The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Associate editors

 Assistant editors
Gabriella HERMANN
Jasper NOOIJN,

Babak ARZANI, Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Ádám BALOGH, Shira BORZAK, Florian BRINK, Vanessa BUFFRY, David CATALAN, Sonya COWELL, Susan COOPER, Lauren CRYSTAL, Laura CSEKE, Botond CSELLE, Péter DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB, Kati DEPETRILLO, Emanuele DI BELLO, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA, Kristyna GABIKOVA, Evelina GELEZINYTE, Laura GOUSHA,Zsófia GÖDE, Brianna GREENWALD, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Ágnes HEVÉR,Neala HICKEY, Jennifer OLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU, Kitti Eszter JAKAB, Dean JOLLY, Victoria JONES, Annastiina KALLIUS, István KASZTA, Tomas KOLAR, Roman KOZIEL,Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Karina LEGRADI, Thomas KOLLMANN, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Cynthia MANCHA, Mike MANTZAVINOS, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Viktor NAGY, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Jennifer OTTERSON, Roland PAPP, Orsolya PÓSFAI, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Linda RICHTER, Martin ROMAIN, Lili SIKLÓS, Bobbie SCHOEMAKER, Anett SZŰCS, Sabine TOPOLANSKY, Dóra VERESS, Aniello VERDE, Zita Bettina VASAS,  Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, Kristóf ZSIDI

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013

At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The second part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1953 to 1968. The years 1969–1980 will be available by the end of 2014.

The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968


List of Sources


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013




Romania – 1956 (TCR)
Romania’s second Five Year Plan is approved by the Romanian Workers Party (PMR).

Romania – 1956 (SRR)
Romanian relations with Poland deteriorate.

Romania / Soviet Union – 1956 (RFP)
Soviet First Secretary Khrushchev claims that the Romanian abolition of Stalinism has begun during Stalin’s time and that there are no victims of Stalinism in Romania. Romanian First Secretary Gheorghiu-Dej, afraid that de-Stalinization would mean replacing compromised leaders, refuses to accommodate the Romanian system of the “new course”.

Romania / U.S. – 1956 (RCN)
The White House establishes a Foreign Claims Commission in order to begin work on Romanian claims.

Yugoslavia – December 28, 1955-January 6, 1956 (RYN)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito makes his first state visit to Egypt. He strongly upholds – the first national leader to do so – Egypt's opposition to the Baghdad Pact and Nasser's purchase of Soviet arms as legitimate exercise of the right of self-defense. In the joint communiqué issued on January 5, the two presidents affirm their commitment to the U.N. Charter, their opposition to military pacts and blocs which they blame for creating international tensions, and their intention of pursuing a policy, designed to promote worldwide collective security.

January 1956

Yugoslavia – January 1956 (MOL)
A festival of old Russian movies takes place in Belgrade.

Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – January-February 1956 (MOL)
A Yugoslav economic delegation visits Czechoslovakia. During the negotiations, some financial matters pending are settled and an agreement on economic cooperation is signed on February 12, 1956.

Hungary / Austria – January 3-5, 1956 (KAC)
Frigyes Puja, the Hungarian minister in Vienna, visits Burgenland and meets the regional leaders.  

Hungary / Yugoslavia – January 5, 1956 (KAC/BER)
The Hungarian-Yugoslav Tourism Agreement is signed.

Yugoslavia / US – January 9, 1956 (CUY)
The National Security Council of the United States discuss the draft of the document entitled United States Policy Toward Yugoslavia (NSC 5601). Among the objectives, the document suggests that any further programming of military aid be dependent on the degree on which Yugoslavia provides better information to the United States on its defense planning or participates with appropriate NATO countries in joint defense planning. It also suggests that further economic assistance be reduced to minimum amounts necessary to assist Yugoslavia in maintaining sufficient economic strength. The document is adopted on January 18 and approved by President Eisenhower on January 24.

Hungary / Italy – January 10-February 18, 1956 (KAC)
Italian-Hungarian economic negotiations in Hungary, aiming to expand the existing trade agreement.

Hungary / China – January 14-16, 1956 (KAC)
A Chinese delegation stays in Budapest led by Marshal Zhu De, the Vice President of the Peoples’ Republic of China, the President of the Parliament, the member of the Political Committee and the Secretary of the CC.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – January 16, 1956 (MOL)
Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union reach an agreement on the construction of industrial sites with Soviet material help.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – January 18, 1956 (KAC/BER)
An agreement is signed in Belgrade between the Hungarian and Yugoslavian governments on the renovation and maintenance of boundary marks.

Hungary / Austria – January 23, 1956 (KAC)
Hungarian-Austrian negotiations about the laws of possession start in Vienna.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 23, 1956 (LBC)
Soviet Prime Minister Bulganin recommends a friendship and mutual cooperation treaty to the U.S. According to Bulganin Soviet-American cooperation should be based on fundamental and lasting interest. There are no unsolvable disputes, the present points of contention came about because of European security, the German question and certain Far Eastern problems.

Hungary / Austria – January 26, 1956 (KAC)
Frigyes Puja, the Hungarian Minister in Vienna, meets the regional leaders of South-Austria. His aim is to improve bilateral relations.

Hungary – January 28, 1956 (KAC)
The Chinese-Hungarian Cultural Agreement for 1956 is signed in Beijing.

February 1956

Czechoslovakia – February 1956 (RUR)
Czechoslovakia issues a directive to assist the industrialization of the lesser-developed counties.

Yugoslavia / China – February 1956 (MOL)
A Chinese economic delegation visits Yugoslavia and signs the economic and payment agreement for 1956.

Yugoslavia / Romania – February 1956 (MOL)
An agreement on air traffic regulations is signed between Yugoslavia and Romania in Belgrade.

Yugoslavia – February 1, 1956 (LKT)
United States Ambassador to Yugoslavia James R. Riddleberger reports that the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia are rumored to be negotiating a date for Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito's visit to the Soviet Union, announced the previous June.

Soviet Union / U.S. – February 1, 1956 (LBC)
Speech by U.S. Democratic Senator Jackson: peace is in jeopardy, “the Soviets may win the race” for the production of Intermediate-range Ballistic Missiles. The IRBM would enable the “ballistic blackmail” of the U.S. and its partners, says the Senator.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – February 2, 1956 (MOL)
A trade loan agreement between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union is signed in Moscow

Soviet Union / U.S. – February 3, 1956 (LBC)
Bulganin repeats his offer concerning a Soviet-American treaty, which was previously rejected by the U.S. According to Bulganin the Soviet Union is ready to sign a similar agreement with Great Britain and France and he maintains the proposal for an agreement between NATO and the Warsaw Pact as well.

Hungary / U.S. – February 3, 1956 (LBC/KAC)
The U.S. reintroduces the travel ban that had been canceled for Hungary on October 31, 1955. The U.S. suspend the “consideration of talks on outstanding U.S.-Hungarian problems” as well and warns that new travel restrictions will be introduced for Hungarian diplomats in the U.S., all because two Hungarian employees of the U.S. Legation in Budapest were jailed for alleged espionage.

Hungary / US – February 7, 1956 (KAC)
The Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs refuses the US note of February 3 in which Washington defends Hungarian citizens convicted for espionage.  
Hungary / France – February 8, 1956 (KAC)
The media announces that the French-Hungarian Trade Agreement was signed in Paris.

Hungary / US – February 8, 1956 (KAC)
The Hungarian government protests in a note against the sending American surveillance balloons to Hungarian air space.

Hungary / Austria – February 11, 1956 (KAC)
The Interior Minister issues an order for more cooperation between the border guard units and the state security organs in order to control the west borders more efficiently.

Soviet Union / U.S. – February 14-25, 1956 (LBC)
The Twentieth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). During the congress Khrushchev holds a secreet speech denouncing Stalin and the crimes of Stalinism. 

Hungary / Austria – February 16, 1956 (KAC)
The Austrian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Leopold Figl initiates an unofficial meeting with the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs to talk about releasing Hungarian minority politician in Slovakia János Eszterházy.

Hungary / Austria – February 18, 1956 (KAC)
The Austrian legation in Budapest informs the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs that Austria is willing to set up a joint border committee.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – February 20, 1956 (MOL)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito sends his message to the 20. Congress of the Soviet Communist Party.

Hungary / Austria – February 24, 1956 (KAC)
The Hungarian Deputy Interior Minister announces that the western border will be split into four areas from March 15.

Soviet Union / U.S. – February 24, 1956 (LBC)
U.S. Secretary of State Dulles’s opening speech in the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee. The strength and unity of the free world forced the Russians to change their policy towards states outside Soviet influence. This applies to the Soviet’s policy of aiding third world countries. Dulles receives a lot of criticism on his speech, especially on the view that the Soviets would have changed for the better.

March 1956

Romania – March 1956 (RUR)
First Secretary Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej expresses general criticism of Stalin’s personality cult and once again accuses Ana Pauker of being a Stalinist.

Yugoslavia – March 1956 (RYE)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito summons the Central Committee to its 6th Plenum to take action against various negative phenomena within the Party.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – March 1956 (MOL)
An agreement on navigation and trade on the Danube between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union is made public.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia March 1-14, 1956 (KAC)
A delegation of the Hungarian Parliament led by Sándor Rónai, Speaker of the Parliament, visits the Presidency of the Czechoslovak Parliament.

Soviet Union / U.S. – March 1, 1956 (LBC)
In a letter to Bulganin, Eisenhower proposes arms reduction: the U.S. would consider freezing the accumulation of fissionable materials for military purposes if the Soviet Union accepts the “open skies” principle.

France – March 2, 1956 (LBC)
French Foreign Minister Pineau announces he will try to synthesize the East-West proposals for arms reduction during his visit to Moscow in May. According to Pineau there is, despite friendship and solidarity, no common American-French-British foreign policy. He condemns the fact that the West overemphasizes the role of military strength. Pineau urges giving up the “Iron Curtain” mentality, and pleaded the increase of East-West cultural and commercial ties.

Soviet Union / U.S. – March 6, 1956 (LBC)
Bulganin calls the Eisenhower letter on arms reduction “interesting and good.”

Hungary / Yugoslavia – March 8, 1956 (KAC/BER)
The Hungarian government abolishes the frontier zone and discontinues the technical sealing of the Hungarian-Yugoslav frontier.

Hungary / Austria – March 9, 1956 (KAC)
The Political Committee of the Hungarian Workers’ Party decides to end the mine barrage at the western ( Austrian)  border.

Yugoslavia / West Germany – March 10, 1956 (MOL)
An economic agreement is reached between Yugoslavia and the Federal Republic of Germany.

Poland – March 12, 1956 (UNW)
Polish First Secretary Boleslaw Bierut dies in Moscow.

Soviet Union – March 17, 1956 (LBC)
The disarmament proposal of Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko: the halting of H-bomb tests; the freezing of conventional forces on the 1955 level and their consequent reduction to a lower level.

Poland – March 20, 1956 (HDP)
Edward Ochab is elected First Secretary of the Polish United Workers` Party.

Hungary / Austria – March 23, 1956 (KAC)
Walther Peinsipp, the Austrian minister, presents his credentials to István Dobi, the Chairman of the Presidential Council.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – March 27, 1956 (KAC/BER)
First Secretary of The Hungarian Workers' Party Mátyás Rákosi publicly announces in Eger that the Rajk trial, in which members of the Yugoslav Communist leadership were slandered, are based on provocation. According to him, the rehabilitation has already taken place.

Soviet Union / U.S. / Western Europe – March 29, 1956 (LBC)
According to a U.S. congressional report the Soviet Union has 890 thousand scientists and engineers, the U.S. have 760 thousand, Western Europe has 925 thousand. In 1954, 104 thousand scientists and engineers graduated from Soviet universities, 53,500 from American, 43,500 from West European universities. The U.S. would need 30-35 thousand engineers annually, but in 1954 only 22,329 graduated. The Soviet standard of training scientists is of a high standard and is comparable to the best in the West.

April 1956

Poland / Cambodia – April 1956 (PSM)
Poland and Cambodia establish diplomatic relations.

Yugoslavia – April 1956 (LKT)
The Yugoslavs inform U.S. Ambassador to Yugoslavia James R. Riddleberger that the changes within the Soviet Union has reduced world tension and made disarmament a genuine possibility.

Romania – April 3-12, 1956 (RFP)
A meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Romanian Workers Party takes place in Bucharest. It is claimed that the abuses, crimes, and cult of the individual are all due to the deviationist group, but events in Romania cannot be compared to those in the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland.

Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – April 17, 1956 (MOL)
A Yugoslavian parliamentary delegation visits Bulgaria.

Hungary / Austria – April 18, 1956 (KAC)
The Austrian legation in Budapest invites the Chairman and several scientists of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences to the celebrations of the 150th anniversary of the Austrian Cartography Office.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – April 18, 1956 (KAC/BER)
The “Night of Yugoslav literature” organized by the Petõfi Kör (Petőfi Circle) demonstrates its commitment to Hungarian-Yugoslav friendship.

Soviet Bloc – April 18, 1956 (LUY)
Pravda announces the dissolution of the Information Bureau of Communist and Workers' Parties (Cominform).

Soviet Union / U.S. / U.K. – April 18-27, 1956 (LBC)
Khrushchev and Bulganin visit London. Khrushchev states that Eisenhower’s “open skies” plan belongs to the realm of fantasies. In his speech on April 19 he emphasizes the necessity of a policy of peaceful coexistence.

Hungary / Soviet Union – April 20, 1956 (KAC)
A Hungarian parliamentary delegation led by Sándor Rónai visits the Soviet Union.

U.S. – April 26, 1956 (LBC)
U.S. Secretary of Commerce Weeks announces that 700 articles in 57 categories of goods will fall under general licensing rules and will become freely exportable to the Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – April 27, 1956 (KAC/BER)
Dalibor Soldatić, the Yugoslav minister, asks Endre Sík, the Hungarian Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, to arrange an unofficial meeting with Mátyás Rákosi to discuss how to improve Yugoslav-Hungarian relations.

Poland – April 27, 1956 (UNW)
Amnesty is given to thousands of political prisoners.

Soviet Union / U.K. – April 27, 1956 (LBC)
According to Bulganin the Soviet Union will be ready to purchase one billion pounds worth of British ships, industrial equipment and raw materials in the next year, if the commercial restrictions and discrimination against the Soviet Union are lifted. – According to British Prime Minister Eden the talks might mean the “beginning of the beginning”. One third of the shopping list submitted by the Soviets is not included in the embargo on strategic goods and thus there is a real chance to increase Anglo-Soviet trade.

May 1956

COMECON – May, 1956 (CEC)
A very long meeting of COMECON is held in Berlin. Measures to facilitate trade and transport, coordination as well as specialization in engineering, raw materials, fuel and foodstuffs are adopted. Preliminary recommendations on multilateral clearing agreements, and electricity integration are adopted. Institutional changes are made, most notably the conversion of COMECON’s 12 temporary working groups into “standing commissions”.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 1956 (LKT)
The Yugoslavs finally inform U.S. Ambassador James R. Riddleberger that Yugoslavia does not wish to fully implement the agreements reached with U.S. Deputy Undersecretary for Political Affairs Robert Murphy in October 1955 calling for an increase in the number of American Military Assistance Staff (AMAS) personnel within Yugoslavia.

Romania / U.S. – May 4, 1956 (LBC)
The U.S. State Department announces that talks will begin with Romania about the improvement of commercial ties and about the realization of the 88.5 million dollar U.S. indemnification claim, which stems from the post-war nationalization of U.S. property. The U.S. signaled that it would raise political issues as well, such as the imprisonment of U.S. citizens in Romania.

Yugoslavia / France – May 7-12, 1956 (LBC/MOL)
The Paris visit of Yugoslav President Tito. Tito wants the French to license the Yugoslav production of the Mystere IV fighter.

Hungary / France – May 9, 1956 (KAC)
An employee of the French legation, Márta Tauszki, who was arrested during the Rajk trial, is released from prison.

Hungary / Austria – May 10, 1956 (KAC)
Hungarian Prime Minister András Hegedüs announces that the mine barrage at the western border will be removed.

Soviet Union – May 14, 1956 (LBC)
The USSR announces that it will reduce its armed forces by 1.2 million troops until May 1, 1957.

Yugoslavia / West Germany – May 14-16, 1956 (MOL)
A delegation of the members of the Yugoslav government visits the Federal Republic of Germany.

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 15, 1956 (LBC)
According to Dulles the reason for the Soviet arms reduction is the labor shortage in industry and agriculture. The reorientation of people to the industry may increase the Soviet military strength. According to American estimates the Soviet armed forces number 4.2 million people, while the U.S. army numbers 3 million. 

Soviet Union / France – May 15-20, 1956 (LBC)
French Prime Minister Mollet’s and Pineau’s five day visit to Moscow. Mollet is the first Western Prime Minister that pays a visit to Moscow since December 1944.

Soviet bloc / U.S. – May 21, 1956 (LBC)
According to a Washington report the Soviet bloc export to the West increased by 35% to an estimated 2.3 billion dollars. The Soviet bloc export to the U.S. grew from 42 million dollars in 1954 to 55 million dollars, but this is still only 50% of the 1948 figure. The Soviet bloc’s import from the U.S. went up from 6.1 million dollars in 1954 to 7.2 million dollars in 1955. In the period between January and March 1956 licenses were given out in the U.S. for the East European export of 8.5 million dollars worth of commodities, including automobiles and agricultural machinery.

Bulgaria / U.S. – May 26, 1956 (LBC)
The U.S. State Department reports that the U.S. rejected Bulgaria’s overtures for the restoration of Bulgarian-U.S. diplomatic relations.

Hungary / Austria – May 28-June 8, 1956 (KAC)
Negotiations about mutual property claims are continued in Budapest.

Hungary / Austria – May 31, 1956 (KAC)
The Political Committee of the Hungarian Workers’ Party decides to strengthen the Austrian-Hungarian border.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – May 31, 1956 (LUY)
As a gesture before Tito's arrival in Moscow, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Nikita Khrushchev replaces Molotov with Shepilov as Foreign Minister.

June 1956

Hungary / Poland – June, 1956 (KAC)
Hungarian citizens are allowed to travel to Poland without a passport or visa, only carrying their national identity cards. (Kádár on November 4, 1956 restores the old passport system.)
Zoltán Szántó, the Hungarian ambassador in Warsaw, returns to Budapest. For a year Hungary does not have an ambassador in Warsaw, the Hungarian embassy is led by Péter Baló, the ambassador’s deputy.

Yugoslavia / Hungary / Romania / Soviet Union – June 2-20, 1956 (BER/LKT/KAC)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito's lengthy stay in the Soviet Union. During his stay, inter-party relations between the Yugoslav and the Soviet Communist parties are settled. At the end of Tito's visit, a joint communiqué is issued. Expressing his discontent with the policy of Mátyás Rákosi, First Secretary of the Hungarian Workers' Party, Tito avoids Hungary and travels to the Soviet Union through Romania. Talks between the Soviet and Yugoslav delegations start on June 7.

Soviet Union / U.S. – June 4, 1956 (LBC)
The Voice of America broadcasts the text of Khrushchev’s secret speech given on 25 February to the nations of the Soviet bloc.

Hungary / Austria – June 5, 1956 (KAC)
The first scheduled flight arrives to Budapest from Vienna.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – June 6, 1956 (LKT)
At a press conference, the President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower sidesteps the issue of American aid to Yugoslavia, while making even more ambiguous comments on neutralism. He admits that the United States will have to reevaluate its policy toward Yugoslavia.

Soviet Union / France – June 7, 1956 (LBC)
According to Pineau the Soviet Union attributes great significance to raising the Iron Curtain and therefore it would be a great mistake if the West wanted to maintain it.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – June 7, 1956 (LBC)
The U.S. House of Representatives reduces the amount of foreign aid to Yugoslavia recommended by the President by 1.1 billion dollars. The House continues to support aid to Yugoslavia, because it is in the interest of U.S. security. The Senate rejects the House’s proposal on Yugoslav aid.

Hungary / Soviet Union – June 7-14, 1956 (KAC)
Suslov, a member of the Presidium of the Soviet Communist Party, is in Hungary. He visits Mátyás Rákosi, András Hegedüs, István Dobi and Sándor Rónai. He also meets János Kádár and Imre Nagy.

Hungary – June 8, 1956 (KAC)
Jean Paul-Boncour, the French minister in Budapest, gives a conciliatory speech when presenting his credentials. He talks about “releasing tension between the East and the West and reconsidering all French-Hungarian relations”.

Soviet Union / U.S. – June 8, 1956 (LBC)
The Soviet Union delivers an invitation to Moscow to the U.S. Chiefs of Staff. Eisenhower does not see it timely for the Chiefs to visit Moscow, although the Chiefs of Staff had already accepted the invitation.

Hungary / France – June 10-17, 1956 (KAC)
A French Film Festival is organized in Budapest.

Hungary / Austria – June 11, 1956 (KAC)
The Hungarian Interior Minister orders to strengthen the surveilance activity of the state security services on the west border.

Soviet Union / Eastern Europe / China / France / U.S. – June 18, 1956 (LBC)
During his visit in Washington Pineau recommends the relaxation of trade restrictions towards the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and China.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – June 20, 1956 (KAC)
József Köböl, the head of the Hungarian Workers’ Party’s Party and Mass Organizations Department, suggests readmitting those to the party who were dismissed without a real reason during the anti-Yugoslav campaign.

Soviet Union / France / U.S. – June 20, 1956 (LBC)
According to Pineau the U.S. must exploit the “irreversible changes” in the Soviet Union and must try to improve relations. Otherwise it risks the maintenance of the Iron Curtain.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – June 20, 1956 (LUY)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito and First Secretary of the CPSU Nikita S. Khrushchev issue a Declaration on Relations Between the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Hungary – June 21, 1956 (KAC)
A Chinese trade delegation arrives to Hungary led by Nan Han-Chen, Chairman of the International Trade Development Council of China.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – June 21, 1956 (KAC/BER)
The Yugoslav-Hungarian Trade Agreement for 1956 and 1957 is signed in Belgrade.

Hungary / Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – June 24, 1956 (KAC/BER)
The Soviet Union informs the leaders of its East European satellites currently in Moscow on the policy of rapprochement between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia and makes it clear that the issues in the joint Soviet-Yugoslav communiqué of June 20, 1956 are valid in Soviet-Yugoslav relation only. The Soviet leaders have a separate discussion with First Secretary of the Hungarian Workers' Party Rákosi Mátyás.

Soviet Union / U.S. – June 24, 1956 (LBC)
The Chief of Staff of the U.S. Air force, General N.F. Twining, arrives in Moscow for the Soviet Aviation Day celebrations.

Yugoslavia / Romania – June 24-26, 1956 (MOL)
On his way back from the Soviet Union, Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito visits Romania.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – June 26, 1956 (KAC/BER)
In his note, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Kliment Vorosilov informs the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party that First Secretary of the Hungarian Workers' Party Mátyás Rákosi expressed his reservations and mistrust concerning the normalization of relations towards Yugoslavia.

Hungary / U.K. – June 27, 1956 (KAC)
A Hungarian-English Trade Agreement is signed for three years.

Poland – June 28, 1956 (UNW)
Demonstrations in Poznan. They are the result from unrest among workers, whose demands for better working conditions were constantly ignored. Demonstrators take the building of the city branch of the National Council and Central Committee, as well as the prison. Over 10,000 soldiers enter the city to crush the demonstrations. As a result 74 people are killed and over 500 injured.

U.S. – June 29, 1956 (LBC)
Eisenhower approves the National Security Council’s program to improve East-West relations.

Hungary / France – June 30, 1956 (KAC)
The employees of the French legation are given a multiple entry visa for 6 month. On July 1 they are given further travelling allowances.

July 1956

Eastern Europe / U.K. – July 1956 (KAC)
Selwyn Lloyd, the British Minister of Foreign Affairs, calls a meeting in July 1956, where the leaders of the Foreign Office debate whether to change the relations with the countries of Eastern-Europe.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – July 1, 1956 (KAC/BER)
In an article published in Politika, Julius Djuka criticizes the Hungarian party leadership and reports on the activity of the Petőfi Kör (Petőfi Circle).

Hungary / Yugoslavia – July 6-7, 1956 (KAC/BER)
Gavro Altman criticizes the policy of  the Hungarian leadership in an article published in Borba. Yugoslavia demands the normalization of the situation concerning the South Slavic minority in Hungary.

Yugoslavia / West Germany – July 7-17, 1956 (MOL)
Economic talks take place in Belgrade between Yugoslavia and the Federal Republic of Germany.

Hungary / Soviet Union – July 9, 1956 (KAC)
Because of the warnings from Andropov, the Presidium of the Soviet Communist Party discusses the situation of the Hungarian Party on July 9 and July 12. This is the first time during the year when the question of the Hungarian Party appears separately on the agenda of the Soviet Communist Party.

Eastern Europe / U.S. – July 12, 1956 (KAC)
The U.S. National Security Council accepts resolution 5608, laying down the principles of American foreign policy towards the countries aligned with the Soviet Union.  

Hungary / Soviet Union – July 13, 1956 (KAC)
Mikojan, member of the Soviet Communist Party’s Presidium, arrives in Budapest to talk informally with Mátyás Rákosi, Ernõ Gerõ, András Hegedüs and Béla Végh. He attends the Hungarian Workers’ Party CC session when Rákosi is dismissed. He says: “I feel tension in our Central Committee and everywhere in the Socialist bloc because of the Hungarian situation. We cannot tolerate any unexpected and undesired event in Hungary. […] Our Central Committee is willing to give any necessary help and advice to assist our Hungarian comrades in the resolution of the problem.”

Hungary / Soviet Union – July 13, 1956 (KAC)
Khrushchev informs Rákosi in a letter that he believes that the negotiations with Yugoslavia have been successful.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – July 13, 1956 (KAC)
Khrushchev in a note tells Tito that he believes it was a mistake to expell Imre Nagy from the party. Still, he promises to hold on to Rákosi. He states that Moscow is  ready to use any necessary means if the political crisis in Hungary deepened.

Hungary / France – July 14, 1956 (KAC)
The whole government and Mátyás Rákosi attend a reception organized at the French legation.

Hungary – July 15, 1956 (KAC)
The State Security Department of the Interior Ministry arrests two American citizens who supposedly spied on Hungary (Gyula Tarló and Sándor Halmi).

Hungary / Soviet Union – July 18, 1956 (KAC)
Mikojan, still in Budapest, attends the meeting of the Hungarian Workers’ Party CC on July 18-21. Rákosi asks to be removed from his office for medical reasons. On July 21 Mikojan talks with Imre Nagy about his potential return to politics.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – July 18, 1956 (KAC/BER)
After the resignation of Mátyás Rákosi, Ernő Gerő is elected First Secretary of the Hungarian Workers' Party. In his speech at the session of the Central Committee Gerő announces that he has written a letter to Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito intending the normalization of the Yugoslav-Hungarian relationship.

Yugoslavia / Egypt – July 18-19, 1956 (RYN)
Nasser visits Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito in Yugoslavia. This is the first of Nasser's five visits. The others take place in July 1958, June 1960, August 1961, and May 1963. At the same time, Nehru is also in Yugoslavia. He visits the country three times. The other two dates are July 1955 and September 1961. In the official communiqué of July 19, the three leaders express their commitment to the principles of Bandung and agree on the need for economic development and independence for colonial areas. They express „their sympathy for the desire of the people of Algeria for freedom.” They also support greater efforts to facilitate disarmament, the admission of Communist China to the U.N., and the establishment of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Special United Nations Fund for Economic Development (SUNFED). It is there that Nasser learns that U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles has abruptly withdrawn the U.S. offer to help Egypt build the Aswan Dam.

Hungary / U.S. – July 19, 1956 (KAC)
Péter Kós, the Hungarian minister and the permanent representative of Hungary in the U.N., presents his credentials to President Eisenhower in Washington D.C.  

Hungary / Yugoslavia – July 21, 1956 (KAC/BER)
The representatives of Hungary and Yugoslavia sign an agreement on air traffic regulation.

Hungary / Poland – July 23-August 6, 1956 (KAC)
A Polish delegation led by Stanislaw Kulczynski, the Vice President of the Parliament, arrives to Budapest.

Soviet Union / U.K. – July 23, 1956 (LBC)
Eden states in a speech given in the House of Commons that the international situation changed fundamentally the past year and that England will pursue a more flexible policy towards the Soviet Union.

Hungary – July 27, 1956 (KAC)
Dániel Nagy, the Deputy Chairman of the Presidential Council, meets Christian M. Ravndal, the American minister in Budapest. Rawndal visits also Prime Minister András Hegedüs on July 31.

Hungary – July 28, 1956 (KAC)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs sends a note to the American legation in Budapest protesting against the balloons sent to the Hungarian air space from West Germany with political messages.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – July 31, 1956 (KAC)
The Slovak Parliament accepts the 33/1956 constitutional law about the Slovak national institutions. This states that in Slovakia the national organ of state power is the Slovak National Council, and the governing and executive power is the Deputy’s Council, appointed by the Slovak National Council. This is the first constitutional law in Slovakia mentioning the Hungarian minority separately.

August 1956

Poland – August 1956 (UNW)
Wladyslaw Gomulka returns as a member of the PUWP.

Hungary / Austria / Yugoslavia – August 8, 1956 (KAC)
Ernõ Gerõ, the First Secretary of the Hungarian Workers’ Party states that relations with Austria are especially important. He appoints Ferenc Münich as the Hungarian minister in Belgrade instead of Sándor Kurimszki.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – August 9, 1956 (KAC)
The Political Committee of the Hungarian Workers' Party passes a resolution on the normalization of relations with the Alliance of Yugoslav Communists.

Yugoslavia / Egypt – August 11, 1956 (RYN)
At a conference convened in London to resolve the Suez crisis, Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito upholds Egypt's right to nationalize a company operating on its territory and asserts that no conference, i. e., the London Conference, have the authority to discuss the legality of Egypt's action.

Hungary / Romania – August 15, 1956 (KAC)
Hungary and Romania mutually agree to abolish visa requirements.

Hungary / Romania – August 15-25, 1956 (KAC)
A Hungarian delegation visits Romania.

Hungary / Romania – August 16, 1956 (KAC)
Ferenc Keleti, the new Hungarian ambassador in Bucharest, presents his credentials to the Romanian government.

U.S. – August 21, 1956 (LBC)
The Republican Party’s election platform is published. The party’s foreign policy platform, among other things, is “to end the injustices of nations divided against their will...subject to foreign domination…We…look forward to the eventual end of colonialism.” “Free flow of news, information and ideas” and “exchange of persons” between the “free” and “captive” worlds are Republican Party objectives.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – August 23, 1956 (KAC/BER)
A delegation of the National Alliance of Cooperatives, headed by Zoltán Vas, leaves for Yugoslavia.

Hungary / Soviet Union – August 30, 1956 (KAC)
Andropov describes the Hungarian situation to the Soviet Communist Party’s Presidium. He mentions the critical articles published and the debates of the Petõfi Kör.

September 1956

Hungary / Yugoslavia – September, 1956 (KAC/BER)
It is announced that those who were forcefully relocated from the Hungarian-Yugoslav border zone can safely return to their homes.

Hungary / Austria – September 7, 1956 (KAC)
Austrian Chancellor Julius Raab publishes a declaration about Hungarian-Austrian relations in the Szabad Nép.

Hungary / Romania – September 9, 1956 (KAC)
Pál Pándi publishes an article titled “On our common things” about the Hungarian minority living in Transylvania after travelling there for a month.

Yugoslavia / Egypt – September 13, 1956 (RYN)
In a note, the Yugoslav government expresses its support to the Government of Egypt for Egypt's handling of the situation and its confidence that the Egyptian government operate the Canal in the interest of the international community.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – September 13-19, 1956 (KAC/BER)
Hungarian-Yugoslav trade negotiations start in Belgrade.

Hungary / Italy – September 14, 1956 (KAC)
Fabrizio Franco, the new Italian minister in Budapest, presents his credentials.

Hungary – September 15-27, 1956 (KAC)
A delegation of the Hungarian Workers’ Party attends the 8th congress of the Chinese Communist Party. The delegation is led by János Kádár, who gives a speech on September 18.

Hungary – September 19, 1956 (KAC)
Jacques Lafon de Lageneste, French army attaché, receives a map showing the new map of areas that foreigners cannot visit in Hungary. The area of the new “forbidden zones” is significantly smaller than it used to be.       

Hungary / Yugoslavia – September 19, 1956 (KAC/BER)
The elimination of the technical border defenses on the Hungarian-Yugoslav border is finished.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – September 19-27, 1956 (MOL/LUY/ LKT)
First Secretary of the CPSU Nikita Khrushchev officially visits Yugoslavia. They discuss a number of ideological issues implying that those issues involve more than bilateral Soviet-Yugoslav relations. From September 27, 1956, Tito is in the Crimean Peninsula as a guest of Khrushchev.

Yugoslavia / Indonesia – September 20, 1956 (RYN)
Indonesian President Sukarno visits Yugoslavia. This is Sukarno's first of six visits in Yugoslavia. The other visits take place in January 1958, April 1960, June 1961, September 1961, and June 1963.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia / U.S. – September 28, 1956 (LBC)
In relation to Tito’s visit to the Soviet Union US Secretary of State Dulles warns that if Belgrade takes steps towards the Soviet Union, U.S. aid to Yugoslavia will be in jeopardy. According to a law passed on July 9 Eisenhower will have until October 16 to decide whether further aid to Yugoslavia is in the interest of the U.S. The one billion dollar aid, the fate of which depends on the President’s decision is said to contain 300 jet fighters.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – September 30, 1956 (KAC/BER)
Tito has an informal meeting with First Secretary of the Hungarian Workers Party Ernő Gerő at Yalta where they arrange the date when the delegation of the Hungarian party and government visits Yugoslavia.

October 1956

Poland – October 1956 (HDP)
A liberal periodical Europa is established as the result of the de-Stalinization of Polish culture. The first three issues are prepared but never published due to a governmental ban.

Soviet Union / Warsaw Pact – October 1956 (RUR)
The Soviet Union announces that it will examine its troop deployment policy in the Warsaw Pact member states.

Soviet Union / Romania – October-December 1956 (RUR)
The Soviet Union negotiates with Romania about troop withdrawal. No agreement was reached.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – October 2, 1956 (LBC/LKT)
United States Secretary of State Dulles opines at a news conference that Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito did not go to the Soviet Union for vacation but for a discussion on the relationship between the Soviet Union and Eastern European satellites. Dulles declares that there is no sign of Tito having changed his independent policy that is directed at the increased freedom of the satellites.

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 2, 1956 (KAC)
János Boldoczki, the new Hungarian ambassador in Moscow, presents his credentials to Kodica, the Vice Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet.

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 5, 1956 (KAC)
According to the Szabad Nép, the Soviet government will lend 100 million rubles to Hungary in 1957 with 2% interest rate. Hungary will pay back the loan starting from 1960.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – October 5, 1956 (ACY)
Serbian Orthodox Patriarch Vikentije leaves Belgrade for a three week official visit in Moscow on the invitation of Russian Orthodox Patriarch Alexei.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 6, 1956 (BBR-KAC)
László Rajk and his associates, executed for treason in a 1949 show trial, are formally reburied. Szabad Nép carries a lengthy front-page article entitled “Never Again” about communists executed seven years before.  A crowd of 100,000 attends the funeral. At the demonstration after the funeral the crowd expresses a general support for Yugoslavia.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 6, 1956 (KAC/BER)
The representatives of Yugoslavia and Hungary come to an understanding on the raising of their respective missions to the level of embassy. The Central Committe of the Hungarian Workers' Party announces that a delegation of Hungarian party and government members leaves for Belgrade on October 15, 1956.

Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – October 6-7, 1956 (MOL)
A delegation of the Bulgarian Communist Party visits Belgrade.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 8, 1956 (KAC/BER)
During a meeting of the Political Committee of the Hungarian Workers' Party, First Secretary Ernő Gerő reports on his meeting with Tito at Yalta on September 30, 1956.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 11, 1956 (KAC)
Ferenc Münnich, the new Hungarian ambassador in Belgrade, presents his credentials. (He was appointed on August 7 and it took so long to present his credentials.)

Yugoslavia / U.S. – October 11, 1956 (LKT)
U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles meets with U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower and informs him of the State Department's unanimous opinion that the president's finding on aid to Yugoslavia be in the affirmative.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 12, 1956 (KAC)
A delegation of the trade unions led by Sándor Gáspár visits Yugoslavia and meets Tito.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – October 15, 1956 (LBC)
President Eisenhower conditionally permits further congressional aide to Yugoslavia, primarily in the form of foodstuffs. The President recommends the suspension of the shipment of jet fighters and other heavy equipment until the situation is clarified (referring to the question whether or not Tito changed his independent policy) .

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 15-22, 1956 (KAC)
A Hungarian party delegation led by Ernõ Gerõ stays in Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav negotiating delegation is led by Rankovic. Tito meets the Hungarian delegation on October 16, when all official negotiations end.

Poland / Soviet Union – October 19-20, 1956 (UNW)
An uninvited Soviet delegation led by Khrushchev visits Poland. During the meeting Polish politicians convince the Soviet delegation to call back the Soviet army, which was on its way to Poland to intervene in case of an outburst of demonstrations.

Poland – October 20, 1956 (UNW)
Wladyslaw Gomulka is elected as the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist party.

Poland / U.S. – October 20, 1956 (LBC)
Eisenhower on the Polish events: “all friends of the Polish people recognize and sympathize with their traditional yearning for liberty and independence. Our hearts go out to all the captive peoples of satellite Europe.”

Romania / Yugoslavia – October 20, 1956 (KAC)
A Romanian party delegation led by Gheorghiu-Dej visits Tito in Yugoslavia.

Hungary – October 22, 1956 (BBR/HC)
A large assembly of students from across Hungary ( Budapest, Miskolc Szeged, Pécs, Sopron), convened at the Budapest Technical University, debates the demands put forward by the MEFESZ delegates from Szeged. The first version of a list of 16 points, which become a standard frame of reference during the following days, is adopted.  Several other student meetings take place in the capital during the day.

Hungary – October 22, 1956 (HC)
The leaders of the Petőfi Circle meet. They suggest in a resolution the leaders of the Hungarian Workers’ Party to meet, allow Imre Nagy and others to enter the central committee of the party, dismiss Mátyás Rákosi from the CC, trial openly Mihály Farkas and review the December 1955 and June 30, 1956 resolutions regarding the Circle.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 22, 1956 (KAC)
A declaration about peaceful Hungarian-Yugoslav relations is signed in the Belje castle.

Poland / U.S. – October 22, 1956 (LBC)
Eisenhower promises U.S. aid to Poland and other “freedom-loving” satellites if they “need it and want it and if they can profitably use it”. Dulles gives an interview to CBS television: “I don’t think we would send armed forces to East Germany or Poland to oppose a possible Soviet military moves against the new Polish government.” According to Dulles in the present political situation intervention would be “the last thing the Polish people want.” He claims he does not think that Soviet intervention is likely and states that the U.S. is ready to grant economic aid to Poland.

Soviet Union / France / Israel / U.K. – October 22-24, 1956 (KAC)
Secret meeting of England, France and Israel in Sevres (France) about the Suez war. Christian Pineau, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, reassures the Israelis: the Soviet Union will not get involved, as their most important worry at the moment is Hungary and Poland.

Hungary – October 23, 1956 (BBR)
The Hungarian party and government delegation returns from Yugoslavia in the early morning. An expanded meeting of the HWP Political Committee is held to discuss the unfolding socio-political crisis.

Hungary – October 23, 1956 (BBR)
Szabad Nép publishes a front-page article entitled “New Spring Parade,” welcoming the demands being put forward by the country’s youth.

Hungary – October 23, 11:00 a.m., 1956 (BBR)
A student demonstration begins in the university city of Debrecen.

Hungary – October 23, 1956 (BBR)
Demonstrations take place in other university cities around Hungary

Hungary – October 23, 12:53 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
Radio Kossuth broadcasts a statement by the Interior Ministry banning a public demonstration planned for later in the day in Budapest.  However, at 2:23 p.m., the decision is reversed and permission for the rally is granted.

Hungary – October 23, 3:00 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
A student-led march leaves the Petőfi statue on the Pest embankment, crosses the Margaret Bridge and heads for the statue to Polish General Bem on the Buda side of the Danube.  Meanwhile, other groups of students march toward the statue along the Buda embankment.

Hungary – October 23, about 5:00 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
The first protesters arrive in Kossuth Lajos Square in Budapest (5th District). An hour later, the square is filled with a crowd estimated at 200,000. Also around 5:00, demonstrators gather at the Hungarian Radio building on Bródy Sándor Street (8th District) to read out the students’ 16 points. The force defending the building is strengthened, but some soldiers support the protesters. The siege of the Radio starts at about 10 p.m. and lasts until dawn. 

Hungary – October 23, about 6:00 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
In Debrecen, ÁVH forces fire on demonstrators killing three people--the first casualties of the revolution.

Hungary – October 23, about 8:00 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
The HWP Central Committee begins an emergency session that continues until dawn. Ernő Gerő requests that Moscow authorize Soviet forces to intervene.

Hungary – October 23, 9:00 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
Nagy delivers a speech from a second-story balcony of the Parliament building.
 Although intended to respond to demonstrator concerns, it falls well short of expectations, leading the protests to continue.

Hungary – October 23, 9:37 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
Demonstrators on Dózsa György Road (14th District) topple the giant statue of Stalin. There are also attacks during the evening on telephone exchanges, printing presses and several arms factories in various parts of the capital.  Late at night, rebels also attack police stations and semi-military and military institutions. The offices of Szabad Nép are stormed as well.

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 23, about 11:00 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
An order is given for Soviet special forces stationed at Székesfehérvár to pacify Budapest.

Hungary / Poland / Soviet Union / France – October 23, 1956 (KAC)
The Hungarian revolution starts in the afternoon with mass demonstrations and continues in the evening with armed fights. In the afternoon Ernõ Gerõ talks on the phone with Andropov and Khrushchev about the possibility of an armed Soviet intervention. The official Hungarian document asking for the intervention is signed later by András Hegedüs (and not by Imre Nagy). This document was later antedated. During the night Soviet troops arrive to Budapest.
The French minister announces that the previously “forbidden zones” are from now on allowed to be visited.

Hungary / Poland – October 23, 1956 (KAC)
The speech of Gomulka on the 8th congress of the Polish United Workers’ Party is published in the Szabad Nép and in the Szabad Ifjúság. The demonstrations in Hungary on October 23 started with the aim of showing solidarity to the Poles.

Hungary – October 23, 1956 (HC)
The leaders of the Union of Working Youth support the youth demonstrations organized in Budapest to show sympathy to Poland. They ask the youth to avoid provocation.

Hungary – October 23, 1956 (HC)
The Hungarian Writers’ Union sends a resolution to the Hungarian Workers’ Party, demanding that a program for “national unity” is completed and Imre Nagy is allowed to reenter the party leadership.

Hungary – October 23-24 during the night, 1956 (HC)
Session of the leaders of the Hungarian Workers’ Party. It is announced that a counterrevolution has started. The members of the Political Committee are reelected. General Secretary: Ernő Gerő. Members: Antal Apró, Sándor Gáspás, András Hegedüs, János Kádár, Gyula Kállai, Károly Kiss, József Köböl, György Marosán, Imre Nagy, Zoltán Szántó. Deputy members: Géza Losonczy, Sándor Rónai. The Presidential Council is suggested to choose Imre Nagy the Chairman of the Council of Ministers.

Hungary / Poland / Soviet Union / China – October 23-31, 1956 (KAC)
A Chinese delegation led by Chinese Vice President Liu Sao-chi and Teng Hsiao-ing, the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, talk about the Polish and the Hungarian situations in Moscow.

Hungary – October 24, 3:00-4:00 a.m., 1956 (BBR)
The first Soviet armored units enter the capital. 

Hungary – October 24, early morning, 1956 (BBR)
Rebel forces occupy the Radio building. However, government broadcasting serdeputys have already moved to the Parliament building.

Hungary – October 24, 8:13 a.m., 1956 (BBR)
Hungarian Radio announces that the HWP Central Committee has confirmed Ernő Gerő as first secretary. Nagy is to be prime minister, with the incumbent András Hegedüs as his deputy.

Hungary – October 24, 8:45 a.m., 1956 (BBR)
Hungarian Radio declares a state of emergency. Factories and schools are closed. Trains continue to run, and basic food supplies as well as utilities are available more or less continuously during the coming weeks. 

Hungary – October 24, noon, 1956 (BBR)
Rebels temporarily occupy the Athenaeum Press.

Hungary October 24, 12.10 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
Speaking on the radio, Nagy appeals for calm and an end to the fighting.

Hungary – October 24, 1956 (BBR)
Fighting continues in the neighborhood of the radio station. A fire breaks out in the natural history section of the National Museum during the afternoon, burning part of it down.

Hungary – October 24, 1956 (BBR)
ÁVH forces open fire on marchers at Roosevelt Square near the Ministry of Interior (5th District). Soviet soldiers fire on demonstrators outside Székesfehérvár Town Hall.  Six lives are lost.

Hungary – October 24, 1956 (BBR)
The first workers’ council in Budapest is formed.

Hungary – October 24, 1956 (BBR)
Groups of rebels form in Baross Square (7th and 8th Districts), in the southern parts of the 8th and 9th Districts, at Corvin Passage (8th District), and in Tompa Street (9th District) and Berzenczey Street (9th District).

Hungary – October 24, 1956 (BBR)
Insurrectionists seize large quantities of arms from the Bem Square barracks (2nd District).

Hungary – October 24, 1956 (BBR)
Extra Soviet troops are transferred to Hungary from the USSR and Romania. TASS issues a statement in Moscow announcing the defeat of the “counter-revolutionary uprising”.

Hungary – October 24, 8.45 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
János Kádár, speaking on the radio, terms the events a counter-revolution.

Hungary / Romania – October 24, 1956 (KAC)
In Romania the state announces general emergency because of the Hungarian revolution. All borders are closed. Hungarian university students organize a demonstration in Cluj, but it cannot succeed because of the ethnic problems.

Hungary / Poland – October 24, 1956 (KAC)
Gomulka announces to the hundreds of thousand Poles at the Warsaw popular assembly that the Soviet troops will return home. He asks the people to “stop the demonstrations and return to work”. After the assembly a few thousand students and workers go to the Hungarian embassy to express their solidarity with the Hungarians.

Poland – October 24, 1956 (PLC)
Gomulka announces that “all independent countries have the right to govern themselves”.

Poland – October 24, 1956 (PSN)
Almost 400,000 people gather on Parade Square near the palace of culture where they are addressed by Gomulka who urges them to stop meetings and demonstrations.

Poland – October 24, 1956 (PSN)
A new electoral law is passed allowing for lists to exceed the number of posts by two thirds.

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 24, 1956 (KAC)
At noon Mikojan and Suslov from the Presidency of the Soviet Communist Party  arrive in Budapest.

Hungary – October 24, 1956 (HC)
It is announced that those who stop the armed fighting by 2pm will not be punished. The deadline is later changed to 6pm.

Hungary – October 25, 1956 (BBR)
Soviet and Hungarian units reoccupy the Radio building in the early morning hours.  The first revolutionary newspaper appears under the title Igazság ("Truth").

Hungary – October 25, 1956 (BBR)
Rebels occupy the main police station in the 9th District.

Hungary – October 25, about 11:15 a.m., 1956 (BBR)
Soviet and Hungarian forces guarding the Parliament building open fire on some 8,000–10,000 people gathered in Kossuth Square.  Between 60 and 80 lives are lost; 100–150 people are injured.

Hungary – October 25, 1956 (BBR)
Demonstrators carrying “bloody banners” protest against Ernő Gerő, the Soviet intervention and the bloodshed in front of Parliament.

Hungary – October 25, 12:32 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
A communiqué from the HWP Political Committee is read over the radio. Ernő Gerő has been dismissed and János Kádár who was imprisoned during Rákosi, has been appointed party first secretary. Colonel Pál Maléter, in command at the Kilián Barracks (8th District), reaches a ceasefire agreement with the Corvin Passage rebels.

Hungary / Romania – October 25, 1956 (BBR)
A Soviet division of reinforcements arrives from Romania as protests unfold in villages and towns across Hungary.

Hungary – October 25, 1956 (BBR)
The University Revolutionary Student Committee is established at the Arts Faculty of the Eötvös Loránd University.

Hungary – October 25, 1956 (BBR)
Workers councils are formed at the Csepel Iron and Metal Works in Budapest (21st District).

Hungary – October 25, 1956 (BBR)
Serious fighting takes place at the intersection of Grand Boulevard (Nagykörút) and Üllői Road, in Corvin Passage (8th District).

Hungary – October 25, 1956 (BBR)
Rebels fire a mortar at the radio transmitters at Lakihegy.

Hungary – October 25, 1956 (BBR)
The Borsod County Workers’ Council forms in the important industrial city of Miskolc. The major factories and the University of Miskolc send a delegation to Nagy led by the county-level party first secretary.

Hungary – October 25, 1956 (HC)
The Imre Nagy government is formed. Deputy Chairmen of the Council of Ministers: Antal Apró, József Bognára and Ferenc Erdei. State minister: Zoltán Tildy. Ministers: Miklós Ribiánszky (State Farms), Sándor Czottner (Mining and Energy), Antal Gyenes (State Collection), János Tausz (Internal Trade), Ferenc Münnich (Interior), Antal Babics (Health), Rezső Nyers (Food), Antal Apró (Construction), Béla Kovács (Agriculture), Károly Janza (Defense), Erik Molnár (Justice), János Csergő (Furnace and Machine Industry), Józsefné Nagy (Light Industry), Lajos Bebrits (Transportation and Post), József Bognár (Foreign Trade), Imre Horváth (Foreign), György Lukács (Culture), Albert Kónya (Education), István Kossa (Finance), Ferenc Nezvál (City and Village Economy), Gergely Szabó (Chemical Industry). Chairman of the Planning Office: Árpás Kiss.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 25, 1956 (KAC)
In front of the Yugoslav Embassy in Budapest the crowd expresses its support to Tito and Yugoslavia. They demand the ambassador to convince the U.N. to force the Soviet army out of Hungary.

Hungary / Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – October 25, 1956 (KAC)
Khrushchev meets Micunovic, the Yugoslav ambassador in Moscow and asks him to inform Tito about the Soviet government’s view on the situation in Hungary. Micunovic meets Tito in Belgrade on October 29.

Hungary / U.S. – October 25, 1956 (LBC)
Communiqué by President Eisenhower: the Hungarian uprising “is a renewed expression of the intense desire for freedom long held by the Hungarian people.” According to Dulles the “captive peoples” could “draw upon our abundance to tide themselves over the period of economic adjustment…as they rededicate their productive efforts to the services of their own people rather than the service of exploiting masters.” The Secretary of State states that aid will not be made contingent upon the introduction of any given social system. In his speech in Dallas he rules out the possibility of military aid from the part of the U.S. and declares that the doctrine of massive retaliation cannot be employed in every situation. Democratic presidential candidate Stevenson on Eisenhower’s policy: the U.S. was “caught off guard” by the Polish and Hungarian events in contrast to the Republican claim that the Hungarian and Polish events are evidently “a clear-result of the new U.S. foreign policy.”

Hungary – October 26, 1956 (BBR)
Various national and workers’ councils spring up in cities such as Győr, Debrecen, Veszprém and Nyíregyháza.

Hungary – October 26, 1956 (BBR)
Demonstrations and fighting continue to spread around the country.  In the city of Kecskemét, volleys fired by soldiers claim three lives early in the day while by evening a battle breaks out during which MiG 15 fighters strafe the city’s Gypsy quarter.   Rebel forces make considerable inroads despite the number of casualties. In the afternoon, rebels occupy the Csepel police headquarters in Budapest (21st District).

Hungary – October 26, 4:13 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
Hungarian Radio broadcasts a statement by the HWP Central Committee promising a new, national government, Hungarian-Soviet negotiations conducted on an equal basis, elections for factory workers’ councils, pay raises, and economic and political changes.

Hungary – October 26, 5:32 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
Hungarian authorities broadcast an amnesty declaration by the Presidential Council.  It applies to everyone who lays down their arms by 10:00 p.m.

Hungary – October 26, 1956 (BBR)
Rebel groups form in the Thököly Road-Dózsa György Road area (7th District) and at Széna Square (2nd District).  Rebels occupy Móricz Zsigmond Square (11th District), and the Danuvia Arms Factory.

Hungary – October 26, 1956 (BBR)
Border guards at Mosonmagyaróvár fire on demonstrators, killing 52 and wounding 86. Soldiers fire on demonstrators in Esztergom, causing 15 deaths and at least 50 injuries. At Zalaegerszeg, police and party functionaries shoot into the crowd.  There are fatalities and injuries in Nagykanizsa when volleys are fired from the party headquarters. ÁVH troops also fire on demonstrators in Miskolc. And in Miskolc and in Mosonmagyarovár, the insurgents lynch several officers.

Hungary / U.N. – October 26, 1956 (BBR)
The United States, Britain and France jointly propose that the U.N. Security Council convene to discuss the Hungarian question. Pope Pius XII in Rome issues an encyclical on the uprising and prays for a rebel victory.

Hungary / Romania – October 26, 1956 (RCW)
The Politburo of the PMR meets to discuss the events in Hungary and adopt measures to prevent a possible spill-over of the uprising to Romania.

Hungary / Soviet Union / France – October 26, 1956 (KAC)
Christian Pineau, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, in Paris announces: “The Soviet government made a mistake when it sent the army against the Hungarian peasants and workers. Still, we cannot take advantage of the situation… France should not take sides in the events happening in Eastern Europe.”

Hungary / Poland – October 26, 1956 (KAC)
The Polish Radio asks the Poles to give blood for the “Hungarian brothers”. The whole Polish society unites to help the Hungarian revolution. This day supplies of medicine and blood are sent to Budapest. This is the first and actually the most important support given to Hungary from abroad during the days of the revolution.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 26, 1956 (KAC/MOL)
The Yugoslav government welcomes the appointment of Imre Nagy as Prime Minister of Hungary and János Kádár as First Secretary of the Hungarian Workers' Party with the assumption that they would fulfill the public's demand.

Hungary / U.K. – October 26, 1956 (KAC)
The British embassy in Budapest asks the British government not to promise anything to Hungary to avoid Western armed intervention.

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 26, 1956 (KAC)
The Presidency of the Soviet Communist Party starts a debate about the situation in Hungary. This debate will be continued on October 28.

Hungary / Italy – October 26, 1956 (KAC)
Gaetano Martino, the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs, expresses the solidarity of the Italian government with the Hungarians and their disapproval of the Soviet intervention.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – October 26, 1956 (KAC)
The Political Committee of the Czechoslovak Workers’ Party orders all armed forces and the national worker guards to be ready to fight as a response to the Hungarian situation.

Hungary / Poland – October 26-27, 1956 (KAC)
The Polish trade unions, the collectives at the work places and the institutes of higher education publish a joint declaration of solidarity with the Hungarians. Polish doctors and nurses volunteer to help the injured in Budapest. In front of the Hungarian Institutes in Warsaw and Krakow Polish university students are the honorary guards. Demonstrations are held everywhere in the country. In many cities and towns Hungarian flags are put out to the windows. The Polish media supports the Hungarian revolution also.

Hungary – October 27, 1956 (BBR)
The revolution continues to unfold in Hungary. In Budapest and elsewhere, rebels seize or hold onto key facilities such as police stations and local party and government headquarters while mounting sporadic attacks against Soviet and Hungarian army detachments. On the Romanian border, local residents take up railroad tracks to impede further Soviet troop advances into the country. Heavily outgunned, the insurrectionists continue to sustain sizeable losses. The first aid shipments from the International Red Cross arrive.

Hungary / Austria – October 27, 1956 (KAC)
The Austrian embassy in Budapest offers to receive and distribute the aid packages. The Austrian government closes the Hungarian-Austrian borders for foreign citizens.

Hungary – October 27, 1956 (HC)
Armed fighting and terrorist actions in Miskolc and Ózd.

Hungary – October 27, 1956 (HC)
In Csepel and Angyalföld worker battalions are formed to defend the workers’ power.

Hungary – October 27, 1956 (HC)
An armed group liberates the prisoners of the prison in Vác.

Hungary – October 27, 11:18 a.m., 1956 (BBR)
Hungarian Radio announces the composition of the new government.

Hungary – October 27, 1956 (BBR)
Free Győr Radio begins broadcasting. Other than the Western radios (RFE and the BBC), this station becomes the most important source of information for the public until October 30.

Hungary / U.N. – October 27, 1956 (BBR-KAC)
The U.N. representatives  of the United States, Britain and France hold a series of secret discussions on the Hungarian uprising, lasting until November 3. They ask the UN Security Council to discuss the situation in Hungary. The representative of Yugoslavia raises objections when the Security Council votes.

Eastern Europe / U.S. – October 27, 1956 (BBR)
In a major address in Dallas, Texas, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles declares that the United States does not regard the Eastern European states as potential military allies.

Hungary – October 28, 1956 (BBR)
Soviet forces attack the Corvin Passage unit at dawn, but are repelled. New groups of insurgents form in the capital’s 8th District. Across Hungary, slain revolutionaries are buried as rebel attacks and army counterattacks continue.

Hungary – October 28, 1:20, 1956 (BBR)
Hungarian Radio announces the cease-fire.

Hungary – October 28, 2:00 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
The new government is sworn in. It duly approves the government statement put forward by Prime Minister Nagy which seeks to meet many of the revolutionaries’ demands.  Besides remedying past grievances, the program promises the legalization of revolutionary organizations and the immediate withdrawal of Soviet forces from Budapest. This indicates a fundamental turn in the party's policy.

Hungary – October 28, 5:25 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
Nagy broadcasts the government program on the radio.

Hungary – October 28, 1956 (BBR)
The most seriously compromised Hungarian party leaders, including Ernő Gerő, András Hegedüs, István Bata, László Piros, Erzsébet Andics, Andor Berei and István Kovács, flee overnight to Moscow aboard Soviet planes. Pravda reports on the Hungarian revolution under the headline “Collapse of the Anti-People’s Adventure”.

Hungary – October 28 10:00 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
The new government lifts the curfew. A radio announcement calls on young people to join the National Guard that is being organized.

Hungary – October 28, 1956 (BBR)
The Revolutionary Committee of the Hungarian Intelligentsia, the Buda University Revolutionary Committee and the Revolutionary Party of Hungarian Youth are established.

Hungary – October 28, 1956 (BBR)
The free communist Róka (Fox) Radio is established at the 20th District party headquarters.

Hungary – October 28, 1956 (BBR)
The Hegyeshalom frontier crossing into Austria is closed.

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 28, 1956 (BBR)
Khrushchev reports on Hungary to the CPSU CC Presidium, which decides to reinforce the troops stationed in the country.

Hungary – October 28, 1956 (BBR)
The U.N. Security Council places the “Hungarian situation” on its agenda.

Czechoslovakia / GDR / Hungary / Poland / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – October 28, 1956 (BBR)
Hungary receives offers of aid from the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, the GDR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, the United States, Austria and other countries, and by agencies of the International Red Cross.

Hungary – October 28, 1956 (HC)
Session of the leaders of the Hungarian Workers’ Party in the morning. Because of the exceptional situation, the power is given to a presidency of six people: János Kádár, Antal Apró, Károly Kiss, Ferenc Münnich, Imre Nagy and Zoltán Szántó.

Hungary – October 28, 1956 (HC)
The Szabad Nép publishes an article titled Faithful to the truth. According to this article, this is not a counterrevolution, but a national democratic movement. The fighting is not against the system, but for socialist democracy and independence.

Hungary – October 28, 1956 (HC)
At 7pm Imre Nagy talks on the radio. This is the first time when he publicly expresses his support of the revolutionaries. He announces that the Soviet troops will be pulled out of Budapest and negotiations will start to agree on the date when they leave the country. The State Protection Authority will be abolished. Wages and pensions will be raised.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – October 28, 1956 (BER/KAC)
The Security Council of the United Nations, by request of the United States, Great Britain, and France, puts the Hungarian question to its agenda. The representative of Yugoslavia abstains from voting.
Hungary / Poland – October 28, 1956 (KAC)
Gomulka asks Marian Naszkowski, the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Artur Starewicz, member of the Polish United Workers’ Party, to travel to Budapest to see the real situation. They are also asked to make sure the Hungarian revolution does not turn too right-wing. The Polish delegates meet the Hungarian leaders twice. They do not agree with Ernõ Gerõ’s move to call in the Soviet army. They also meet Mikojan and Suslov, and on October 30 they return to Warsaw.

Hungary / Austria – October 28, 1956 (KAC)
The Austrian government’s special meeting demands the Soviets to stop fighting in Hungary. Austria informs about this demand the U.N. Security Council and the leaders of the great powers.

Hungary – October 28, 1956 (KAC)
The British government ensures Hungary of their sympathy and offers 25 thousand pounds for the support of the needy. The public British declaration stated that the Soviet Union should not have got involved with the internal political problems in Hungary and the Soviet army should leave immediately.

Hungary – October 28, 1956 (KAC)
XII. Pius in his letter tilted Luctuoissimus Eventus states that he does not agree with the violence in Hungary. He asks all believers to pray for the success of the Hungarian revolution.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – October 28-December 2, 1956 (KAC)
The Czechoslovak party organizations demand the publishers of the Új Szó to circulate the paper’s special edition in Hungary too.

Hungary / France / U.K. / U.S. / U.N. – October 28, 1956 (LBC)
At the recommendation of the U.S., France and Great Britain the U.N. Security Council discusses the Hungarian situation.

Hungary / Austria – October 28, 1956 (NMC)
Figl, the Austrian Foreign Minister meets the Hungarian minister to Vienna to discuss the Hungarian situation.

Poland – October 28, 1956 (PLC)
Wyszynski, the head of the Polish Catholic Church, is released from prison.

Hungary – October 29, 1956 (BBR)
Revolutionary committees and workers councils grow in numbers all over the country.

Hungary – October 29, 1956 (BBR)
Further clashes between Soviet troops and insurgents occur in the 8th and 9th Districts of Budapest. The 7th District party headquarters is occupied. The leaders of the Corvin Passage rebels begin combining groups in the area to a point where the number of organized rebels reaches 1,000–1,200.

Hungary – October 29, 1956 (BBR)
At Záhony, on the Hungarian border with the Soviet Union, the entrance to a railway station is blown up.  Several locomotives are incapacitated.

Hungary – October 29, 1956 (BBR)
Talks with rebel representatives are held at the Ministry of Defense in Budapest.  At about 8:00 p.m., cease-fire talks begin in Corvin Passage, and later at Budapest Police Headquarters, between the police and military and the insurrectionists.

Hungary – October 29, 1956 (BBR)
The Hungarian National Revolutionary Committee moves onto the premises of Szabad Nép.

Hungary – October 29, 1956 (BBR)
Hungarian Radio announces that Soviet forces will commence withdrawal from Budapest the following day. Hungarian troops begin to replace Soviet guards at public buildings.

Hungary / Soviet Union / U.S. – October 29, 1956 (PLC)
The United States informs the Soviet Union that they can decide freely what to do with the Hungarian situation.

Hungary / Austria – October 29, 1956 (NMC)
Ference Nagy, former Hungarian Prime Minister, arrives to Vienna. He is asked to leave immediately by the Austrian authorities.

Hungary / Poland – October 29, 1956 (KAC)
The Szabad Nép and all other important Polish newspaper publish the declaration of the Polish United Workers’ Party to the Hungarian people, in which Gomulka and Josef Cyrankiewicz state that they support the government and the program of Imre Nagy. 

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 29, 1956 (KAC/BER)
Tito sends an open letter to the leaders of the Hungarian Workers’ Party, stating he supports the October 28 declaration of the Imre Nagy government. He also states that the violence must be ended in Hungary and the institutions of socialism must be restored.

Hungary – October 29, 1956 (KAC)
Demonstrations and popular assemblies organized in all major Italian cities, protesting against the Soviet intervention in Hungary.

Poland – October 29, 1956 (PSN)
Cardinal Wyszynski is released from imprisonment and returns to Warsaw.

Hungary – October 30, 7:20 a.m., 1956 (BBR)
The Defense Ministry announces on the radio that the withdrawal of Soviet forces from Budapest will continue.

Hungary – October 30, 1956 (BBR)
A fire fight breaks out between rebels and guards at the headquarters of the HWP Budapest Committee in Köztársaság Square (8th District). After the rebels storm the building, suffering considerable losses in the process, 23 of the defenders either die in the siege or are subsequently lynched by the crowd.

Hungary – October 30, 2:30 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
Nagy announces on the radio the end of the one-party system and the formation of a coalition government. Minister of State Zoltán Tildy declares that the compulsory-delivery system for farm produce has been abolished and that preparations are being made for free elections.

Hungary – October 30, 1956 (BBR)
The government recognizes the local self-governing bodies created during the revolution.

Hungary – October 30, 1956 (BBR)
In Budapest, the Széna Square rebels occupy the ÁVH barracks in Maros Street (12th District), a national guard unit is formed in the 8th District, and several political prisoners are freed from the National Prison.

Hungary – October 30, 1956 (BBR)
The Smallholders’ (FKgP), Social Democratic (SZDP) and National Peasants’ (NPP) parties are re-established.

Hungary – October 30, 1956 (BBR)
The Újpest National Committee sends out armed men to release Cardinal Mindszenty from house arrest in Felsőpetény. His ÁVH guards disperse and he is accompanied to the barracks in nearby Rétság before the detachment from Újpest arrives.

Hungary – October 30, 1956 (BBR)
Revolutionary committees continue to be elected in more towns around the country while organization of national guard units continues in several locations. The free Vörösmarty Radio begins broadcasting in the town of Székesfehérvár. The Transdanubian National Council forms in Győr. A communist “officials’ brigade” is set up in Salgótarján.

Hungary – October 30, 1956 (BBR)
The International Red Cross begins relief flights of aid to Budapest. The air bridge operates until the onset of the second Soviet occupation.

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 30, 1956 (BBR)
Hard-liners in Moscow are pushed into the background at a meeting of the CPSU CC Presidium. The prospects for a peaceful settlement of the Hungarian crisis are at their strongest at this point.

Hungary / Poland – October 30, 1956 (BBR)
Demonstrations and rallies take place throughout Poland in support of the Hungarian revolution.

Hungary / Austria – October 30, 1956 (BBR)
Austria seals its borders. Only relief supplies and journalists are allowed to pass into Hungary.

Soviet Bloc – October 30, 1956 (HC/KAC)
The Soviet Union announces a statement about its relations with the European socialist states. It is stated that the Soviet Union is ready to discuss with the governments of Eastern Europe the ways to strengthen their sovereignty based on mutual interest and equality.

Hungary – October 30, 1956 (HC)
Imre Mező, secretary of the Hungarian Workers’ Party, dies in the fighting.

Hungary – October 30, 1956 (HC)
The National Peasants’ Party starts to reorganize itself.

Hungary / Poland / Soviet Union – October 30, 1956 (HC)
Gomulka announces that Polish and Soviet leaders met in Budapest and reached an agreement regarding the Hungarian situation.

Hungary / Romania – October 30, 1956 (KAC)
Student demonstrations in Timisoara. The state security forces take 2000 students from the university and lock them temporarily in the Soviet barrack of Kisbecskerek.

Hungary / Poland / Yugoslavia – October 30, 1956 (KAC)
Zoltán Szántó leaves his wife at the Polish embassy in Budapest. From here she will be taken to the Yugoslav embassy on November 4.

Hungary / Poland – October 30, 1956 (KAC)
Lajos Ács, former Secretary of the Hungarian Workers’ Party, asks to be allowed to hide at the Polish embassy. Dezsõ Révai, József Révai and the brother of Emma Révai (wife of Zoltán Szántó) do the same.

Hungary – October 30, 1956 (NMC) 
Imre Horváth, the Hungarian Foreign Minister, leaves to New York travelling through Vienna.

Hungary – October 30, 1956 (NMC) 
Péter Kós, the UN representative of Hungary, is dismissed.

Hungary / U. S. – October 30, 1956 (NMC) 
Endre Sík, Hungarian deputy Foreign Minister, travels to New York.

Hungary – October 30, 1956 (NMC) 
Miklós Horthy calls the UN and asks the organization to protect human rights in Hungary.

Hungary – October 31, 6:00 a.m., 1956 (BBR)
A procession consisting of soldiers from Rétság and armed rebels from Újpest escorts Cardinal Mindszenty from Rétság, arriving at Buda Castle at 9:00 a.m.

Hungary – October 31, 1956 (BBR)
The Revolutionary National Defense Commission (FHB) is formed at the Defense Ministry.

Hungary – October 31, 1956 (BBR)
Béla Király is appointed commander-in-chief of the National Guard and military commander of Budapest. Pál Maléter is named first deputy to the defense minister, and István Kovács chief of staff.  The Revolutionary Committee of the Armed Forces (FKB), overseeing the National Guard, is established at the Kilián Barracks (8th District).

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 31, about noon, 1956 (BBR)
The withdrawal of Soviet forces from Budapest is completed.

Hungary – October 31, 1956 (BBR)
The HWP Presidium declares the party dissolved. A new party, the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party (HSWP), is founded.

Hungary – October 31, 1956 (BBR)
The Christian Democratic People’s Party and Hungarian Peasants’ Association are re-established.  The National Peasant Party (NPP) is also recreated under the name “Petőfi Party,” after senior party officials reject the leadership of Ferenc Erdei who re-organized the NPP at a meeting the day before.

Hungary – October 31, 1956 (BBR)
A delegation of the Transdanubian National Council negotiates with Nagy and Tildy.

Hungary – October 31, 1956 (BBR)
Free Csokonai Radio and Free Debrecen Radio begin broadcasting.

Hungary – October 31, 1956 (BBR)
During the night, additional Soviet troops enter Hungary.

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 31, 1956 (BBR)
Pravda publishes a Kremlin declaration on conducting relations with Eastern Europe on the basis of mutual equality and respect.  The publication is taken by many as a sign that the Hungarian crisis will be resolved peacefully.

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 31, 1956 (BBR)
Khrushchev unexpectedly talks about Hungary at the meeting of the Presidium of the Soviet Communist Party (the meeting was originally called to discuss about the Polish government). He states: “We have to reconsider our decision. We should not pull out the army from Hungary, we should rather stay and restore the order.”    

Hungary – October 31, 1956 (BBR)
In Washington, President Eisenhower delivers an address over radio and television expressing his admiration for the Hungarian people.  At the same time, he assures the Soviet Union that the United States does not view either the new Polish or the new Hungarian leadership as potential allies.

Hungary – October 31, 1956 (BBR)
Student demonstrations supporting the Hungarian revolution take place in several Transylvanian cities of Romania.

Hungary – October 31, 1956 (HC)
Imre Nagy gives a speech in front of the Parliament. He states that he did not know that the Soviet troops were asked to invade. He announces that Hungary will withdraw from the Warsaw Pact.

Hungary – October 31, 1956 (HC)
The Imre Nagy government is changed. State ministers: Zoltán Tildy János Kádár and Géza Losonczy. Minister of Defense: Pál Maléter.

Hungary / Romania – October 31, 1956 (KAC)
In Timisoara more than a thousand university students demand that their classmates arrested on October 30 are released. The army and the Securitate surround them between the orthodox cathedral and the Opera square and lock them in the Kisbecskerek barrack also.

Hungary / Austria – October 31, 1956 (KAC)
The Hungarian government discusses what to do with the armed immigrants returning to Hungary from Austria.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 31, 1956 (KAC/BER)
Imre Nagy, Prime Minister of Hungary meets Yugoslav ambassador Dalibor Soldatić.

Hungary – October 31, 1956 (KAC)
Ottó Habsburg asks President Eisenhower in a telegram to give back to the “freely elected” representatives of Hungary the crone of Saint Stephen.

Hungary / Poland / Soviet Union – October 31, 1956 (KAC)
Khrushchev unexpectedly talks about Hungary at the meeting of the Presidency of the Soviet Communist Party (the meeting was originally called to discuss about the Polish government). He states: “We have to reconsider our decision. We should not pull out the army from Hungary, we should rather stay and restore the order.”    

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 31, 1956 (KAC)
Imre Nagy sends a telegram to the Highest Council of the Soviet Union, announcing that he would like to start the negotiations with the Soviets about when the Soviet army will leave Hungary.

Hungary – October 31, 1956 (KAC)
The Italian Ministers’ Council, the Actio Catholica and the Christian Democrats celebrate the victory of the Hungarian revolution.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – October 31, 1956 (KAC)
The Csemadok (Hungarian Cultural Association in Slovakia) announces in the Új Szó that they do not agree with the aims of the Hungarian revolution. They state that the Hungarian minority living in Czechoslovakia has nothing to do with the revolution.

Hungary / Poland / Romania / Soviet Union / U.S. – October 31, 1956 (LBC)
Eisenhower’s televised speech reflects on the previous day’s Soviet announcement that the USSR is considering pulling out its troops from Hungary, Poland and Romania. “If the Soviet Union does indeed faithfully act upon its announced intention, the world will witness the greatest forward stride toward justice, trust and understanding among nations in our generation.”

Hungary / Poland / Yugoslavia U.S. – October 31, 1956 (LKT)
Before the second Soviet invasion, the NSC reviews its policy of encouraging Titoist regimes to emerge in the satellites, in light of the unrest in both Poland and Hungary.

Hungary / Italy – October 31, 1956 (KAC)
The Italian Ministers’ Council, the Actio Catholica and the Christian Democrats celebrate the victory of the Hungarian revolution.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia / U.N. – October 31, 1956 (RYN)
With Soviet acquiescence the Yugoslav representative in the Security Council, Jože Brilej, proposes a resolution for a special session of the General Assembly. In accordance with the propositions of the „Uniting for Peace” Resolution, the Yugoslav proposal is considered a procedural question, not susceptible to the veto. An emergency session of the General Assembly convenes on November 1, 1956.

November 1956

Poland / Soviet Union – November 1956 (HPB)
Poland and the Soviet Union sign a declaration on Polish-Soviet relations, which are based on “mutual respect, non-intervention and sovereignty.”
Romania / Soviet Union – November 1956 (RFP)
A Romanian delegation led Prime Minister Chivu Stoica talks in Moscow about the necessity of keeping Soviet troops in Romania as long as revisionist forces grow in strength. The Soviets promise to reconsider bilateral economical treaties that have been disadvantageous to the Romanian economy.

Hungary – November 1, 7:30 a.m., 1956 (BBR)
Soviet troops surround Budapest’s Ferihegy Airport along with virtually every other airfield in the country.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 1, 1956 (BBR)
The Nagy government files a protest with Soviet Ambassador Yurii Andropov at the arrival of new Soviet troops in the country and the encircling of Budapest. The Budapest Armed Forces Command draws up a defense system for the city. Nagy dismisses the idea of fleeing.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 1, 1956 (BBR)
After Andropov fails to satisfy Hungarian concerns about Moscow’s intentions, the government announces Hungary’s withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact, declares the country’s neutrality, and appeals to the United Nations for help. It calls on the four great powers to help defend the country’s neutrality.

Hungary – November 1, 1956 (BBR)
The Capital City National Committee, the Democratic People’s Party, the Christian Hungarian Party, the Christian Front, the National Association of Former Political Prisoners (POFOSZ) and the Hungarian Scouts Association are established.

Hungary – November 1, 7:50 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
Nagy announces Hungary’s neutrality on the radio. The government forbids Hungarian military units to resist the Soviet troops.

Hungary – November 1, about 10:00 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
Hungarian Radio broadcasts a speech by János Kádár.  However, by the time it is broadcast, Kádár is no longer in the country. He and Ferenc Münnich have left Budapest for secret consultations in Moscow leading to their return at the head of a Soviet-backed regime.

Hungary – November 1, 1956 (BBR)
At night, Soviet troops surrounding Budapest begin to reconnoiter the city.

Hungary – November 1, 1956 (BBR)
Soldiers side with the rebels during a demonstration in Kaposvár and six officers are arrested.

Hungary – November 1, 1956 (BBR)
Demonstrations continue in Romania as students demand democratic rights and full freedom of study. Emergency measures are introduced throughout the country, especially in areas with large Hungarian communities. 

Hungary – November 1, 1956 (BBR/KAC)
The Yugoslav army is placed on full alert and begins to advance toward the Hungarian border.

Hungary / Poland / U.S. – November 1, 1956 (LBC)
Eisenhower declares that the U.S. has no desire to profit militarily or economically from the Hungarian and the Polish events

Hungary / Poland / Soviet Union – November 1, 1956 (KAC)
In the morning Khrushchev, Malenkov and Molotov talk with a Polish delegation led by Gomulka in Brest. The Soviets inform the Poles about the planned intervention in Hungary. The Poles do tell that they do not agree, but they accept the Soviet decision.

Hungary – November 1, 1956 (KAC)
Pope Pius XII, in a letter titled Laetamur Admodum expresses his agreement with the recent changes in Hungary and Poland.

Hungary – November 1, 1956 (HC)
The Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is formed. Members of the Preparatory Committee: Ferenc Donáth, János Kádár, Sándor Kopácsi, Géza Losonczy, György Lukács, Imre Nagy and Zoltán Szántó. János Kádár announces on the radio that the new party is formed. He states that Hungarian people have to decide whether they want socialism or capitalism.

Hungary / Austria – November 1, 1956 (NMC) 
Session of the Socialist International in Vienna discussing the Hungarian reforms and the general situation in Eastern Europe. The Hungarian Social Democratic Party is represented by Anna Kéthly and András Révész. It is announced that the democracy must be strengthened in Hungary, Europe must help rebuilding Hungary and the Soviet troops must leave.

Hungary – November 2, 9:00 a.m., 1956 (BBR)
The Hungarian cabinet meets. Government delegations are appointed to negotiate with the Soviet Union and to travel to the U.N. General Assembly convening on November 12

Hungary – November 2, 1956 (BBR)
Revolutionary and workers' councils countrywide decide to return to work on Monday, November 5

Hungary – November 2, 1956 (BBR)
Soviet forces establish their Hungarian headquarters in Szolnok. Marshal Ivan Konev, commander-in-chief of the Warsaw Pact, arrives from Moscow to take command. 

Hungary – November 2, 7:00 p.m., 1956 (BBR)
Khrushchev and Malenkov begin talks with Tito on the Yugoslav island of Brioni.

Hungary – November 2, 1956 (NMC) 
Imre Nagy sends a second telegram to Dag Hammarskjold, stating that further Soviet troops arrived to Hungary. He states that Hungary has started a diplomatic process aiming to agree on when the Soviet troops can leave Hungary. He asks the UN and all Western powers to recognize the neutrality of Hungary. He asks the Security Council to arrange negotiations between the Hungarian and the Soviet government.

Hungary – November 2, 1956 (HC)
The UN Security Council decides to discuss the Hungarian question at a special General Assembly meeting.

Hungary – November 2, 1956 (HC)
The first issue of the Népszabadág is published. The radio speech of János Kádár is published.

Hungary – November 2, 1956 (HC)
The government is changed. Prime Minister and Foreign Minister: Imre Nagy (Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party). State ministers: Zoltán Tildy, Béla Kovács, Isztván Szabó (Smallholders’ Party), Anna Kéthly, Gyula Kelemen, József Fischer (Social Democrats), István Bibó, Ferenc Farkas (Petőfi Party), Géza Losonczy, János Kádár (Hungarian Socialt Workers’ Party). Defense Minister: Pál Maléter.

Hungary / Poland – November 2, 1956 (KAC)
The Polish newspapers publish the note of the Polish United Workers’ Party to the Polish people. They state that in Hungary a counterrevolution is possible, but “only the Hungarian workers themselves are able to save the institutions of socialism and the workers’ power, not a foreign intervention”. Adam Willman, the Polish ambassador in Budapest, informs Imre Nagy about this Polish standpoint. Imre Nagy views this as a statement of support.
The Polish government allows Imre Nagy to meet with the Soviet leaders in Warsaw to talk about when the Soviet troop can leave Hungary.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 2, 1956 (KAC)
Soldatic, the Yugoslav ambassador, meets the leaders of the new Hungarian parties: Gyula Kelemen from the Social Democrats, Ferenc Farkas from the Petõfi Party and József Kõvágó and István Szolnoki from the Independent Smallholders’ Party.

Hungary / U.S. – November 2, 1956 (KAC)
According to the news, President Eisenhower announced on the radio that the U.S. is ready to help unconditionally the “free Hungary”. 

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 2, 1956 (KAC)
The Hungarian government sends three oral memorandums to the Soviet embassy in Budapest. The first one suggests to start the negotiations about Hungary leaving the Warsaw Pact and to agree on the pullout of the Soviet troops immediately from Hungary. The second one talks about the military side of the same demands: it suggests to set up a joint committee to prepare for the pullout of Soviet troops. The third one raises objections against the Soviet maneuvers in Hungary.

Hungary / Italy – November 2, 1956 (KAC)
The Il Giornale d’Italia publishes an interview with Prime Minister Imre Nagy.

Bulgaria / Hungary / Soviet Union / Romania – November 2, 1956 (KAC)
Khrushchev and Malenkov meet Gheorghiu-Dej in Bucharest and inform him about the planned armed intervention in Hungary. After Romania, they go to Sofia to inform the Bulgarian leaders about the same.

Hungary / U.S. – November 2, 1956 (LBC)
Eisenhower offers 20 million dollars in aid to Hungary.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – November 2-3, 1956 (KAC/BER)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito, Minister of Interior Aleksandar Ranković és Minister of Foreign Affairs Edvard Kardelj have a long discussion from late evening to early dawn with First Secretary of the CPSU Nikita S. Khrushchev and Georgij M. Malenkov at the Isle of Brioni. The Yugoslav leaders accept the Soviet invasion against Hungary and offer their mediation for the resignation of Prime Minister Imre Nagy. The Yugoslavs suggest that instead of Ferenc Münnich, János Kádár be the new head of the Hungarian government.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 2-3, 1956 (KAC)
János Kádár and Ferenc Munnich meet in Moscow. They talk with the leaders of the Soviet Communist Party and with the diplomatic representatives of the other socialist countries about the Soviet armed intervention and the future Hungarian government.

Hungary / Austria – November 3, 1956 (NMC)
Imre Nagy meets Peinsipp, Austrian minister. Peinsipp gives Nagy a memorandum stating Austria will close its border with Hungary in order to ensure its neutrality.

Hungary – November 3, 1956 (HC)
József Mindszenthy, the archbishop of Esztergom, talks on the radio. He does not recognize the Imre Nagy government. He calls for the renewal of bourgeois power, the restoration of the old role of the Church and impeachments. He also calls for political and economic aid from the Western nations, especially the great powers.

Soviet Union / U.S. / U.N. – November 3, 1956 (LBC)
American U.N. representative Cabot Lodge introduces a draft resolution in the U.N. Security Council: the Soviet Union should refrain from intervening in Hungarian affairs. Also at U.S. initiative, however, the draft resolution is not put to vote.

Hungary / Poland – November 3, 1956 (KAC)
István Kenéz, Hungarian miliraty attaché of the embassy in Warsaw, gives the memorandum of the Imre Nagy government to Jerzy Bordzilowski, Soviet General, stating Hungary leaves the Warsaw Pact. Imre Nagy tells Willman, the Polish ambassador, to convince the Polish government to ask Stefan Wyszynski, Polish cardinal, to talk with József Mindszenthy, Hungarian cardinal, about “how to release tension in Hungary”.

Hungary / Poland – November 3, 1956 (KAC)
At noon a Hungarian-Soviet joint committee set up to negotiate the terms of the Soviet pullout starts the meetings in the Parliament. At 10pm the negotiations are continued in Tököl, at the headquarters of the Soviet army in Hungary. After midnight the Hungarian members of the committee are arrested by the KGB.

Hungary – November 3, 1956 (BBR)
The National Government in Hungary is reshuffled.

Hungary – November 3, noon, 1956 (BBR)
Hungarian-Soviet negotiations on details of the troop withdrawals begin at the Parliament building.  The Soviets promise to halt the occupation.  Additional Hungarian units occupy defensive positions around the capital.

Hungary – November 3, 1956 (BBR)
The Petőfi Circle is revived.

Hungary – November 3, 1956 (BBR)
Soviet forces surround Debrecen and Győr, occupy Záhony railway station on the Soviet border and deploy along the frontier with Austria. 

Hungary – November 3, 1956 (BBR)
The CPSU CC Presidium works out the details of forming a counter-government headed by János Kádár and Ferenc Münnich.

Hungary – November 3, 1956 (BBR)
The U.N. Security Council continues its debate on the Hungarian situation.  U.S. representative Henry Cabot Lodgeintroduces a resolution  calling on the Soviet Union to withdraw its troops from Hungary, but--in accordance with Washington’s delaying tactics--it is not put up for a vote.  The session is adjourned until November 5.

Hungary / Poland – November 3, 1956 (KAC)
István Kenéz, Hungarian military attaché of the embassy in Warsaw, gives the memorandum of the Imre Nagy government to Jerzy Bordzilowski, Soviet General, stating Hungary leaves the Warsaw Pact. Imre Nagy tells Willman, the Polish ambassador, to convince the Polish government to ask Stefan Wyszynski, Polish cardinal, to talk with József Mindszenthy, Hungarian cardinal, about “how to release tension in Hungary”.

Hungary / Poland – November 3, 1956 (KAC)
At noon a Hungarian-Soviet joint committee set up to negotiate the terms of the Soviet pullout starts the meetings in the Parliament. At 10pm the negotiations are continued in Tököl, at the headquarters of the Soviet army in Hungary. After midnight the Hungarian members of the committee are arrested by the KGB.

Hungary – November 4 1956 (BBR)
János Kádár and Ferenc Münnich are flown from Moscow to Szolnok by military plane.

Hungary / Soviet Union / U.N. – November 4, 1956 (KAC)
The special meeting of the U.N. Security Council and the General Assembly urges the Soviet troops to leave Hungary. They also precipitate free elections in Hungary and would like to send UN officials to Hungary.

Hungary – November 4, dawn, 1956 (BBR)
Soviet troops cross the Hungarian border from Romania. From the Ukrainian city of Uzhgorod, Kádár broadcasts a proclamation on behalf of the Soviet-sponsored Provisional Revolutionary Government of Workers and Peasants.

Hungary / Soviet Union / U.S. / U.N. – November 4, 1956 (LBC)
Soviet military intervention in Hungary. The USSR vetoes a U.S. draft resolution in the U.N. Security Council, which would have called upon the U.N. General Secretary to organize an on the spot U.N. investigation of the Hungarian events.

Hungary – November 4, 4:15 a.m., 1956 (BBR)
Soviet troops launch a general attack.  Five divisions under the command of Soviet Major General Grebennik move on Budapest.  Nagy does not issue an order to resist, yet national guard units and others put up a considerable defensive effort.  Heavy casualties are sustained on both sides as the Red Army advances through the country.

Hungary – November 4, 5:20 a.m., 1956 (BBR)
Nagy broadcasts a short declaration informing the World about the Soviet intervention. It is repeated several times, in English, French, German, Russian, Czech and Polish.

Hungary – November 4, 6:00–8:00 a.m., 1956 (BBR)
Cardinal Mindszenty is given asylum in the U.S. Legation. István Bibó is the only member of the Hungarian government remaining in the Parliament building. The Soviets occupy the Defense and Interior ministries and surround Parliament.

Hungary – November 4, 7:00–8:00 a.m., 1956 (BBR)
National Guard units in the Jutadomb area force the Soviet convoy carrying the captured Hungarian negotiators to turn back. 

Hungary – November 4, 7:57 a.m., 1956 (BBR)
An appeal for assistance by the Writers’ Union is broadcast in Hungarian, English, German and Russian.

U.N – November 4, 1956 (BBR)
A meeting of the U.N. Security Council is called in response to news of the Soviet intervention. Through a “uniting for peace” procedure the Hungarian issue is transferred to the Emergency Special Session of the General Assembly, convening the same day. The UNGA adopts a U.S.-sponsored resolution condemning the invasion. The UN Security Council and the General Assembly urges the Soviet troops to leave Hungary. They also precipitate free elections in Hungary and would like to send UN officials to Hungary.

Hungary / Poland / Soviet Union – November 4, 1956 (KAC)
Gomulka announces that Poland did not have a choice about the Soviet intervention. At the evening meeting of the Polish United Workers’ Party the leaders agree that Poland should not vote for the American suggestion in the U.N. objecting the Soviet intervention.

Hungary – November 4, 1956 (HC)
János Kádár speaks on the radio early morning. He announces that the Provisional Revolutionary Government of Workers and Peasants is formed. President: János Kádár. Deputy President: Ferenc Münnich. Members: György Marosán, Imre Dögei, Antal Apró, Sándor Rónai, Imre Horváth and István Kossa. János Kádár, Ferenc Münnich, Antal Apró and István Kossa announce that they have cut off all relations with the Imre Nagy government on November 1. In the evening, the Provisional Revolutionary Government of Workers and Peasants announces that the Imre Nagy government was dissolved; the revolutionary forces with Soviet help crushed the counterrevolution. All believers of socialism are asked to support the new government and start working. Later in the evening the Provisional Revolutionary Government of Workers and Peasants send a telegram to the General Secretary of the UN, stating that the former memorandum of Imre Nagy is invalid.

Hungary / Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – November 4, 1956 (KAC/BER/LKT)
On the invitation of Yugoslav ambassador Dalibor Soldatić, Zoltán László visits the Yugoslav embassy between 1 and 2 o'clock in the morning. The Yugoslav ambassador informs him on the impending Soviet military invasion and offers asylum for Prime Minister Imre Nagy. During the early hours (between 6 and 8 o'clock) Prime Minister Imre Nagy, Secretary of State Géza Losonczy and many other politicians, together with their relatives, seek and receive asylum in the Yugoslav embassy in Budapest. Miklós Vásárhelyi, Colonel Ferenc Nádor and Péter Erdős receive asylum at the residence of the Yugoslav military attaché. Despite Yugoslav attempts of persuasion, Imre Nagy refuses to resign and support the Kádár Government. Instructed by the Yugoslav Foreign Secretariat, ambassador Soldatić states that the granting of asylum is not bound to such preconditions. The Soviets army invades Hungary. The Soviet leadership quickly accuses Yugoslavia of supporting the Hungarian counter revolution. Firjubin, the Soviet ambassador in Belgrade, informs Moscow that the Yugoslavs are trying to convince Imre Nagy to say that he gave his speech in the morning only because he was forced by the counterrevolutionaries.

Hungary / Austria – November 4, 1956 (KAC)
The Austrian government decides to help the Hungarian political refugees.

GDR / Hungary – November 4, 1956 (NMC)
Wilhelm Pieck, the East German President, welcomes the Hungarian Provisional Government of Peasants and Workers.

Hungary – November 5, 1956 (BBR)
Soviet forces occupy the Hungarian Radio building.  Resistance continues in Thököly Road (14th District), Zalka Máté Square (Liget Square, 10th District), around Lehel Road (13th District), and in the 9th, 13th and 21st Districts.  A Soviet attack on Corvin Passage begins at 1:00 p.m.

Hungary – November 5, 1956 (BBR)
There is fighting in the towns of Pécs, Komló and Veszprém. The Rákóczi free radio station begins broadcasting from Dunapentele (Sztálinváros, Dunaújváros). The Soviets enter Tatabánya.

Hungary – November 5, 1956 (BBR)
The Moscow-supported Hungarian Provisional Revolutionary Government of Workers and Peasants in Szolnok appeals for help from other socialist countries.  The Soviet Union sends a message offering help.

Hungary / Poland – November 5, 1956 (KAC)
In Krakow and Poznan thousands of Poles demonstrate silently against the Soviet intervention in Hungary.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – November 5, 1956 (KAC/BER)
In a telegram to Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito, First Secretary of the CPSU Nikita S. Khrushchev informs him on the strike down of the Hungarian counter revolution. Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs, Dmitri. T. Shepilov informs Soviet ambassador to Belgrade N. P. Firyubin that no statement is necessary from Imre Nagy and demands the extradition of the Hungarian prime minister to Soviet troops or to the Kádár Government. Tito suggests to First Secretary of the CPSU Nikita S. Khrushchev that Imre Nagy and his associates be released to Yugoslavia. Ambassador Soldatić indicates in a telegram that Imre Nagy has officially asked for asylum for himself and his entourage. Minister of Interior Aleksandar Ranković gives his permission to the group to depart to Yugoslavia and draws attention to the possibility of a violent Soviet action and the necessary steps if that happens.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 5, 1956 (KAC)
Bulganin, President of the Soviet Council of Ministers, sends a message to Kádár assuring him of the unconditional support of the Soviet Union.

Hungary – November 5, 1956 (KAC)
Pope Pius XII., denounces the politicians and states responsible for the violence in Hungary in his letter titled Datis Nuperrime. After the second Soviet interventions new demonstrations break out in Italy.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – November 5, 1956 (KAC)
The front page article of the Új Szó, newspaper published in Bratislava, appraises the crush of the Hungarian revolution as the “great success of the Hungarian nation”.

Hungary / China – November 6, 1956 (KAC)
Csou En-laj, the President of the Chinese State Council, sends a telegram to János Kádár promising an aid of 30 million rubles to Hungary.   

Hungary / Italy – November 6, 1956 (KAC)
Palmiro Togliatti, Italian communist leader, approves the second Soviet intervention in Hungary in an article published in L’Unità.

Hungary – November 6, 1956 (BBR)
The Soviets break the resistance in Széna Square (2nd District), Gellérthegy (1st and 11th Districts) and Óbuda (3rd District).  Almost 300 members of the Corvin Passage group set out toward the Austrian border.  The strength of the Hungarian resistance decreases sharply, although rebels in Móricz Zsigmond Square (11th District) and Thököly Road (14th District) continue to defend their positions as do several hundred resisters in the Buda Castle district, armed with heavy weapons.  A Soviet plane is shot down over Csepel (21st District).  The Soviets, at negotiations held at the Kossuth Academy, demand unconditional surrender, which the National Guard refuses to accept.

Hungary – November 6, 1956 (BBR)
Soviet troops in the Mecsek Hills attack the rearguard of the National Guard retreating to Vágot-puszta (Mecsek Hills).

Hungary – November 6, 1956 (BBR)
A Soviet armored convoy carrying János Kádár leaves Szolnok for Budapest in the late evening.

Hungary – November 7, 1956 (BBR)
The Soviet armored cars carrying Kádár and several members of his government arrive at Parliament.  The Kádár government takes the oath of office in the afternoon even though the lawful Nagy government has not resigned.  The Kádár government restores the state administrative apparatus that existed before the reforms that began on October 23 and bans the new revolutionary committees.  At the same time, Kádár takes several steps designed to appease Hungarians, such as declaring November 7, the anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution, a working day; lifting the requirement to teach Russian in schools; and confirming the disbanding of the ÁVH.

Hungary – November 7, 1956 (BBR)
Some 300 national guards in the Buda Castle district retreat into the National Archives building.  The Soviets attack them with tanks and heavy artillery.  Red Army forces continue to battle other pockets of resistance in the city and countryside.

Hungary / France – November 7, 1956 (KAC)
The French government decides to take in Hungarian political refugees unconditionally.  The French Parliament expresses solidarity with the Hungarians in a resolution.
In Paris at the Triumphal Arch from 6pm a crowd of 30000 people gather to show solidarity to the Hungarians. The demonstration is organized by the French Association of the Atlantic Community. Many members of the Guy Mollet government, congressmen and previous prime ministers attend the demonstration. After the demonstration approximately 5000 people, mostly students, attack the Hall of the French Communist Party and L’Humanité.
István Bibó, State Minister in the last Imre Nagy government gives Guy Turbet-Delof, French cultural attaché in Budapest, his declaration and cover letter in Hungarian, asking Turbet-Delof to translate them and send them to the French and British embassies. At 7pm they talk on the phone, Bibó reads the “Plan of the Compromised Hungarian Resolution”.

Hungary / Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – November 7, 1956 (KAC/BER)
First Secretary of the CPSU Nikita S. Khrushchev repudiates Tito's suggestion, according to which Imre Nagy and his companion would be transported to Yugoslavia, and demands their release at the disposal of the Kádár Government.

Hungary – November 7, 1956 (KAC)
The demonstration of Actio Catholica in Rome urges all international organizations to do something to help Hungary.

Hungary – November 8, 1956 (BBR)
Resistance ends at the Schmidt Mansion in Óbuda (3rd District), in Kőbánya (10th District) and in Thököly Road (14th District).  Soviet tanks enter Csepel (21st District).  Elsewhere in Hungary, the Red Army continues to overwhelm rebel forces.

Hungary – November 8, 1956 (BBR)
In New York, the 2nd Emergency Special Session of the U.N. General Assembly continues its debate on the Hungarian question.

Hungary – November 8, 1956 (HC)
István Dobi and György Marosán ask the peasants and the workers on the radio to start working.

Hungary / NATO – November 8, 1956 (KAC)
The NATO Council negotiates what kind of diplomatic boycott would be the best against the Kádár government. They agree that the fact that the embassies of NATO member countries remained open in Hungary does not mean that they recognize the new government. The relations with the Hungarian authorities are gradually minimized from November 1956, showing the NATO Council does not approve the Soviet intervention, the Kádár government and the government’s suppressing policies. The Quoi d’Orsay states that the French diplomats should only attend the evening receptions of the Hungarian cabinet and they should not initiate meetings with the Hungarian government or the Party.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 8, 1956 (KAC)
Negotiations between Hungary and Yugoslavia begin on Imre Nagy's fate. János Kádár declares that they may not depart from the country until the Nagy government resigns. Through Soviet ambassador to Hungary Yuri. V. Andropov, János Kádár recommends the Soviet leadership to allow Imre Nagy to leave to Yugoslavia. In his letter to First Secretary of the CPSU Nikita S. Khrushchev, Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito denies that the Yugoslav government has had a relation with Imre Nagy and his supporters, and that he would have an any kind of responsibility in bringing the Hungarian insurrection about.

Hungary / Soviet Union / U.S. – November 8, 1956 (LBC)
Eisenhower announces that the U.S. will admit 5.000 Hungarian refugees without delay.

Hungary / U.N. – November 8, 1956 (NMC)
Dag Hammarskjold sends a letter to the Hungarian government asking whether Hungary is willing to allow Western observers to Hungary.

Hungary / U.N. – November 8-9, 1956 (NMC) 
At the emergency session of the UN General Assembly it is agreed that the Soviet Union must leave Hungary (for: 48, against: 11, abstain: 16). Once the order is restored, free elections will be organized by the UN in Hungary. A committee appointed by the General Secretary will report on the Hungarian situation. On November 9 the General Assembly accepts the Austrian suggestion asking all countries to send aids to Hungary (for: 68, abstain: 7).

Hungary – November 9, 1956 (BBR)
Kádár’s Presidential Council declares the Provisional Revolutionary Government of Workers and Peasants to be the highest organ of state administration. 

Hungary – November 9, 1956 (BBR)
The Kádár government begins organization of the National Armed Force.  An Officer’s Declaration is published requiring unconditional support for the Kádár government.

Hungary – November 9, 1956 (BBR)
Sporadic fighting continues in Széna Square (2nd District) and Vajdahunyad Street (8th District). The Soviets launch a general offensive to recapture Csepel (21st District), with fighter planes and heavy artillery keeping up a steady bombardment.

Hungary – November 9, 1956 (BBR)
Soviet artillery bombards the rebel headquarters in the Mecsek Hills while armored troops fire on revolutionaries fleeing from Budapest towards Austria.  Béla Király and the remnants of the national guard prepare to defend themselves at Nagykovácsi.

Hungary – November 9, 1956 (BBR)
The Soviets inform Kádár that Nagy and his associates, who have taken refuge in the Yugoslav Embassy, may not leave for Yugoslavia as the Nagy group had hoped to do.

Hungary – November 9, 1956 (HC)
In Budapest the factories and the restaurants open.

Hungary / Austria / U.N. – November 9, 1956 (BBR-KAC)
The 2nd Emergency Special Session of the U.N. General Assembly passes a further resolution on the situation in Hungary. The General Assembly accepts the Austrian suggestion and decides to send aid packages to Hungary.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – November 9, 1956 (KAC)
Deputy Foreign Minister of the Soviet Union Andrei A. Gromyko informs János Kádár in a telegram that the Soviet Union does not contribute to Nagy Imre and his entourage leaving to Yugoslavia. Yugoslav Minister of Interior Aleksandar Ranković again encourages Nagy Imre to resign, saying that the Kádár government officially took the oath.

Hungary – November 10, 1956 (BBR)
Sporadic fighting continues in Budapest while the Soviet attack forces the Mecsek rebels to fall back into the Eastern Mecsek Hills.

Hungary – November 10, 1956 (BBR)
Members of the Békés County Revolutionary Council are arrested, provoking a strike in the Békéscsaba factories. The National Guard in Sátoraljaújhely lays down its arms.  The Soviets attack the national guard units commanded by Béla Király at Nagykovácsi.  After brief resistance, the rebels retreat westward.

Hungary / France – November 10, 1956 (KAC)
István Bibó sends a letter to Jean Paul-Boncour, French minister in Budapest, asking him to use his “Plan” at diplomatic meetings whenever possible, but do not give it to the media. The Hungarian politician sends the final draft of the document to Turbet-Delof.

Hungary / Poland – November 10, 1956 (KAC)
The Kádár government forces the Polish journalists reporting from Budapest during the revolution to leave.
Tibor Déry, Gyula Illyés, Zoltán Zelk, László Benjamin and István Örkény seek protection from the Polish embassy in Budapest. A few hours later they leave the embassy.

Hungary – November 10, 1956 (BBR)
The Kádár government announces pay raises of 8–15 percent and abolishes the tax on childless adults.  The First Special Forces Officers Regiment begins operations.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 10, 1956 (KAC/BER)
Nagy Imre informs Yugoslav Minister of Interior Aleksandar Ranković in a letter that there is no reason for an any kind of declaration and that his resignation does not make sense as the Presidium has already inaugurated the Kádár Government. The Yugoslav government instructs ambassador Soldatić to inform the Hungarian government: the right of asylum provided for Nagy Imre and his entourage is maintained. At the same time, he is also authorized to ask for a proposal solving the Nagy question from the Hungarian government.

Hungary / Vatican – November 10, 1956 (KAC)
Pope Pius XII in a speech at the Vatican Radio expresses his concerns about Hungary. He asks all nations of the world and their leaders to cooperate in order to maintain peace.

Soviet Union / France / Switzerland / U.S. / U.K. – November 10, 1956 (LBC)
Swiss proposal for a “Great Power” peace conference. The U.S. reject, Great Britain, France and the USSR accept the proposal.

Hungary / U.N. – November 10, 1956 (NMC) 
A Hungarian delegation led by Imre Horváth Foreign Minister travels to New York to attend the UN General Assembly.

Hungary / U.N. – November 10, 1956 (NMC)
The UN General Secretary sends a memorandum to the Hungarian government offering UN aid. The Hungarian government accepts.

Hungary – November 10, 1956 (BBR)
The International Red Cross resumes aid shipments.

Hungary / U.N. – November 11, 1956 (NMC) 
The Hungarian government sends a memorandum to the UN General Secretary stating the UN observers are not allowed to enter Hungary, because the Hungarian situation is an internal problem. However, the Hungarian government is willing to cooperate with the UN and the International Red Cross regarding the international aid packages.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 11, 1956 (KAC/BER/LKT)
In a speech in Pula, Tito publicly condemns the first Soviet intervention and the Soviet and Hungarian policies that caused it, while portraying the second as a necessary exit to save the socialist system and prevent Western intervention. Tito also criticizes the power that Stalinists still retain within the Kremlin leadership. He also criticizes Imre Nagy because he did not withstand resolutely for the pressure of the reaction, and pledges his support for the Kádár government, in as much it pursues anti-Stalinist politics. The temporary leadership of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party meets in the building of the Yugoslav embassy in Budapest. Apart from János Kádár and Sándor Kopácsi, member of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, all members attend the meeting. They illegitimate the Kádár government and oppose that Imre Nagy make a statement about his resignation. The speech further complicates relations with Khrushchev.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 11, 1956 (KAC)
The Presidency of the Soviet Communist Party sends Suslov and Aristov to Hungary.

Hungary – November 11, 1956 (HC)
Ferenc Münnich announces that new armed forces will be organized.

Hungary – November 11, 1956 (BBR)
The Provisional Executive Committee of the HSWP hears a report from Kádár on his activity during the revolution.  Later, he delivers his first radio address since November 4.

Hungary – November 11, 1956 (BBR)
Delegates of the factories and mines in Baranya County endorse a statement condemning the Kádár government and demanding the withdrawal of Soviet forces.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 11, 1956 (KAC)
The original Temporary Responsible Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party meets at the Yugoslav embassy in Budapest. János Kádár and Sándor Kopácsi are not present. The Committee agrees that the Kádár government is illegal and Imre Nagy should not resign.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 11, 1956 (KAC)
The Presidency of the Soviet Communist Party sends Suslov and Aristov to Hungary

Hungary – November 12, 1956 (BBR)
The Kádár government continues to consolidate its position.  The official party organ publishes a decree by the Presidential Council dismissing the Nagy government and recognizing the make-up of the Kádár government.  Kádár also criticizes the U.N.’s resolutions on Hungary as interference in the country’s internal affairs.  Meanwhile, various social groups, among them the Writers’ Union and the Újpest Revolutionary Workers Council, continue to press their demands and appeals to the population.

Hungary – November 12, 1956 (HC)
The Kádár government is completed. Deputy President: Ferenc Münnich. Member of the government: György Marosán. Ministers: Imre Dögei (Agriculture), Antal Apró (Industry), Sándor Rónai (Trade), Imre Horváth (Foreign), István Kossa (Finance), György Csanádi (Transportation and Post), Rezső Nyers (Food), József Kilián (Construction), Ferenc Nezvál (Justice), József Mekis (Labor).

Hungary – November 12, 1956 (HC)
Decree 1956:21 by the Hungarian Presidential Council announces the end of compulsory delivery production in agriculture.

Hungary – November 12, 1956 (BBR)
The 11th session of the U.N. General Assembly places the Hungarian question on its agenda.  The debate begins on January 9, 1957.

Romania / Egypt – November 12, 1956 (RFP)
The Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs communicates to its embassy in Cairo that the Romanian government had asked the General Secretary of the United Nations to allow it to participate in the international peacekeeping forces in Egypt.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – November 12, 1956 (CUY)
President of the United States of America, Dwight D. Eisenhower sends a personal letter to Josip Broz Tito welcoming the Yugoslav government's support for the United Nation's action requesting the immediate withdrawal of Soviet troops from Hungary.

Hungary – November 13, 1956 (BBR)
The Soviets capture several rebels in the Mecsek Hills.  Workers’ councils form in the Oroszlány and Tatabánya coal mines.  Rebels blow up the railway line between Dorog and Leányvár.

Hungary – November 13, 1956 (BBR)
The Kádár government issues an order permitting the workers’ councils to operate.  The underground Hungarian Democratic Independence Movement (MDFM) is established.  The planned creation of a centralized workers’ council is postponed because Soviet tanks block the premises of the meeting at the Újpest town hall

Poland – November 13, 1956 (UNW)
Konstantin Rokossovskiy is called away from the position of Polish Defense Minister and returns to the Soviet Union.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 13, 1956 (KAC/BER)
Ranko Zec, the head of the Special Political Department of the Yugoslav State Secretariat of Foreign Affairs, arrives in Budapest to negotiate about the future of the Imre Nagy group.

Hungary / U.N. – November 13, 1956 (NMC) 
The second memorandum of the Hungarian government to the UN General Secretary stating that Hungary appreciates the UN aid offered. The government is willing to start negotiations discussing what is the best method of aid distribution and how UN officials will be involved in the process.

Hungary – November 14, 1956 (BBR)
The Greater Budapest Central Workers’ Council (KMT) is established at a rally at the United Incandescent Lamp Factory (Egyesült Izzó). The same evening, a KMT delegation negotiates with leaders of the Kádár government in Parliament.

Hungary / U.S. – November 14, 1956 (BBR)
Eisenhower refers briefly to the Hungarian question at a press conference, saying the U.S. would do nothing to encourage the Hungarians to continue to fight.

Hungary / Poland – November 14, 1956 (KAC)
Willman, the Polish ambassador in Budapest, tries to promote a compromised solution between the Imre Nagy group and the Kádár government at the Yugoslav embassy in Budapest. It was Kádár who asked Willman to do this, but the Polish leadership approved also.

Hungary – November 15, 1956 (BBR)
The KMT elects Sándor Rácz as its chairman. Further talks between the KMT and the Kádár government take place in Parliament overnight. 

Hungary – November 15, 1956 (BBR)
The Hungarian Democratic Independence Movement issues its “Ten Commandments for Hungarian Rebirth” and launches an illegal paper, Október Huszonharmadika ("October 23"). 

Hungary – November 15, 1956 (BBR/HC)
The workers’ council of the Csepel Iron and Metal Factory calls for a return to work, responding to Kádár’s appeals for a return to normalcy. A few other councils and workers’ groups also decide to resume production.

Hungary / Austria – November 15, 1956 (KAC)
The Hungarian media criticizes the Austrian government claiming they did not remain neutral. The Austrian government objects the criticism.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 15, 1956 (KAC)
A Soviet delegation led by Deputy Prime Minister Malenkov arrives to Budapest.

Poland / Soviet Union – November 15- 18, 1956 (PSN/BBR)
A delegation from the Polish United Workers Party visits the Soviet Union. Poland is granted credits to finance the delivery of 1.4 million metric tons of Soviet grain. Polish debts were absolved in compensation for the value of the coal Poland had delivered to the Soviet Union from 1946 to 1953. A Polish party and government delegation in Moscow wins important concessions in favor of greater freedom from Moscow’s tutelage.

Hungary – November 16, 1956 (BBR)
The Mecsek rebels, one of the last resistance groups to continue fighting, manage to break through the Soviet encirclement unobserved.

Hungary – November 16, 1956 (BBR)
Kádár, at a secret meeting, agrees with Moscow that the Nagy group should be deported to Romania instead of being allowed to travel to Yugoslavia. 

Hungary – November 16, 1956 (BBR)
István Angyal, leader of the Tűzoltó Street rebels, is arrested.  A journalists’ strike begins in Budapest. 

Hungary – November 16, 1956 (BBR)
The KMT issues an appeal for a return to work while reserving the right to strike.  Meanwhile, the KMT delegation holds further negotiations with Kádár.

Hungary – November 16, 1956 (HC)
Governmental decree 3/1956 announces that people are free to choose their work place.

Hungary – November 16, 1956 (BBR)
The U.N. secretary-general appoints a committee to investigate the Hungarian situation.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 16, 1956 (KAC)
Kádár assures Soldatic, the Yugoslav ambassador, that the Imre Nagy group will not be punished. They agree that the members of the group can leave the embassy freely provided they distance themselves from the revolution. The ambassador informs Imre Nagy on this, who at the same time protests in a letter to Tito about his speech in Pula on November 11, 1956.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – November 16, 1956 (KAC)
A Czechoslovak delegation arrives to Budapest led by Prime Minister Viliam Siroky to talk with Kádár about the “relevant questions”. Czechoslovakia promises to send goods to Hungary worth 90 million crones.

Romania / Egypt – November 16, 1956 (RFP)
Egyptian President Nasser receives Romanian Ambassador Ionescu, declaring that  he would agree to the Romanian offer if the U.N. would do so too.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – November 16, 1956 (LKT)
Yugoslav Ambassador Leo Mates meets with Robert Murphy to explain Yugoslavia's policy in Eastern Europe and to warn of the dangers that has arisen in the wake of the Hungarian rebellion. Mates also recounts the Soviet's belief that the Hungarian revolt was fomented by the United States as a first step. The Yugoslav ambassador appeals for the United States to moderate its criticism of the new Hungarian regime, lest it further provoke the Soviets. They also discuss the Suez Crisis, with Mates claiming that the Soviets' belligerent statements about the Western role there are designed only to deflect attention from Hungary.

Hungary/ U.N. – November 16, 1956 (NMC) 
The UN General Secretary established a committee to report on the Hungarian situation: Alberto Lleras (Colombia), Oscar Gundersen (Norway) and Arthur Lall (India).

Hungary/ U.N. –  November 16, 1956 (NMC) 
The Hungarian government sends a letter to the UN General Secretary stating the government is willing to discuss the situation and the aid offers in Rome. The General Secretary previously stated that he does not want to travel personally to Budapest.

Hungary – November 17, 1956 (BBR)
The central party daily Népszabadság ("People’s Freedom") goes to press despite the journalists’ strike. 

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 17, 1956 (KAC)
János Kádár meets Yugoslav ambassador Dalibor Soldatić, annuls its offer of the previous day and demands the transfer of the Imre Nagy group to Hungarian authorities. The Yugoslav government informs Romanian First Secretary Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej that Yugoslavia has no objection to the departure of Imre Nagy to Romania, provided it would happen out of free will.

Hungary / Romania / Yugoslavia – November 17, 1956 (KAC)
The Yugoslav government informs Romanian General Secretary Gheorghiu-Dej that they do not mind if the Nagy group leaves to Romania.

Hungary / Yugoslavia / Romania – November 18, 1956 (KAC/BER)
Yugoslav Deputy Prime Minister Kardelj sends a letter to Kádár stating the Nagy group should not be punished and should be allowed to travel to Romania. György Lukács, Zoltán Szántó and Zoltán Vas leave the Yugoslav embassy. They are arrested by the Soviet army immediately. The Yugoslav diplomats do not tell this to the other members of the Nagy group.

Hungary – November 18, 1956 (BBR)
The Kádár government issues a statement denying that mass arrests and deportations have taken place.

Hungary / France – November 18, 1956 (KAC)
The French Ministry of Home Affairs organizes a mourning day and fundraising events to help the Hungarians and the Hungarian refugees.

Hungary / Red Cross– November 18, 1956 (NMC)
The Hungarian government, the International Red Cross and the Hungarian Red Cross agree that all aid will be controlled by the International Red Cross and will be distributed as necessary.

Poland / Soviet Union – November 18, 1956 (PLC)
A Polish-Soviet agreement is signed regarding the status of Soviet troops stationed in Poland.

Poland – November 18, 1956 (PSN)
A crowd in Bydgoszcz attacks a radio station that was jamming western broadcasts.

Hungary – November 19, 1956 (BBR)
Nagy and his associates declare that they do not want to leave the country.

Hungary – November 19, 1956 (BBR)
The KMT issues a call for the establishment of a National Workers’ Council.  Work resumes at most factories.

Hungary – November 19, 1956 (BBR)
Organizations still loyal to the revolution--the KMT, Peasants’ Association, National Union of Hungarian Journalists (MUOSZ), Revolutionary Committee of the Hungarian Intelligentsia, Hungarian Union of Fine and Applied Artists, Hungarian Musicians’ Union and Writers’ Union--address a letter to Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru calling on him to intervene on Hungary’s behalf.

Hungary – November 19, 1956 (BBR)
A number of Hungarians who have been deported to the Soviet Union are handed over to the Hungarian authorities.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 19, 1956 (KAC)
Dobrivoje Vidic, the Yugoslav Deputy Secretary of Foreign Affairs, arrives in Budapest. The Nagy group tells him that they will not sign the required declaration and they will not leave the country. Kardelj would like to resolve the problem as soon as possible with Kádár.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 19, 1956 (KAC)
Pravda comments on Tito’s speech in Pula. Tito is criticized because he got involved with the internal problems of Hungary.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 19, 1956 (KAC)
Milovan Dilas, former Deputy Prime Minister, is arrested in Yugoslavia because of his statements about the situation in Hungary.

Poland – November 19, 1956 (PSN)
The Worker Councils Act is passed according to which, “the worker council administers, on behalf of the personnel, an enterprise that is national property.”

Hungary / U.N. – November 19-20, 1956 (BBR/NMC) 
The UN General Assembly takes up the debate on the Hungarian question and accepts the suggestions of Cuba, India, Ceylon and Indonesia regarding the Hungarian situation.

Hungary – November 20, 1956 (BBR)
The armed resistance in the Mecsek Hills comes to an end. János Szabó, commander of the Széna Square rebels, is also arrested. 
GDR / Hungary – November 20, 1956 (BBR)
An East German delegation holds talks in Budapest on providing assistance to the country.

Hungary – November 20, 1956 (BBR)
Officers who have not signed the Officer’s Declaration are discharged.

Hungary – November 20, 1956 (KAC)
The French embassy in Budapest sends a document to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, asking for the protection of their diplomatic rights. They would like to exchange forints to shillings to go shopping in Austria.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 21, 1956 (KAC/BER)
According to the agreement between the Hungarian and the Yugoslav governments, Imre Nagy and his entourage can safely return home. János Kádár gives a written guarantee that no harassment is going to take place because of their past deeds. Deputy Prime Minister Ferenc Münnich also informs the Yugoslav government that no harassment will be against the members of the Imre Nagy group and necessary steps will be provided for their safety. Yugoslav Deputy Foreign Minister Dobrivoje Vidić informs Imre Nagy on the agreement.

Hungary – November 21, 1956 (BBR)
An attempt to form a National Workers’ Council fails when Soviet tanks surround the National Sports Hall, where the rally was to be held.  The KMT calls a 48-hour protest strike. 

Hungary – November 21, 1956 (BBR)
After a three-day debate, the U.N. General Assembly passes several resolutions on the Hungarian question.  Three minutes’ silence is observed in Switzerland to commemorate the Hungarian independence struggle.

Hungary / Romania – November 21-25, 1956 (KAC)
A Romanian party and government delegation arrives to Budapest led by Gheorghiu-Dej. They agree to take the Nagy group to Romania on November 22-23. At the end of the meetings they publicly declare that Romania will give an additional 60 million rubles aid to the Kádár government.

Hungary – November 22, 1956 (BBR)
Talks between a KMT delegation and Kádár take place at night.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 22, 1956 (BBR/KAC)
Vidic ensures Imre Nagy and his associates that they can leave the embassy without any problems. Kádár himself guarantees their safety with the approval of the Soviet Union. The members of the Nagy group sign an official document stating they do not ask for asylum any longer and they leave the embassy. However, to the apparent surprise of Yugoslav officials, Soviet security officers arrest the group as it boards a bus outside the Embassy and take them to KGB headquarters in Mátyásföld (16th District).  From there they are flown secretly to Romania. In Belgrade it is publicly announced that the Imre Nagy problem is solved.

Hungary – November 22-December 8, 1956 (HC)
The Hungarian sportsmen win 9 gold, 10 silver and 9 bronze medals at the Melbourne Olympics.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 23-29, 1956 (NMC)
A Hungarian-Yugoslav joint committee discusses in Belgrade and Zagreb when the Hungarian refugees can return.

Hungary – November 23, 1956 (BBR)
Nagy, his associates and their families are taken from Bucharest Airport to Snagov, Romania.

Hungary – November 23, 1956 (BBR)
Yugoslavia files a diplomatic protest at the abduction of the Nagy group.

Hungary – November 23, 1956 (BBR)
The Kádár government recognizes the KMT as a negotiating partner.  The KMT calls for a return to work.  After an appeal by the Revolutionary Council of the Hungarian Intelligentsia and the KMT to commemorate the revolution, traffic in Budapest stops between 2:00 and 3:00 p.m.

Hungary / Romania – November 23, 1956 (PLC)
Gheorghiu-Dej visits Budapest. He announces that the success of the Hungarian “counterrevolution” would have put peace in danger everywhere in Europe.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Austria – November 23, 1956 (KAC)
Two Soviet soldiers cross the Austrian-Hungarian border at the Rohonc/Rechnitz area while they try to catch some people fleeing from the country. One of them is shot by the border officers.

Hungary / Romania / Yugoslavia – November 23, 1956 (KAC/BER)
The Imre Nagy group is deported to Romania. Yugoslav ambassador to Hungary Soldatić protests at János Kádár because of the kidnapping of Imre Nagy and informs Kádár on the Yugoslav intention of making the case public. Jenő Kuti, chargé d'affairs of the Hungarian embassy in Belgrade, is summoned to the Yugoslav Secretariat of Foreign Affairs where Deputy Foreign Minister Dobrivoje Vidić demands an explanation for breaking the agreement reached two days earlier.
An article in the Népakarat announces that the Imre Nagy group left the Yugoslav embassy and a Hungarian-Yugoslav agreement was reached.  

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 23-29, 1956 (KAC)
A Hungarian-Yugoslav joint committee meets in Belgrade and discuss the possibility of repatriation of Hungarian refugees.

Hungary – November 24, 1956 (BBR)
The Nagy issue continues to demand the Kádár government’s attention.  An official Hungarian communiqué is issued on the departure of Nagy and his group from Hungary. Two days later, Kádár delivers a major radio address but then makes no further official mention of the matter for the next 18 months- until after Nagy’s execution. 

Hungary – November 24, 1956 (BBR)
Government commissioners are appointed to oversee operations at the larger factories.

Hungary / Poland – November 24, 1956 (KAC)
Warsaw sends an aid package worth 100 million zlotys to Hungary upon Kádár’s request.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 24, 1956 (KAC/BER)
The Yugoslav government raises objections in a memorandum against the violation of the Yugoslav-Hungarian agreement signed on November 21 and the kidnapping of the members of the Imre Nagy group. The Yugoslav media gives special importance to the case of the deportation of the Imre Nagy group. The editorial board of Népszabadság goes on strike because the Hungarian authorities forbade the publication of an article which is engaged in a dispute with an article in Pravda criticizing Tito's Yugoslavia.

Hungary / Romania – November 24, 1956 (KAC)
It is officially announced that the members of the Imre Nagy group asked to be allowed to leave to another socialist country themselves and therefore they travelled to Romania on November 23.

Hungary / Poland – November 24, 1956 (KAC)
The editors of the Népszabadság start a strike, because they were not given permission to publish an article criticizing Pravda’s article about Tito.

Hungary / U.S. – November 25, 1956 (KAC)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs demands the American embassy in Budapest to stop using the “illegally operating” radio station at the embassy, because “it violates the laws of sovereignty”.

Albania / Yugoslavia – November 25, 1956 (PLC)
In Albania three pro-Yugoslavia communist leaders are executed.

Hungary / India – November 25-December 7, 1956 (NMC) 
Jagan Nat Khosla, a representative of India, visits Hungary.

Romania / Soviet Union – November 26-December 3, 1956 (PLC)
The Soviet and the Romanian leaders meet. The possibility of the Soviet troops leaving the country is discussed.

Hungary / Indonesia – November 27, 1956 (NMC) 
Soedarsono, a representative of the Indonesian government, arrives to Budapest.

Hungary / Austria – November 28, 1956 (NMC) 
The Hungarian Foreign Ministry sends a memorandum to the Austrian embassy about the situation of underage Hungarian refugees in Austria.

Hungary – November 29, 1956 (BBR)
Reflecting ongoing domestic political instability, the All-University Revolutionary Committee and the Central Workers’ Council of the Csepel Iron and Metal Works are established, and more than 300 miners at Pécsbányatelep go on strike. 

Hungary / FRG – November 29, 1956 (BBR)
West Germany sends Hungary food and medical aid worth 10 million marks.

Hungary / Poland – November 29, 1956 (KAC)
Dezsõ Révai and Lajos Ács leave the Polish embassy in Budapest where they have been hiding since October 30.

Hungary / Poland – November 29-December 2, 1956 (KAC)
Congress of the Association of Polish Writers and the Association of Polish journalists. A joint delegation of the two organizations meets Gomulka to ask him to give asylum to György Lukács, Tibor Déry and their families. Gomulka does not approve.

Hungary – November 30, 1956 (BBR)
The Soviets call on Kádár to begin reprisals, naming at least six revolutionaries (for example, József Dudás and János Szabó) whom they believe should be executed immediately.

Hungary – November 30, 1956 (BBR)
The KMT issues a call for readers of HSWP newspapers to boycott those publications until the KMT receives a press permit. The public-supplies commissioner lifts the ban on alcohol sales.


December 1956

Yugoslavia / U.S. – December 1956 (LKT)
U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and President Eisenhower discuss dispatching the aircraft to Yugoslavia, using the rationale that Tito should not be forced to obtain such equipment from the Soviets.

Hungary – December 1, 1956 (BBR)
The Kádár government publishes a decree granting a general pardon to everyone who has emigrated illegally since October 23.

Hungary – December 1, 1956 (BBR)
A security-force regiment of 2,000 is formed under the Ministry of the Interior.

Hungary – December 1, 1956 (BBR)
A strike by miners in Pécsbányatelep ends without result but work stoppages by miners in Tatabánya and Salgótarján continue.

Bulgaria – December 1, 1956 (PLC)
According to the census, the population of Bulgaria is 7.6 million. 85.5% Bulgarian, 8.6% Turkish, 1.8% pomak. Macedonians living in Pirini-Macedonia 2.5%.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – December 1, 1956 (KAC)
The Hungarian government answers with a memorandum to the Yugoslav objections raised on November 11. It is stated that the Imre Nagy problem is a Hungarian internal political question.

Hungary – December 2, 1956 (BBR)
A crucial three-day meeting of the Provisional Executive Committee of the HSWP begins. The events of October are described as counterrevolutionary, setting the stage for reprisals against participants in the uprising.

Hungary / India – December 2-7, 1956 (NMC)
Menon, the Indian ambassador to Moscow, visits Budapest. Menon was sent by Nehru.

Hungary – December 4, 1956 (BBR)
Several thousand women march to Heroes’ Square where they place flowers on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and display the flag of the revolution. There is also a demonstration in Szabadság Square (5th District), outside the U.S. Legation.

Hungary – December 5, 1956 (BBR)  
About 200 members of the intelligentsia and of workers’ councils are arrested in the evening. The first volume of the regime’s official “White Book” (“The Counter-revolutionary Forces in the October events in Hungary”) appears.

Hungary – December 5, 1956 (BBR)
The U.N. General Assembly passes a resolution on sending observers to Hungary.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary / Soviet Union – December 5-6, 1956 (BBR-KAC)
The Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party announces that proceedings have started in 674 cases linked with the events in Hungary. They talk about the tensed international situation and the “Hungarian events”. The announcement published about this session of the CC states that the people of Czechoslovakia believe that “the Soviet army’s help was necessary to crush the Hungarian counterrevolution”.

Hungary – December 6, 1956 (BBR)
A KMT memorandum states that its negotiations with the government have failed because of government inflexibility. The KMT protests the successive arrests of leaders of the workers’ councils. It calls a national meeting to establish a national workers’ council.

Hungary – December 6, 1956 (BBR)
The government organizes communist rallies in several locations in Budapest. Workers returning from the job attack communists carrying red flags. Crowds hurling stones at the demonstrators are dispersed by security forces and the Soviets. Gunfire is exchanged near November 7 Square (Oktogon), and security men fire into a crowd of workers by the Western Railway Station. 

Hungary – December 6, 1956 (BBR)
There are demonstrations in Békéscsaba, Gyula, Tatabánya and Sarkad. A strike breaks out in Békéscsaba the next day to protest the resulting arrests. Coal miners in Nógrád County also go on strike after workers’ leaders in the county are arrested.

Hungary – December 6, 1956 (HC)
Many workers organize assemblies in Budapest to save the people’s democracy.

Hungary – December 7, 1956 (BBR)
The KMT sends a letter to the Soviet premier proposing direct relations between the KMT and the Soviet government. 

Hungary / Yugoslavia – December 7, 1956 (BBR)
Kádár receives Yugoslav Ambassador Dalibor Soldatić and holds out the prospect of settling the Nagy affair peacefully. 

Hungary – December 7, 1956 (BBR)
Demonstrations take place around the country.

Hungary – December 7, 1956 (BBR)
The 14th Summer Olympics in Melbourne close. A highlight of the games occurs when Hungary’s water polo team defeats the Soviets on its way to winning the gold medal. Many Hungarian athletes refuse to return home after the games.

Poland – December 7, 1956 (PLC)
Gomulka and Wyszynski agree that the Church can keep some limited autonomy and independent farmers can keep producing. The voluntary religious education is reestablished in schools.

Poland – December 7, 1956 (PSN)
After the events of October the Polish Youth Union is replaced by a new organization, the Revolutionary Youth Union.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – December 7, 1956 (KAC/CUY)
In his address marking the end of the current parliamentary session, Yugoslav Vice President Edvard Kardelj recognizes that the second Soviet intervention against Hungary was not motivated by ideological considerations but was an expression of Soviet determination to maintain its strategic position in Eastern Europe.

Hungary / U.N. – December 7, 1956 (NMC)
The media announces that the UNESCO agreed to send aid to Hungary to rebuild schools. This UNESCO resolution was passed in New Delhi accepting a Belgian suggestion.

Poland – December 8, 1956 (UNW)
Religion is reintroduced in schools as optional subject.

Yugoslavia / Greece – December 8, 1956 (MOL)
The Prime Minister of Greece, Constantine Karamanlis visits Yugoslavia.

Hungary – December 8, 1956 (HC)
Decree 16/1956 by the Minister of Finance announces that pensions held back since 1948 without a reason will be paid.

Hungary – December 8, 1956 (BBR)
In the town of Salgótarján, Soviet and Hungarian security forces open fire on a crowd of demonstrators. The massacre, which lasts for 8–10 minutes, leaves 52 dead and about 150 wounded. The shooting convinces the KMT to call a 48-hour strike.

Hungary – December 9, 1956 (BBR)
The government outlaws the territorial workers’ councils, including the KMT. The workers’-council delegates assembled at the headquarters of the building trade union in Budapest are arrested. KMT representatives personally deliver the call for a strike to the major provincial centers.

Hungary – December 9, 1956 (BBR)
Demonstrations and protests take place in a number of towns over the next two days. Numerous arrests are made. Security officials murder two national guard leaders in Salgótarján; several demonstrators are killed in confrontations with Soviet forces in the country.

Poland / Soviet Union – December 10, 1956 (PSN)
Rioters in Szczecin break into the Soviet consulate.

Hungary – December 11, 1956 (HC)
Decree 1956:28 by the Hungarian Presidential Council reintroduces martial law to punish the illegal use of firearms.

Hungary – December 11, 1956 (BBR)
The 48-hour strike called for by the KMT begins, halting production, rail traffic and public transport throughout the country.  The central workers’ council at the Csepel Iron and Metal Works comes out against the strike again, but all factories stop work nonetheless. In response, the Kádár government declares a state of emergency--martial law--and orders the disarming of factory guards. KMT leaders Sándor Bali and Sándor Rácz are arrested at the Parliament building. 

Hungary / U.N. – December 11, 1956 (BBR)
The Hungarian U.N. delegation walks out of the General Assembly following attacks against the Kádár government.

Hungary / Red Cross – December 11, 1956 (NMC)
Amil Sandstrom, the Chairman of the International Red Cross League’s Executive Council, visits Budapest.

Yugoslavia – December 12, 1956 (PLC)
Milovan Dilas is sentenced to 3 years in prison for anti-communist activism. He was arrested on November 19.

Hungary – December 12, 1956 (BBR)
The Hungarian government reopens internment camps. Security forces continue to disperse demonstrations by force.

Hungary / U. N. – December 12, 1956 (BBR)
The U.N. General Assembly passes a further resolution condemning the Soviet intervention.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – December 14, 1956 (MOL)
The spokesman of the Yugoslav Foreign Ministry Branko Drašković speaks about the Hungarian refugees.

Hungary – December 14, 1956 (BBR)
The CPSU passes a resolution on sending Soviet advisers to Hungary.

Hungary – December 15, 1956 (BBR)
In Miskolc, József Soltész becomes the first participant in the revolution to be executed.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – December 17, 1956 (LKT)
The New York Times reports that the Eisenhower administration has told Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito that it is ready for him to visit the United States. The Yugoslav Embassy in Washington immediately complains about this leak and the serious impact it could have on Yugoslav-Soviet relations.

Poland / Soviet Union – December 17, 1956 (UNW)
Poland and the Soviet Union sign an agreement on the formal rules of Soviet army stationing in Poland. It states that it cannot affect, in any way, the sovereignty of the country and that it cannot interfere with the internal policy of Poland. At the same time Gomulka approves the Soviet intervention in Hungary, which results in the Soviet Union granting Poland a huge loan and canceling the Polish debt.

Poland / Soviet Union – December 17, 1956 (PSN)
An agreement “On the Legal Status of Soviet Troops Temporarily Stationed in Poland” is signed in Warsaw. Article one states that these troops cannot infringe in Polish sovereignty or interfere with Polish internal affairs.

Hungary / France – December 18, 1956 (KAC)
Pineau, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, suggests a neutral status to Hungary in the French Parliament.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – December 18, 1956 (LKT)
At his news conference, U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles suggests that a trip by Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito to the United States for talks would be useful and that sympathetic considerations are being given to the idea.

Hungary / Israeli – December 18, 1956 (NMC) 
Meir Touval, the new Israeli minister to Budapest, presents his credentials to István Dobi.

Hungary – December 19, 1956 (HC)
Governmental decree 12/1956 regulates the national holidays. National holidays: January 1, Easter Monday, April 4, May 1, August 20 and December 25-26.

Hungary – December 19, 1956 (HC)
Governmental decree 25/1956 announces that an Information Office will be established, led by István Szirmai.

Hungary / Austria / U.S. – December 19-23, 1956 (KAC)
American Vice President Nixon visits Austria to negotiate with the members of the Austrian government about the future of the Hungarian refugees. He also visits the Austrian-Hungarian border.

Poland / Yugoslavia – December 19-29, 1956 (PSM)
A Yugoslavian delegation visits Poland for first time since 1948. No joint communiqué is issued and no conclusions on mutual relations are reached.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – December 21, 1956 (KAC)
The Yugoslav spokesman of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs announces that the Soviet government answered to the memorandum sent to them about the Imre Nagy problem.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – December 22, 1956 (MOL)
The spokesman of the Yugoslav Foreign Ministry deals with the Soviet-Yugoslav relationships and expresses the hope of the Yugoslav government that misunderstandings in ideology cannot worsen bilateral relations.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – December 23, 1956 (KAC)
Czechoslovak President Zapotocky calls back István Major, Czechoslovak ambassador from Budapest. The new ambassador will be Julius Victory.

Hungary – December 24, 1956 (HC)
Governmental decree 14/1956 announces that the tax of people without children will be abolished.

Hungary – December 24, 1956 (BBR)
In an attempt to win over public opinion, the Christmas issue of Népszabadság publishes articles on religious subjects. Authorities lift the curfew to allow worshippers to attend midnight mass.

Hungary – December 28, 1956 (BBR)
Members of the Writers’ Union accept Áron Tamási’s piece “Sorrow and Confession” as a statement of principle, upholding the cause of the revolution.

Poland – December 28, 1956 (PSN)
The Supreme military council renounces the 1953 sentences against Bishop Czeslaw Kazmarek, three Roman Catholic priests, and one nun.

Hungary – December 29, 1956 (HC)
Decree 1956:33 by the Hungarian Presidential Council announces that some ministries will merge and others will be abolished. The Ministry of Mining and Energy and the Ministry of Chemical Industry will become the Ministry of Heavy Industry. The Ministry of Food and the Ministry of Light Industry, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Culture will merge. The Ministry of State Collection, the Ministry of City and Village Economy, the Ministry of State Farms and the State Controlling Ministry will be abolished. The National Church Office will be abolished.

Poland / Yugoslavia – December 29, 1956 (MOL)
A delegation of Yugoslav party members leaves for Poland.

Hungary – December 30, 1956 (HC)
Governmental decree 31/1956 announces that he State Price Office will be established. Head: Béla Csikós-Nagy.

Poland – December 31, 1956 (PSN)
A decree reduces the power of the state over church offices.

Hungary – December 30, 1956 (BBR)
A decree of the Presidential Council transfers the duties of the ÁVH to a department of the police.



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© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013