The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991
Péter BENCSIK, Péter VUKMAN
Babak ARZANI, Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Ádám BALOGH, Shira BORZAK,
Florian BRINK, Vanessa BUFFRY, David CATALAN, Sonya COWELL, Susan COOPER, Lauren CRYSTAL, Laura CSEKE, Botond CSELLE, Péter DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB,
Kati DEPETRILLO, Emanuele DI BELLO, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA,
Kristyna GABIKOVA, Evelina GELEZINYTE, Laura GOUSHA,Zsófia GÖDE, Brianna GREENWALD, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Ágnes HEVÉR,Neala HICKEY, Jennifer OLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU, Kitti Eszter JAKAB, Dean JOLLY, Victoria JONES, Annastiina KALLIUS, István KASZTA, Tomas KOLAR, Roman KOZIEL,Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Karina LEGRADI, Thomas KOLLMANN, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Cynthia MANCHA, Mike MANTZAVINOS, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Viktor NAGY, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Jennifer OTTERSON, Roland PAPP, Orsolya PÓSFAI, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Linda RICHTER, Martin ROMAIN, Lili SIKLÓS, Bobbie SCHOEMAKER, Anett SZŰCS, Sabine TOPOLANSKY, Dóra VERESS, Aniello VERDE, Zita Bettina VASAS, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, Kristóf ZSIDI
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013
At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The second part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1953 to 1968. The years 1969–1980 will be available by the end of 2014.
The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come.
The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.
List of Sources
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013
Czechoslovakia – 1966 (DCO)
Leaders of the Communist Party manage to keep from spacing of two Soviet divisions in the territory of Czechoslovakia.
Romania – 1966-1967 (RUR)
Ceauşescu engages in populist activities to bolster the standing of the party and his own standing as General Secretary.
Romania – 1966-1967 (RUR)
Apostol, Drăghici, Stoica become less visible both in press reports and in public, by the end of 1967, Ceauşescu establishes himself as first among equals.
Yugoslavia – 1966 (PLC)
Riots in Kosovo throughout the year.
Bulgaria / Macedonia / Yugoslavia – January 1966 (PLC)
At the end of the month, Yugoslav-Bulgarian tensions erupt about Macedonia.
Hungary – January 1, 1966 (HC)
HUNGARO-CAMION, International Traffic Service is formed.
Eastern Europe – January 7, 1966 (CAC)
Brezhnev proposes to Eastern European leaders consultations about reorganizing
the Warsaw Pact.
Hungary / Romania – January 10, 1966 (HC)
I.G. Maurer, the chairman of the council of ministers takes a three-day official visits in Budapest.
Eastern Europe / U.S. – January 12, 1966 (LBC)
In his State of the Union address President Johnson envisions the growth of the U.S.’s trade with Eastern Europe.
Poland – January 13, 1966 (HDP)
Ceremonies opening the millennium of Polish Christianity begin in Rome without Primate Stanisław Wyszyński, who was not allowed to travel abroad by the communist authorities.
Soviet Union – January 15, 1966 (KAC)
Mongolia and the Soviet Union sign a 20-year Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance. The main aims of the treaty are: to develop economic, political and scientific cooperation; to consult each other on international matters; and to keep fighting for peace. If there are no objections, the treaty will be automatically prolonged for the subsequent ten years.
Hungary / Italy – January 16-20, 1966 (HC)
Led by Francesco de Martino, the delegation of the Italian Socialist Party visits Hungary.
Hungary / Poland – January 18, 1966 (HC)
W. Gomułka, the first secretary of the Polish United Workers’ Party, Prime Minister J. Cyrankiewicz and Z. Kliszko the secretary of the party’s central committee arrives to Hungary for a three days visit.
Hungary / Soviet Union – January 21-22, 1966 (HC)
The 4th congress of the Hungarian-Soviet Fraternal Association takes place in Budapest. (Chairman Ernő Mihályfi; Secretary István Kristóf.)
Soviet Union – January 26, 1966 (KCA)
Mikhail Smirnovsky is appointed Soviet Ambassador in London.
Soviet Union / U.S. – January 27, 1966 (LBC)
The U.S. President sends a message to the Geneva disarmament conference. He urges a non-proliferation treaty, the international observation of the peaceful use of atomic energy, banning underground nuclear tests to avoid the proliferation of nuclear arms, the reduction of nuclear arms stocks, the controlled cessation of the production of fissionable material and its transformation for peaceful use, the reduction of nuclear delivery vehicles and the reduction of conventional arms. – The Soviet premier urges the banning of the use of nuclear arms against non-nuclear powers and the urgent declaration of Central Europe and other regions as a nuclear free zone.
Hungary / Cyprus / Ethiopia / India / Kuwait / UAE / Tanzania – February 1-March 1, 1966 (HC)
Gyula Kállai, the chairman of the council of ministers takes a round trip in Africa and Asia. He visits the United Arab Emirates, Ethiopia, Cyprus and India.
Soviet Union – February 2-8, 1966 (HC)
International economic convention takes place in Moscow. (Subject: The comparison of the socialist countries’ economic development.)
Soviet Union – February 3, 1966 (KCA/HC)
The Soviet Union achieves the first-ever “soft landing” on the moon with the spaceship Luna IX. (February 6: The station displays pictures about the surface of the planet.)
Yugoslavia – February 3, 1966, (RYE)
Komunist refers to Serbia as a center of anti-reform resistance.
Warsaw Pact – February 4-9, 1966 (RCW)
The meeting of the Chiefs of General Staff of the armies of the member-countries of the Warsaw Treaty Organization takes place in Moscow. The purpose of the meeting is to draw up proposals of principle regarding the Unified Armed Forces, and the organization of the leading organs of the Supreme Command.
Soviet Union – February 10, 1966 (KCA)
The trial of two Soviet writers, Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Daniel, begins. They are charged with smuggling literary works out of the country for publication abroad. Foreign journalists are refused admission to the court, even though, officially, the trial is public. On February 14, Sinyavsky is sentenced to seven years and Daniel to five years in a labor camp. After protests, the sentences are suspended on May 3.
Warsaw Pact – February 10–12, 1966 (CAC)
A meeting of Warsaw Pact deputy foreign ministers in Berlin discusses strengthening the PCC and creating additional institutions, but ends without an agreement, mainly because of Romanian obstruction.
East Germany – February 11, 1966 (NNT)
The first attempt to establish relations between the SED and the SPD fail.
Soviet Union – February 14, 1966 (KCA)
The Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party is reported to have recently sent a letter to the other Communist parties of Eastern Europe concerning its relations with the Chinese Communist Party and criticizing the CCP’s policy. The letter has caused further tension in the relations between China and the Soviet Union.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – February 15, 1966 (HC)
Visa requirements between Hungary and Yugoslavia are abolished.
Hungary / Iceland / Sweden – February 16-March 4, 1966 (HC)
Led by Mihály Korom party secretary, delegation of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party travels to Sweden and Iceland.
Romania – February 16, 1966 (RCW)
Minutes of the meeting of the Permanent presidium of Romanian communist party, which was held in Bucharest in the period February 10-February 16,1958, are issued. The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Eastern Germany, Winzer is present and talks about the current tension in international situation and appeals for stronger unity on the part of Socialist countries. A statute and a membership of Consultative Political Committee is discussed.
Hungary / U.S. – February 19, 1966 (KCA)
An undefined number of persons are arrested on charges of conspiracy against the State. The conspirators are said to have established an opposition group aimed at taking power and changing the Hungarian system possibly with Western aid. Among the alleged conspirators there are numerous people who served prison terms after the 1956 uprising and were released under the 1963 amnesty.
Soviet Union – February 19, 1966 (KCA)
The draft report of the five-year economic plan for 1966-1970 is approved by the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party. In comparison with previous plans, the biggest change is the emphasis placed on increasing the production of consumer goods and not heavy industry. The plan aims to increase national income by 38-41% and to raise real income per capita by 30%. To achieve this, it is necessary to increase industrial and agricultural output and to improve management of the economy. The main sections of the plan are: heavy industry, light and food industry, agriculture, transport and communications, living standards and social services, distribution of industry, economic relations with foreign countries, and capital investment. The report summarizes the Seven-Year Plan from the years 1959-1965. It states that the country`s basic production assets increased by 90% and national income by 53%; there was also an increase in the minimum basic wage of factory and office workers.
Soviet Union – February 21, 1966 (KCA)
Valeriy Tarsis, a Soviet novelist who published his works abroad, is deprived of Soviet citizenship for “actions unworthy of a Soviet citizen”.
Soviet Union / U.K. – February 21-24, 1966 (KCA)
British Prime Minister Wilson visits Moscow. The Anglo-Soviet communiqué issued after this visit underlines that both sides are eager to make any effort necessary to ease international tension and to develop bilateral relations between Great Britain and the Soviet Union. The talks also concern the need to limit nuclear weapons and normalize the situation in Europe. Vietnam is also a subject of the negotiations and consultations but no definite conclusions are reached.
France / NATO – February 21, 1966 (LBC)
De Gaulle announces that until April 14, 1969 France will draw under its own control all foreign (NATO) bases on its own territory. According to de Gaulle as a result of the evolution of the East European states the Western world is no longer under such danger as it was when the U.S. protectorate was established in Europe under the aegis of NATO. Since the Soviet Union is able to deal a nuclear blow at the U.S., it is doubtful whether the U.S. would use its nuclear arms. Because of Washington’s obligations regional conflicts could spread to Europe and thus to France unless the NATO bases on French territory under U.S. command are expropriated.
Poland / Romania / France / NATO – February 21, 1966 (LBC)
The French President De Gaulle states: “…our contacts and our exchanges are multiplying with the countries of the East, each of them, of course, being treated only in consideration of its national personality. In this respect, we attach great importance to the new trend of our relations with Russia. We are pleased with the results achieved on the occasion of President Maurer’s visit with respect to French-Romanian relations…we are going to receive Premier Jozef Cyrankiewicz, hoping that his presence will serve the practical rapprochement of the French and Polish peoples.”
Soviet Union – February 25, 1966 (KCA)
The alliance treaty between the Soviet Union and Mongolia (signed on January 15, 1966) is ratified by both countries.
Yugoslavia – February 25, 1966, (RYE)
An expanded 3rd Plenum of the Central Committee of the LCY is convened in Belgrade because the reformers, with President Tito's backing, demand with increasingly strident voices a return to party disciplines and to rigid observance of the principle of democratic centralism, according to which a decision once adopted must be loyally and actively supported by all party members.
Albania / Poland – February 28, 1966 (KCA)
The Albanian Ambassador in Warsaw is declared persona non grata because of his anti-state activities and his violation of the law by circulating anti-state publications. Albania rejects all the accusations and demands the recall of the Polish Ambassador in Tirana.
East Germany / U.N. – February 28, 1966 (KCA)
The German Democratic Republic applies for membership in the United Nations. The application is strongly supported by the Soviet Union. Great Britain, France and the United States agree in a joint communiqué on March 3 that the German Federal Government is “the only authority resulting from free elections” and the “only Government entitled to speak on behalf of the German people in international affairs.”
Soviet Union – March 1, 1966 (KCA)
The Soviet space station Venus III hits Venus; this is the first landing of a man-made object on another planet.
East Germany / West Germany – March 7, 1966 (KCA)
The West Berlin Senate and the East German authorities sign an agreement which regulates visits from West Berlin to relatives in East Berlin. The agreement will be valid until June 30, 1966.
France / NATO – March 9, 1966 (LBC/PLC)
The French government officially announces its intention to withdraw all its forces from the integrated military command of NATO. At the same time it announces that all NATO installations in France will be placed under French control, or withdrawn from France. – De Gaulle informed the NATO allies of the decision earlier (on March 7 and March 8).
Hungary / Romania – March 10, 1966 (HC)
János Kádár, the First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party and Gyula Kállai, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers takes a three-day visit in Bucharest.
Bulgaria – March 11, 1966 (KCA)
Todor Zhivkov is reelected as Chairman of the Council of Ministers and Georgi Trajkov is reelected by the new Bulgarian National Assembly as Chairman of its Presidium (Head of State). On the same day, Todor Zhivkov’s new Cabinet is approved and some nomenclature changes are introduced, such as renaming the Committee for Party and State Control as the Committee for State Control.
Yugoslavia – March 11, 1966 (RYE)
The Plenum of the Central Committee of the LCY amends and adopts a resolution which reiterate in more specific language than usual the commitment of all Communists to unreserved and active support of policies adopted at the 8th Congress and the 1965 reforms.
Bulgaria – March 12, 1966 (KCA)
Todor Zhivkov`s Government program is approved by the National Assembly. The main points are: industrialization; development of the country`s production capacity; supporting science, technique and art; and economic cooperation with other Socialist countries. “Brotherly friendships and cooperation” with other Socialist countries, especially the Soviet Union, is defined as a priority in the foreign policy of the new government. At the same time a “new system of planning and managing the national economy” is being introduced in Bulgaria. It focuses on reducing the economy`s “excessive centralism,” and freedom of individual enterprises is said to have crucial importance. This system will be applied to the whole economy in 1967 after finishing its experimental stage in 1966.
Hungary / Italy – March 14-18, 1966 (HC)
The delegation of the Italian General Workers Alliance visits Budapest.
Hungary / Romania – March 15, 1966 (HC)
According to the census held on this day the number of Hungarian speakers in Romania is 1 653 873, self-proclaimed Hungarians are 1 619 592.
Soviet Union / Ghana – March 17, 1966 (KCA)
Official recognition of General Aknkrah`s regime in Ghana by the Soviet Union is announced.
Soviet Union / U.S. – March 19, 1966 (CWC)
The Soviet Union and the United States sign an agreement on scientific, technical, educational, cultural exchange in the years 1966-67.
Finland – March 20, 1966 (SFF/LKS)
The Left wins parliamentary elections in Finland. The Social Democrats reach their highest post-war peak with 55 seats. The Finnish People’s Democratic League also returns to government.
Bulgaria / France – March 23, 1966 (KCA)
France and Bulgaria sign a four-year trade agreement which provides for a fixed annual exchange, general economic cooperation, mutual aid in the industrial field and sales collaboration. On September 16 it is announced that the French State-owned motor company Renault and the Bulgarian State organization Bulet have signed an agreement for the building of an assembly plant in Bulgaria. On October 3 it is announced that Bulgarian Techno import and two French firms have signed an agreement to build a tire plant. On May 26 it is announced that French firm L`Oreal and the Bulgarian Farmachim State enterprise have signed an agreement on the establishment of a plant to manufacture beauty products from the French company`s range. On August 4, 1965 a civil aviation agreement is signed.
East Germany / Ghana – March 24, 1966 (KCA)
Ghana breaks off relations with the German Democratic Republic.
Yugoslavia – March 24, 1966 (RYE)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito lectures Belgrade television's general audience about the need to reform the party's organization and mentality for a more democratic age, to facilitate implementation of the 1965 reforms, and as a barrier to nationalism. Tito repeats the sequence of his speech in front of Belgrade party activists on May 18 and in Sarajevo in May 29.
Finland – March 25, 1966 (LKS)
The Social Democrat party leadership backs current President Urho Kaleva Kekkonen’s reelection in the 1968 elections and suggests that Kekkonen should be the common candidate to the whole governmental coalition.
Soviet Bloc / FRG – March 25, 1966 (KCA)
The German Federal Government presents proposals for world peace, general disarmament and the easing of international tension. It is rejected by the Soviet Union on the grounds that the German policy is “subordinated to one purpose – to obtain the status of a nuclear power.” Similarly, the Polish government rejects the proposals of Germany, mainly because it calls for a change to the Oder-Neisse frontier that according to Poland and the Soviet Union is final. In its reply, the Czechoslovak Government states that Germany “again made quite openly territorial demands against peace-loving European States.” Consequently, the West German proposals are rejected by the Soviet Union, Poland and Czechoslovakia.
Soviet Union – March 29-April 8, 1966 (KCA)
The 23rd Congress of the Soviet Communist Party approves the new Five-Year Plan and elects a new Central Committee. It also decides to revive the former titles of Political Committee (instead of the Presidium) and General Secretary (instead of First Secretary). The Chinese Communist Party refuses to participate in the congress, condemning the “revisionism” of the Soviet politicians. On March 29, Leonid Brezhnev presents the Central Committee`s Report in which he expresses support for an international Communist conference and condemns U.S. policy in Vietnam. According to Brezhnev’s speech because of the U.S. policy in Vietnam Soviet-American relations have deteriorated. Soviet-American relations may improve only if the U.S. gives up its aggressive policy in Vietnam – Relations with France went through “considerable improvement,” continue to develop and are important elements of the strengthening of European security. When it comes to internal affairs, the priorities will be raising living conditions and increasing the supply of consumer goods. He also recommends some changes to party organization, such as abolishing the limits on the amount of time politicians can hold office. Foreign Minister Gromyko also delivers a speech during the congress – emphasizing European security and the threat of granting Germany access to nuclear weapons. On April 5, Prime Minister Kosygin presents a report on the draft Five-Year Plan for 1966-1970 in which he challenges some of the calculations as “economically unjustifiable” and underlines the importance of other Communist countries to Soviet foreign trade. On April 6 the congress elects a special commission to work on possible amendments to the draft plan. During the congress, many representatives of foreign Communist parties give speeches, mainly criticizing the Chinese party or appealing for the international unity of Communism. On April 7, the Congress elects the new Central Committee and at the closing session the Central Committee`s report, the draft Five-Year Plan and a resolution condemning U.S. policy in Vietnam are approved.
Soviet Union – March 31, 1966 (KCA)
The Soviet spacecraft Luna X is launched and three days later it becomes the moon’s first artificial satellite after going into orbit around the moon. On March 16, 1966 two “space dogs” are recovered in good condition. On October 14, 1965 and on April 25, 1966 two more Molniya communication satellites are placed into orbit for radio and television broadcasts between Moscow and Vladivostok.
Yugoslavia – April 1966 (KCA)
Yugoslavia`s application for full membership in the GATT is approved, following seven years of special arrangements for associate membership.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – April 1, 1966 (HC)
Hungary and Yugoslavia sign a long-lasting barter agreement for the years 1966-1970 (It targets 60% increase in trade).
CMEA / Yugoslavia – April 12-25, 1966 (HC)
Negotiations take place between the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and Yugoslavia.
Hungary / Soviet Union – April 16-24, 1966 (HC)
Led by Marshall R.J. Malinovsky, Soviet military delegation visits Hungary.
Poland – April 16-17, 1966 (HDP)
State-sponsored millennium celebrations take place in Gniezno and in Poznań. Between May and June Church celebrations of the millennium take place in Częstochowa and Warsaw. Pope Paul VI does not receive the permission to enter Poland during the celebrations.
Hungary / Austria April 18, 1966 (HC)
Followed by few days visit Franz Muri, the chairman of the central committee of the Austrian Communist Party leaves Hungary.
Yugoslavia / Vatican – April 18-25, 1966 (ACY)
Discussions between the representatives of Yugoslavia and the Vatican are concluded in Belgrade.
Soviet Union / Italy – April 21-28, 1966 (KCA)
The Soviet Foreign Minister, Gromyko, visits Italy, as the first Soviet Foreign Minister to do so since World War II. On April 23, 1966 a Soviet-Italian agreement on economic, scientific and technical cooperation is signed. Apart from cooperation in industry, agriculture, transport, communication and construction, the agreement sets up a joint commission that is required to meet at least once a year. At the end of the talks, both politicians issue a joint communiqué in which they support the idea of disarmament, express concern over the situation in Vietnam and declare their willingness to make any effort to normalize relations between Eastern and Western countries. Apart from the economic agreement, financial and cultural agreements are also signed by Italy and the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union / Syria – April 22, 1965 (KCA)
Syria and the Soviet Union sign an economic agreement which provides for Russian aid to Syria for the purpose of building a dam and a hydro-electric station on the Euphrates River. It will consist both of a loan and of technical assistance.
Romania / France – April 25-28, 1966 (KCA)
The French Foreign Minister, Couve de Murville, visits Romania. No communiqué is issued but it is known that both sides want to continue developing bilateral relations and have noticed how similar their opinions are, especially those concerning European security. Following the trade agreement of February 8, a scientific and technical cooperation agreement on agriculture, food industries and water conservation is signed on October 4, 1965. On September 23, a protocol for trade agreement is signed, under which a considerable increase in Romanian exports to France is the main goal.
Albania / Soviet Union / China – April 26-May 11, 1966 (KCA)
Albanian Prime Minister Mehmet Shehu visits China. A joint communiqué stresses the need to fight modern revisionism, the center of which is the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union / Vatican – April 27, 1966 (KCA)
The Soviet Foreign Minister, Gromyko, visits the Vatican as the first Soviet Foreign Minister to do so since the Russian Revolution. No statement is issued after talks between Gromyko and the Pope.
Yugoslavia – April 28, 1966 (RYE)
Tito summons the Party Executive Committee to a meeting, hastily convened between presidential visits to Romania and the United Arab Republic, at which it is decided that the business of the forthcoming, 4th Plenum of the Central Committee would be cadre policy (Ranković's preserve) instead of the previously announced discussion of the resurgent national problem.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 1966 (LYE)
The American Embassy opens an informational exhibit and business office at the Novi Sad Agricultural Fair and is admonished by President Tito. American manufacturers return to Novi Sad in the subsequent years, and in May 1969 the Department of Commerce sponsors an American pavilion featuring equipment for the agricultural and food processing industries.
Hungary / India – May 4, 1966 (HC)
Y. Sharma and N.U. Krshnan, the secretaries of the Indian Communist Party take a five-day visit in Hungary.
Romania / France – May 7, 1966 (LBC)
According to Nicolae Ceauşescu the liquidation of military blocs would lead to the relaxation of tension. The General Secretary of the Romanian Communist party opines that the national sovereignty of the socialist states must be strengthened. On relations with the West Ceauşescu made special mention of the Romanian-French relationship, which are “based on the old traditions of friendship and cooperation”. – May 10.-13. CPSU general secretary Brezhnev visits Bucharest. – May 17. According to the report of the New York Times Romania urges the revision of the nuclear policy of the Warsaw Pact so that the member states should have a larger influence on the use of the nuclear arms deployed on their own territory.
Soviet Union / U.S. – May 7, 1966 (KCA)
U.S. President Johnson announces that the United States will support a treaty designed to “prevent any nation from claiming sovereignty over the moon or any other celestial body, and to ensure that the exploration of the moon and other celestial bodies will be for peaceful purposes only.” On May 30 the Soviet Union makes a similar announcement and seeks a similar treaty.
Romania / Vietnam – May 8-12, 1965 (KCA)
A Romanian delegation visits Hanoi. A joint communiqué expresses full support for the liberation and reunification of Vietnam.
Soviet Union / U.A.R. – May 10-18, 1966 (KCA)
The Soviet Prime Minister, Kosygin, visits the United Arab Republic. In his speech at Cairo University, the Soviet Prime Minister attacks American policy in Vietnam and in his speech to the United Arab Republic, he expresses Soviet support for President Nasser`s policies in South Arabia, Yemen and Oman. At the end of the visit both politicians issue a joint communiqué, in which they express concern over “the worsened international situation” and Vietnam; condemn the racialist policy of South Africa and Rhodesia; support Palestinian Arabs; oppose the proliferation of nuclear power; and call for the restoration of Chinese rights in the United Nations.
Hungary – May 25-27, 1966 (HC)
The session of the central committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party takes place in Budapest. (Subject: The guidelines of the economic reform and the third five years plan.)
Finland – May 27, 1966, (LJF)
Social Democrat Rafael Paasio forms a leftist coalition government with the Center Party and Finnish People’s Democratic League (SKDL).
Soviet Union – May 27–28, 1966 (CAC)
A conference of Warsaw Pact defense ministers in Moscow approves a draft Statute of Unified Command, with Romanian reservations; it is to be forwarded to the PCC and the national governments for approval but makes little progress toward creation of new military institutions.
Hungary – May 30-31, 1966 (HC)
The session of the executive board of the UNESCO takes place in Budapest. (Topic: The protection of monuments and tourism.)
Hungary / Yugoslavia – May 30, 1966 (HC)
János Kádár, the first secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party and Sándor Gáspár the chairman of national board and the labor unions take a four-day visit in Yugoslavia.
Czechoslovakia – May 31-June 4, 1966 (KCA)
Communist Party Congress: President Novotný calls for a purge of teachers who are not promulgating the Socialist agenda. The Congress also establishes the Five Year Plan for 1966-70 which will concentrate on industrial and agricultural progress.
Hungary – June 1, 1966 (HC)
The governmental order number 16/1966 about the extension of childcare benefits is publicized. (More than 100 000 labor union members receive childcare benefits and other healthcare services.)
Hungary / West Germany – June 4, 1966 (HC)
The press announces the response of the government to the proposal of the West German government about the stabilization of the two countries’ relations.
East Germany – June 5, 1966 (KCA)
It is announced in Bonn that under the March 7 passport agreement a total of 510,433 West Berliners visited relatives in East Berlin during the Easter period of April 7-20 and 467,885 did the same during the Whitsun period of May 23 - June 5.
Warsaw Pact – June 6–17, 1966 (CAC)
A conference of Warsaw Pact foreign ministers reaches no consensus on measures for organizational improvement of the alliance.
COCOM / U.S. – June 8, 1966 (LBC)
With the exception of Iceland the COCOM states reject the U.S. proposal to limit the sale of computers to communist states.
Yugoslavia – June 9, 1966 (RYE)
The wiretapping of President Tito's residence is apparently discovered. It is, incidentally, the last day that Minister of Interior Aleksandar Ranković's official activities are mentioned in the press. A technical commission is promptly appointed to investigate and uncover the extent of wiretapping among top party officials.
Poland / Soviet Union – June 11, 1966 (KCA)
Poland and the Soviet Union sign a five-year agreement on scientific and technical cooperation for the years 1966-1970. Some of the subjects of the agreement include foundry practice, the extracting and processing of coal, electric power, electronics, and chemistry.
Soviet Union – June 12, 1966 (KCA)
General elections for the two Houses of the Union Parliament (the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities, which together constitute the Supreme Soviet) are held. The candidates include leading members of the party and Government (among them Brezhnev, Kosygin, and Podgorny) together with workers, collective farmers, engineers, technicians, artists, scientists, and members of the armed forces. With a turnout of 99.94%, 99.73% of votes are cast for the candidates in the elections to the Soviet of the Union.
Soviet Union / Finland – June 13-18, 1966 (KCA)
The Soviet Prime Minister, Kosygin, visits Finland. A joint communiqué is issued at the end of this visit in which both sides convey satisfaction with Finnish-Soviet relations, express concern regarding Vietnam and European security and stress the importance of disarmament and support for the United Nations. Both sides also view the recent Soviet-Finnish agreement on the limits of territorial waters and the continental shelf as a sign of “growing good-neighborly relations between the two countries”.
Hungary / Soviet Union – June 13-18, 1966 (HC)
Led by Pál Ilku Cultural Minister, cultural delegation visits to Soviet Union.
Romania / China – June 16-24, 1966 (KCA)
The Chinese Prime Minister, Chou En-lai, visits Romania. He criticizes the Soviet Union and expresses support for Romania’s struggle to build Socialism in an independent way. No joint communiqué is issued during this visit as no important compromises are reached.
Yugoslavia – June 16, 1966 (RYE)
The Party Executive Committee is summoned to discuss the preliminary report of the technical commission on wiretapping. The Committee meets again on June 22 to hear the preliminary report, decides that it contains enough damaging information to justify political action against Ranković, Svetislav Stefanović and UDB and calls the meeting of the Central Committee held at Brioni on July 1.
Warsaw Pact – June 17, 1966 (MMS)
Meeting of the Foreign Ministers in Moscow.
Hungary / Austria – June 20, 1966 (HC)
Led by the chairman of the central committee Franz Muri, the delegation of the Austrian Communist Party takes four-day visit in Budapest.
Soviet Union / France – June 20-July 1, 1966 (LBC/KCA)
De Gaulle’s tour of the USSR. The French head of state is granted a welcome the like of which had never been granted to a Western statesman before. He is the first since Napoleon to live in the Kremlin, the first to speak from the balcony of the Moscow Town Hall, the first to visit Novosibirsk and the first to see the launching of a space rocket. – De Gaulle meets Brezhnev, Kosygin and Podgorny. He urges the Soviet Union to accept the Eastern European states’ independent negotiations with the West, but rejects the recognition of the GDR. The French President declares that the Cold War “must end”. A joint communiqué is issued after the visit. Both sides agree that European problems must be solved primarily within the confines of Europe. – France and the USSR agree to establish a direct communication link between the Kremlin and the Elyseé palace and to set up a permanent joint commission on trade, economic, scientific, and technical cooperation. Both countries stress the importance of European security, exchange views about the German question and express hope that bilateral Franco-Soviet relations will develop in spite of the fact that no agreement has been reached concerning disarmament. Cultural and scientific cooperation will be developed, and regular Franco-Soviet consultations will take place, in which a direct “hot line” between Moscow and Paris will help. France and the Soviet Union sign a space research agreement which provides for the launch of a French earth satellite by the Soviet Union and cooperation in the fields of weather and communications satellites.
Hungary – June 23, 1966 (KCA)
The Five-Year Plan for 1966-1970 is issued.
Albania / China – June 24-28, 1966 (KCA)
The Chinese Prime Minister, Chou En-lai, visits Albania. Throughout the visit, the leaders of both countries attack the Soviet Union in numerous speeches. A joint communiqué confirms the opposition of the Chinese and Albanian parties to “modern revisionism, with the leading group of the Soviet Communist Party as its centre.”
Yugoslavia / Vatican – June 25, 1966 (ACY/KCA)
The Protocol of Discussions between the Representatives of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Representatives of the Holy See is signed in Rome. It guarantees, among other things, the free performance of religious functions and religious rites and admits, within the framework of the law, the jurisdiction of the Holy See over the Catholic Church in spiritual, religious and ecclesiastical matters, while the Vatican accepts that the clergy will not abuse their functions for political ends. The protocol provides for a mutual exchange of envoys, an apostolic delegate and a representative of the Yugoslav government. The Vatican and Yugoslavia sign an agreement on the resumption of diplomatic relations after 14 years. The agreement is the first of its kind between the Vatican and any Communist country. The principles of separation of Church and State as well as freedom of conscience still apply in Yugoslavia.
Soviet Union / Vietnam – June 30, 1966 (KCA)
The Soviet Union issues a statement condemning the bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong and reiterating its support for North Vietnam. On July 31, it is revealed that Soviet colonels were training frontier guards from North Vietnam. In August Pham van Dong and General Vo Nguyen Giap, the North Vietnamese Defense Minister, secretly visit Moscow; no details of this visit are revealed.
COMECON – July, 1966 (CEC)
A meeting of Leaders of Communist and Workers’ Parties and Heads of Government of Member Countries is held in Budapest. This ‘summit’ attempts to resolve the divisions of interests within COMECON.
Yugoslavia – July 1-3, 1966 (RYE/JVJ/KCA)
The 4th Plenum of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia meets at Brioni. The central committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia expels Vice-President Alexander Ranković from the central committee and the President of the Committee for Internal Affairs, Svetislav Stefanović, from the Party as they have been found responsible for abuses in the workings of the security police. A special commission will be set up to investigate past cases of abuse.
Hungary / France – July 4, 1966 (HC)
Waldeck Rochet, the general secretary of the French Communist Party and his family take a ten-day friendly visit in Hungary.
Warsaw Pact – July 4-6, 1966 (KCA/CAC/MMS/HC)
The session of the Warsaw Pact PCC takes place in Bucharest. It approves a declaration about the stabilization of European security; condemns the American intervention in Vietnam. It includes a contentious discussion over a proposed declaration on Vietnam, but its main result is to issue the “Bucharest Declaration” calling for a conference on European security. The reorganization of the Warsaw Pact is postponed. Romania opposes Soviet proposals for the strengthening of the organization and any attempts by the Soviet Communist Party to impose its opinions and actions on Communist parties in different countries. The Romanian Government sends a note to other members of the alliance claiming that Soviet troops and bases in Eastern Europe are no longer needed.
Yugoslavia – July 5, 1966 (KCA)
The Federal Assembly approves the Five-Year Plan for 1966-1970, which focuses on stabilizing and modernizing the economy, raising the standard of living, raising the foreign-exchange reserves and speeding-up the development of under-developed regions of the country.
U.S. / Vietnam – July 6, 1966 (HC)
The leadership of the National Peace Convention condemns the extension of the American aggression in Vietnam. The Catholic clerical peace movement condemns the aggression in Vietnam in a declaration.
Soviet Union / Canada – July 11, 1966 (KCA)
A civil aviation agreement is signed between Canada and the Soviet Union. It provides for a regular air service between Montreal and Moscow. The agreement is the first of its kind between North America and the Soviet Union.
Romania – July 12, 1966 (RCW)
Minutes of the conversation on the Meeting of Politburo of the Romanian Communist Party are issued. Agenda of the meeting is: Informing the Politburo about the consultative meeting of the Executive Political Committee of the Warsaw Treaty and the consultative of the COMECON member nations.
Hungary / Soviet Union – July 13-21, 1966 (HC)
János Péter, the Foreign Minister takes an official visit in Soviet Union.
Soviet Union – July 16-18, 1966 (KCA/LBC)
Prime Minister Harold Wilson of Great Britain visits Moscow to see a commercial exhibition, where he negotiated with Prime Minister Kosygin. No communiqué is issued, but it is known that the talks have dealt mainly or exclusively with Vietnam. The Soviet official spokesman says that the British and Soviet positions on Vietnam remain very different. No compromise is reached during this visit.
Soviet Union / Great Britain – July 16-19, 1966 (LBC)
British Prime Minister Harold Wilson visits Moscow. Wilson arrived to Moscow to see a commercial exhibition, where he negotiated with premier Kosygin.
Soviet Union / Japan – July 24-30, 1966 (KCA)
In the first visit of its kind, Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko, visits Japan. A consular convention is signed. In January of this year (16-22), during a visit of the Japanese Foreign Minister to Moscow, an agreement on air service between Moscow and Tokyo and a five-year trade agreement were signed.
Czechoslovakia / France – July 25-28, 1966 (LBC)
French Foreign Minister Couve de Murville visits Prague. He meets President Novotný, Foreign Minister David and Prime Minister Lenárt.
Yugoslavia – July 26, 1966 (KCA)
Yugoslavia signs the protocol of accession as a full contracting party to the GATT. Its membership will come into effect on August 25, 1966.
Hungary / U.S. – July 27, 1966 (HC)
János Kádár responds to the questions of Henry Shapiro, to the American correspondent of the UPI. (He speaks about the foreign policy of Hungary and the significance of the Hungarian economic reform.)
U.S. – July 27, 1966 (LBC)
The Senate majority leader Mike Mansfield calls for the reduction of U.S. forces in Europe. In his Senate speech Mansfield declared that the changed conditions in Europe and the large cost of the Vietnam War make the reduction necessary. (According to a survey 44 out of 77 Senators would welcome the reduction of U.S. forces in Europe).
Hungary / France – July 28-30, 1966 (LBC/HC)
French Foreign Minister Couve de Murville has talks with Hungarian Party First Secretary János Kádár, prime minister Gyula Kállai and foreign minister János Péter. Three agreements are signed on cultural, scientific and technological exchange programs and consular relations.
Hungary – July 31-August 5, 1966 (HC)
The Esperanto World Congress holds its session 51st session in Budapest.
Hungary / India – August 4, 1966 (HC)
Kumaraswami Kamaraj, the chairman of the Indian Congress Party and Ramaswami Venkataraman Industrial Minister of Madras province arrive in Hungary for the invitation of the National Board of the Patriotic People’s Front.
Hungary / Denmark – August 9, 1966 (HC)
Per Haekkerup, the Danish Foreign Minister takes a five-day official visit in Budapest.
Yugoslavia / Middle East – August 10-17, 1966 (KCA)
President Tito of Yugoslavia visits the United Arab Republic, Syria and Iraq. Representatives of all three countries support Palestinians and are ready to make any effort necessary for peace and progress. They agree that the Middle East conflict must be solved.
Hungary / Soviet Union – August 15-22, 1966 (HC)
István Szirmai, member of the political committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party visits the Soviet Union. (It discussed cultural and scientific agreement.)
Soviet Union – August 15, 1966 (PLC)
Soviet Luna-1 spacecraft reaches the Moon.
Romania – August 28, 1966 (KCA)
The Romanian Minister of Defense, Leontin Sălăjan, dies and is succeeded by Ion Ioniță. A few other changes to the government are announced at the same time.
Soviet Union / Italy – August 15, 1966 (KCA)
The Italian company Fiat signs an agreement in Moscow to construct a large motor factory in the Soviet town of Togliatti.
Hungary – August 19-20, 1966 (HC)
Rallies take place nationwide on the occasion the day of constitution.
Hungary / Syria – August 20-27, 1966 (HC)
Hungary and Syria hold trade negotiations in Damascus. (They sign multiple agreements.)
Soviet Union / Zambia – August 23-26, 1966 (KCA)
A delegation from Zambia visits Moscow. The official communiqué states that the Soviet Union will cooperate with Zambia and other African countries in helping the people of Rhodesia achieve national independence.
Soviet Union – August 24, 1966 (KCA)
The Soviet spacecraft Luna XI is launched. Five days later, it is announced that it has gone into orbit around the moon and is relaying pictures to earth. It becomes the moon’s third artificial satellite.
Hungary – August 24-27, 1966 (HC)
International Hungarian linguistic congress takes place in Debrecen. (More than 50 professionals from 14 countries participate.)
Romania / France – September 6, 1966 (KCA)
The Renault motor company (owned by the French state) and the Romanian State foreign trade organization, Industrial Import, sign an agreement on the construction of Romania`s first automobile plant at Pitesti. Production will commence at the beginning of 1969.
Hungary / Iran – September 7, 1966 (HC)
Mohamed Raza Pahlevi, the Iranian shah takes a weeklong official visit in Hungary. (They sign a cultural agreement.)
Hungary / Vietnam – September 9, 1966 (HC)
Led by Le Thanh Nghi, Vietnamese economic governmental delegation takes a five-day visit in Hungary. (They sign an agreement about the non-refundable support to Vietnam, about the long-lasting interests-fee credit and education of Vietnam’s professionals.)
Hungary / Spain – September 13, 1966 (HC)
Led by Dolores Ibarruri, the delegation of the Spanish Communist Party takes 10 days visit to Hungary.
Soviet Union / U.S. – September 18, 1966 (KCA)
It is announced that the United States and the Soviet Union, in accordance with an agreement on the exchange of data from weather satellites, are sending each other 6-8 photographs daily taken by such satellites.
Soviet Union – September 19, 1966 (KCA)
Nikolai Shchelokov is appointed Minister for the Preservation of Public Order in the USSR Council of Ministers. An All-Union Ministry for the Preservation of Public Order was created on July 26 with the aim of fighting crime and hooliganism.
Yugoslavia – September 19-October 4, 1966 (KCA/RYE)
The Yugoslav League of Communists revises its roles and department duties. A new Presidential post is created and the roles of General Secretary and Party Secretariat are abolished. The Executive committee ratifies all changes on September 19, 1966 and the Central Committee on October 4, 1966. Tito is elected President. There is an ongoing investigation into the Security Police (UDB) whose activities have been reportedly irregular and illegal. A commission is set up in Yugoslavia July 1966 to restructure the UDB. At the request of the Montenegrin, Macedonian and Bosnian Central Committees, it is agreed to deprive Ranković of party membership.
Soviet Union / Maldive Islands – September 20, 1966 (KCA)
An agreement to establish diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and the Maldive Islands is announced.
Finland – September 20, 1966 (SYA)
Finnish Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Max Jakobson, becomes the head of the Special Political Committee of the U.N. General Assembly.
Czechoslovakia / East Germany / Hungary / Soviet Union – September 20, 1966 (PLC)
First of regular Warsaw Pact military exercises “Vltava” begins with the participation of Czechoslovak, Hungarian, East German and Soviet armed forces.
Hungary / U.K. – September 21-October 1, 1966 (HC)
Led by Sid Foster, the delegation of the British Communist Party takes a ten-day visit in Hungary.
Hungary / Canada – September 22-25, 1966 (HC)
Robert S. Vimters, the Trade Minister of Canada holds negotiations in Budapest.
Hungary / Soviet Union – September 26-26, 1966 (HC)
L.I. Brezhnev, the general secretary of the central committee of the Soviet Communist Party and G. V. Andropov, the secretary of the central committee hold a friendly visit in Hungary.
Hungary / Austria – October 3, 1966 (HC)
Nine-member Austrian governmental delegation travels to Hungary for a week-long visit.
Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – October 4-5, 1966 (HC)
Labor union representatives of CMEA countries and Yugoslavia held an assembly in Moscow.
East Germany / West Germany – October 6, 1966 (KCA)
Representatives of the West Berlin Senate and the East German authorities sign a protocol which provides for the reopening of the office handling family visits by West Berliners to East Berlin in cases of special hardship. On October 10 the passes office is opened.
Hungary / Soviet Union – October 6-15, 1966 (HC)
Led by Sándor Gáspár, general secretary of the Board of Labor Unions, a Hungarian parliamentary delegation travels to the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union / US – October 6, 1966 (KCA)
Llewellyn E. Thompson is appointed U.S.Ambassador to the Soviet Union.
Eastern Europe / U.S. – October 7, 1966 (LBC/KCA)
The U.S. President’s speech on U.S. policy towards Eastern Europe. He urges better relations and announces concrete steps to increase trade, travel and cultural relations between the communist states and the U.S. For Europe to regain its unity the USSR must come to an agreement with the East European countries. This will happen only when East and West successfully build firmer foundations of mutual confidence. It is not the aim of the U.S. to overthrow governments, but it wants to assist the Europeans in the unification of their continent. – Johnson recommends mutual troop reductions in Europe. His government’s new steps for the improvement of East-West relations: Johnson pledges to lift the export ban on several hundred items. He signs a resolution that entitles the Export-Import Bank to guarantee commercial loans to four more East European countries, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia. – The Secretary of State will examine whether it is possible to reduce the burdens of Polish debt by spending the Polish currency reserve in the U.S. December 29, 1966. – Johnson announces that the U.S. is negotiating a civilian air agreement with the USSR, which will facilitate tourism in both directions. November 4, 1966. – According to the President the Administration is pushing Congress for a fast congressional approval of on the Soviet-American consular agreement and for the congress to discuss a commercial treaty, which allow the extension of the most favored nation status to the communist states. – October 15. According to CPSU general secretary Brezhnev the Vietnam War is the major obstacle to East-West rapprochement.
Bulgaria / France – October 10-15, 1966 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Prime Minister and First Secretary of the Communist Party Todor Zhivkov visits France. A joint communiqué issued on October 15 defines the establishment of détente in East-West relations as the priority of both countries, expresses concern over the situation in Vietnam and underlines the satisfaction of both sides with the development of bilateral Franco-Bulgarian relations.
Soviet Union / France – October 11, 1966 (KCA)
In a joint communiqué, the Soviet Union and France announce that they will study problems connected to the launching of a French artificial satellite with a Soviet rocket. It is also announced that a Franco-Soviet agreement has been signed that provides for: joint research in the field of high-energy nuclear physics, Franco-Soviet working groups for studies in space communications and meteorology, joint experiments in space communication, and attempts at spreading Soviet-French color television to other countries. Under the agreement of June 30, a Franco-Soviet commission is established.
Eastern Europe / Soviet Union / U.S. – October 12, 1966 (LBC)
The Department of Commerce announces that 400 non-strategic articles were taken off the positive list for Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The decision does not involve the GDR and the communist countries of the Far East.
Hungary – October 13, 1966 (HC)
The central committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party holds its session. (Schedule: the parliamentary election system, and the principles of the new voting law)
Hungary – October 13-15, 1966 (HC)
An international convention takes place at the Hungarian Scientific Academy to discuss the WW2 history of Central European countries.
Romania / Congo – October 15, 1966 (KCA)
The Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo decides to establish diplomatic relations at the ambassadorial level with Romania – the fourth Communist country it has established ambassadorial level relations with, after Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and Poland.
Soviet Union / Warsaw Pact – October 17-22, 1966 (HC/CAC)
Party and state leaders of the Socialist countries hold an international meeting in Moscow. Brezhnev agrees to press the campaign against the Vietnam War and convene a conference of European communist parties on issues of security.
Hungary / USA – October 22-24, 1966 (HC)
American leading businessmen and CEOs convene in Budapest.
Yugoslavia / India / U.A.R. – October 21-24, 1966 (KCA)
A summit conference consisting of representatives from India (Prime Minister Indira Gandhi), Yugoslavia (President Tito) and the United Arab Republic (President Nasser) is held in New Delhi. A joint communiqué issued on October 24 expresses concern over the situation in Vietnam, stresses the policy of non-alignment pursued by all three countries and condemns colonialism and racialism. The representatives of the three countries support Palestinians, underline the importance of disarmament, emphasize the crucial role of the United Nations and express satisfaction with the development of friendly relations between their countries.
Albania / Soviet Union – November 1-6, 1966 (KCA)
At the Fifth Congress of the Albanian Labor Party, First Secretary Enver Hoxha issues a scathing attack on the Soviet Communist Party regarding Revisionism. He calls for a distinction and separation of Revisionist and Marxist-Leninist Communist parties. Hoxha instigates a major cabinet reshuffle and condemns bureaucracy.
Soviet Union / U.S. – November 4, 1966 (KCA/LBC)
A Soviet American air agreement is signed Washington on the establishment of a direct link between Moscow and New York.
Poland / Canada – November 5-9, 1966 (KCA)
The Canadian Secretary for External Affairs, Paul Martin, visits Warsaw. In a joint communiqué, both sides express deep concern over the situation in Vietnam, stress the importance of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and the need to strengthen the United Nations, and express satisfaction with the growth of trade and cultural and scientific exchanges.
Soviet Union / France – November 9, 1966 (KCA)
France and the Soviet Union sign an agreement on the establishment of a direct teleprinter link between Paris and Moscow.
Soviet Union / Canada – November 9-13, 1966 (KCA)
The Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs, Paul Martin, visits the Soviet Union. The communiqué issued at the end of the visit deals mainly with the topics of Vietnam, disarmament, European peace and stability, and strengthening the United Nations.
Hungary – November 11, 1966 (HC/KCA)
The parliament approves the 1966:III law (the new electoral law). It allows electorate to vote for more than one candidate. (After the first elections following this change, Gyulla Kállai is elected Speaker of the Parliament and Jenő Fock is elected Prime Minister on April 14. 1967.)
Bulgaria – November 14-19, 1966 (KCA)
The Ninth Communist Party Congress is held in Sofia. Party Secretary Todor Zhivkov outlines the details of the Five Year Plan that includes the development of the energy industry, increasing the national income, further industrialisation. Zhivkov also proposes an International Conference of Communist and Workers' parties and some changes to the constitution. Brezhnev is in attendance.
Warsaw Pact – November 14-17, 1966 (HC/MMS)
Military representatives of Warsaw Pact countries convene in Budapest.
U.K. – November 16, 1966 (HC)
Chaired by Lord Russel, an international court is formed to investigate the possible war crimes committed by the United States in Vietnam.
Yugoslavia – November 18, 1966 (ACY)
The Serbian and the Macedonian Orthodox Synods meet in Belgrade and the Macedonians, in an angry mood, demand full independence (autocephaly).
Soviet Union / U.K. – November 23-24, 1966 (KCA)
The British Foreign Secretary, George Brown, visits Moscow. No communiqué is issued following this visit but it is known that the topics under discussion include bilateral British-Soviet relations, the Vietnam conflict, European security, and nuclear non-proliferation.
Eastern Europe / U.S. – November 24-25, 1966 (LBC)
The OECD recommends the expansion of East-West trade. Assistant Secretary of State Rostow proposes for the West to jointly improve economic links with Eastern Europe. Rostow advocates the establishment of a several hundred million dollar fund to support private investments directed at the development of agriculture.
Yugoslavia – November 25, 1966 (PLC/JVJ)
Law on the reorganization of the Yugoslav Security Service, revoking all special rights from the secret police.
Bulgaria / U.S. – November 28, 1966 (KCA)
The U.S. Legation in Bulgaria is raised to Embassy level with immediate effect.
Hungary / U.S. – November 28, 1966 (KCA/HC)
Diplomatic relations between Hungary and the United States are raised to the ambassadorial level.
Hungary – November 28-December 3, 1966 (HC)
The 9th Congress of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party takes place in Budapest. (The first secretary of the central committee: János Kádár, his secretaries: Béla Biszku, Lajos Cseterki, Zoltán Komócsin, Rezső Nyers, Árpád Pullai. Members of the political committee: János Kádár, Antal Apró, Béla Biszku, Lajos Fehér, Jenő Fock, Sándor Gáspár, Gyula Kállai, Zoltán Komócsin, Dezső Nemes, Rezső Nyers, István Szirmai.)
Yugoslavia – December 1966 (RYE)
A presidential decree, approved by the Federal Assembly, pardons Ranković and seventeen of his closest collaborators.
Yugoslavia – December 1966 (RYE)
The Slovene Government resigns after a bill to raise social insurance taxes are defeated by a 44 to 11 vote in the Chamber of Social Welfare and Health of the Republican Assembly. Although the crisis is resolved by compromise, it causes a considerable stir at home and abroad. Never before has a Communist Government in a one-party state chosen to interpret a parliamentary defeat as a vote of no confidence and felt obliged to resign.
COMECON – December 1966 (CEC)
The 20th COMECON session is held in Sofia. Preliminary discussions of plan coordination for 1971-1975 are held. Problems connected with joint investment in non ferrous metals are discussed, along with coordination of research and discussion of convertibility.
Soviet Union – December 1966 (KCA)
Professor Mikhail Prokofiev is appointed Minister for Education.
Soviet Union / France – December 1-8, 1966 (KCA/LBC)
Kosygin and Gromyko pay a diplomatic visit to France. On December 1, Kosygin gives a speech in which he calls for a reevaluation of certain European frontiers set after WWII. He also warns of the dangerous rise of Nazism in areas of Germany, and stresses the 'inviolability' of the Oder-Neisse border and that West Germany should not be granted nuclear capabilities. On December 3-4, Kosygin points out that if France withdraw from NATO and NATO breaks down, the Warsaw Pact would also disband. Kosygin makes a television appearance on December 8. He stresses the importance of good relations between France and the U.S.S.R, the transitory nature of the post-war boundaries, the issue of Vietnam as being inseparable from Cold War dialogue and his hopeful attitude towards remaining on good terms with De Gaulle's France.
On December 9, Kosygin and President De Gaulle issue a communique which expresses plans for nuclear disarmament, hope for rapproachement with European states and cooperation between the two countries. A Paris-Moscow hotline is to be opened.
Yugoslavia – December 3, 1966 (ACY)
The Macedonian Orthodox Church sends the Serbian Orthodox Sabor a formal demand for autocephaly, repeating its threat to act unilaterally if it is not granted.
Soviet Union / U.K. – December 6, 1965 – January 6, 1966 (KCA)
The Soviet Union and Great Britain exchange a series of Notes on the situation in Vietnam. While the Soviet proposal concerns the withdrawal of U.S. troops in Vietnam in order to put an end to the conflict, the British answer also underlines the need to withdraw Soviet troops from North Vietnam.
Hungary – December 7, 1966 (HC)
Mihály Korom takes the leadership of the Justice Ministry; István Szurdi takes the Ministry of Interior Trade.
Yugoslavia – December 7, 1966 (KCA)
The International Monetary Fund announces that it has approved arrangements with Yugoslavia to authorize loans up to the equivalent of $45,000,000 to help to liberalize import and foreign exchange procedures.
Romania / U.S. – December 9, 1966 (LBC)
The U.S. sells 100 grams of enriched uranium to Romania for research. This is the first time the U.S. sells uranium to a communist state.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – December 10-11, 1966 (HC)
Cultural Alliance of the Hungarian Workers of Czechoslovakia held its second congress in Bratislava. (Chairman: Gyula Lőrincz, general secretary: Dezső Szabó)
Hungary / France – December 12-14, 1966 (HC)
Hungarian-French law fair at the Hungarian Scientific Academy.
Soviet Union / China – December 12-13, 1966: (KCA)
Mao Tse-Tung's name is used for the first time in a verbal attack on Chinese policy by the Soviet Communist Party. Claims are made that the Chinese government seeks to create conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States.
Yugoslavia / India / U.A.R. – December 12-14, 1966 (KCA)
A joint communiqué is issued granting each other tariff preferences. It is also to be granted to other developing nations.
Czechoslovakia / West Germany – December 13, 1966 (KCA)
In his first policy statement upon election as Chancellor of West Germany, Dr. Kiesenger acknowledges the invalidity of the Munich Agreement which ceded land from Czechoslovakia to Germany in 1938. He also states it as his duty and his nation's obligation to care for the Sudeten Germans who are in Czechoslovakia.
Poland / West Germany – December 13, 1966 (KCA)
In his first policy statement upon election as Chancellor of West Germany, Dr. Kiesenger expresses understanding for Poland's wish for secure frontiers. He also states, however, that this will not happen until a united Germany agrees upon it.
Hungary – December 14-17, 1966 (HC)
World Congress of Labor Unions takes place in Budapest, about the formations and the development of international relations.
Soviet Union / Turkey – December 20-27, 1966 (KCA)
Kosygin visits Turkey, and issues a commnunique with Turkish Prime Minister Demirel. The communiqué expressed their desires for peaceful coexistence, their 'deep alarm' over the situation in Vietnam, their desires to bring nuclear capabilities under international control and the mutual advantage each nation could bring to the other.
Hungary / Soviet Union – December 23-28, 1966 (HC)
Hungarian-Soviet negotiations about the peaceful usage of nuclear energy take place in Budapest. The agreement is reached that an 800 mW nuclear reactor will be built in Hungary.
Hungary – December 24, 1966 (HC)
Decree number 1966:30 about the pension system of the cooperative farms’ members is approved.
Soviet Union – December 24, 1966 KCA)
Luna-13 lands on the moon.
Poland / U.S. – December 29, 1966 (LBC)
U.S. proposal to Poland to reduce debt. Washington allows Poland to pay part of the debt accumulated until 1967 in Zlotys (Polish currency); the U.S. will use it for “mutually beneficial” projects in Poland.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – December 30, 1966 (LBC)
The U.S. announces the suspension of food sales to Belgrade because according to a Congressional Resolution the U.S. will not export to countries that sell goods to Cuba and North Vietnam. Yugoslavia wanted to purchase 30 million dollars worth of wheat on credit.
Soviet Union – December 31, 1966 (HC)
Message of the Soviet government: all countries should refuse to resolve territorial problems with force.
Yugoslavia – December 31, 1966 (KCA/RYE)
Milovan Djilas, former Vice President of Yugoslavia, is freed from jail after slightly more than half of the sentence imposed on him in 1962.
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013