The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Associate editors

 Assistant editors
Gabriella HERMANN
Jasper NOOIJN,

Babak ARZANI, Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Ádám BALOGH, Shira BORZAK, Florian BRINK, Vanessa BUFFRY, David CATALAN, Sonya COWELL, Susan COOPER, Lauren CRYSTAL, Laura CSEKE, Botond CSELLE, Péter DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB, Kati DEPETRILLO, Emanuele DI BELLO, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA, Kristyna GABIKOVA, Evelina GELEZINYTE, Laura GOUSHA,Zsófia GÖDE, Brianna GREENWALD, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Ágnes HEVÉR,Neala HICKEY, Jennifer OLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU, Kitti Eszter JAKAB, Dean JOLLY, Victoria JONES, Annastiina KALLIUS, István KASZTA, Tomas KOLAR, Roman KOZIEL,Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Karina LEGRADI, Thomas KOLLMANN, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Cynthia MANCHA, Mike MANTZAVINOS, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Viktor NAGY, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Jennifer OTTERSON, Roland PAPP, Orsolya PÓSFAI, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Linda RICHTER, Martin ROMAIN, Lili SIKLÓS, Bobbie SCHOEMAKER, Anett SZŰCS, Sabine TOPOLANSKY, Dóra VERESS, Aniello VERDE, Zita Bettina VASAS,  Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, Kristóf ZSIDI

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013

At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The second part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1953 to 1968. The years 1969–1980 will be available by the end of 2014.

The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968


List of Sources


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013



Chronology 1965

Early 1965, (RYN)
Vladimir Popović, then chairman of the Foreign Affairs committee of the Federal Assembly, heads a delegation that tours Tanzania, Zambia, Uganda, Kenya, and Sudan.

Romania – 1965 (RUR)
Party congress issues report with charges that Pătrășcanu, one of the most important PCR members during the interwar period and early popular front governments, had been unfairly accused of being a spy. The group that made charges included Gheorghiu-Dej and Drăghici. Drăghici is removed from all party bodies and it is recommended to remove him from the Council of Ministers.

Romania – 1965 (SRR)
Cultural relations with all Western nations are intensified. On contrary, inter-bloc cultural ties are weakened.

Romania – 1965 (ABR)
Economic agreement is signed between West Germany and Romania.

Romania – 1965 (SRR)
Romanians veered to the right, the Chinese to the left. Mao’s Cultural Revolution further aliened China from Romania.

Romania – 1965 (RFN)
Romania’s incipient foreign policy autonomy begins to deepen. Romania plays the key role in the formation of a bloc of small and medium-sized Western and Eastern European states.

Romania – 1965 (RFN)
Romania takes initiative in the formation of the Group of Nine, expended to the Group of Ten, with the addition of the Netherlands in 1968.

Romania – 1965-1966 (SRR)
Romania exploits their independence and friendship with China for soundings of Beijing’s and Hanoi‘s inclinations for a compromise solution with the Soviet Union.

Romania – 1965-1967 (RUR)
Ceauşescu initiates changes to the party’s statuses to increase the power of party officials over state institutions and over his rival.

Finland – 1965 (LJF)
The Communist Party (SKP), the primary component of Finnish People’s Democratic League (SKDL), split into an orthodox, hard-line, Stalinist minority and a moderate wing.


January 1965

Soviet Union – January 1, 1965 (LBC)
In his New Year speech Soviet Prime Minister Kosygin declares that his government will pursue the active policy of peace and reducing international tensions.

Hungary – January 3, 1965 (HC)
The Intermetall office of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance opens in Budapest.

Romania / U.S. – January 4, 1965 (ABR/LBC/KCA)
The Romanian government signs a preliminary contract with Firestone Rubber Company for the construction of a 40 million dollar synthetic rubber plant in Romania. An agreement is also made on the construction of a 10 million dollar chemical factory. The Export-Import Bank guarantees a five year commercial loan for the projects based on the 1964 Romanian-U.S. treaty. This agreement is seen in the United States as an important breakthrough in relations with Eastern Europe.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 4, 1965 (LBC)
President Johnson gives his State of the Union address: “With the Soviet Union we seek peaceful understanding that can lessen the danger of freedom…If we are to live in peace we must come to know each other better. I am sure the American people would welcome a chance to listen to the Soviet leaders on our television – as I would like the Soviet people to hear our leaders. I hope the new Soviet leaders can visit America so that they can learn about this country at first hand”. “In Eastern Europe restless nations are slowly beginning to assert their identity. Our government is exploring…ways to increase peaceful trade with these countries and the Soviet Union.”

Soviet Union – January 5, 1965 (KCA/PLC)
It is announced that the Soviet Union has formally withdrawn the charge of collaboration with the Nazis against the Volga German community. These Volga Germans regain their citizenship (taken in 1941), but are not allowed to resettle.
The only remaining group not rehabilitated from alleged collaboration with the Nazis is the Crimean Tartars.

Yugoslavia – January 5-23, 1965 (ACY)
Discussions between the representatives of Yugoslavia and the Vatican continue in Belgrade.

Poland – January 6, 1965 (KCA)
Poland and Czechoslovakia agree to collaborate with the Central Office in Ludwigsburg for the Prosecution of National Socialist Crimes by revealing previously unknown materials.

Soviet Union – January 6, 1965 (KCA)
A five-year Anglo-Soviet agreement on co-operation in agricultural research is signed by Peart and by Soldatov. It provides for the exchange of scientific information and for exchange visits between scientists.

East Germany – January 7, 1965 (KCA)
It is announced that 3,155 East Germans fled to the Federal Republic in 1964 bringing the total number of persons who fled over the Berlin Wall since it was erected to 21,200.

Albania / France – January 11, 1965 (KCA)
It is announced that diplomatic missions in Paris and Tirana have been raised from legation to embassy level.

Hungary / France – January 11-13, 1965 (KCA)
The Hungarian Foreign Minister, János Péter, visits France. The talks deal mainly with trade, cultural, scientific and technical cooperation. International topics primarily concern the United Nations, East-West relations, disarmament and the German issue.

Soviet Union / Great Britain – January 11, 1965 (KCA)
The British Foreign Office announces that the Soviet Prime Minister, Kosygin, has accepted an invitation to visit Great Britain in the spring of 1965.

France – January 12, 1965 (KCA)
The French Prime Minister, Georges Pompidou, in answering a question about the significance of new French contacts with the Eastern European countries says that “the development of commercial and cultural relations with these countries does not signify a change in the general policy line of France”.

Soviet Union / Nepal – January 12, 1965 (KCA)
A cigarette factory at Janakpur is opened; it is the first project in Nepal built with Soviet aid. Two other projects (a sugar factory at Brijung and a hydro-electric station 20 miles from Katmandu) are said to be almost complete.

Poland / Romania – January 18, 1965 (RCW)
The talks between Romanian Workers’ Party leadership and Polish United Workers’ Party leadership are held in Warsaw. The negotiations focus on several issues: The Multinational Nuclear Forces, Warsaw Pact relations with Albania, and the People's Republic of China. Gomułka and Gheorghiu-Dej also discuss the idea of convening a conference of Communist and Worker’s parties.

Warsaw Pact – January 19-20, 1965 (CAC/HC/MMS)
The WP PCC holds its session in Warsaw. It discusses the new situation created by plans toward the creation of the NATO nuclear force. NATO’s Multilateral Force project (MLF) and a draft of the nonproliferation treaty provoke disagreements, especially with Romania. The PCC excludes Albania from further participation, Poland proposes a European security conference, and Hungary urges creation of a committee to discuss common foreign policy, but it does not succeed.

Soviet Union – January 19-20, 1965 (KCA)
A communiqué condemning proposals for a NATO multilateral force is issued. The main reason is the Soviet Union’s objection to the proliferation of nuclear power, in particular the granting of access to such weapons to West Germany.

Warsaw Pact / NATO / U.S. – January 22, 1965 (LBC)
The joint communiqué of the Warsaw Pact countries: if NATO sets up its joint nuclear force, the Warsaw Pact will be obliged to respond. The U.S. is trying to secure for itself political hegemony in Western Europe, while the FRG would gain access to the atomic arms in return for supporting U.S. policy.

Poland / India – January 25, 1965 (KCA)
A 12-year credit is granted by Poland to India; it will be repaid in rupees.

Czechoslovakia – January 27, 1965 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Czechoslovakian Communist Party approves a proposal about the reforms of the economic leadership system.

Hungary / Soviet Union – January 29, 1965 (HC)
Leonid Brezhnev, the First Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party and N. V. Podgorny, member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet take a three days visit to Budapest.

COMECON – January 29, 1965 (CEC)
The 19th COMECON session is held in Prague. The main topics of the meeting are specializations in radio-electronics, engineering, timber, textile machinery, coordination of research and 1966-1970 plan coordination. The agreement on Yugoslav participation in the activities of some COMECON organs is ratified.
Soviet Union / U.S. – January 30, 1965 (CWC)
It is announced that the Soviet Union and the United States agree on a cultural exchange program for the year 1965.


February 1965

Yugoslavia – February, 1965 (RNF)
The federal Assembly passes a bill creating the Federal Fund for the Accelerated Development of the Underdeveloped Republics and Kosovo (FARDUK), to be operated by a thirteen-member board of directors (one per republics and seven appointed by the federal parliament). The fund is to be financed by a 1.85 percent tax on the social product, to be paid by all federal units. It is decided to treat only entire federal units as underdeveloped for FARDUK purposes. Bosnia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Kosovo are declared eligible for assistance under the new program.

Albania – February 2, 1965 (KCA)
The Albanian Government publishes a Note to Poland complaining about being deprived of its rights as a member of the Warsaw Treaty Organization. It states that the Soviet Union unilaterally stopped the delivery of arms and equipment to Albania and seized submarines and ships belonging to Albania.

East Germany – February 3, 1965 (HC)
People’s Chamber of the German Democratic Republic calls the parliaments of the world:  they shall prevent the planned abolition of the persecution of Nazi war criminals.

Soviet Union – February 4, 1965 (KCA)
Professor Trofim D. Lysenko is dismissed from his post as the Director of the Institute of Genetics of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. His theories are considered to be “detrimental to the progress of Soviet biological and genetic research”.

Soviet Union – February 4, 1965 (KCA)
It is announced that Australia has sold  28,000,000 bushels of wheat to the Soviet Union for cash.

Soviet Union / Vietnam – February 7, 1965 (CWC)
Soviet Premier Kosygin visits North Vietnam. He expresses the Soviet support and promises the aid to cope with American attacks.

Hungary / West Germany – February 10, 1965 (HC)
The Parliament approves declaration that war crimes will not lapse. The West German government elongates the deadline of lapse to January 1,1970.

Hungary – February 12, 1965 (HC)
On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the liberation of Budapest, a monument of the Volunteer Regiment of Buda is initiated.

Soviet Union – February 17, 1965 (KCA)
Vladimir Matskevich is appointed Minister of Agriculture.

East Germany / Egypt – February 24, 1965 (KGD/HWD)
Walter Ulbricht visits Egypt - his first state visit to a non-socialist country. This is considered the first success of the East German foreign policy.

Bulgaria – February 25, 1965 (KCA)
Chile resumes diplomatic relations with Bulgaria following similar action taken in relations with the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Hungary.

Bulgaria – February 27, 1965 (KCA)
Elections for an enlarged National Assembly (the total number of seats having been increased by 95 to 416) are held. The Fatherland Front (which includes the Communist Party, the Agrarian Union, the trade unions and other public organizations) nominates all the candidates. These candidates, according to an official announcement from February 28, gain 99.85% of all votes. On the same day (February 27) district and municipal elections are held.


March 1965

Yugoslavia – March, 1965 (RYE)
The Federal and Economic Chambers of the Federal Assembly passes a new Law on Banks and Credit Transactions which constitutes an essential first step towards the creation of a radically different investment system. The Law seeks to de-éthe banks by making them responsible to all their institutional depositors rather than the State alone. It also contains provisions to induce enterprises to deposit. Both are cardinal importance to the revised Yugoslav concept of market socialism and represent the first serious attempt by a socialist state to find a viable alternative to either traditional capitalist or traditional socialist methods of capital accumulation and mobilization.

Soviet Union / Communist parties – March 1-5, 1965 (KCA/HC)
The 18th meeting of 19 Communist Parties is held in Moscow (parties from the following countries participate: Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Finland, France, Great Britain, India, Italy, the Soviet Union, Syria, Brazil, Western Germany, Cuba, Eastern Germany, Hungary, Poland and Mongolia). They condemn the aggressive war against Vietnam in a declaration. The participants also express their willingness to make any effort to consolidate the unity of the Communist world. In spite of political and tactical differences all the parties believe they should be united against imperialism and support the people`s struggle for liberation in any case.

U.S. / Eastern Europe – March 1, 1965 (LBC)
The executive committee of the AFL-CIO condemned the business circles of the U.S. for striving to build economic links with the USSR. The president of AFL-CIO denied that the US has anything to be gained from direct business relations with the USSR. Some government congressional leaders, business groups (e.g. Chamber of Commerce), educators, economists and bankers as well as significant agricultural organizations support the expansion of commerce with the East bloc. The President of the Senate Agricultural Committee, Warren G. Magnusson recommends the establishment of an organization that would advise the President on trade issues with Eastern Europe.

Soviet Union – March 3, 1965 (KCA)
It is announced that a number of State Committees of the USSR are reorganized into All-Union Ministries; the following are formed during this reorganization: Ministries of the Aircraft Industry, of the Defense Industry, the Radio Industry, the Shipbuilding Industry, the Electronics Industry and Medium Machine Building.

U.S. / Eastern Europe – March 4, 1965 (LBC)
Republican leaders of the Senate propose at a press conference that the U.S. should not sign any economic or commercial treaty with communist states while they continue their subversion at any point of the globe. They recommend the stance of ’no concession-no agreement,’ which means that the communists would have to grant concessions in return for treaties.

Romania – March 7, 1965 (KCA)
Elections to the Grand National Assembly and to local government bodies are held. In the elections, officially 99.85% of the electorate voted in favor of the official candidate.

Hungary – March 11-13, 1965 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party discusses the experiences of  the education reform.

Soviet Union – March 16, 1965 (KCA)
The Soviet Union announces that it intends to adhere to the 1883 Paris Convention on the protection of patents and trademarks.

Poland – March 18, 1965 (PLC)
Polish Jacek Kuroń and Karol Modzelewski’s “Open Letter” is published. The authors are arrested and sentenced four months after.

Soviet Union – March 18, 1965 (KCA)
A Soviet cosmonaut, Alexei Leonov, becomes the first man to leave a spaceship (the Voskhod II, launched from Kazakhstan on March 18) and float freely in the vacuum of outer space.

Hungary – March 19-20, 1965 (HC)
Socialist foremen hold their assembly in Budapest.

Poland – March 19, 1964 (KCA)
A letter signed by 34 Polish writers and scientists protesting against press censorship and paper restrictions is presented to Prime Minister Cyrankiewicz. Publication of this letter leads to a conflict between the Polish United Workers` Party and the Polish Writers` Union. In May 1964 the Government promises that more paper will be allocated and permits the publication of a new literary magazine.

Romania – March 19, 1965 (KCA/PLC/ABR)
President of the Council of State (titular President of Romania) and First Secretary of the Romanian Workers` Party Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej  suddenly dies in Bucharest.

 East Germany / Soviet Union / West Germany / Great Britain – March 20, 1965 (KGD)
The Soviet Foreign Minister, Andrei Gromyko visits Great Britain. He declares that the reunification of Germany is no longer possible, because the two German states have become too dissimilar.

Romania – March 22, 1965 (HC/PLC/RUR)
The central committee of the Romanian Workers` Party elects Nicolae Ceauşescu as First Secretary of the party and the National Assembly elects Chivu Stoica as chairman of the Council of State.

Soviet Union / Iraq – March 22, 1965 (KCA)
It is announced in Baghdad that the Soviet Union will help Iraq finance a dam and power station to be constructed on the Euphrates.

Soviet Union / France – March 22, 1965 (KCA)
France and the Soviet Union sign an agreement providing for cooperation in the development of color television based on the French SECAM (sequential and memory) system. This causes surprise and concern in a number of countries, especially in the United States, which already uses its own system NTSC (National Television System Committee).

Hungary / Cuba – March 23, 1965 (HC)
Raul Castro Ruz, the Cuban Deputy Prime Minister takes a three-day visit in Hungary.

Soviet Union – March 24, 1965 (KCA)
Leonid Brezhnev announces a number of measures aimed at strengthening agricultural organization and raising agricultural production. The plan provides for the reduction of state purchases of cereals, meat and poultry and for an increase of capital investment in agriculture. Purchasing prices will be raised without any increase in existing retail prices. The debts owed by economically weak collective farms will be written off and the prices of food and manufactured goods in rural areas will be reduced.

Romania / Cuba – March 25, 1965 (RCW)
Raul Castro and Todor Zhivkov meet in Sofia. Zhivkov lays out his perspective on the place of Bulgaria within the Communist Camp. He also talks about the Balkans and the rift between Bulgaria and Romania. Both leaders discuss the Chinese accusations of Soviet Revisionism. Raul Castro talks about the strength of the communist movements in Latin America and the prospects for successful social revolutions in Venezuela, Chile, Costa Rica, Uruguay, and Brazil.

Soviet Union – March 26, 1965 (KCA)
The following governmental and party changes are announced: Kirill Mazurov has been appointed First Vice-Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, Vladimir Novikov has been appointed Vice-Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, Dmitri Ustinov is the new secretary of the CPSU central committee and Leonid Ilyichev is now the Deputy Foreign Minister.

Yugoslavia – March 26, 1965 (KCA)
Mihajlo Mihajlov, an assistant professor at the University of Zadar (Croatia), is charged with insulting a foreign State and publishing material which has been officially banned (an article, “Moscow Summer,” in which he wrote about death camps and criticized the slowness of the process of de-Stalinization). In spite of defending himself by stating that publishing historical facts cannot be seen as insulting to other countries, he pleads guilty on April 30 and is sentenced to five months` imprisonment; however, his appeal of this sentence is accepted.


April 1965

East Germany – April, 1965 (HWD)
The Ministry of Justice introduces a proposal for a new “Family Law Code” (Familiengesetzbuch), which is approved by the People’s Chamber in December. The Law Code comes into force in April 1966. Its regulations strengthen the support and defense of families by the state and emphasize the provision of equal rights for women.

Hungary – April 1-6, 1965 (HC)
On the occasion of the 20thanniversary of the liberation of Hungary, national celebrations are held. (Bulgarian, Czechoslovakian, Yugoslavian, Romanian and Soviet party and governmental delegations attend the celebrations.)

Hungary – April 2, 1965 (HC)
The statue of V.I. Lenin is initiated on the Dózsa György road in Budapest.

Hungary – April 3, 1965 (HC)
The parliament passes the historical significance of the liberation into law (1965: II law).

Soviet Union / Pakistan – April 3-9, 1965 (KCA)
The President of Pakistan, Ayub Khan, and the Foreign Minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, visit Moscow. Agreements on trade, economic cooperation and cultural exchanges are signed. The trade agreement provides for an increase in trade between the two countries. The second agreement determines that the Soviet Union will grant Pakistan a loan for the purchase of machinery. Under the third agreement exchanges of students, scientists, sportsmen, translated books and TV programs are agreed upon. Both sides also agree on the importance of preventing proliferation of nuclear weapons and establishing nuclear-free zones all over the world. They condemn all forms of imperialism and colonialism and express support for granting independence to all the colonial countries. Both sides express satisfaction with the present trend of Soviet-Pakistani relations.

Bulgaria / Yemen – April 4-9, 1964 (KCA)
President Sallal of Yemen visits Bulgaria. A treaty of friendship is signed as well as trade and cultural agreements.

Hungary / Austria – April 7, 1965 (HC)
Foreign Minister János Péter takes a four-day official visit in Austria.

Poland / Soviet Union – April 8, 1965 (KCA/HDP)
A renewed 20-year Polish-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance is signed in Warsaw. It is ratified in Poland on April 14 and in the Soviet Union on April 21. It provides for cooperation on the basis of equal rights, respect for sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of the other contracting party. Areas of cooperation will include economics, science and technology as well as culture, arts and education. Both countries should continue their efforts to ensure international peace and security, the achievement of general disarmament and the final liquidation of colonialism. The agreement also provides for mutual military assistance in case of any armed attack and consultations about any international problems concerning both countries.

Soviet Union / France – April 10, 1965 (LBC)
The new Soviet ambassador in Paris is Valerian Zorin, who spent 22 years as Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs. De Gaulle reassures Zorin that he will do everything to develop economic, scientific, cultural and political relations between France and the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union – April 12, 1965 (KCA)
The official Soviet news agency Tass announces that the regularity of remote radio signals indicates that they are controlled “by intelligent beings of a highly developed civilization”. Western astronomers remain skeptical.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – April 13, 1965 (HC)
Czechoslovakian Foreign Minister Vaclav David arrives to Budapest for a three-day official visit.

Bulgaria – April 14, 1965 (PLC/CAC/KCA)
It is announced that “certain persons who violated the laws of the country” were arrested after the discovery of a plot against the Bulgarian regime. According to reports, the conspirators planned to seize power in the middle of April but the plot was discovered by Soviet intelligence agents in March. The conspirators were described as “pro-Chinese” and “national Communists” who wanted Bulgaria to adopt a more independent attitude towards the Soviet Union. The conspirators pleaded guilty and were sentenced to imprisonment for three to fifteen years.

Soviet Union / U.S. – April 15, 1965 (LBC)
The State Department announces that it will support the Congressional resolution condemning anti-Semitism in the USSR. Earlier the State Department did not support it in fear of making things worse.

Yugoslavia / Algeria – April 15, 1965 (KCA)
President Tito of Yugoslavia visits Algiers. Both countries criticize U.S. policy in Vietnam and Chinese opposition to the United Nations and state their support for the concept of peaceful co-existence. They also express their support for the Arab people of Palestine and non-alignment and call for the normalization the United Nations’ activities.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – April 18-21, 1965 (KCA)
The British Foreign Secretary, Michael Stewart, visits Belgrade to talk with the Yugoslav Foreign Secretary Koča Popović. Talks deal mainly with the Vietnam crisis; both sides express their support for the international conference to be held on Cambodia. In a joint communiqué it is announced that the Anglo-Yugoslav consular convention has been signed and the abolition of visa fees on a reciprocal basis is agreed upon.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – April 20-28, 1965 (HC)
Led by Gyula Kállai deputy chairman of Council of Ministers, a Hungarian parliamentary delegation visits Yugoslavia.

Czechoslovakia / U.K. – April 22-23, 1965 (KCA)
British Foreign Secretary Michael Stewart visits Prague in order to speak with Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Václav David. Their talks concern mainly the Vietnam crisis and the 1938 Munich Agreement – both sides agree that the treaty was unjust.

Hungary / Italy – April 22-May 6, 1965 (HC)
Led by István Szirmai, a delegation of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party visits Italy.

Soviet Union – April 23, 1965 (KCA)
The first Soviet communications satellite Molniya I is successfully put into orbit and inaugurates television exchanges between Vladivostok and Moscow.

Yugoslavia – April 23, 1965 (KCA)
The Federal Chamber of the Yugoslav Federal Assembly appoints Marko Nikezić as Foreign Secretary. A reorganization of the Federal Executive Council is carried out – new appointments include: Hakija Pozderac (Trade and Industry), Milijan Neoricić (Transport and Communication), Milan Misković (Internal Affairs), Milorad Zorić (Justice), Dragutin Kosovac (Health and Social Welfare) and Gustav Vlahov (Information).

Yugoslavia / COMECON – April 24, 1965 (KCA)
Yugoslavia`s participation in COMECON comes into effect after the ratification of the documents concerning the agreement from September 1964.

Hungary – April 25, 1965 (HC)
The Népszabadság (daily paper) publishes the declaration of Rezső Nyers, the Secretary of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party about the transformation of the economic leadership system. 

Soviet Union / France – 25-30 April, 1965 (KCA)
Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko visits Paris. The main points of the talks are summarized in a joint communiqué: regarding South-East Asia, both sides think that the solution to the problem is to respect the independence and sovereignty of the countries; regarding European security, they express hope that the problem of Germany can be solved with respect to all interests; and regarding disarmament, the importance of the problem is emphasized by both sides. In conclusion, both parties found the exchange of views to be of great importance and interest. These exchanges will be pursued in the future to further develop bilateral relations. The meeting causes some concern and anxiety in Germany; these worries are lessened at a meeting of representatives of both countries in Bonn on May 24.

Yugoslavia / United Arab Republic – April 26-30, 1965 (KCA)
President Tito of Yugoslavia visits the United Arab Republic. A communiqué issued at the end of his visit calls for the ending of the U.S. air raids on North Vietnam; expresses the opinion that there is no alternative to the United Nations; condemns the policy of “Imperialist Powers” in relation to Palestine, Yemen and South Arabia; and confirms both countries` support for the struggle against colonialism.


May 1965

 East Germany / West Germany – May 5, 1965 (KGD)
The State Council, the Council of Ministers and the National Front proclaim that a reunification of Germany can only be achieved through socialism.

Soviet Union / Eastern Europe / U.S. – May 6, 1965 (LBC)
A presidential committee report issued by the White House urges the relaxation of trade restrictions on East-West trade. The aim is to put the U.S. in a hard bargaining position for political gains, since according to the report the financial gain would be “negligible”. The committee recommends the maintenance of strategic controls and all the restrictions applying to Cuba and the communist states of the Far East. The committee’s recommendations: the President should be entitled to relax or tighten the restrictions applying to non-strategic items in trade between the U.S. and the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe; the Department of Defense should state whether the export items increase the communists’ military potential; payments should be made in hard currency; the U.S. should insist on the settlement of private claims and the payment of the USSR’s 800 million dollar lend lease debt and to the protection of patents.

East Germany / Soviet Union – May 8, 1965 (HC)
The People’s National Army and the Soviet Army hold a military parade in Berlin.

Hungary / Soviet Union – May 9, 1965 (HC)
The Pravda publishes the declaration of János Kádár, the First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the victory over Fascism.

Warsaw Pact – May 10-18, 1965 (HC)
Military leaders of Warsaw Pact member countries hold a meeting in Soviet Union. Military exercises, weapon exhibition and exchange of ideas are on schedule.

Yugoslavia / Norway – May 10-14, 1965 (KCA)
President Tito of Yugoslavia visits Norway. A joint communiqué includes an expression of support for the United Nations and for the prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons, as well as concern for the deterioration of the international situation in certain areas, mainly in Vietnam.

Czechoslovakia / India – May 11, 1965 (KCA)
Czechoslovakia grants a loan to India. It will be repaid in Rupees which will be used by Czechoslovakia to purchase Indian exports.

Soviet Union / India – May 12-19, 1965 (KCA)
The Prime Minister of India, Shastri, and the Minister of External Affairs, Sardar Swaran Singh, visit the Soviet Union. A joint communiqué issued on May 19 calls for an immediate end to U.S. air raids on North Vietnam and a settlement of the Vietnamese question based on the Geneva Agreements. It is also announced that the Soviet Union and India will double their trade during the next five years.

Soviet Union – May 12, 1965 (KCA)
The Soviet space capsule Luna V hits the moon. It is not officially stated if it is considered to be a successful mission or not. Another Soviet automatic station Luna VI is launched on a lunar trajectory on June 8 but it misses the moon.

West Germany / Israel – May 13, 1965 (PLC)
West Germany and Israel establish diplomatic relations.

Soviet Bloc – May 14, 1965 (MMS)
Meeting of military representatives and diplomats in Moscow.

Poland – May 16, 1965 (KCA)
Wladyslaw Tykocinsky, head of the Polish military mission in West Berlin (a diplomat with a rank of Minister and a military rank of major-general), asks the American authorities for political asylum in the United States and is flown to West Germany.

Soviet Union / Turkey – May 17-22, 1965 (KCA)
The Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko visits Turkey. Both countries agree on their support for the United Nations and full disarmament. Mutual relations will be based on respect for independence, territorial integrity, equality, and non-intervention in each other's internal affairs. In a joint communiqué, in addition to the views mentioned above, the two countries agree to support the right of people to live without any colonial oppression, call for respect to the existence of two countries in Cyprus and express satisfaction with the progress of Soviet-Turkish trade.

Soviet Union / Finland – May 20, 1965 (KCA)
Finland and the Soviet Union sign an agreement on the limits of their respective territorial waters and the continental shelf in the Gulf of Finland. The newly established boundaries (based on the median line principle created at the Geneva Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone of 1958) are open to Finnish fisheries. The signing of additional protocol permits Finnish fishermen to fish within a considerable area of their territorial waters east of Suursaari.

Bulgaria / Soviet Union – May 26-June 2, 1965 (KCA)
A Soviet Communist Party delegation visits Bulgaria. It is emphasized that the process of uniting Communist parties is long but no party can solve its problems in isolation, adopting the attitude of “national egoism”. Todor Zhivkov, on behalf of Bulgarian Communist Party, declares unity “for life and death” with the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union / China – May 26, 1965 (KCA)
China and the Soviet Union sign a cultural agreement that provides for the exchange of writers, artists, journalists, students and lecturers.

Romania – May 27, 1965 (RCW)
A report about maneuvers under the command of Romanian Minister of the Armed Forces, Army General Leontin Sălăjan is issued. Maneuvers are held in the period May 20-May 27. The report informs about several problems during maneuvers and highlights the importance of mountain operations.

Yugoslavia – May 29-June 8, 1965 (ACY)
Further discussions between the representatives of Yugoslavia and the Vatican take place in Belgrade.

Poland – May 30, 1965 (KCA)
General elections are held in Poland with a single list of candidates presented by the National Unity Front. As a result of the elections, the distribution of seats in the new Sejm is as follows: Polish United Workers` Party - 255, United Peasant Party – 117, Democratic Party – 89, Independents – 49. The new Sejm is opened on June 24 and Czesław Wycech is re-elected as its Marshal; Edward Ochab is re-elected as chairman of the Council of States, and Cyrankiewicz is appointed as chairman of the Council of Ministers. Together with the general elections, elections to provincial, district, town and village councils are held.


June 1965

Finland / Estonia – Summer 1965 (SPS)
Ship line is opened between Tallinn and Helsinki, which despite of all the restrictions is a gateway to West for Estonians. It ships people but also more or less clandestine trade such as stockings, Bibles, jeans, disk records and suspicious letters.

Romania – June 2, 1965 (KCA)
The central committee of the Romanian Workers` Party decides that the party will be known from then on as the Romanian Communist Party. It is stated that the work of building Socialism in Romania is complete and that the country will now move to the building of a Communist society.

Yugoslavia – June 2, 1965 (KCA)
The reorganization of the Yugoslav League of Communist is announced under which a secretariat was set up to “conduct party affairs” and Koča Popović, formerly the Foreign Secretary, was appointed head of a new commission for international socio-economic and political relations.

Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – June 2-8, 1965 (KCA)
President Tito of Yugoslavia visits Czechoslovakia. An agreement on economic cooperation, which says that Czechoslovakia will supply Yugoslavia with non-ferrous metals and semi-finished products, is signed. Both Presidents condemn American policy in Vietnam and the interference in internal affairs in Congo, view the situation in the Middle East as a serious threat to international security and peace and call for full disarmament. They condemn the revival of militarist activities in the Federal Republic of Germany as a threat to European security.

U.S. – June 3-7, 1965 (HC)
J. A. McDivitt and N. H.White take a 98 hours long space flight around the Earth with the two-member space shuttle called Gemini. During the flight White enters space for 20 minutes.

Soviet Union – June 7-10, 1965 (HC)
The representatives of labor unions of socialist countries hold a convention in Moscow. The subjects are the objectives of labor unions in the planning of the economy and the questions about the increase in the financial interest of the economy.

Yugoslavia – June 7, 1965 (KCA)
128 miners lose their lives in a methane gas explosion at the Bosnian coal mine of Kakanj. The disaster is the worst of its kind in Yugoslavia since 1934.

China / Albania – June 9, 1965 (PLC)
New Sino-Albanian commercial agreement signed in Beijing, which renders the Albanian economy completely dependent on China.

Hungary – June 13, 1965 (HC)
The 7-9/1965 governmental order about the increase of government benefits of low pensions, childcare benefits and that of army pensioners is approved.

Hungary / Finland – June 17-25, 1965 (HC)
A delegation of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party led by Sándor Gáspár, the General Secretary of the Party Committee of Budapest, visits Finland.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – June 18, 1965 (HC)
The flood of the Danube deluges the majority of Csallóköz (Czechoslovakia). 50 thousand people become homeless; the reconstruction will take two years.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – June 18, 1965 (KCA)
President Tito of Yugoslavia visits Moscow. The communiqué issued at the end of his visit condemns U.S. intervention in Vietnam, recognizes the existence of two German states and opposes arming German states with nuclear weapons. A joint Soviet-Yugoslav committee is set up. The economic and technical cooperation agreed upon includes an increase in trade and the Soviet Union is responsible for supplying Yugoslavia with three complete generator-units for the realization of the Iron Gate hydro-electric and navigation project.

Hungary – June 23-30, 1965 (HC)
“International Solidarity for Vietnam Week” takes place in Budapest.

Hungary / Vietnam – June 23-28, 1965 (HC)
A governmental delegation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam led by Le Thanh Nghi, Deputy Prime Minister, visits Hungary. They approve cooperation about the support to Vietnam and about the extension of the two countries’ economic assistance.

Soviet Union / Chad – June 23, 1965 (KCA)
The Government of Chad establishes diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union by opening a Soviet embassy in Fort-Lamy.

Soviet Union – June 23, 1965 (KCA)
The Tass Agency announces the details of a plan for a great power-generating center in Central Asia designed to supply electricity to industrial areas of European Russia. Work on it will start in 1966. In addition to European Russia, the power center is also intended to supply the industries of the Ural region.

East Germany – June 24, 1965 (KCA)
It is announced in East Berlin that  Otto Winzer has been appointed Foreign Minister. He represents the Socialist Unity (Communist) Party.

Hungary / Soviet Union – June 24-29, 1965 (HC)
János Kádár the First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party, accompanied by Antal Aprَóand Béla Biszku, members of the political committee of the party, take a three-day official visit in the Soviet Union. All three are awarded the memorial medal established for the 20th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War.

Hungary – June 25, 1965 (HC/KCA)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party holds its session. It suggests the discharge of János Kádár from his position of Prime Minister and proposes Gyula Kállai as his successor; it further suggests the retirement of Ferenc Münnich and the discharge of János Pap from his Deputy Prime Ministerposition. It discharges Dezsُő Nemes from his secretary position and appoints him as the chairman Party Historical Institution; it elects Zoltán Komócsin as his successor who is discharged from the leadership of the Népszabadság (daily paper) publishers; it discharges János Gosztonyi from his central committee head of department position and appoints him as a chairman of the Népszabdság publishers; it discharges Sándor Gáspár from his First Secretary of the Party Committee of Budapest, and suggests that Károly Németh should be elected as a first secretary of the Budapest Party Committee.

CMEA / Soviet Union – June 25-29, 1965 (HC)
The 18thsession of the executive committee of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance takes place in Leningrad. The first year’s results of the International Bank of the CMEA are scheduled to be discussed.

Hungary / England – June 30, 1965 (HC)
Foreign Minister János Péter, takes a three-day official visit in England.

Poland – June 30, 1965 (KCA)
The Internal Security Corps (the militarized security force) is placed under the control of the Ministry of Defense, making it part of the army. Control of the Border Guards is also transferred from the Ministry of Internal Affairs to the Ministry of Defense.


July 1965

Romania – July, 1965 (SRR)
Defense against Russian pressure becomes even more pronounced. The April 1964 formula is revised in the direction of greater independence at both the State and Party levels. Romania demands a liquidation of the Warsaw Pact.

Hungary – July 1, 1965 (HC)
The Kállai-government takes office.

Soviet Union – July 3, 1965 (LBC)
Brezhnev emphasizes that the Soviet Union’s nuclear force is larger than the West thinks. According to Brezhnev the USSR has made important steps to create anti-ballistic missile installations.

Soviet Union / Norway - July 9, 1965 (KCA)
Norway approves two agreements concerning the building and operating of a telemetry station in Spitsbergen for the tracking of artificial space satellites, in spite of formal Soviet protests. Russia claimed that the telemetry station could be easily incorporated into the military system of NATO and used for military purposes, especially for satellite reconnaissance over northern Russia. Norway rejected these arguments claiming that the station will be used only for peaceful purposes.

North Vietnam / Soviet Union / Poland / Bulgaria / Hungary / East Germany – July 12-December 21, 1965 (KCA)
Economic aid agreements are signed between the Soviet Union and North Vietnam. North Vietnam signs similar agreements with Poland on June 12, with Bulgaria on June 21, with Hungary on December 28, and with East Germany on December 30.

Hungary / Finland – July 13-21(HC)
Led by Mrs. István Vass, the chairwoman of the Parliament, a parliamentary delegation visits Finland.

Poland / Italy – July 14, 1965 (KCA)
An Italian-Polish agreement on economic, industrial and technical cooperation is signed in Warsaw. Cooperation will occur primarily in the engineering, building, agriculture and transport fields; the agreement also provides for the joint production of finished goods and sub-assemblies and the exchange of results of scientific research and training.

Greece – July 15, 1965 (PLC)
During a political crisis, the Greek King forces Papandreou and his government to resign (Apostasia or Royal Coup).

Hungary / Chile – July 19, 1965 (HC)
Luis Corvalán, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Chile and Pablo Neruda take a five-day visit in Hungary.

Romania – July 19-22, 1965 (KCA/PLC/RUR)
The ninth congress of the Romanian Communist Party creates a Five-Year Plan for 1966-1970, a 10-Year Power Plan for 1966-75 and approves a new draft Constitution. The Five-Year Plan provides for an increase in total industrial production and foreign trade. The 10-Year Power Plan includes the development of electrical and nuclear power. The new draft Constitution includes: the definition of Romania as a Socialist Republic; the removal of any reference to the Soviet Union; and a guarantee of freedom of speech, the Press, and assembly as well as of basic personal freedoms. There are two important features in the new Constitution: the emphasis put on the independence of the country and the increased provision for civil liberties. In the official report issued on the congress, Nicolae Ceauşescu emphasizes Romania's determination to maintain her political and economic independence and to proceed with her industrialization policy. He also declares that art and literature will be free from party interference. As to international affairs, he calls for unity and states that if differences between parties cannot be avoided they should not prevent Communist states from cooperating. At the congress, new party statutes are approved which provide, among other things, for the enlargement of the Central Committee, the changing of the nomenclature (instead of the First Secretary there will be a General Secretary) and the introduction of a rule that party members may not hold more than one key position in the party and the State. Also the Party’s name is changed into Romanian Communist Party. 

Soviet Union – July 20, 1965 (KCA)
The photographing of the far side of the moon is completed when the Soviet automatic space station Zond III transmits to Earth pictures of the previously hidden part of the moon.

Yugoslavia – July 23-24, 1965 (PLC/KCA)
The Yugoslav Federal Assembly approves economic reforms aimed at increasing market freedom and decentralization in the economy. Reforms include: devaluing  the dinar, introducing the “new dinar” (equivalent to 100 existing dinars), reducing the rate of taxation, ending a general price freeze from 1965, introducing decentralization of investment decisions, and partially abolishing agricultural subsidies.

Soviet Union – July 24, 1965 (KCA)
After pleading guilty to charges of anti-Soviet subversive activities, a British college lecturer in Russian, Gerald Brooke, is sentenced to one year in prison and four years in a labor camp by a Moscow court. His activities specifically involved acting on behalf of a Russian émigré organization known as N.T.S. (People's Labor Union).

Soviet Union / U.S. / U.K. – July 25, 1965 (LBC)
At the opening of the Geneva disarmament talks Johnson’s declaration is read according to which the U.S. aims are to sign a nuclear non-proliferation treaty, to reach a general test ban treaty and the participation of more nations at the disarmament talks. The Soviet condition for disarmament agreements is that the U.S. and England will not share nuclear arms with other countries. Great Britain presents a draft non-proliferation treaty, which would make it possible for the USSR to renounce the treaty in case West Germany obtains nuclear arms.

Romania – July 26, 1965 (RCW)
Discussions are held with Chinese Communist Party delegation to the 9th Congress of Romanian Communist Party. Negotiations focus on disagreements between the Chinese and Soviets regarding the Vietnam War, general support to the North Vietnamese, and general relations among the Warsaw Pact countries.

Bulgaria – July 27, 1965 (KCA)
The following government changes are officially announced in Bulgaria: the Security Services are brought under the authority of a new Committee for State Security, of which Solakov is appointed the head; while Dinko Stafanov is appointed head of the Committee for State and Party Control.

Yugoslavia / India – July 28-31, 1965 (KCA)
The Prime Minister of India, Lal Bahadur Shastri, visits Yugoslavia. Both countries call for an international meeting concerning the issue of Vietnam. They emphasize an increase in trade and express their desire for further economic cooperation. When it comes to international affairs, they reaffirm their support for the policy of non-alignment, oppose colonialism and support the United Nations and the idea of disarmament. They also point out that inequalities between countries are a threat to international stability; therefore they call for the elimination of any form of discrimination.

Hungary / Guinea – July 30-August 2, 1965 (HC)
Led by Sekou Toure, a Guinean governmental and party delegation visits Hungary.


August 1965

Tanzania / Czechoslovakia / Poland / Soviet Union – August 1964
Kawawa, the Second Vice-President of the United Republic of Tanzania, visits the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia and Poland. Agreements on technical aid are signed.

Yugoslavia – August 1, 1965 (PLC)
Slovenian-Croatian border agreement grants Slovenia access to the sea at the Bay of Koper.

Yugoslavia – August 1, 1965 (RYE)
Property in the housing sector is revalued and as a result the rents are raised sharply.

Soviet Union / Afghanistan – August 6, 1965 (KCA)
A protocol extending the Afghan-Soviet Treaty of Neutrality and Non-Aggression for ten years is signed in Moscow.  Also in August, a motor road linking the Soviet frontier town of Kushka with Kandahar via Heret is opened.

Albania – August 9, 1965 (KCA)
Albania officially withdraws from both the International Labor Office and the International Labor Organization reasoning that the activity of the organization is no longer in agreement with the rules of social justice.

Soviet Union / Canada / Argentina – August 11, 1965 (KCA)
A contract for the purchase on a cash basis of 4,600,000 tons of Canadian wheat and 400,000 tons of wheat flour is signed in Canada. On the same day, it is announced in Buenos Aires that the Soviet Union has purchased 1,100,000 tons of wheat from Argentina.

Hungary – August 20, 1965 (HC)
Nation-wide celebration takes place in Hungary on the occasion of the day of constitution.

Romania – August 21, 1965 (RUR)
A new constitution is approved. A new Political Executive Committee, a larger version of the Politburo, and a smaller Presidium, a decision making body selected from the Political Executive Committee are created. According to the new constitution, the Romanian People’s Republic takes the name Socialist Republic of Romania.

Hungary / Italy – August 24, 1965 (HC)
Luigi Longo, the General Secretary of the Italian Communist Party makes a weeklong visit to Hungary.

Soviet Union / Egypt – August 27-September 1, 1965 (KCA)
President Nasser of Egypt visits the Soviet Union. Both countries express support for peaceful coexistence and international cooperation and underline the importance of non-aligned countries in easing international tensions. They share opinions on Vietnam and against colonialism; both countries support the people of Palestine and Oman, the efforts of the Organization of African Unity and the general idea of disarmament. Both Egypt and the Soviet Union condemn the racist policy of South Africa. When it comes to bilateral Soviet-Egyptian Relations both countries are satisfied with the development of these relations and with the fulfillment of commitments (such as Soviet participation in the construction of the Aswan High Dam). At the same time, they both express hope for the further development of trade and military aid.

Austria – August 29-September 4, 1965 (HC)
The 12th international historian congress takes place in Vienna with 50 Hungarian participants.


September 1965

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – September, 1965 (ACY)
A Serbian orthodox delegation, headed by Bishop Jovan of Šand and Bishop Andrej of Banja Luka, visits Moscow to continue the strengthening of relations between the two churches.

Yugoslavia / Egypt – September 1-4, 1965 (KCA)
President Nasser visits Marshal Tito in Belgrade. The final communiqué emphasizes the seriousness of the situation in Vietnam, expresses support for the United Nations, rejects all forms of colonialism and underlines the attachment of the U.A.R. and Yugoslavia “to the principles and proposals of the non-aligned conferences in Belgrade and Cairo”.

France / NATO / Romania / Poland – September 9, 1965 (LBC)
In a speech the French President implies that his country will quit NATO at the latest in 1970. “So long as the solidarity of the Western peoples appears to us necessary for the eventual defense of Europe, our countries will remain the ally of our Allies, but upon the expiration of the commitments formally taken – that is, in 1969 by the latest – the subordination known as ’integration’ which is provided for by NATO and which hands our fate over to foreign authority shall cease, as far as we are concerned.”

Poland / France – September 10-16, 1965 (LBC)
Polish Prime Minister Cyrankiewicz visits Paris. The Premier has three discussions with De Gaulle. In a joint communiqué they call for the normalization of East-West relations so as to create “the atmosphere of entente”. Cyrankiewicz expresses gratitude for the French position on the Oder-Neisse line.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – September 11, 1965 (HC)
While spending his vacations in Yugoslavia, János Kádár holds discussion with President J.B.Tito on the island of Brioni.

Soviet Union / Romania – September 11, 1965 (PLC)
During his visit to Moscow, Ceauşescu officially accepts the Soviet-Romanian border, thus wavering all claims for Bessarabia.

Poland / Romania / U.S. – September 13, 1965 (LBC)
The White House announces that President Johnson is sending a seven member commercial delegation to Poland and Romania to find out how American sales to the civilian industries of these states can be raised.

Hungary / Vietnam – September 14-25, 1965(HC)
The delegation of the South-Vietnamese National Liberation Front visits Hungary. They agree that the SNLF will open an office in Budapest and the Hungarian solidarity committee will give medical instruments and other equipment to South Vietnam.

 East Germany – September 17-28, 1965 (JWG)
The SED leadership visits Moscow; a decision is made about the establishment of a “Governmental Parity Commission for Economic and Technical-Scientific Co-operation”.

Poland / U.K. – September 17-21, 1965 (LBC/KCA)
British Foreign Secretary Stewart visits Poland. According to Stewart the question of the Polish-German border can be settled within the framework of a general German settlement. Polish foreign minister Rapacki and Stewart agree that it would be useful to hold a conference on European security. In a joint communiqué they affirm their countries` interest in peaceful solutions to international problems and underline the importance of solving conflicts both in Vietnam and between India and Pakistan. They also stress the importance of disarmament and the need to strengthen the authority of the United Nations. Both ministers would welcome an increase in trade as well as scientific, technological and cultural cooperation between Poland and Great Britain.

Hungary – September 20-23, 1965 (HC)
The convention of the World Alliance of the Scientific Workers takes place in Budapest. The subject is the science in developing countries and cooperation with them.

Hungary / Mongolia – September 27-October 3, 1965 (HC)
Led by János Kádár, the First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party, Hungarian Party and governmental delegation visits the People’s Republic of Mongolia. A friendly and cooperative contract is signed.

Hungary / France – September 27-October 8, 1965 (HC)
A delegation of the French Communist Party, led by Roland Leroy, visits Hungary.

Soviet Union – September 27-29, 1965 (KCA)
In a plenary meeting of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party it is decided that the regional economic councils (introduced in 1957) will be abolished and the Ministries for particular branches of industry will be restored. The resolution voted on in this meeting recommends greater freedom for individual enterprises, fuller use of bonus schemes and increased use of the profit motive. The Bill adopted by the Supreme Soviet introduces the decided changes in industrial organization. Another change introduced by the Soviet Union concerns consumer goods factories – starting April 1 textile, leather and other factories will convert to a system of production based on demand; in the future expansion of this experiment to different industries will be considered. On October 17 it is announced that in the future a large part of the national investment will be financed by long-term bank loans (not interest-free grants out of the Government Budget) in order to force industrial planners to make sure their projects are necessary and economical.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – September 30-October 8, 1965 (HC)
Led by Colonel Lajos Czinege, the Hungarian Defense Minister, a military delegation visits Yugoslavia.


October 1965

Yugoslavia – Early October 1965 (RYE)
The Federal and Economic Chambers of the Federal Assembly debate the first effects of the economic reform. Demands are being made for reflationary measures to stop the decline in growth rates and to relieve enterprises beset by illiquidity.

Yugoslavia / Syria – October 1965 (RYE)
A parliamentary delegation visits Syria and discusses the prospects for increased investments by Yugoslav enterprises.

Finland / Tunisia – October 3—10, 1965 (FMT)
President Urho Kaleva Kekkonen travels to Tunisia for a state visit. During the visit he for everyone’s astonishment climbs to a palm tree.

Soviet Union – October 4, 1965 (KCA)
The Russian lunar space capsule Luna VII is launched and crashes into the moon four days later on October 8. It fails to make a “soft” landing on the moon. Neither the Soviet Union nor the United States have ever achieved a “soft” landing on the moon.

Soviet Union / Persia – October 5, 1965 (KCA)
A draft agreement is signed in Teheran, under which the Soviet Union will construct an agricultural machinery factory, a natural gas pipeline from southern Persia to the Soviet Union and a steel mill near Isfahan. It will also train Persian technicians for the steel works. These projects will be financed by the Soviet Union; repayments are expected to be made in petroleum gas and agricultural or other products. At the meeting of representatives of both countries on June 21- July 3, the representatives stress their willingness to develop bilateral, good neighborly relations; analysis of these relations up to the present leads to the conclusion that they are developing in a favorable direction. During the meeting, on June 25, an agreement on the construction of a barrage on the River Araxes on the Soviet-Persian border is signed.

Hungary / Vietnam / North Korea – October 7-27, 1965 (HC)
Led by Jenő Fock, member of the Political Committee of the Party, the delegation of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party visits the Korean People’s Democratic Republic and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

East Germany / West Germany – October 8, 1965 (KCA)
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) decides that West and East Germany will be represented by two separate teams in the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City and the Winter Olympics in Grenoble. Contrary to the 1959 agreement on the formation of one German team, West Germany will represent Germany; the East German team represents East Germany,

Poland – October 8-22, 1965 (HC)
The 6th World Congress of Labor Unions takes place in Warsaw. It phrases a declaration: “International unity of workers is a crucial requirement of our age”.

Soviet Union / Bulgaria – October 13, 1965 (KCA)
The Soviet Union and Bulgaria sign a long term agreement (1966 -1970) in addition to the protocol on trade of 1966. The long-term agreement fixes the volume of trade 70% above the trade volume for the years 1961-65. A prior economic cooperation agreement provides for the construction of two large factories for trucks and motor cars in Bulgaria.

Hungary / France – October 15, 1965 (HC)
Hungary and France sign cultural agreement for five years in Budapest.

Finland – October 17, 1965 (SFF)
The Agrarian League changes its name to Centre Party.

Hungary – October 18, 1965 (KCA)
László Szabó, a Second Secretary at the Hungarian Legation in London, applies for political asylum in the United States. He is admitted to that country and is waiting for a final decision despite protests from Hungary.

Eastern Europe / U.S. / NATO – October 19, 1965 (KCA/LBC)
State Department press secretary Robert J. McCloskey affirms that CoCom decided to allow the sale of nuclear reactors to Eastern Europe if the reactors are used for peaceful purposes. The procedure by which an Eastern European country can purchase a nuclear reactor to produce electricity from a CoCom country is agreed upon among countries of NATO. The general embargo on sales of reactors to Eastern European countries will still apply; the sale of reactors to produce electricity will be possible under very severe restrictions and after close analysis of the particular case of the inquiring country.

Yugoslavia – October 21, 1965 (RYE)
In an authoritatively unsigned front-page editorial entitled Through the Back Door, Komunist
somberly describes attempts to evade or distort the reform's intentions.

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 22-27, 1965 (HC)
Hungarian-Soviet economic and technical cooperative session takes place in Budapest.

Soviet Union / Italy – October 22, 1965 (KCA)
An agreement on mutual cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy is signed by Italy and the Soviet Union. Valid for three years (prolonged for three years more if there are no objections), it covers the study of atomic physics and radio chemistry, the working of nuclear reactors and power stations, protection against radiation, and other issues.

Hungary / Switzerland – October 28-November 4, 1965 (HC)
The delegation of the Swiss Workers Party, led by General Secretary Edgar Woog, visits Hungary.

Soviet Union – October 28, 1965 (KCA)
It is reported that the Zond II has picked up very powerful radio waves from an unknown souce.

Soviet Union / France – October 28, 1965 (KCA/LBC)
The French Foreign Minister Maurice Couve de Murville visits the Soviet Union. Couve de Murville negotiates with Gromyko, Kosygin and party First Secretary Brezhnev. Kosygin invites President de Gaulle to Moscow so as to strengthen France’s position as an independent nuclear state. The communiqué issued on November 2 summarizes the most important issues. Both parties emphasize the need for continuing normalization between Eastern and Western countries and express concern about the situation in Vietnam. Both stress the importance of disarmament – the French Minister states that his country has always been in favor of genuine and controlled disarmament. The importance of the United Nations is also underlined, as well as the development of Franco-Soviet relations. Although not mentioned in the communiqué, according to Le Monde, the German problem and the question of a NATO multilateral nuclear force played a significant role in the Franco-Soviet talks.


November 1965

Yugoslavia – November 1965-February 1966 (RYE)
The Party's Executive Committee holds a series of meetings to discuss failure to implement the reforms and the national question.

East Germany – November 2, 1965 (KCA)
A German-English translator, Arthur Wilbraham, is sentenced by a Potsdam court to four years` imprisonment for trying to help East Germans flee to the West. He expresses no intention of appealing the sentence.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 5, 1965 (HC)
The Supreme Council of the Soviet Union awards 21 Hungarian veterans of the Russian civil war. Ferenc Münnich is awarded by the Lenin-Order.

Soviet Union / U.K. – November 9-December 3, 1965 (LBC)
British Foreign Secretary Stewart declares he does not accept the Soviet precondition for the non-proliferation treaty by with the NATO should give up its plan for a unified nuclear force. He emphasized that Germany would not be given the right to use atomic weapons.

Soviet Union / Vietnam – November 14, 1965 (KCA)
The details of secret Soviet moves aimed at establishing peace and starting negotiations in Vietnam are revealed. At the beginning of 1965 the Soviet Union tried to gain Chinese and North Vietnamese support for negotiations with the United States. It offered to send troops to North Vietnam as a guarantee against American attack.
Poland / Germany – November 18, 1965 (HDP)
The Polish Episcopate publishes a conciliatory letter entitled Letter of the Polish bishops to the bishops of Germany. The publication of the letter causes a serious conflict between the Roman Catholic Church and the Polish state.

Eastern Europe / Western countries – November 18, 1965 (LBC)
The London Institute of Strategic Studies publishes its annual report on the East-West balance.













Long range heavy bombers



Medium range bombers



Aircraft carriers

38 (incl. all Western)

- (incl. all Eastern)

Atomic submarines

62 (incl. all Western)

40 (incl. all Eastern)

Conventional submarines

186 (incl. all Western)

416 (incl. all Eastern)

Soviet Union / U.K. – November 20-December 3, 1965 (KCA)
The British Foreign Secretary, Michael Stewart, and the Minister of State for disarmament, Lord Chalfont, pay a visit to Moscow during which an Anglo-Russian consular convention is signed. According to the final communiqué both countries place great importance on solving the problem of disarmament. With respect to Germany and European security, both countries declare that they will continue their efforts to solve the problems and achieve normalization between Eastern and Western European countries. Both sides express concern about Vietnam and emphasize the importance of the United Nations. In addition to signing the consular convention they express hope that there will be further developments in trade and cooperation.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – November 21, 1965 (HC)
Hungary and Czechoslovakia sign a barter agreement.

United Nations – November 22, 1965 (KCA)
The United Nations Development Program is created. In the Governing Council, among the 19 seats devoted to developing countries also seats for Yugoslavia are agreed upon. Out of the 17 seats delegated to more-developed countries three will be filled by Eastern European countries.

Soviet Union / Warsaw Pact – November 23, 1965 (KCA)
It is announced in Moscow that General Mikhail Kazakov is now the Chief of Staff of the Joint Armed Forces of the Warsaw Treaty countries.

Hungary – November 24, 1965 (HC)
In the former headquarters of the Communist Party of Hungary, a memorial museum opens.

Warsaw Pact – November 24-24, 1965 (MMS)
Meeting of the Commanders-in-Chief and Deputy Ministers of Defense  in Warsaw.

Bulgaria / France – November 26-29, 1965 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Foreign Minister, Ivan Bashev, visits France. The talks deal mainly with the development of trade and economic and cultural cooperation.

Hungary / Lebanon – November 30, 1965 (HC)
Hungary and Lebanon establish diplomatic relations at the ambassadorial level.


December 1965

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – December, 1965 (DCO)
Bohumír Lomský, the Minister of Defence of Czechoslovakia concludes the secret agreement with the Soviet Union on the construction of storage area for nuclear weapons in the territory of Czechoslovakia.

Hungary / Italy – December 1, 1965 (HC)
Hungary and Italy sign a long-lasting economic and barter agreement in Budapest.

Hungary / Poland – December 3, 1965 (HC)
Hungary and Poland sign a barter agreement in Warsaw, which will mean a more than 70% extension of trade.

 East Germany – December 3, 1965 (KGD/KCA)
Erich Apel, Chairman of the State Planning Commission and an economic reformer commits suicide after internal party intrigues. The official statement attributes his suicide to a nervous breakdown. Gerhard Schürer is his successor.

Soviet Union / U.S. / Africa – December 3, 1965 (CWC)
Both the Soviet Union and the United States support the U.N. resolution recognizing Africa as a nuclear-free zone.
Soviet Union / U.S. – December 8, 1965 (LBC)
The USSR reassures the American leadership that it is not planning to deploy nuclear arms in outer space.

Soviet Union / U.S. – December 9, 1965 (LBC)
Gromyko announces that the U.S. must drop its plans to share nuclear arms with NATO, if it wants progress in the East-West non-proliferation treaty.

Soviet Union – December 9, 1965 (KCA)
Nikolai Podgorny is elected Soviet head of state after Anastas Mikoyan was relieved by the Supreme Soviet of his duties as chairman at his own request. During the same session the Supreme Soviet approved changes in the USSR Council of Ministers.

Yugoslavia / EFTA – December 10, 1965 (KCA)
The first official level meeting between Yugoslavia and the EFTA member-countries is held after EFTA accepts a request from the Yugoslav Government for exploratory talks motivated by a desire to improve trade relations between Yugoslavia and the EFTA countries.

Hungary / Soviet Union – December 11-14, 1965 (HC)
János Kádár, the First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party, and Béla Biszku, the Secretary of the Central Committee, take a friendly visit in Soviet Union.

Poland – December 14, 1965 (KCA)
The following changes in the Polish Council of State and the Polish Government are announced: Mieczysław Klimaszewski is appointed Vice-Chairman of the Council of State, Julian Tokarski becomes a member of the Council of State, Mieczysław Lesz becomes Minister without portfolio, Edward Sznajder is appointed Minister of Home Trade and Henryk Jabloński becomes Minister of Higher Education.

Hungary / South Vietnam – December 15, 1965 (HC)
Dinh Ba Thi, the chairman of the Budapest office of the South Vietnamese Liberation Front gives his letter of commission to the chairman of the Patriotic People’s Front. 

Hungary / East Germany – December 15, 1965 (HC)
Hungary and the German Democratic Republic sign a long-lasting trade agreement for the years 1966-1970. (It targets 43% increase in trade.)

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – December 15, 1964 (CAC)
Soviet and Czechoslovak officials agree to allow the future stationing
of Soviet nuclear-armed missiles at three Czechoslovak sites.

East Germany / West Germany – December 18, 1965-January 2, 1966 (KCA)
Over 823,900 West Berliners, benefiting from the limited passport agreement, visit East Berlin.

East Germany – December 22, 1965 (KCA)
Numerous changes in the government are announced, among these Kurt Wunsche is appointed Deputy Prime Minister.

Hungary – December 22, 1965 (HC)
János Kádár, the First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party delivers his speech on the convention of the Workers Guard Battalion of Csepel. He speaks about questions of interior and exterior politics.

Romania – December 22, 1965 (KCA)
The Romanian National Assembly approves new rules. The first rule introduces an obligation for the head of state to report regularly to the Parliament, which will vote on these reports. The second rule introduces direct Ministerial responsibility to the Parliament. On the same day Roman Moldavan is elected as Deputy Prime Minister.

Yugoslavia – December 24, 1965, RYN
In a discussion with members of the Federal Economic Chamber, President Tito, noting the paucity of integrated managerial overviews, criticizes the indifference of firms cooperation on projects in developing countries to anything but their own particular responsibility.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – December 31, 1965 (KCA)
A three-year agreement on scientific exchanges, including a research and teaching exchange of scientists, is signed between the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Council of Academies of Yugoslavia. It is the first agreement of its kind signed between the United States and an Eastern European Communist country.

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013