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Anastas Mikoyan, Gromyko, Alexei Kosygin and Nikolai Podgorny represent the Soviet side in talks that end with an extension of the 1945 Polish-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Assistance for a further 20 years.
Yugoslavia / Poland / Norway – April 14, 1964 (MOL)
Talks on cooperation in nuclear physics start in Belgrade between Yugoslavia, Norway and Poland.
Soviet Union / U.S. – April 14, 1964 (LBC)
The Pentagon publishes an official estimate of military forces. Strategic Air Forces: U.S. 540 long range nuclear bombers; USSR 120 heavy bombers and 150 medium range bombers. ICBMs: U.S. 750; USSR 188. SLBMs: U.S. 192; USSR less.
Yugoslavia / The Netherlands – April 15, 1964 (MOL)
Talks on economic cooperation between the Netherlands and Yugoslavia start in Belgrade.
Soviet Union / West Germany / U.S. – April 16, 1964 (KCA)
The Soviet Foreign Ministry orders the West German news agency Deutsche Presse-Agentur to close its Moscow office. – May 4. The Soviet Union orders the American magazine Time to close its office in Moscow and orders the Time correspondent, Israel Shenker, to leave the country within a few days.
Yugoslavia – April 16-17, 1964 (RYE)
The Federal Assembly devotes two days to major discussions of the economic situation, during which the ground rules for the 1965 reforms are in effect established.
Romania – April 16, 1964 (CAC/PLC/RFN) –» April 22.
At the April 15-22 meeting of the Romanian Workers’ Party’s Central Committee, a special Romanian national Communist “declaration of independence” is accepted. – April 27. The document is made public.
Hungary – April 17, 1964 (HC)
On the occasion of the 70th birthday of Khrushchev, a Hungarian delegation arrives in Moscow. Its members are János Kádár, Prime Minister and First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party; Sándor Rónai, the Speaker of the Parliament and Károly Erdélyi, Deputy Foreign Minister.
Hungary – April 18-19, 1964 (HC)
The Second Congress of the Hungarian Red Cross takes place in Budapest.
Hungary / Austria – April 19-24, 1964 (HC)
A delegation of the Austrian Federal Chamber of Commerce and Industry, led by General Secretary Franz Kosinek visits in Budapest.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – April 20, 1964 (LBC/KCA)
The U.S and the Soviet Union announce simultaneously that they are reducing the production of fissionable material. The following day Great Britain joins the undertaking. Khrushchev announces that the Soviet Union will immediately halt the construction of two large reactors for the production of plutonium.
Yugoslavia – April 20-25, 1964 (RYE)
The 5th Congress of the Trade Union Federation provides a timely forum for the mobilization of additional support.
Yugoslavia / France – April 21, 1964 (MOL)
The delegation of the French Socialist Party, led by Guy Mollet, arrives in Belgrade. – April 24. As chairman of the federal parliament Edvard Kardelj meets the delegation. – April 29. Tito also meets them. – April 30. The delegation leaves Belgrade.
Soviet Union / U.K. – April 22, 1964 (KCA)
Following an agreement between the British and Soviet Governments, Greville Wynne, who was sentenced to eight-year imprisonment in Moscow, and Gordon Londsdale, who received a 25-year sentence in London, are exchanged at a Berlin checkpoint.
Bulgaria / U.K. – April 22, 1964 (KCA)
The BBC announces that Bulgaria continues to jam BBC broadcasting. Broadcasts to other socialist states are free from interference.
Poland – April 22, 1964 (KCA)
The Polish Sejm passes a Government Bill to extend the 20-year Period for Prosecution of War Criminals. The Bill declares that no obstacles may be placed on the future prosecution of guilty persons.
Soviet Union / Algeria – April 25, 1964 (KCA)
The President of Algeria, Ben Bella, arrives in Moscow. It is announced that Bella has been awarded the Order of Lenin, the title of Hero of the Soviet Union and a Lenin Peace Prize. – April 28-30. He visits Uzbekistan. – May 2. Together with Khrushchev, he visits the Crimea. – May 5. A joint communiqué is issued. The Soviet Union will grant Algeria a long-term credit of 115,000,000 rubles. Bella then visits Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia.
Yugoslavia / Algeria – April 25, 1964 (MOL)
A group of 117 Algerian students leaves for Yugoslavia for a 6-8 week long specialization training.
Yugoslavia – April 26, 1964 (MOL)
The Executive Council of the Republic of Serbia passes a resolution restricting the number of university students in 10 faculties because of lack of enough lecture halls and lecturers.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – April 29, 1964 (MOL)
Representatives of Yugoslavia and the United States sign three agreements in Belgrade, according to which Yugoslavia is entitled to buy certain goods from the United States in total value of $64 million.
Hungary / Italy – April 29, 1964 (HC)
Hungary and Italy establish ambassadorial relations.
Hungary / Afghanistan – April 30, 1964 (HC)
Hungary and Afghanistan establish ambassadorial relations.
East Germany – May, 1964 (HWD)
A Youth Act (Jugendgesetz) of the GDR aims to strengthen the loyal of citizens. In order to achieve the stability of the regime, the SED and the state focuses most of its attention on GDR youth.
Hungary / Austria – May 3-13, 1964 (HC)
A delegation of Labor Unions visits Hungary. Its General Secretary János Brutyَó,leads a study of the Unions’ work.
Romania – May 4, 1964 (RCW)
Information not concerning the correspondence between the Paris and Munich office of Radio Free Europe on whether or not Romanian political and economic policies constituted a signal that Romania was asserting its independence from the USSR is issued by the Foreign Information Section of Securitate.
Soviet Union / U.N. – May 5, 1964 (KCA)
The Soviet Union expresses support for the Cambodian Chief of State, Prince Norodon Sihanouk, proposal from April 22. This proposal, sent to Gromyko and Richard Austen Butler, contains an appeal that the 22 countries that participated in the Geneva Conference should meet again as soon as possible to discuss the situation in Laos. France also supports the initiation of negotiations through an international conference in Geneva. – May 21. The Soviet Union announces its support for the French proposal. – July 26. The Soviet Government proposes that a 14-Power Conference should be held in August and states that if this proposal is refused, the Soviet Union will reconsider its position as co-chairman.
Hungary / East Germany – 6-12 May, 1964 (HC)
A government delegation from the GDR led by Walter Ulbricht, First Secretary of the East German Socialist Unity Party, visits Hungary.
Soviet Union / China – May 7, 1964 (KCA)
China sends a letter to the Soviet Union refusing all proposals for the Conference. – July 30. The Soviet party invites 25 other communist parties to form a preparatory committee for a world conference. The invitation is accepted by the majority of communist parties. The Sino-Soviet Conflict intensifies.
Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – May 7, 1964 (MOL)
Czechoslovak Minister of Foreign Trade František Hamouz arrives in Yugoslavia to visit the opening of the Novi Sad Agricultural Fair. He also holds discussions with the Secretary of State for Foreign Trade and leaves on May 9.
Yugoslavia / East Germany – May 11, 1964 (MOL)
Led by Deputy Prime Minister Bruno Leuschner, an East German economic delegation arrives in Belgrade to the opening session of the economic and scientific mixed committee of the two countries.
Yugoslavia / Africa – May 12, 1964 (MOL)
A goodwill mission led by Avdo Humo visits Mauritania, Senegal, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Central-African Republic and Ivory Coast.
Yugoslavia / India – May 13, 1964 (MOL)
30 geologists of Naftalpin, a company based in Zagreb, leaves for India to a one-year search for crude oil at the valley of the river Brahmaputra.
Yugoslavia – May 13, 1964 (PLC)
A law to broaden autonomy of the Vojvodina region is accepted.
Yugoslavia – May 15-22, 1964 (MOL)
Invited by Foreign Secretary Koča Popović, delegations from Tanganyika and Zanzibar are in Yugoslavia.
Hungary / Iran – May 16, 1964 (HC)
Hungary and Iran establish ambassadorial relations.
Yugoslavia / Italy – May 17, 1964 (MOL)
Renewal of the agreement on fishing between Yugoslavia and Italy until August 31, 1965 by an exchange of notes.
Yugoslavia / Israel – May 19, 1964 (MOL)
Yugoslav-Israeli barter talks finish in Jerusalem. An agreement is signed for the period from July 1964 to June 1965. Yugoslavia imports fertilizers, cotton, and fruits and exports heavy machinery, motor bicycles, and wooden products.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – May 20-June 11, 1964 (HC)
Negotiations take place in Belgrade between Hungary and Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia / Mexico – May 20, 1964 (MOL)
Talks start in Belgrade on the strengthening of economic cooperation between Yugoslavia and Mexico.
Yugoslavia – May 20, 1964 (RYE)
The Federal Assembly adopts a Resolution on Basic Guidelines for the Further Development of the Economic System which faithfully repeats the same themes and those of the Trade Union Congress.
Yugoslavia – May 22, 1964 (MOL)
President of the government of Northern Rhodesia arrives for a two-day official visit to Yugoslavia and meets President Tito.
Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – May 22-27, 1964 (MOL)
Václav David, Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia, visits Yugoslavia.
Eastern Europe / U.S. – May 24, 1964 (LBC)
President Lyndon B. Johnson outlines the U.S. policy towards Eastern Europe: “we work to carry on the vision of the Marshall Plan to strengthen the ability of every European people to select and shape its own society…to bring every European nation closer to its neighbors in the relationship of peace,…to build bridges across the gulf that divided us from Eastern Europe,…bridges of increased trade, of ideas, of visitors and of humanitarian aid.”
Hungary / Yemen – May 26-31, 1964 (HC)
Marshall Abdullah al-Salal, the president of the Arab Republic of Yemen makes an official visit to Hungary and signs a contract establishing friendly relations.
Yugoslavia / Belgium – May 27, 1964 (MOL)
Led by Edvard Kardelj, a parliamentary delegation leaves for an official visit to Belgium.
Palestine – May 28, 1964 (PLC)
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is founded.
Hungary / Japan – May 28, 1964 (HC)
Hungary and Japan establish ambassadorial relations.
Yugoslavia / Chad – May 30, 1964 (MOL)
Talks start in Belgrade on the economic cooperation between Yugoslavia and Chad. – June 1. An agreement on establishing diplomatic relations are signed on.
Soviet Union / Denmark / Norway / Sweden – June-July 1964 (KCA)
Khrushchev pays a 19-day visit to Denmark, Sweden and Norway. On June 20, a joint Danish and Soviet communiqué is issued. Both sides express the importance of partial agreements to partial disarmament and satisfaction with a certain easing of tension in international relations. Mutual relations are defined as friendly and the trade between the two countries is highlighted. On June 26, a Swedish-Soviet communiqué and on July 1, a Norwegian-Soviet communiqué with similar content are issued.
Romania / U.S. – June 1, 1964 (LBC/RCN)
The U.S. and Romania sign a commercial and political agreement. An increase in trade and the raise of diplomatic missions from Legations to Embassies are agreed upon. According to the joint communiqué Romania would be allowed to purchase most articles in the US without individual licensing. Romania obtained American license for some industrial installations towards which the Romanian delegation showed particular interest. – July 31. A Franco-Romanian treaty of technological and scientific cooperation is signed in Paris.
Soviet Union / U.S. – June 1, 1964 (KCA)
A consular convention between the U.S and the Soviet Union is signed by Gromyko and the U.S. Ambassador, Foy G. Kohler. In addition to the consular convention, agreements for co-operation in the exchange of meteorological information; for scientific, technical and cultural co-operation; and for co-operation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy are signed.
Yugoslavia / Finland – June 1-8, 1964 (KCA/EAJ)
Yugoslav President Tito visits Finland. In a joint communiqué, Finland expresses interest in participating in the second conference of non-aligned countries as an observer.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – June 8, 1964 KCA
Tito visits Leningrad for private talks with First Secretary of the CPSU Khrushchev.
Yugoslavia / Canada – June 8, 1964 (MOL)
It is announced that the Yugoslav company Elektrosonf is going to build a water damp in British Columbia, Canada.
Hungary / France – June 9-23, 1964 (HC)
A five-member delegation of the French Communist Party led by Georges Marchais, the Secretary of the French Communist Party, visits Hungary.
Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – June 9, 1964 (MOL)
President of the Bulgarian Council of Ministers Pencho Kubadinski arrives in Belgrade on the invitation of the Federal Executive Council.
Soviet Union / U.S. – June 9, 1964 (LBC)
The U.S. states its position at the disarmament talks in Geneva: it is willing to stop the production of fissionable material for military use and to destroy the reserve and outdated bombers. – The USSR rejects the proposal for the annihilation of B-47 and TU-16 bombers and proposes the liquidation of all bombers in the world. Moscow is willing to avert nuclear proliferation only in case the US drops its plan to set up a unified Western fleet armed with nuclear weapons.
Yugoslavia – June 10-15, 1964 (MOL)
A delegation of the Italian Socialist Party, led by General Secretary Francesco de Martino is in Yugoslavia. The delegation meets Lazar Koliševski and discusses the current international situation, the international workers' movement and talk on further cooperation between the organizations.
Yugoslavia / U.K. – June 10, 1964 (MOL)
An agreement is signed in Belgrade between Yugoslavia and Great Britain. According to the agreement, Britain gives a million pound loan for the reconstruction of Skopje after the devastating earthquake in 1963.
Romania / COMECON – June 12, 1964 (KCA)
Romania opposes certain COMECON policies and closer economic integration in the areas of Romania, Bulgaria and the Soviet Union around the Lower Danube.
Yugoslavia / Lebanon – June 12, 1964 (MOL)
Jugoinvest starts the construction of a water dam in Lebanon.
Yugoslavia / Algeria – June 12, 1964 (MOL)
A cultural agreement between Yugoslavia and Algeria is signed in Belgrade.
Soviet Union / East Germany – June 12, 1964 (CWC/KGD/ PLC/CAC)
The Soviet Union and the German Democratic Republic sign a Treaty of Friendship, Mutual Assistance and Cooperation. USSR formally guarantees the GDR’s defense. The United States refuse to recognize the GDR as an independent, sovereign nation.
Finland – June 13, 1964 (JVH)
Former Minister Johannes Virolainen becomes the new leader of the Agrarian League.
Soviet Union / U.S. – June 16, 1964 (LBC)
The U.S. rejects the Soviet proposal to liquidate the majority of the nuclear delivery vehicles in 18 months. The remainder would be used by both sides to retain their respective atomic umbrellas until full disarmament.
Yugoslavia / France – June 19, 1964 (MOL)
The representatives of Yugoslavia and France sign a five-year agreement on cultural cooperation is signed in Belgrade.
Yugoslavia – June 21, 1964 (MOL)
An exhibition of approximately a thousand new American books opens in Banja Luka.
Hungary – June 21, 1964 (HC)
The Presidential Council issues decree no. 1964:12 allowing the monitoring of people in Hungary. It modifies law 1957: VII and extends the scope of monitors’ activities.
Yugoslavia / Romania – June 22, 1964 (KCA)
Yugoslav President Tito visits the Romanian village of Piscia, where he meets Romanian head of state and first secretary Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej.
Yugoslavia / France – June 23, 1964 (MOL)
An agreement between Yugoslavia and France on a 50 million franc loan on the import of industrial machinery is taking effect.
Yugoslavia / Iraq – June 23, 1964 (MOL)
Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav National Army Rade Humović meets the military delegation of Iraq.
Yugoslavia / Poland – June 25-July 2, 1964 (KCA)
Yugoslav President Tito arrives in Warsaw. During an official visit, he signs a long-term trade agreement with Gomułka. – July 2. A join communiqué is issued.
Yugoslavia – June 25, 1964 (MOL)
J. H. Collier, chief of the IBRD mission arrives in Belgrade to discuss the Yugoslav pledge for loan for the construction of federal railways.
Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – June 26, 1964 (KCA)
The Soviet Union sends a protest Note to Britain, France and the U.S. concerning the decision to hold the presidential election of West Germany in West Berlin, as the Soviet Union states that it is not the part of Federal Republic. In the election, Heinrich Lübke is re-elected for a second term.
Yugoslavia / West Germany – June 26, 1964 (KCA)
Formal negotiations occur between West Germany and Yugoslavia.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – June 29, 1964 (HC)
Public bussing between Hungary and Czechoslovakia begins.
Yugoslavia / Vatican – June 26 – July 7, 1964 (ACY)
Discussions between the representatives of Yugoslavia and the Vatican are held in Rome.
Bulgaria – June 28, 1964 (KCA)
A total of twelve agreements on reparations, trade, communications and other matters are signed between Bulgaria and Greece. The agreements end a period of prolonged tension between the countries.
Yugoslavia / Romania – June 29, 1964 (MOL)
Yugoslav-Romanian talks start in Bucharest on abolishing the visa requirements between the two countries.
Yugoslavia / Poland – June 30, 1964 (MOL)
A new air traffic agreement is signed in Belgrade between Yugoslavia and Poland.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – July 1964 (KCA)
Khrushchev criticizes the multilateral force plan, presented on July 2 at the Geneva disarmament conference, despite previous assurances from the U.S. and Great Britain that it will not change the balance of nuclear power. – July 11. The Soviet Union sends a formal Note to the U.S., Great Britain, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, and Turkey. A separate Note is sent to West Germany. The Soviet protests are rejected by Great Britain, the U.S. and West Germany.
U.S. – July 1964 (LBC)
The election platform of the Republican Party accuses the Democratic government of pursuing the policy of Munich of a quarter of a century before and of “turning its back on the captive peoples of Eastern Europe”. – From the election platform of the Democratic Party: American strategic superiority needs to be retained, “Republicans reaffirm their long standing commitment to the course leafing to the eventual liberation of the communist dominated nations of Eastern Europe, Asia and Latin America.”
COMECON – July 1, 1964 (HC)
The common railroad system of the COMECON begins operations.
Hungary / Romania – July 1-3, 1964 (HC)
A Romanian delegation led by Nicolae Ceauşescu, the Secretary of the Central Committee of Romanian Communist Party, visits Budapest.
Hungary / Finland – July 5-16, 1964 (HC)
A delegation of the National Board of Labor Unions led by General Secretary János Brutyَó visits Finland.
Hungary/Italy – July 6-13, 1964 (HC)
A delegation of the Italian Socialist Party visits Hungary.
Yugoslavia – July 9, 1964 (RYE)
The Federal Assembly passes a new Basic Law on the Financing of Socio-Political Communities, redefining the division of responsibility and resources for social services and interventions in the economy among the Federation, the republics and the communes. The communes are henceforth required to finance these services out of their own means, with the role of the Federation reduced to supplying grants-in-aid to republics.
Soviet Union / COMECON – July 14-16, 1964 (HC)
The Thirteenth session of the Executive Committee of the COMECON takes place in Moscow. Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Poland establish Intermetall to ensure co-operation within the heavy industry.
Soviet Union – July 15, 1964 (KCA)
The appointment of Anastas Mikoyan as chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet is ratified. Mikoyan, an Armenian politician, succeeds Brezhnev and becomes the sixth titular Head of the Soviet Union since the Russian Revolution.
Soviet Union / U.S. – July 16, 1964 (KCA)
In Washington, the U.S. and the Soviet Union reach an informal agreement regarding limited scientific co-operation on the desalination of sea water.
Yugoslavia / West Germany – July 16, 1964 (KCA)
Trade agreements revising the trade agreement of 1952 between Yugoslavia and the Federal Republic of Germany are signed in Bonn.
Hungary / Poland – July 20, 1964 (HC)
Hungarian citizens are only allowed to travel to Poland with an inset issued for their IDs.
Hungary / Japan – July 23-27, 1964 (HC)
A delegation of Japanese Communist Party, led by the General Secretary Narita Tomimi, visits Hungary.
Hungary / Austria – July 23-28, 1964 (HC)
A delegation led by Jenő Fock, Deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers, visits Austria.
Hungary / England – July 24, 1964 (HC)
UK Trade Minister Edward Du Cann meets Hungarian political and economic leaders in Budapest.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – August 1964 (LYE)
Final agreements are signed between the Yugoslav government and representatives of both the prewar bond-holders (completing the 1959 arrangements for final payment) and American stockholders in the Yugoslav enterprises nationalized after the war.
East Germany – August 1, 1964 (JWG)
A new banknote, the “Mark of the German Central Bank” is issued.
U.S. / Vietnam – August 2, 1964 (PLC)
An accident in the gulf of Tonkin marks the beginning of the U.S.’s Vietnam war.
Vietnam / U.S. – August 4, 1964 (HC)
The air force of the United States begins a four-year long bombardment of Vietnam.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – August 5, 1964 (KCA)
On the first anniversary of the nuclear test-ban treaty, the U.S., the Soviet Union and Great Britain issue a joint statement on the first steps towards disarmament. The statement is issued simultaneously in London, Moscow and Washington.
Poland – August 7, 1964 (KCA)
Alexsander Zawadzki, head of state of Poland, dies after a long illness. Edward Ochab, Deputy chairman of the Council of State since 1961, is elected chairman.
Cyprus / Turkey – August 8, 1964 (PLC)
The Turkish invasion of Cyprus takes place.
Cyprus / Greece – August 8-9, 1964 (PLC)
The Greek attack on the Turkish minority in Cyprus takes place.
Soviet Union / Turkey – August 9, 1964 (KCA)
Khrushchev sends messages to the Turkish Prime Minister calling on Turkey to end military operations against a member of the United Nations, specifically Cyprus. Khrushchev replies to an appeal from Cyprus for military aid and promises that the Soviet Union will help Cyprus defend her freedom and independence.
Greece – August 17, 1964 (PLC)
Greece temporarily withdraws its forces from NATO.
Soviet Union / Czechoslovakia – August 27-September 5, 1964 (KCA)
Khrushchev visits Czechoslovakia and both countries reaffirm the complete correspondence of their Government’s views.
Soviet Union / India – August 28, 1964 (KCA)
Yashwantrao Chavan, the Indian Defense Minister, arrives in Moscow for talks with Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, the Soviet Defense Minister. -- September 11. They conclude an agreement on military aid. The Soviet Union will provide plant, machinery and technical assistance. India also signs similar agreements with the U.S. and Great Britain.
East Germany – August 29, 1964 (PLC)
The so-called Volga Germans are rehabilitated from collaboration charges.
Soviet Union – August 30, 1964 (KCA)
It is disclosed in Pravda, that a mobile atomic power station has been in operation for three years at Obninsk, the atomic research center near Moscow.
Hungary / USA – August 31-September 6, 1964 (HC)
Negotiations begin with the leaders of the American Eaton Syndicate. A preliminary agreement about American-Hungarian economic relations is approved.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – September 1964 (LYE)
The seventh annual American exhibit at the Zagreb Trade Fair features American agricultural equipment and leads to stepped-up sales activities by American manufacturers, such as John Deere, International Harvester, New Idea and others.
East Germany – September 1, 1964 (KGD)
It is decided that refugees who had left the GDR before the building of the Berlin wall and who want to return for visits will not be punished.
Soviet Union / West Germany – September 3, 1964 (KCA)
A message is transmitted informing Dr. Ludwig Erhard that Khrushchev is ready to visit West Germany. No date for the visit is announced, but it is understood that it will take place late in 1964 or in 1965.
Yugoslavia / Romania – September 7, 1964 (KCA)
Yugoslav President Tito meets Romanian chairman of the Council of State Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej to inaugurate the Iron Gate hydro-electric and navigation project.
Soviet Union / U.K. – September 7, 1964 (LBC)
An Anglo-Soviet agreement is signed on the construction of a 30 million pound synthetic textile plant in Krasnodarsk. The Midland Bank grants a 67.5 million dollar five year loan for the project.
East Germany – September 7, 1964 (JWG)
A non-military national service (Dienst ohne Waffe) is introduced for construction duties.
Hungary / Poland – September 7-26, 1964 (HC)
A Polish military delegation, led by Defense Minister Marian Spychalski, visits Hungary.
Hungary / Norway – September 7-16, 1964 (HC)
A Norwegian Workers’ Party delegation visits Hungary.
East Germany / West Germany – September 8, 1964 (KGD)
Pensioners are allowed to visit the FRG and West Berlin for maximum four weeks a year.
Yugoslavia / Hungary – September 11-16, 1964 (KCA)
Yugoslav President Tito visits Hungary, where, in a speech upon his arrival, he expresses support for First Secretary of the CPSU Khrushchev in the Sino-Soviet conflict. In a joint statement, both countries agree on stronger economic co-operation.
East Germany / U.S. – September 11, 1964 (KCA)
The U.S. State Department announces that Professor Heinz Barwich, a senior East German nuclear physicist and Stalin Prize winner, has been granted political asylum in The United States. Barwich is one of many German scientists who chose to go to the Soviet Union after the Second World War, where he worked at the Sukhumi research center until 1955.
Finland – September 12, 1964 (JVH/FGV)
Lehto caretaker government resigns and Agrarian Johannes Virolainen forms a new conservative government that includes the Agrarian Party, the National Coalition, the Swedish People’s Party of Finland (RKP) and the People’s Party of Finland.
Hungary / Sweden – September 12-16, 1964 (HC)
A Swedish co-operative delegation led by C.A. Anderson, Chairman of the Swedish Co-operative Alliance, and Mayor of Stockholm, visits Hungary.
Soviet Union – September 14, 1964 (CAC)
During a demonstration of new armaments, Khrushchev expresses doubts about their utility since war between the superpowers has been ruled
out because of the danger of nuclear arms.
Hungary / Vatican – September 15, 1964 (KCA/HC)
An agreement on a number of outstanding questions between Hungary and the Vatican is signed in Budapest. – September 18. The newly-nominated Hungarian bishops leave Budapest to attend the Second Vatican Council in Rome.
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union / COMECON – September 17, 1964 (KCA/PLC/HC)
An agreement is concluded in Moscow under which Yugoslavia will take part in some agencies of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance on the basis of equality and mutual benefits in the field of foreign trade, financial relations and selected industrial areas.
Hungary / Ethiopia – September 20, 1964 (HC)
Haile Selasie, the Emperor of Ethiopia makes a three-day official visit to Budapest. Negotiations establish an ambassadorial relationship. Further co-operation with Ethiopia is considered.
East Germany – September 21, 1964 (KCA/KGD)
Otto Grotewohl, Prime Minister of East Germany, dies after a long illness. – September 23. – West Germany approves the terms of a permanent technical agreement to allow West Berliners to visit their relatives in East Berlin at certain times. The agreement is signed on September 24 by Chancellor Horst Korber of the West Berlin Senate and Erich Wendt the State Secretary in the East German Ministry of Culture. It states that West Berliners can visit their relatives during four periods of 14-16 days each year. – September 24. Willi Stoph is appointed as the new Prime Minister.
Hungary / Bulgaria – September 21, 1964 (HC)
Visa requirements between Hungary and Bulgaria are eliminated.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – September 28-October 3, 1964 (HC)
A Czechoslovakian government delegation led by Antonín Novotný, head of state and First Secretary of the Czechoslovakian Communist Party, visits Hungary.
Poland – October 1964 (HPB)
Karol Modzelewski and Jacek Kuroń announce the manifesto in which they criticize the political system in Poland and call for fighting with the authorities by strikes and demonstrations. They are both arrested and sentenced to prison (Modzelewski for 3,5 years and Kuroń for 3 years).
Poland / Egypt – October 1964 (KCA)
The Deputy Prime Minister of the United Arab Republic, Dr. Mahmoud Fawzi, visits Poland. Talks with Gomułka result in a scientific and technical co-operation agreement.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – October 1964 (LYE)
The first official American government trade mission to Yugoslavia, led by an official of the Commerce Department and made up of private American businessmen, visit Yugoslavia on behalf of the American electronics, heavy equipment and other industries.
Hungary – October 1, 1964 (HC)
Hungarian embassies begin processing foreign tourists’ and visitors’ visa applications within 24 hours.
Yugoslavia / Nonaligned movement – October 5-10, 1964 (RYN)
The Second Conference of Nonaligned States is held in Cairo. The initiative has come from Yugoslav President Tito and President of the United Arab Republic Gamal Abdel Nasser, especially the former. The increased number of nations, the uncertainty expressed in various quarters over the functions of nonalignment in a period of incipient détente, and the challenge raised by militant Chinese propositions are motivating factors.
East Germany – October 6, 1964 (KCA)
At a ceremony for the 15th anniversary of the German Democratic Republic in East Berlin, Walter Ulbricht announces an amnesty for political and other prisoners. The amnesty takes effect before December 20.
Soviet Union / Israel – October 7, 1964 (KCA)
A property agreement is signed in Jerusalem between the Soviet Union and Israel.
East Germany – October 7, 1964 (HWD)
By the occasion of the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the GDR an amnesty is granted, that is valid among others for political prisoners, as well.
Germany / Hungary / Japan – October 10-23, 1964 (HC/JWG)
The XVIII Summer Olympic Games take place in Tokyo. The GDR and the FRG are represented by an all-German team for the last time. Hungarian athletes win ten gold, seven silver and five bronze medals.
Hungary / Poland – October 11-17, 1964 (HC)
A Hungarian government delegation led by János Kádár First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party, visits Poland.
Soviet Union – October 12, 1964 (KCA/HC)
The Soviet spaceship Voskhod, with three men on board, is launched from Baikonur. It is the world’s first three-member space shuttle. It lands safely the following day. In addition to this achievement, the Soviet Union launches another 24 Cosmos earth satellites and a space vehicle, Zond I, during 1964.
Soviet Union – October 14, 1964 (PLC/HC/CWC/LBC/KCA)
Khrushchev is overthrown in a coup-like manner during the CPSU leadership’s meeting. He is succeeded by Brezhnev as first secretary of the Communist party (1964-1982) and by Aleksei Kosygin as Prime Minister. The Western press announces that Khrushchev’s removal from these posts was decided on October 13 at a meeting of the presidium of the central committee of the Soviet Communist Party. – October 18. President Lyndon B. Johnson’s commentary: Khrushchev embarked on “dangerous adventures” in the field of foreign policy: the Cuban missile crisis and the Berlin blockade. But the former Soviet leader “learned from his mistakes”: and “in the last two years his government had shown itself aware of the need for sanity in the nuclear age”. This is shown by the test ban treaty and the hot-line pact and the fact that there are no weapons in outer space. – October 19. In a speech in Red Square, Brezhnev assures that Soviet foreign policy will remain unchanged. Other communist countries in Eastern Europe express surprise and emotion at Khrushchev’s release from his posts.— October 30. It is reported, that a document setting out 29 specific charges against Khrushchev was shown to foreign Communist delegations; the charges include mishandling foreign policy, personal failings and faults in domestic policy.
Warsaw Pact – October 14, 1964 (CAC)
The Warsaw Pact plan for the Czechoslovak army’s offensive into Western
Europe is approved.
China / U.N. – October 16, 1964 (PLC/HC)
The PRC detonates its first atomic bomb. The U.N. Security Council thus becomes an exclusive club of nuclear states (though China is still represented by Taiwan).
Hungary – October 19-24, 1964 (HC)
The Solidarity World Organization holds a meeting in Budapest. A proposal is signed about the establishment of a political group to support the Vietnamese people.
Hungary / France – October 20, 1964 (HC)
The General Assembly of UNESCO holds its 13th session in Paris. Magda Jóború is commissioned to produce a two-year plan. Imre Szabó is appointed Secretary of the Legal Committee.
East Germany /Warsaw Pact – October 20, 1964 (CAC)
East German leader Walter Ulbricht takes the initiative in proposing a longdelayed
WP PCC meeting.
Hungary / France – October 27-31, 1964 (HC)
György Csanádi, Minister of the Traffic and Post, makes an official visit to France.
Soviet Union – October 28, 1964 (KCA)
An agreement providing for the regular exchange of weather information is announced. The agreement is signed in June 1964.
Hungary / Austria – October 29-November 1, 1964 (HC)
The Austrian Foreign Minister Bruno Kreisky, makes an official visit to Budapest. An agreement is signed about resolving the Austrian-Hungarian border dilemmas.
Soviet Union / France – October 30, 1964 (KCA)
A new Franco-Soviet trade agreement for the years 1965 -1969 is signed in Paris. It envisages an increase in commercial exchanges by about 70% compared with the preceding five years.
Soviet Union / Turkey – October 30-November 5, 1964 (KCA)
The Turkish Foreign Minister, Feridun Cemal Erkin, visits the Soviet Union. – November 5. After talks with Gromyko and Kosygin, a joint communiqué is issued, in which it is stated that it is possible to strengthen co-operation between the two countries based on the confidence that existed during the period of Ataturk and Lenin.
USA – November 3, 1964 (HC)
Former Vice-President and acting President Lyndon B. Johnson is elected as President of United States of America.
Soviet Union – November 6-12, 1964 (HC)
Celebrations marking the 47th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution in Moscow.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – November 9, 1964 (LBC/KCA)
The U.S. and Yugoslavia sign an agreement on the exchange of scientists in the framework of the Fulbright program. This is the first such treaty with a communist state.
Hungary – November 10, 1964 (HC)
Decree no. 1964:27 confirms that that the maximum punishment for war crimes will be extended beyond 20 years.
Czechoslovakia – November 12, 1964 (PSČZ)
Antonín Novotný is re-elected as president. He also remains First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party.
Soviet Union – November 16, 1964 (KCA)
A plenary session of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party decides to revert to the former system of party organization on a territorial basis. Changes in the party leadership are approved. Pyotr Shelest and Alexander Shelepin are elected full members of the presidium of the Central Committee.
Hungary – November 21, 1964 (HC)
Construction begins on the Erzsébet Bridge in Budapest.
Hungary / Ghana / Guinea / Mali – November 23-December 12, 1964 (HC)
A Hungarian Parliamentary delegation led by Ferenc Erdei, visits Ghana, Guinea and Mali.
Yugoslavia / France – November 24-27, 1964 (KCA)
Yugoslav Foreign Secretary Koča Popović visits France. No communiqué is issued but it is known that the discussions deal mainly with the increase of trade exchanged between Yugoslavia and France.
East Germany – November 25, 1964 (JWG)
A minimum currency exchange is introduced for visitors to East Germany.
Hungary – November 26-28, 1964 (HC)
A congress for the organization of international health care takes place at the Hungarian Scientific Academy.
Soviet Union – November 30, 1964 (KCA)
The Soviet space craft Zond II is launched in the direction of Mars with stable communication.
Hungary / USA – December 4, 1964 (HC)
Foreign Minister János Péter meets US Foreign Secretary Dean Rusk in New York.
Yugoslavia – December 7-13, 1964 (RYE)
The 8th Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia meets in Belgrade. The Congress is to place the seal of approval of the Party's formally supreme authority on the most far-reaching and significant changes in the system since 1953. The Congress also marks effective if still qualified ascendancy of the liberal coalition.
Poland / Romania -- December 10, 1964 (CAC)
A meeting of Warsaw Pact deputy foreign ministers is held in Warsaw to prepare for a PCC meeting. Romania urges that Albania be invited. Because of a wide range of disagreements, the meeting ends without a joint communiqué.
Yugoslavia – December 11, 1964 (KCA)
The World Bank announces a loan to the Yugoslav Investment Bank for the modernization and improvement of the railway system.
Hungary / Bulgaria – December 14-16, 1964 (HC)
The establishment of common corporations is agreed during Hungarian-Bulgarian negotiations in Budapest.
Hungary / Austria – December 16, 1964 (HC)
Hungary and Austria establish ambassadorial relations.
Hungary – 21 December 1964 (HC)
The 20th anniversary of the establishment of the Provisional National Government is celebrated in Debrecen.
Hungary – 30 December 1964 (HC)
The National Board of Labor Unions calls for a socialist competition celebrating the anniversary of the country’s liberation.
East Germany / West Germany – December 31, 1964 (KGD)
Walter Ulbricht demands negotiations with the government of the FRG.
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013