The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991
Péter BENCSIK, Péter VUKMAN
Babak ARZANI, Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Ádám BALOGH, Shira BORZAK,
Florian BRINK, Vanessa BUFFRY, David CATALAN, Sonya COWELL, Susan COOPER, Lauren CRYSTAL, Laura CSEKE, Botond CSELLE, Péter DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB,
Kati DEPETRILLO, Emanuele DI BELLO, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA,
Kristyna GABIKOVA, Evelina GELEZINYTE, Laura GOUSHA,Zsófia GÖDE, Brianna GREENWALD, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Ágnes HEVÉR,Neala HICKEY, Jennifer OLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU, Kitti Eszter JAKAB, Dean JOLLY, Victoria JONES, Annastiina KALLIUS, István KASZTA, Tomas KOLAR, Roman KOZIEL,Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Karina LEGRADI, Thomas KOLLMANN, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Cynthia MANCHA, Mike MANTZAVINOS, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Viktor NAGY, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Jennifer OTTERSON, Roland PAPP, Orsolya PÓSFAI, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Linda RICHTER, Martin ROMAIN, Lili SIKLÓS, Bobbie SCHOEMAKER, Anett SZŰCS, Sabine TOPOLANSKY, Dóra VERESS, Aniello VERDE, Zita Bettina VASAS, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, Kristóf ZSIDI
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013
At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The second part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1953 to 1968. The years 1969–1980 will be available by the end of 2014.
The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come.
The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.
List of Sources
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013
Romania – 1967 (SRR)
Romania‘s position as neutral force is re-established and becomes a potential leader of third force in the international communist movement. This concept first emerged in 1963 but is shelved in the beginning of Vietnamese War, when the unity of the camp against imperialist aggression has to be proclaimed.
Romania, 1967 (RUR)
Ceauşescu replaced regional leaders in order to provide him a base of party support. There is a 50% turnover in regional party secretaries.
Romania / UN – 1967-1968 (SRR)
The UN General Assembly’s president for 1967-1968 is the Romanian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Corneliu Mănescu.
Romania, 1966-1967 (RUR)
Ceauşescu engages in populist activities to bolster the standing of the party and his own standing as general secretary.
Romania, 1966-1967 (RUR)
Apostol , Drăghici, Stoica become less visible both in press reports and in public , by the end of 967 , Ceauşescu establishes himself as first among equals.
Yugoslavia – 1967 (PLC)
130 Croatian intellectuals (including M. Krleza) demand the separation of the Serbian and Croatian languages, and the recognition of the latter as an official language of education.
Czechoslovakia – January 1, 1967
Major economic reforms come into effect, which are considered to be a radical change in the system of economic planning.
Romania – January 1967 (ABR)
Ceauşescu intensifies his emphasis on the control of the party over Romanian life.
Poland – January 1, 1967 (HDP)
Polish press agency Interpress is established to inform international public opinion about Poland.
Romania – January 4, 1967 (RCW)
Romania sets itself the task of constructing an electric power plant based on atomic energy by 1975 in the framework of its 10-year electrification plan.
Romania / Spain – January 5, 1967 KCA)
Romania and Spain establish consular and commercial relations.
Soviet Union / U.S. – January 10, 1967 (KCA)
In U.S. President Johnson's State of Union Address, he declares his hopes for the end of the Cold War, and recounts positive actions the U.S. has taken towards accomplishing this goal. He also states unequivocally that the arms race must not continue at the pace it has been, and that the Soviet Union must also cooperate.
East Germany – January 12, 1967 (HWD)
The new Penal Code (Strafgesetzbuch) is passed.
Hungary / Finland / U.K. – January 16, 1967(HC)
György Csanádi, Minister of Traffic and Post takes a six-day visit in London.
Led by Olavi J.Laine the delegation of the Finnish Communist Party takes a ten-day long official visit in Hungary.
Hungary / West Germany – January 23-25, 1967(HC)
Rolf Lahr, the under-secretary of the West German foreign ministry negotiates about the establishment of the diplomatic relations between Hungary and FDR.
Soviet Union / U.S. – January 23, 1967 (KCA/LBC)
U.S. Secretary of Defense McNamara gives a statement to the Senate Armed Services Committee and the Sub-Committee on defense spending. McNamara concentrates on the efficacy of ABMs against the Soviet nuclear threat. He concludes that “all we would accomplish would be to greatly both their defense expenditures and ours without any gain in real security to either side.”
McNamara points to increased Soviet spending on strategic bombers and assumed ABM defense around Soviet cities. He concludes that the U.S. “should be prepared to overwhelm it.” He also refers to U.S. ability to handle a first strike against its offensive forces. McNamara concludes here that even if the Soviets carried out a first strike attack on its strategic offense weapons, the U.S. would still be able to retaliate with destructive force. At this point, it is unclear whether the Soviets want a moratorium on ABM defense systems. Kosygin and President Johnson plan to talk this through in the future.
Soviet Union / U.S. – January 23-25, 1967 (LBC)
Johnson and Kosygin meet in Glassboro. The Middle East, the Vietnam War, the nuclear non-proliferation treaty and Soviet-American relations are discussed.
Soviet Union / Italy – January 24-30, 1967 (KCA)
Podgorny visits Italy, talking with both Pope Paul VI. and Italian President Saragat. A joint communique is issued, in which both parties stress the need to maintain peaceful coexistence, with a possible European conference to uphold the principles of coexistence and security in Europe. Podgorny and Saragat also discuss Italo-Soviet cooperation regarding energy, manufacturing and shipping.
Soviet Union / China – January 25, 1967 (KCA)
Recalled Chinese students reportedly brawl in Red Square in Moscow. Widely varying accounts are offered on the particulars of the incident.
Soviet Union / China – January 26, 1967 (KCA)
Following the Red Square incident, there are violent protests outside the Soviet Embassy in Beijing.
Czechoslovakia / China – January 26, 1967 (KCA)
Two diplomats from the Czechoslovak Embassy were attacked by Chinese Red Guards in Beijing.
Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – January 27, 1967 (CWC/PLC/HC)
The Soviet Union, the United States, Great Britain and 57 other countries sign a treaty in Moscow which governs the exploration and peaceful use of outer space.
Soviet Union / U.S. – January 27, 1967 (LBC)
In a letter Johnson proposes U.S.-Soviet talks to avert a new arms race in the field of offensive and defensive weapons.
Hungary / China – January 27, 1967 (KCA):
The Hungarian Ambassador to China’s car is assaulted in Beijing.
Soviet Union – January 28, 1967 (KCA)
The Soviet Union addresses the rise of Neo-Nazism in a document dispatched to Britain, France, the U.S. and Western Germany.
Yugoslavia / China – January 29, 1967 (KCA)
An effigy of Tito is burned outside the Yugoslav Embassy in Beijing, China.
Romania / West Germany – January 31, 1967 (CAC/SRR/ABR/RFN)
Romania – as first non-Soviet country from the Soviet bloc to do so – initiates diplomatic relations with Western Germany without Moscow‘s consent and over the protests of East Germany. (Romania refuses to join the Soviet Bloc in condemning Israel. Subsequently, the scope of Israeli -Romanian economic and cultural relations is expanded in order to secure markets and capital for the country. Small deviance in its U.N voting behavior from the Soviet Union occurs.)
Yugoslavia / Mali – February 1967 (RYN)
Edvard Kardelj, then president of the federal assembly, visits Mali to discuss that country's internal situation with members of the ruling party, the Union Soudanaise, and to consider the possibilities of closer ties between them and leaders of the LCY and Socialist Alliance.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – February 2, 1967 (HC)
The President of Yugoslavia J.B. Tito takes a three-day visit in Hungary.
East Germany / Romania – February 3, 1967 (KCA)
In response to Romania’s decision to establish diplomatic relations with West Germany, Neues Deutschland, the official outlet of the East German Socialist Unity Party, heavily criticizes Romania and Romanian Foreign Minister Mănescu. As a result, their relationship with East Germany breaks down. However, no sign of hostility is detected after a Warsaw Pact conference held in early February.
Soviet Union / U.K. – February 6-13, 1967 (KCA/LBC)
Kosygin visits Britain accompanied by family members and other Soviet leaders. On February 7, Kosygin gives a speech to British Industry leaders. He puts forward the idea of joint trade planning. Kosygin also commented on technology gap between Europe and the U.S., which he stated as only perceived, and that the combined natural resources and technological prowess of Europe and the Soviet Union exceeds that of the U.S. On Febuary 8, Kosygin delivers a speech at the Guildhall in London. Again, he talks of the dangers of Nazism in Germany as well as the problem of Vietnam and transitory European borders. On February 9, Kosygin stresses the importance of good Anglo-Soviet relations and the issue of West German nuclear capacity. On February 13, British Prime Minister Wilson and Kosygin sign a joint communique, and both agree that it would be useful to convene an all-European conference to preserve security and to promote European cooperation. They agree also on the necessity of general and full disarmament including an efficient international supervision of disarmament and ban of nuclear weapons. They urge a nuclear non-proliferation treaty and the extension of the test ban treaty to underground explosions. They agree that conditions are suitable for the expansion of trade and the desirability of working out long-term economic agreements. They decide on the establishment of an Anglo-Soviet Consultative Committee for the development of cultural, scientific and technological cooperation. A communicational link is established between the Kremlin and Downing Street 10. The two governments agree on the final settlement of mutual post-1939 financial and property claims and announce that neither government supports further claims. – 252 British MP’s sign a letter to Kosygin in which they express their concern over the fate of Soviet Jews.
Soviet Union / India – February 7, 1967 (KCA)
Due to increase in trade between the Soviet Union and India, an amendment has been made to the Indo-Soviet shipping agreement made in 1956.
Finland – February 8, 1967 (LJF)
The Social Democrats officially decide to back the Center Party presidential candidate Urho Kaleva Kekkonen’s reelection in the coming elections.
Warsaw Pact / East Germany / West Germany – February 8–10, 1967 (CAC/HC/MMS/KGD)
A foreign ministers extraordinary conference in Warsaw, convened in response to Romania’s unexpected diplomatic recognition of West Germany agrees to introduce the so-called Ulbricht-doctrine: relations with West Germany may not be normalized without the recognition of East Germany as a sovereign state. They also agree to step up a campaign for the international recognition of East Germany and for a European security conference to isolate West Germany and promote divisions within NATO.
Romania / China – February 14, 1967 (RFP)
A trade agreement (Treaty of Tlateloco) is signed between Romania and China.
Soviet Union / China – February 16, 1967 (KCA)
Pravda officially expresses Soviet criticism of Mao's policies and the Cultural Revolution. In retaliation, on May 6, 1967, the Pravda correspondent in Beijing is expelled for writing defamatory articles about the Cultural Revolution. (22048A)
East Germany / West Germany – February 20, 1967 (KGD)
A law on GDR citizenship is passed; the isolation policy of East Germany against West Germany intensifies.
Poland / U.K. – February 21-27, 1967 (LBC)
Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs Adam Rapacki visits London where he negotiates with Wilson and Foreign Secretary Brown. Among other things they discuss the Rapacki plan, the denuclearization of Central Europe. – February 23. The two countries sign a consular agreement, the first one that Poland signs with a Western state since World War II.
Hungary – February 22, 1967 (HC)
Electoral rally takes place in Sportcsarnok (Sports Hall). János Kádár and Ferenc Erdei deliver speeches.
Czechoslovakia – February 25-27, 1967 (HC)
The session of the leadership of Peace World Committee takes place in Prague. (They discuss the situation in Vietnam and the European Security.)
Hungary / Soviet Union – February 25-31, 1967 (HC)
János Kádár, the First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party visits the Soviet Union.
Czechoslovakia / Poland – March 1, 1967 (KCA)
Representatives from both countries sign the Polish-Czechoslovak Treaty, in which they both declare the Munich Agreement of 1938 as invalid. Representatives sign an agreement to assist the other in the case of Western aggression and cooperate on mutually concerning matters.
Soviet Union – March 7, 1967 (KCA)
Soviet plan for borehole drilling is released. There are to be five sites for the project.
Hungary / Poland – March 8, 1967 (HC)
Wladyslaw Gomułka, the First Secretary of the Polish Communist Party and Prime Minister Józef Cyrankiewicz take an unofficial friendly visit to Hungary.
Hungary / Belgium – March 10, 1967(HC)
Led by Albert de Coninck, a delegation of the Belgian Communist Party takes an eleven-day visit in Hungary.
Soviet Union / Cuba – March 13, 1967 (KCA)
In a dispute between Cuba and the Soviet Union, Castro criticizes the increasingly capitalistic tendencies of the Soviet Union and goes on to criticize the Venezuelan pro-Soviet guerilla movement.
East Germany / Poland – March 15, 1967 (KCA/KGS)
East German leader Ulbricht and Polish leader Gomułka sign the Polish-East German Treaty. The treaty includes a pact of mutual assistance in the case of aggression from any other state/s. The treaty also acknowledges the Oder-Neisse border as the border between Poland and East Germany.
Poland / U.S. – March 15, 1967 (KCA)
Textile trade agreement between Poland and the United States will see an increase in Polish cotton exports to the U.S.
Yugoslavia – March 15, 1967 (PLC)
Yugoslavia enables foreign investments.
Soviet Union / U.S. – March 16, 1967 (KCA)
The U.S.-Soviet Consular Treaty is ratified.
Yugoslavia – March 16, 1967 (KCA)
The Croatian Writers' Association signs a declaration opposing the state enforcement of Serbian as the national language. In response, some are threatened with deportation.
Czechoslovakia / East Germany – March 17, 1967 (KCA)
Ulbricht and Czechoslovak leaders sign Czechoslovak-East German Treaty. The treaty includes a pact of mutual assistance in the case of aggression from any other (Western) states. Both parties declare the Munich Agreement of 1938 as invalid.
Yugoslavia – March 17, 1967 (RYE)
Zagreb's leading literally weekly publishes a Declaration on the Name and Position of the Croatian Literary Language which has been signed in the name of 19 Croatian literary groups, including Matica Hrvatska, by 130 prominent Croatian intellectuals. Eighty of the signatories are Communists and one is Miroslav Krleza, Croatia's most famous living writer, Tito's personal friend and a member of the Croatian Central Committee. The declaration denounces the Novi Sad agreement of 1954, which proclaimed Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian to be one language with two scripts (Latin and Cyrillic) and two variants (ijekavski and ekavski). It calls for complete official and constitutional recognition of two separate languages, an end to alleged discrimination against the Croatian variant and its exclusive use in Croatian schools, press and official documents.
Yugoslavia /Soviet Bloc – March 19, 1967 (HC/RYE/CAC)
The Yugoslavs decline to attend the Karlovy Vary Conference of European Communist Parties (April 24-26) but they send a member of the Party Executive Committee and former diplomat, Nijaz Dizdarević, to explain their reasons and to restate the Yugoslav view that multilateral party discussions might be acceptable in certain or other contexts.
Hungary – March 19, 1967 (HC)
Parliamentary and local elections take place in Hungary. (99,8% of the eligible of the people, and 99,7% voted for the representatives of the Patriotic People’s Front. They elected 349 representatives and 84 508 local council members.)
Hungary – March 21, 1967 (HC)
On the occasion of the 48th anniversary on the proclamation Tanácsköztársaság (Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919) statues of Béla Kun, Tibor Szamuely and Jenő Lander are initiated.
Hungary / Romania – March 24, 1967 (HC)
Led by general secretary N. Ceauşescu, the delegation of the Romanian Communist Party takes three- day long visit in Hungary.
Yugoslavia – March 26, 1967 (RYN)
Talking in Priština in Kosovo, Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito defends the grant of more than 650 million dollars in credits to African and Asian countries on the ground that 'sooner or later, this assistance will be returned to us, and indeed this assistance will prove profitable for us.” Tito emphasizes that this is one way in which Yugoslavia has built its prestige in the world, especially among the newly liberated nations of Africa and Asia.
East Germany / Hungary – March 29, 1967 (HC)
Otto Winzer the Foreign Minister of the German Democratic Republic visits Budapest
Soviet Union – March 31, 1967 (KCA)
Defence Minister Marshal Malinovsky dies at age 68. He is to be replaced by Marshal Grechko.
East Germany – April 1967 (HWD)
The Seventh Party Congress of the SED takes place. The congress focusses on economic issues, mainly the further development of the NÖSPL (Neues Ökonomisches System der Planung und Leitung) and economic development to 1970.
Yugoslavia – April 1967 (RYE)
Elections are held for half the members of the federal, republican, provincial and communal assemblies. The voters are on party instructions offered a choice of candidates for more seats than ever before. The hitherto informal role of the Socialist Alliance as principal organizer of the nomination and election procedures are made a formal responsibility. Party members and organs are given strict instructions to influence the choice of candidates only through the Alliance, in accordance with the new rules for party behavior, and not to impose their own lists as they has always done.
Soviet Union / Egypt – April 1, 1967 (KCA)
Soviet Foriegn Minister Gromyko meets with Egyptian leaders including President Nasser, Foreign Minister Mahmoud Riad and Vice Premier for Foreign Affairs Dr. Mahmoud Fawzi. Both parties release a statement expressing their joint fight against imperialism, particularly Vietnam, and nuclear growth.
Bulgaria / Poland – April 3-6, 1967 (KCA)
Polish leaders Gomułka and Cyrankiewicz, and Bulgarian leader Todor Zhivkov sign a Mutual Assistance Treaty. The treaty includes agreements to strengthen the cohesion of Socialist states, to help defend their borders and mutual interests.
Hungary / Sweden – April 6, 1967 (HC)
Torston Wilson Foreign Minister of Sweden takes one weeklong visit to Hungary.
Hungary – April 14, 1967 (HC)
The opening session of the Parliament takes place. The members of the government and the parliament are elected. The new Prime Minister is Jenő Fock, the new chairman of the Presidential Council is Pál Losonczy.
Romania / Israel – April 16, 1967 (KCA)
Israeli Finance Minster Pinhas Sapir and Romanian Deputy Minister for Foreign Trade Vasile Răuţă sign an agreement on economic and technical cooperation and long-term trade between Romania and Israel. Agreement is made on co-operation; economic, technical and long term trade.
Hungary / Soviet Union – April 17, 1967 (HC)
Colonel Lajos Czinege, Defense Minister takes a three-day long official visit in Soviet Union.
Hungary / Israel – April 17, 1967 (HC)
General Secretary of the Israeli Communist Party Samuel Mikunis, takes a five-day visit in Hungary.
Romania – April 17, 1967 (RCW)
Summary of the meeting of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party is issued. Agenda is as follows: A letter addressed to the European Communist and Workers parties regarding the conference on issues concerning European security in Karlovy Vary and the lowering of retail prices on some commonly purchased goods.
Hungary – April 18, 1967 (HC)
After several months of trial the Court of Budapest gives out its verdict about the case of the former arrow-cross members of Zugló (Three of the accused receive death penalty; others receive 8-15 years of imprisonment.)
Yugoslavia – April 18-19, 1967 (RYE/JVJ/KCA)
The outgoing Federal Assembly passes a first set of six amendments to the 1963 Constitution. The amendments represent the first impact on the structure of the Federation of the changed balance of political forces created by the fall of Ranković and subsequent party reforms. Four of them affect federal-republican relations, always to the advantage of the latter, while the fifth abolishes the office of the Vice-President of the Federation which was created for Aleksandar Ranković in 1963. The first amendment significantly broadens the competences of the Chamber of Nationalities.
Yugoslavia – April 19, 1967 (KCA)
Six amendments are made to the Constitution of 1963. These amendments increase the powers of the Council of Nationalities and abolished the offices of Vice-President of the Republic and Deputy Supreme Commander.
Hungary – April 20-22, 1967 (HC)
First national congress of the collective farms takes place in Budapest.
Hungary – April 21, 1967 (HC)
Hungarian Pedagogical Society is formed.
Soviet Union / U.S. – April 21, 1967 (KCA)
Svetlana Stalin, daughter of the deceased Joseph Stalin, arrives in the U.S. from Switzerland where she has been seeking asylum in the United States. Former U.S Ambassador to the Soviet Union George Kennan is instrumental Svetlana Stalin's arrival.
Greece – April 21, 1967 (PLC)
Military coup under colonel Georgios Papadopulos to prevent the expected April 28 election victory of Centre Union (supported by the Left). A military dictatorship is introduced in Greece. King Constantine II recognizes the military regime.
Czechoslovakia / Eastern Bloc – April 24-26, 1967 (KCA/MMS)
The Karlovy Vary Conference of European Communist Parties takes place but without Romanian and Yugoslav representation. Amongst the proposals, the delegates declare the inviolability of European borders, the sovereignty of the GDR and the Federal Republic of Germany. In addition, there is also criticism of military interference, from the war in Vietnam to dissidents in Greece. Participants call for the dissolution of NATO and ejection of the United States from participation in the security of Europe
Soviet Union – April 24, 1967 (KCA)
Soyuz, the Soviet spacecraft crashed killing Colonal Komarov, the only person on board.
Yugoslavia – April 27, 1967 (RYE)
The party-wide discussion of the draft Theses for the Reorganization of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia produced by the Todorović Commission after the 5th Plenum finally takes place.
Czechoslovakia / East Germany / Poland – May 2, 1967 (KCA)
The People’s Chamber ratifies the Friendship Treaties with Czechoslovakia and Poland.
Hungary / Austria – May 2, 1967 (HC)
Josef Klaus, the Chancellor of Austria takes a four-day long official visit in Hungary.
Hungary – May 3-6, 1967 (HC)
XXI. Congress of labor unions. (Chairman: Béla Blaha, General secretary: Sándor Gáspár.)
Hungary / Yugoslavia – May 8, 1967 (HC)
Foreign Minister János Péter takes a four-day long official visit in Yugoslavia.
NATO – May 9, 1967 (LBC)
NATO’s Defense Ministers accept the doctrine of flexible response. From now on it is possible to reply to challenges with means varying from political pressure to a nuclear strike. According to the Doctrine of Flexible Response an enemy attack is repelled on the same level, which is conventional attack with conventional means, tactical nuclear attack with tactical nuclear arms, and so forth. A higher level is used only when the same level fails. Flexible response makes deterrence more credible.
East Germany / West Germany – May 10, 1967 (KGD)
A governmental exchange of correspondence begins between the GDR and the FRG. Willi Stoph, prime minister of the GDR demands “due negotiations”. Kurt Georg Kiesinger, Chancellor of the FRG declares his willingness to “normalize relations”. The correspondence ends in September without success.
Hungary / Austria – May 12, 1967 (HC)
Franz Muhri, the Chairman of the Austrian Communist Party takes a five-day visit in Hungary.
Soviet Union / Italy – May 12-16, 1967 (KCA)
Gromyko and Italian Foreign Minister Fanfani meet in Moscow to sign the Italo-Soviet cultural convention. Gromyko and Fanfani release a joint communique regarding the situation in Vietnam, the need for a reduction in nuclear arms and a mutual tourism agreement.
Bulgaria / Soviet Union – May 13, 1967 (KCA)
Soviet-Bulgarian Treaty of Friendship for 20 Years is signed by Soviet leader Brezhnev and Bulgarian Party First Secretary Zhivkov to maintain close relationship in the face of continual nuclear growth and imperialism. Both expressed that the bombing of Vietnam should end, and in accordance with the Warsaw Pact, agreed on the inviolability of European borders and the aversion to militarism.
Finland – May 15, 1967 (LJF)
Finnish People’s Democratic League (SKDL) decides to back the Center Party presidential candidate U. K. Kekkonen’s reelection in the becoming elections.
East Germany / Hungary – May 17-18, 1967 (KCA)
Representatives from Hungary and East Germany sign a Friendship Treaty, pledging mutual assistance, including military aid if necessary, and acknowledging the immutability of the Warsaw Pact borders.
Hungary – May 17, 1967 (KCA)
János Radványi, head of the Hungarian Diplomatic Mission in Washington, defects and seeks permanent residency in the U.S.
East Germany / Hungary – May 18, 1967 (HC)
Led by Walter Ulbricht the First Secretary of the German Socialist Unity Party and Prime Minister Willi Stoph, the party and the government delegation of the German Democratic Republic takes a two-day long official visit in Hungary. (May 19: they sign a Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation, and Mutual Assistance)
Soviet Union – May 19, 1967 (KCA)
Semichastny becomes Ukranian Deputy Prime Minister, and Andropov takes over his former role as Chairman of State Security Committee. There is speculation over whether this reshuffle is a demotion for Semichastny.
Romania / West Germany – May 22, 1967 (RCW)
An article in the West German newspaper Handelsblatt discussing trends of Romanian-West German trade is published. Romania's balance of trade deficit continues to grow, forcing the Romanians to drastically cut imports at a later point.
Romania / West Germany – May 23, 1967 (KCA)
Erich Stratling is named West German Ambassador to Romania. Constantin Oancea is named Romanian Ambassador to Germany.
Soviet Union / U.K. – May 23-26, 1967 (KCA)
British Foreign Minister George Brown visits Moscow. He entreats the Soviet Union to push for a greater U.N. activity in the Middle East, but fails to garner an enthusiastic response from the Soviet Foreign Minister.
Yugoslavia – May 24, 1967 (ACY)
At an extraordinary session of the Serbian Orthodox Sabor, the request of the Macedonian Church for full independence is refused on the grounds first that its organization and personnel are not sufficient to qualify it for autocephaly and secondly that the Macedonian Church behaved uncanonically when Dositelj, its metropolitan, broke his oath to preserve canonical unity with the Serbian Orthodox Church taken at his installation as metropolitan in 1958.
Romania / China – June, 1967 (SRR)
China rejects Romanian efforts to agree to a compromise formula for re-establishing peace in Vietnam on terms acceptable to Hanoi and Washington during a state visit to China. Romanians strengthen their bilateral relations with fellow neutrals in the Far East, most notably with North Vietnam and North Korea and in similar intensification of bilateral contacts with neutral non-ruling communist parties.
Middle East – June 5–10, 1967 (HC/CAC)
The “six-day war” takes place in Middle East. (Israeli aggression against Egypt, Syria and Jordan. The Israeli troops invade the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank and Golan Heights.)
Romania – June 5-10, 1967 (ABR/RFN)
Six-Day War breaks out. Romania deviates from the Soviet Union and expresses a not so harsh attitude towards the Israeli’s. Romania is the only Warsaw Pact state which did not break off diplomatic relations with Israel.
Yugoslavia – June 5-10, 1967 (RYN)
During the third Arab-Israeli war, Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito throws his full support behind Egyptian President Nasser and unequivocally condemns the „Israeli aggression,” lays the „full responsibility for the outbreak of the war” on Israel, and calls on the United Nations and all other governments to „take urgent steps to stop aggression and to ensure peace in the Near East.”
Soviet Bloc / Israel – June 9-10, 1967 (PLC/MMS/RYN/KCA/VSB/HC)
In Moscow seven socialist states including Yugoslavia condemn Israel in a common declaration and terminate diplomatic relations (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union on June 10, Hungary and Poland on June 12, Yugoslavia on June 13). They discuss ways of helping the Arabs Romania does not sign the declaration and maintains diplomatic relations, albeit at a reduced level.
Yugoslavia / US – June 10-12, 1967 (LYE)
A joint Yugoslav-American seminar is held in Belgrade, during which foreign businessmen are invited to comment on legal provisions then being drafted in the federal parliament. Some Yugoslav participants in the seminar are also members of the parliamentary drafting committee and keep the committee apprised of the seminar's deliberations.
Soviet Union / Algeria – June 12, 1967(KCA)
Algerian Prime Minister Colonel Houari Boumedienne visits Moscow where he meets with Brezhnev, Kosygin and Podgorny. They discuss issues in the Middle East.
China – June 17, 1967(HC)
According of the report the New-China press China detonated its first hydrogen bomb.
U.N. / Soviet Union – June 19, 1967 (KCA)
At the emergency session of the General Assembly on the Middle East War, Kosygin begins the talks with scathing criticism of the U.S and the war in Vietnam. He then goes on to attack Israel and its acts of aggression in the Middle East. He compares Israeli actions in the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula with Hitler's actions in the Second World War. Eban, Israeli Foreign Minister is incensed at these comparisons. Kosygin and Gromyko leave the Emergency Session.
Soviet Union / Israel – June 21, 1967 (CWC)
The Central Committee of the Communist party in the Soviet Union condemns Israel for the outbreak of war in the Middle East. (165)
Hungary – June 23, 1967 (HC)
The session of the central committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party takes place in Budapest. (Subject: Situation in the Middle East, and the preparation for the economic reforms.)
Soviet Union / U.S. – June 23, 1967 (KCA)
At the Glassboro Summit, Kosygin meets President Johnson twice over the course of the summit. While agreements are reached on the need for nuclear arms control, there is no agreement issued on Vietnam or the Middle East.
Czechoslovakia – June 27-29, 1967 (PSC/KCA/PLC)
The fourth Congress of the Czechoslovak Writers’ Union in Prague criticizes the cultural policy of the Communist Party in Czechoslovakia, especially restrictions on the creative freedom of writers. Members denounce certain aspects of the government’s domestic and foreign policy. In response, the government expels several members of Literární Noviny, the journal of the Writers' Union, and gives the Ministry of Culture and Information control of the journal.
Soviet Union – June 27, 1967 (KCA)
Viktor Grishin replaces Nikolai Yegorychev as First Secretary of the Party Committee of Moscow.
Soviet Union – June 27-29, 1967 (KCA)
Kosygin visits Cuban leader Dr. Fidel Castro in Havana for private talks.
Poland – June 28, 1967 (PLC)
Under the umbrella of an anti-Jewish campaign in Poland, 382 people are “uncovered”.
Yugoslavia – July, 1967 (LYE)
A set of amendments to several existing laws passed provides for investment under contractual arrangements between foreign investors and existing Yugoslav enterprises. The contract defines the scope of their joint endeavor under a joint management board and stipulates their respective responsibilities and shares of investment and profit (with the foreign investor limited to a maximum of 49 percent). Contracts have to be approved by the federal Secretariat for the Economy, and certain areas, such as banking, insurance and internal commerce are excluded from foreign investment.
Hungary – July 1, 1967 (HC)
Institution of the Economic Research is formed.
Soviet Union – July 1, 1967 (KCA)
Kosygin visits French leader General De Gaulle in Paris for talks.
Yugoslavia – July 1, 1967 (RYE)
The specific proposals of the Todorović Commission for further provisional organizational changes within the League of Ccommunists of Yugoslavia are accepted by the Central Committee's 7th Plenum; its political and philosophical sections are non-committally termed a good basis for further discussions. This discussion in turn continued until the delayed 9th Congress meet in Yugoslavia April 1969.
Romania / Canada – April 4, 1967 (KCA)
Canada and Romania announce the establishment of diplomatic relations.
EEC – July 1, 1967 (PLC)
Merger Treaty combining the institutions of the ECSC and Euratom into that of the European Economic Community (EEC).
East Germany – July 2, 1967 (KCA)
Elections are held. For the first time, citizens can vote for individual candidates.
East Germany – July 5, 1967 (KCA)
Herbert Fechner is announced Mayor (Oberburgermeister) of East Berlin after Friedrich Ebert resigns.
Hungary – July 11, 1967 (HC)
The governmental order number 1020/1967 about the price increase of the agricultural product is publicized. (The new prices come into effect in 1968.)
Soviet Bloc – July 11-12, 1967 (HC/CAC)
Party and government leaders, including Tito but not Ceaușescu, of the socialist countries negotiate in Budapest. (About the situation in the Middle East.) Romania alone fails to sever diplomatic relations with Israel.
Soviet Union – July 11, 1967 (KCA)
Shelepin, former Deputy Prime Minister, is appointed Chairman of the Central Trade Union Council.
Bulgaria / Mongolia – July 17-23, 1967 (KCA)
Representatives from Mongolia and Bulgaria sign a Treaty of Friendship, Mutual Aid and Cooperation. They also jointly condemn U.S. imperialism in Vietnam and Israeli aggression in the Middle East.
Yugoslavia – July 17-19, 1967 (ACY)
The Assembly of the Macedonian Church and People meets at Ohrid. It proclaims an autocephalous Macedonian Orthodox Church and reaffirms the restoration of the archbishopric of Ohrid which was first proclaimed in 1958. Two new dioceses are established.
Romania – July 24, 1967 (RFP)
Ceauşescu presents new approach to the National Assembly. He appeals for independence from Moscow, insists on national Communism as contrasted with proletarian internationalism. Ceauşescu does not bring new ideas, Gheorghiu-Dej had already claimed the same approach.
Hungary – July 28, 1967 (HC)
János Kádár the first secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party visits the Ganz-MÁVAG (industrial facility). (In the general meeting gives information about the quidance economy.)
Hungary / Japan – July 29, 1967 (HC)
Japanese Foreign Minister Miki Takeo takes three-day visit in Hungary.
Romania – August 1967 (PLC)
For the first time since 1964, Romanian troops participate in a Warsaw Pact military exercise.
Yugoslavia – August 1967 (RYN)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito launches a peace offensive with visits to Cairo, Damascus and Baghdad.
Czechoslovakia / West Germany – August 3, 1967 (KCA)
Czechoslovakia and Western Germany sign a Trade Agreement.
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 5, 1967 (LBC)
The State Department announces that the travel restrictions imposed on Soviet diplomats are relaxed.
Poland / Israel – August 8, 1967 (KCA)
Poland cuts all maritime activities with Israel.
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 11, 1967 (LBC)
An amendment by the U.S. Senate bans a 50 million dollar loan to the USSR for an automobile plant to be built in the Soviet Union.
Hungary – August 22-25, 1967 (HC)
On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the establishment of the Hungarian Historical Association, international conference is held in Budapest.
Soviet Union / U.S. August 24, 1967 (LBC/KCA)
The U.S. and the Soviet Union prepare a joint draft treaty for the Geneva based U.N. Disarmament Commission in order to forestall nuclear proliferation. Negotiations have been underway since the first resolution of the UN General Assembly. The draft leaves the third article on international supervision empty. – It has proved difficult on an international stage to decide upon the controls and governing bodies on nuclear disarmament. However, this submission sees the two countries submitting very similar draft treaties. The French news agency’s report based on “official circles” claims that France does not intend to sign the treaty.
Soviet Union / U.K. – August 25, 1967 (KCA)
The U.K. and USSR agree to implement a hotline between London and Moscow, proceeding the Soviet hotlines set up with the U.S. and France.
East Germany – August 28, 1967 (KGD)
The five-day work week is introduced.
Yugoslavia – September 4-6, 1967 (HC)
The representatives of the socialist countries negotiate in Belgrade. (They discuss economic cooperation with Arab countries.)
Soviet Union / Ukraine – September 5, 1967 (KCA)
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny signs a decree to allow Crimean Tatars to return to the Crimea. The Tatars are returning after having been expelled by Stalin who had accused them of collaborating with the Nazis. Podgorny acknowledges in two decrees that the Crimean Tatars were unfairly blamed for Nazi collaboration when only a few had done so.
Hungary / Soviet Union – September 6, 1967 (HC)
Led by general secretary L.I. Brezhnev and Prime Minister A.N Kosygin, a delegation of the Soviet Communist Party and the Soviet government take a four-day long visit in Hungary. (September 9; they sign a new agreement on friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance.)
Poland / France – September 12, 1967 (LBC/PLC/HPB/KCA)
De Gaulle’s visit in Poland. He meets chairman of the Council of State Ochab, First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party Gomułka and Minister of Foreign Affairs Rapacki. De Gaulle declares that he looks upon Poland as “a popular, strong and respectable country” that must have an outstanding role in the world of balance and independence. West Germany must accept the Oder-Neisse line and the GDR and must renounce the possession of nuclear arms. When these conditions are fulfilled tensions may decrease and there can be understanding and cooperation from the Atlantic to the Urals. – Gomułka refuses to relax its stance towards the FRG or to be more independent of the Soviet Union. According to Gomułka the pre-war Franco-Polish military alliance proved inadequate to protect the two countries from the catastrophe of defeat and Hitlerite occupation. As a result the newly born Poland drew the historical conclusions and chose the path of friendship and alliance with its large eastern neighbor, the USSR. An alliance with the other East European nations including the GDR is the cornerstone of Polish foreign policy. Following the visit, France and Poland issue a joint communique in which they condemn the war in Vietnam as a war aggression and under the Geneva Agreements of 1954, the conflict should end. In addition, they agree that Polish-French mutual trade and friendship is a valuable asset towards detente.
Finland – September 7, 1967 (SJM)
The Sibelius Monument, which is constructed as a remembrance of Finnish Composer Jean Sibelius, is unveiled in Helsinki. It is made by Sculptor Eila Hiltunen.
Soviet Union / U.S. – September 18, 1967 (LBC)
U.S. Secretary of Defense McNamara announces that the U.S. is deploying a missile system, which will be capable of defending the nation against a missile attack by China. McNamara asserts that the Soviet Union and the US are incapable of attacking one another without being annihilated by the retaliatory strike. Neither side will be able to gain superiority in first strike capability in the near future. The USSR and the US both have adequate second strike capability and this capability is the best motivation to avoid a nuclear war.
Hungary – September 20, 1967 (HC)
The leadership of the World Alliance of the Hungarians holds its session in Budapest. (Chairman: József Kárpáti.)
Soviet Union / China – September 20, 1966 (KCA)
The Chinese government orders foreign students to leave. In retaliation, the Soviet Union forces all Chinese students to leave the USSR until the Chinese once again acknowledge the foreign exchange clause in the Sino-Soviet agreement on cultural co-operation and allow their students to remain in China.
West Germany / Yugoslavia – September 25, 1967 (PLC)
Emigrant organization of the Croatian Democratic Committee in West Germany is banned and disbanded.
Czechoslovakia – September 26-27, 1967 (PSC)
The Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (CPCz CC) decides that the Ministry of Culture and Information will edit the weekly magazine of the Union of Czechoslovak Writers, Literární noviny. Ivan Klíma, Antonín J. Liehm and Ludvík Vaculík are expelled from the CPCz CC.
Hungary – September 29, 1967 (HC)
The Parliament approves law number 1967: II about the labor code, law no. 1967: III about the agricultural collective farms and law no. 1967: IV about the ownership and usage of land.
Soviet Union / Turkey – September 29, 1967 (KCA)
Prime Minister Demirel of Turkey visits Kosygin and Podgorny in Moscow. In a joint communique, the two parties agree that Israel should cease hostilities and withdraw militarily from the Arab states. Regarding Vietnam, both request that the Geneva Convention of 1954 be adhered to and the country be given autonomy. Soviet Union and Turkey jointly agree to work towards towards mutual assistance and trade.
Soviet Union / Canada – October 5, 1967(KCA)
Soviet scientist Dr. Boris Dotsenko, working at Edmonton University on a research grant, seeks permanent residency in Canada.
Poland / India – October 8-11, 1967 (HDP)
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of India visits Poland.
Czechoslovakia / Hungary – October 10, 1967 (HC)
Led by first secretary János Kádár party and governmental delegation take a five-day long visit in Czechoslovakia.
Finland – October 11, 1967 (TGY)
Finnish markka is devalued by 31% which should increase industrial output and therefore accelerates economic growth.
Yugoslavia – October 15, 1967 (KCA)
Skopje Steelworks opens in Southern Yugoslavia.
Soviet Union – October 18, 1967 (KCA)
Soviet space probe Venus-4 lands on Venus. It is the first craft to make a soft landing on another solar system planet.
Czechoslovakia – October 30-31, 1967 (PSC)
At a CPCz CC plenum, Alexander Dubček criticizes the first secretary of CPCz and president of Czechoslovakia, Antonín Novotný.
Hungary / South America – October 30-November 28, 1967 (HC)
Led by István Szurdi Minister of Domestic Trade, government delegation travels to Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay.
Czechoslovakia – October 31, 1967 (PSC/ PSCZ)
Police violently suppress a demonstration by Prague University students protesting poor dormitory conditions.
Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / GDR / Hungary / Poland / Romania / Yugoslavia – November 1967 (KCA)
Communist countries with the exception of China and Albania, meet to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution. Brezhnev, in a four-hour address, uses his time to condemn the CCP.
Poland – November 1967 (HPB)
Dziady (Forefathers' Eve) – a play by Adam Mickiewicz is staged in Warsaw, directed by Kazimierz Dejmek. It includes strong anti-Russian elements, therefore is banned from staging after the intervention of the Soviet Ambassador Aristow. The last staging takes place on January 30, 1968 and results in demonstrations against the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union – November 1-9, 1967 (MMS/KCA)
Moscow, Summit (Celebration of the 50th anniversary of Bolshevik revolution).
Soviet Union – October 12, 1967
The Supreme Soviet approved the economic budget plans for 1968-70. The defense expenditure is revealed and increased. Military service is decreased from three to two years and Navy service is increased from three to four years.
Hungary – November 3, 1967 (HC)
Scientific session takes place of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution.
Warsaw Pact – November 9, 1967 (CAC)
A meeting of Warsaw Pact party leaders is held concerning preparations for a conference of world communist parties in 1968.
East Germany – November 10, 1967 (KCA)
Dr. Kiesenger, Chancellor of West Germany speaks about the potential opening up of diplomatic relations with Eastern Germany, political climate permitting.
Warsaw Pact – November 13-17, 1967 (CAC)
A meeting of chiefs of general staff in Dresden urges creation of a staff of the Unified Command and a committee on technology as a first step toward reorganization of the Warsaw Pact. Romania opposes it.
Czechoslovakia / France – November 15, 1967 (KCA)
Maurice Schumann, French Minister for Atomic Questions and Research and Jan Neumann, head of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission, sign the Franco-Czech agreement over the uses of atomic energy. They agree to cooperate on the peaceful uses of atomic energy.
Soviet Union / Austria – November 15, 1967 (KCA)
Soviet head of state Podgorny opposes Austrian agreements with the EEC which would violate the Austrian State Treaty.
Italy – November 15, 1967 (PLC)
Students’ movement starts in Milan. It spreads to all Italian universities in 1968.
Cyprus – November 16, 1967 (PLC)
Severe tensions between Turkey and Greece about Cyprus, where Greek-Turkish tensions re-erupt when the Greek junta attempts to overthrow President Makarios.
Hungary – November 19, 1967 (KCA)
The Hungarian government proposes a settlement plan for the repayment of pre-war debts and non-sterling bonds.
Poland – November 21, 1967 (KCA)
Changes are made to the Polish Cabinet, and a new post, Minister of the Engineering Industry, is created.
Hungary – November 24, 1967 (KCA)
It is announced that a Communist conference will take place in February 1968 in Budapest. Upon the announcement, the aims of the Conference are to, '...strengthen the Unity of the Communist movement and to unite all Socialist and Democratic forces in the struggle against Imperialism...'
Hungary / Soviet Union – November 25-30, 1967 (HC)
Jenő Fock chairman of the Council of Ministers takes a six-day official visit in Moscow.
COMECON – December, 1967 (CEC)
The 21st COMECON session is held in Budapest. The coordination of the 1971-1975 plans are proposed.
Australia / Hungary – December 2-5, 1967 (HC)
J. McEwen Australian Deputy Prime Minister takes a four-day visit in Hungary. (He signs a trade agreement for four years.)
Greece / Turkey – December 3, 1967 (PLC)
Greek-Turkish conflict settlement under U.N. and U.S. mediation. Greece backs out due to
Soviet Union / China – December 7, 1967 (KCA)
After 2,000,000 Chinese demonstrated at the Sino-Soviet border in October 1967 over Chinese territorial claims, military training schools are called up for Soviet Republics after a demonstration. It is reported that Soviet troops have been gathered from Eastern Europe and are at the Sino-Soviet border along with up to 60 Chinese divisions. (22047A)
Soviet Union / Czechoslovakia – December 8–9, 1967 (PSC/PLC)
Brezhnev arrives in Prague at the personal request of Novotný, for a brief, unofficial visit. He carries out separate talks with several members of the Presidium of CPCz CC, but refuses to intervene in the Czechoslovak Communist Party’s internal disputes. The Novotný leadership unsuccessfully attempts a coup by the end of the year.
Romania – December 9, 1967 (RUR/SRR/HC)The National Conference of the Romanian Communist Party is held. The Grand National Assembly appoints Nicolae Ceauşescu as chairman of the State Council. Ceauşescu was already Secretary General of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party.A Council of Ministers is also announced as well as economic planning reform.
Czechoslovakia – December 11–13, 1967 (PSC/VSB)
An extraordinary session of CPCz CC Presidium discusses dividing the posts of the First Secretary and the President of the Republic. Five members vote for separation, five against. At the meeting, the CPCz CC Presidium also discusses Novotný’s position on Slovakia. The Central Committee criticizes the policy of Novotný.
Soviet Bloc – December 12-14, 1967 (MMS)
COMECON summit in Budapest. (also represented: Yugoslavia and Vietnam).
NATO – December 12, 1967 (LBC)
NATO’s Defense Planning Committee determines the three steps of flexible response: conventional forces would be used against the invaders; tactical atomic weapons would be used against the attacking troops; strategic atomic missiles would be used against enemy countries.
Greece – December 13, 1967 (PLC)
Unsuccessful royalist coup against the military regime in Greece. A day later king Constantine II is exiled to Rome. Colonel Georgios Papadopulous becomes Prime Minister (1968- dictator).
NATO – December 14, 1967 (CAC)
NATO adopts the Harmel Report defining the organization’s goals as both defense and détente.
Czechoslovakia – December 19-21, 1967 (PSC)
During a CPCz CC meeting, Novotný is criticized and asked to resign as first secretary. The meeting is adjourned until January 3, 1968.
Warsaw Pact – December 19-21, 1967(HC/MMS)
The Foreign Ministers of the European socialist countries convene in Warsaw. (Subject: Situation in the Middle East.)
© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013