The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Associate editors

 Assistant editors
Gabriella HERMANN
Jasper NOOIJN,

Babak ARZANI, Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Ádám BALOGH, Shira BORZAK, Florian BRINK, Vanessa BUFFRY, David CATALAN, Sonya COWELL, Susan COOPER, Lauren CRYSTAL, Laura CSEKE, Botond CSELLE, Péter DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB, Kati DEPETRILLO, Emanuele DI BELLO, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA, Kristyna GABIKOVA, Evelina GELEZINYTE, Laura GOUSHA,Zsófia GÖDE, Brianna GREENWALD, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Ágnes HEVÉR,Neala HICKEY, Jennifer OLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU, Kitti Eszter JAKAB, Dean JOLLY, Victoria JONES, Annastiina KALLIUS, István KASZTA, Tomas KOLAR, Roman KOZIEL,Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Karina LEGRADI, Thomas KOLLMANN, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Cynthia MANCHA, Mike MANTZAVINOS, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Viktor NAGY, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Jennifer OTTERSON, Roland PAPP, Orsolya PÓSFAI, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Linda RICHTER, Martin ROMAIN, Lili SIKLÓS, Bobbie SCHOEMAKER, Anett SZŰCS, Sabine TOPOLANSKY, Dóra VERESS, Aniello VERDE, Zita Bettina VASAS,  Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, Kristóf ZSIDI

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013

At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The second part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1953 to 1968. The years 1969–1980 will be available by the end of 2014.

The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968


List of Sources


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013



Chronology 1957

Hungary – 1957 (HC)
According to the Austrian Interior Ministry 15 646 Hungarian citizens asked for asylum in Austria during the year.
The population of the 10 biggest cities in the country (thousand): Budapest 1850, Miskolc 150, Debrecen 130, Pécs 110, Szeged 100, Győr 68, Kecskemét 67, Nyíregyháza 56, Hódmezővásárhely 54, Szombathely 53.
The Hungarian National Gallery, the biggest collection of 19th and 20th century Hungarian fine art pieces, is founded.

Hungary / France – 1957 (KAC)
The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs states that “the conditions to end diplomatic relations with Hungary seem to be present”. However, they decide to maintain the diplomatic relations with Hungary, because they believe the fact that the French embassy stays open in Budapest does not mean that the French government recognizes the Kádár government. On the other hand, ending the diplomatic relations would make the Hungarian people think that the West ignores their situation. In addition, France would not be able to collect firsthand information about Hungary without diplomatic relations and the interest of all dual citizens living in Hungary would be harmed.

Poland – 1957 (HDP)
The weekly Polityka (Politics) is established in Warsaw. It is devoted mainly to contemporary Polish issues. It survives the fall of communism and continues to be one of the most popular magazines in Poland.


January 1957

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – January 1957 (DCO)
The President of Czechoslovakia, Antonin Zapotocky, accompanied by political officials, visits the Soviet Union. A Czechoslovak-Soviet declaration is issued. The document emphasizes the Leninist principles of equality, state sovereignty, independence and non-interference in internal affairs.

Eastern Bloc – January 1–5, 1957 (CAC)
A meeting of party and government representatives, excluding Poles,
takes place in Moscow to discuss military matters―arming of the East European
armies, and improvement and organization of air defenses.

Hungary / Soviet Union / U.S. – January 1, 1957 (LBC)
Soviet Prime Minister Bulganin’s response to U.S. President Eisenhower’s message of November 4, 1956: the Soviet intervention belongs to the competence of the Soviet and the Hungarian governments.

Hungary / U.S. – January 1, 1957 (LBC)
Eisenhower permits the reception of Hungarian refugees above the announced quota of 21,500. Until February 2, 1957 26,405 Hungarian refugees arrive in the U.S.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – January 1, 1957 (LKT)
U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles suggests to President Eisenhower that Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito's visit to the United States be confined to official talks in Washington; a tour of the United States would probably provoke incidents that would jeopardize the American-Yugoslav relationship.

Soviet Union- January 1, 1957 (KCA)
Mikhail Pervukhin succeeds Maksim Saburov as Chairman of the State Economic Commission.
Poland – January 2-3, 1957 (PSN)
The Revolutionary Youth Union and the Union of Worker Youth are fused into one organization called the Socialist Youth Union.

Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / Hungary / Romania / Soviet Union – January 1-4, 1957 (KAC/BBR/PLC/MMS/KCA)
Soviet, Bulgarian, Czechoslovak, Romanian and Hungarian leaders meet in Budapest. They discuss the draft of a forthcoming Hungarian government declaration as well as Nagy’s role played during the revolution and its legal consequences.

Austria- January 4, 1957 (KCA)
The former President of Austria Theodor Körner dies.

Hungary – January 4-7, 1957 (BBR/NMC)
Philippe De Seynes, Deputy U.N. General Secretary, travels to Budapest to discuss the terms of the U.N. aid package to Hungary. He meets János Kádár.

Poland- January 5, 1957 (KCA)
The Polish state and church sign an agreement on relations between the two bodies. They agree on restoration of religious education.

Hungary – January 5, 1957 (BBR)
The government sanctions the death penalty for anyone refusing to return to work.

Hungary January 5, 1957 (HC)
The first issue of the Magyar Ifjúság, the weekly newspaper of the Hungarian Revolutionary Young Workers’ Union is published.

Hungary – January 5-7, 1957 (KAC)
Congress of the Hungarian Revolutionary Council in Strasbourg (France). This is the most important immigrant political event after the crush of the 1956 Hungarian revolution.

Hungary – January 6, 1957 (BBR)
The Kádár government publishes its program, “Statement of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of Workers and Peasants on the Main Tasks.”

Czechoslovakia/ Soviet Union- January 6, 1957 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak State Radio stops playing the Soviet National Anthem each night, which had been a tradition since the communist seizure in 1948.

Eastern Germany- January 7, 1957 (KCA)
Is it publicly announced that 279 189 refugees from the German Democratic Republic had entered the Federal Republic in 1956, the highest number to date, with the exception of 1953.

Hungary / Soviet Union / China – January 7–11, 1957 (BBR)
Chinese Prime Minister Zhou En-lai visits Moscow. He calls for strong reprisals against participants in the Hungarian uprising.

Hungary / Austria – January 8, 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian government decides to strengthen the Austrian border.

Hungary – January 8, 1957 (HC)
Governmental decree 1004/1957 announces that the 50% discount on trains will be reintroduced from April 1.

Hungary / U.N. – January 9, 1957 (HC)
The U.N. starts to discuss the Hungarian question.

Poland – January 9, 1957 (PSN)
Gomulka speaks at a pre-election meeting. He tells the public “to defend Polish sovereignty” and to “vote for the first candidates on the list. Return the candidate cards without any canceled names... do not cancel the names of candidates from the Polish United Workers party.”

Hungary / Soviet Union / China – January 10, 1957 (KAC)
Chinese, Hungarian and Soviet state and party leaders (Kádár, Khrushchev and Zhou En-lai) meet in Moscow to discuss how to strengthen their bilateral relations. They also talk about the most important international problems.

Poland – January 10, 1957 (PSN)
The Cooperation Committee of Political Parties adopted a resolution instructing local electoral committees to remove candidates with “weak character or a lack of responsibility to for their conduct” and showed a disregard for “the principles of the Front of National Unity program and the discipline binding members of a political party.”

U.S. – January 10, 1957 (LBC)
Eisenhower’s state of the union address: „We are willing to enter any reliable agreement, which would reverse the trend towards more devastating nuclear weapons; reciprocally provide against the possibility of surprise attackcand make feasible a lower level of armament and armed forces.”

Hungary – January 10, 1957 (BBR)
A Special Committee on Hungary is established by the U.N. General Assembly consisting of the representatives of Australia, Ceylon, Denmark, Tunisia and Uruguay.

Hungary – January 11, 1957 (HC/NMC)
The declaration of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of Workers and Peasants, raises objections against the American suggestion to send U.N. officials to Hungary to gather information on the Hungarian question.

Poland / China – January 11-16, 1957 (PSM)
A Chinese delegation led by Chinese Prime Minister Zhou En-lai visits Poland.

Hungary – January 12, 1957 (HC)
The Mese a 12 találatról (“The tale of 12 hits”), a film directed by Károly Makk, is first shown.

Hungary – January 12, 1957 (BBR)
A decree is issued introducing accelerated criminal proceedings. A state of emergency that previously applied mainly to armed actions is extended to acts of instigating strikes in factories employing more than 100 workers.

Hungary – January 13, 1957 (HC)
Decree 1/1957 by the Agricultural Minister announces that those collective farms dissolved during the “counterrevolution” are given back their original rights. All properties stolen during the “counterrevolution” must be given back to their owners.

Poland – January 14, 1957 (UNW)
The episcopate calls for attending the general elections, to be held on January 20, 1957, by “all the Catholic citizens”.

Hungary / Austria – January 15, 1957 (KAC)
A Hungarian repatriating committee arrives to Vienna led by Ferenc Esztergályos.

Hungary / U.N. – January 15, 1957 (HC/NMC)
The Hungarian U.N. delegation gives a memorandum to the General Secretary of the U.N. regarding the status of Hungarian who fled the country during the revolution. Decree no. 1956:27 by the Hungarian Presidential Council announces that amnesty will be given to those who return to Hungary. The memorandum criticizes the countries receiving Hungarian refugees, because they do not encourage the refugees to return home. The Hungarian delegation asks for treatment following international law.

Hungary – January 15, 1957 (HC)
Decree no. 1957:4 announces that the criminal process will be fastened for those involved in the “counterrevolution”. This rule will be used in the trials of those accused of arson, robbery, looting, illegal use of firearms, encouragement of mass walkouts, conspiracy and rebellion.

Poland – January 16, 1957 (PSN)
The Union of Young Democrats a party formed in 1956 that refused to bow to the Polish United Workers Party is dissolved.

Hungary / China – January 16-17, 1957 (KAC)
Chinese Prime Minister Zhou En-lai visits Hungary. A joint announcement is signed on January 17. In the afternoon on January 16 a special session of the party is organized for the Chinese delegation, where both Kádár and Zhou En-lai give a speech.

Hungary – January 17, 1957 (BBR)
The interior minister suspends the activities of the Writers’ Union. Shortly afterwards, all arts associations are placed under the ministry’s supervision.

Hungary / China / France – January 17, 1957 (KAC)
While in Hungary, Zhou En-lai meets the French ambassador in Budapest, Jean Paul-Boncour. The French diplomat says in order to consolidate the situation in Hungary the Soviet occupational army should leave and the country should become neutral. The Chinese politician does not agree, he says while pretending to be neutral the Imre Nagy government sought relations with the West, and this “cannot be tolerated by any socialist country.”

Hungary – January 17, 1957 (HC)
Decree 4/1957 by the Finance Minister announces that lottery will be allowed.

Hungary – January 18, 1957 (HC)
The Ministry of the Interior suspends the Hungarian Workers’ Union.

East Germany – January 18, 1957 (KGD)
A law is passed for the gradual introduction of a 45-hours work week.

Hungary – January 18, 1957 (NMC)
James Cowley, the military attaché of the British embassy in Budapest, is deported from Hungary, because he was in contact with revolutionary leaders during the 1956 revolution. The media publishes the memorandums sent.

Hungary – January 19, 1957 (BBR/HC)
József Dudás and János Szabó are executed. They were found guilty of organizing an uprising aiming to overthrow the democratic order.

Hungary – January 20, 1957 (HC)
The Ministry of the Interior suspends the National Association of Hungarian Journalists.

Hungary – January 20, 1957 (HC)
The Mihály Táncsics Circle meets for the first time. The Circle is established in order to facilitate the cooperation of communist intellectuals.

Hungary / Austria – January 20, 1957 (KAC)
Austria Chancellor Julius Raab talks on the radio about the possible neutral status of Hungary.

Poland – January 20, 1957 (PLC/PSN/UNW)
Elections to the Diet are held. The official turnout is 94,1%. According to official results the Front of National Unity won 98.4% of the vote with 288 members of the United Workers Party and 115 members of the United Peasant's Party elected. 67 independents were elected. Some small religious organizations, such as Znak and Pax, receive seats in the Parliament.

Hungary / Soviet Union – January 22, 1957 (KAC)
A Soviet delegation led by Semicsastnij, the Vice Minister of Foreign Trade, visits Hungary to negotiate the Trade Agreement for 1957.

Hungary U.K. – January 23, 1957 (NMC)
The British government deports Béla Nagy, the Hungarian military attaché of the Hungarian embassy in London.

Albania / Bulgaria- January 23-29, 1957 (KCA)
The Bulgarian and Albanian governments meet in Tirana. They agree on all the fundamental questions of international politics.

Hungary / Yugoslavia / Austria – January 24, 1957 (KAC)
János Kádár informs the Council of Ministers that the technical lock at the Austrian and the Yugoslav border will be reinstalled.

Hungary / Soviet Union – January 26, 1957 (KAC)
The Népakarat announces that Hungary will be given 240 million rubles of economic aid from the Soviet Union.

Hungary – January 26, 1957 (HC)
Decree no. 1957:5 announces that the Labor Ministry will be established.

Hungary – January 26, 1957 (HC)
The Ministry of the Interior announces that Gyula Háy, Balázs Lengyel, Tibor Tardos, Zoltán Zelk writers, Sándor Novobáczky and Pál Lőcsei journalists were arrested. They are all accused of being involved in the “counterrevolution”.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – January 27, 1957 (LKT)
The United States and Yugoslavia agree that Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito's visit will not take place.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – January 28, 1957 (KAC/BER/NMC)
Yugoslavia's new ambassador to Hungary, Jovo Kapić presents his credentials to István Dobi, Chairman of the Presidential Council.

Hungary / Austria – January 30, 1957 (KAC)
Oskar Helmer, Austrian Minister of Home Affairs, demands that other Western countries take the Hungarian refugees from Austria at the meeting of the International Refugee Agency in Geneva.

Hungary / Austria – January 31, 1957 (NMC) 
The Hungarian embassy in Vienna sends a memorandum to the Austrian Foreign Ministry asking when the underage Hungarian refugees can return home.


February 1957

Eastern Europe / Yugoslavia – February 1957 (RYE)
Soviet and East European credits to Yugoslavia granted in 1956 are unilaterally canceled.

Bulgaria - February, 1957 (KCA)
The results of a population census in Bulgaria show 7 629 254 citizens- an increase of almost 600 000 since the previous census in 1946.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – February 1, 1957 (HC)
The Hungarian Forum Publishing House opens in Novi Sad (Yugoslavia).

Hungary / Yugoslavia – February 2, 1957 (KAC)
The Yugoslav-Hungarian borderland is renewed. The Hungarian authorities set back the technical border fences on the Hungarian-Yugoslav frontier.

Hungary – February 2, 1957 (BBR)
János Kádár, First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party and Prime Minister  speaking in Salgótarján, accuses Nagy of fomenting a counter-revolutionary uprising and calls him a traitor.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – February 2, 1957 (KAC)
Hungarian-Czechoslovak negotiations in Prague about the possible improvements in economic relations and about the Czechoslovak aid to Hungary. On July 19 a loan agreement of 100 million rubles is signed.

Soviet Union / U.K. – February 2, 1957 (LBC)
British Prime Minister Harold MacMillan announces that, because of his duties, he will not fulfill his predecessor Anthony Eden’s pledge for a visit to Moscow.

Austria- February 2, 1957 (KCA)
The Austrian Government bans all further activities of the Secretariat of the World Peace Council in Vienna.

Bulgaria- February 3, 1957 (KCA)
The Bulgarian National Assembly approves the reorganization of the Bulgarian governement. It involves the fusion of a number of ministries.

Romania- February 3, 1957 (KCA)
General elections in Romania take place. The People‘s Democratic Party wins with 99% of the popular vote. No opposition is permitted.

Hungary – February 3, 1957 (HC)
Decree no. 1957:10 by the Hungarian Presidential Council announces that the property rights of agricultural estates will be adjusted.

Hungary – February 3, 1957 (NMC)
The Hungarian government organizes a permanent guarding group near the European U.N. office in Geneva.

Hungary / Austria – February 5, 1957 (KAC)
The Austrian government decides to start a cultural and sport boycott against Hungary: Hungarian artists and sportsmen are not allowed to travel to Austria.

Hungary / Poland – February 5, 1957 (KAC)
The Népszabadság announces that Poland gave a loan of 40 million rubles to Hungary.

Hungary / UN – February 6, 1957 (NMC)  
The Hungarian government does not accept the U.N. report on the Hungarian situation. The report was written based on the interviews with Anna Kéthly, Béla Király and József Kővágó.

Hungary /Switzerland – February 8, 1957 (NMC)
Ambassador József Marjai presents his credentials in Bern.

Hungary / France – February 8, 1957 (KAC)
The first contact of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Hungarian embassy in Paris after the 1956 revolution: Kálmán Ujlaki gives a memorandum to Etienne Manac’h leader of the Eastern European Subcommittee, asking for an exit permit for the Hungarian refugees in France. The Hungarian politician explains the official Hungarian standpoint about the “counterrevolution”.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – February 8, 1957 (MOL)
The Yugoslav spokesman announces that 16 912 Hungarian refugees have entered Yugoslav territory by that time, of which 203 people have repatriated and another 208 has left for another country.

Hungary – February 9, 1957 (HC)
Miklós Horthy, former Regent of Hungary from 1920 to 1944, dies in exile in Estoril, Portugal. 

Soviet Union/Western Germany- February 10, 1957 (KCA)
Marshal Bulganin calls for closer cooperation between Soviet Union and Western Germany in a personal letter sent to Konrad Adenauer.

France/Soviet Union- February 11, 1957 (KCA)
France and Soviet Union sign a new three-year trade agreement, increasing trade exchanges from year to year.

Soviet Union – February 11-14, 1957 (PLC)
The Supreme Soviet announces a decree on minority rehabilitation. Among others, the Germans living in the Volga area are rehabilitated, but they are not given permission to return to their homes. The 13 500 German war prisoners still in the Soviet Union are allowed to return to Germany.

Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – February 11, 1957 (CWC)
The Soviet Union proposes that France, the United States, the Soviet Union and Great Britain agree not to interfere in the Middle East. The United States rejects the pact on March 11.

Soviet Union- February 12, 1957 (KCA)
A number of important legal changes in the Soviet Union is approved. Re-definition of the status and functions of the Supreme Court being the most significant.

Hungary / U.N. – February 12, 1957 (LBC)
A committee of the U.N. General Assembly postpones the accreditation of the Kádár government’s representative.

Hungary – February 12, 1957 (NMC)
The U.N. General Assembly’s committee on mandates decides that the mandate of Hungarian will not be questioned, accepting an American suggestion.

Hungary – February 13, 1957 (HC)
Oszkár Jászi, one of the leaders of the Hungarian civil radicals, minister in 1918-1919, dies in Oberlin, U.S.

NATO/ European Community- February 14, 1957 (KCA)
The British government notifies the North Atlantic Council and the Council of the Western European Union of its decision to reduce troop commitments in West Germany.  This is part of Britain’s policy of reducing the size of conventional forces while relying on the nuclear deterrent.

Hungary / Romania – February 15, 1957 (KAC)
Gyula Kállai travels to Romania, where he meets the party leaders and Imre Nagy detained in Snagov.

Soviet Union – February 15, 1957 (CWC)
Shepilov is ousted from the foreign ministry. Andrei Gromyko becomes his replacement.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – February 15, 1957 (MOL)
Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union sign an agreement of cooperation on the peaceful use of nuclear power.

Bulgaria/ Soviet Union- February 15-21 (KCA)
A meeting is held between the Bulgarian and Soviet governments in Moscow. They agree to strengthen mutual cooperation and declare their further affiliation to the Warsaw Treaty.
Hungary / Austria – February 19, 1957 (KAC)
Hungarian-Austrian trade negotiations start in Vienna.

Hungary – February 19, 1957 (HC/BBR)
Decree no. 1957:13 by the Hungarian Presidential Council announces that Workers’ Militia will be organized in order to secure the democratic rule.

Soviet Union / U.S. – February 19, 1957 (LBC)
Soviet First Secretary Khrushchev’s interview to the New York Herald Tribune: Soviet troops will be pulled back to Soviet territory from all the countries in Europe where they are stationed. Simultaneously the West European countries should withdraw their troops from foreign countries. The U.S. would pull back its troops from Europe and Asia and all foreign bases would be liquidated. Khrushchev warns: there is no invulnerable territory on the globe and the Soviets are not behind in military technology. He urged the normalization of Soviet-American relations and contact on the highest level.

Hungary / France – February 21, 1957 (KAC)
The media announces that the Hungarian embassy in Paris raised objections against the “provocative treatment” of the Petõfi Folk Ensemble at the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Hungary / Austria – February 21, 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs criticizes Austria again of violating its neutrality.

Bulgaria / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – February 21, 1957 (MOL)
A joint statement of the Soviet and the Bulgarian governments states that friendly relations must be strengthened with Yugoslavia.

Hungary / U.S. – February 22, 1957 (KAC/ LBC)
The Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs officially informs the American Legation in Budapest that Minister Edward Wailes, (who had arrived in Budapest on November 2, 1956), but had not presented his credentials to the Kádár government and „practiced illegal activities in Hungary”, is called on to leave the country. Wailes is called home by the State Department on February 27.

Hungary / Norway – February 22, 1957 (NMC)
In Oslo the Hungarian-Norwegian 1955 trade agreement is extended and other financial questions are discussed.

Hungary / Austria – February 25, 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian police surround the area around the Austrian embassy. Even Ambassador Peinsipp’s identity is checked. The cordon is removed after 5 days.

Hungary / France – February 25-March 2, 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian authorities organize police checks at the French embassy probably in order to frighten away the Hungarian visitors. The French diplomatic mission raises objections in a memorandum. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs answers that the authorities are looking for those prisoners who were freed during the “counterrevolution”.

Hungary – February 28, 1957 (HC)
The Provisional Revolutionary Government of Workers and Peasants is renewed. President: János Kádár. Deputy President: Ferenc Münnich. State Minister: György Marosán. Ministers: Béla Biszku (Interior), Frigyes Doleschall (Health), Imre Dögei (Agriculture), Géza Révész (Defense), Antal Apró (Industry), Imre Horváth (Foreign), Gyula Kállai (Culture), István Kossa (Finance), György Csanádi (Transportation and Post), János Tausz (Internal Trade), József Kilián (Construction), Ferenc Nezvál (Justice), Jenő Incze (External Trade), József Mekis (Labor).


March 1957

Hungary – March and April, 1957 (BBR)
Nagy’s book On Communism: In Defense of the New Course, appears in the West.

Poland- March 1, 1957 (KCA)
The Polish parliament (Seym) adopts important changes in its organization. It will be convened at least twice a year and will form 19 committees.

Hungary – March 2, 1957 (NMC)
An extension of the Hungarian-Danish trade agreement is signed in Budapest.

Poland / Soviet Union – March 5, 1957 (PSN)
Poland and the Soviet Union sign an agreement on the location of the northern Baltic border.

Hungary – March 6, 1957 (HC)
The first issue of the Magyarország (Hungary), the weekly paper of the Mihály Táncsics Circle, is published.

Hungary / U.S. – March 7, 1957 (LBC)
Washington accuses the Hungarian government that the visitors of the U.S. Legation are being „harassed and arrested”..

Soviet Union- March 8, 1957 (KCA)
A test of nuclear weapons is executed in the Soviet Union.

Hungary / U.K. – March 8, 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs sends a memorandum to the British government raising objections against the anti-Hungarian government propaganda.

Hungary / Austria – March 8, 1957 (NMC)
The media publishes the declaration of the Foreign Ministry about Austrian-Hungarian relations. It is stated that Austria is responsible for the worsening relations.

Hungary – March 8, 1957 (KAC)
Count János Eszterházy, former president of the Hungarian Party, dies in a hospital prison in Mirov (Moravia).

Hungary – March 9, 1957 (HC)
The Office of Religious Affairs of the Ministry of Culture announces that József Mindszenty was sentenced to life imprisonment. He cannot hold any religious offices, following his orders is illegal.

Hungary – March 9, 1957 (KAC)
Yves Montand and his wife, Simone Signoret, visit Hungary. The world-famous chanson singer gives four concerts in the Erkel Theater in Budapest from March 11. (The Hungarian popularity of the singer can be demonstrated with the fact that his autobiography published in 1956 sold 100,000 copies and a second edition was published in 1957.)

Hungary – March 10, 1957 (HC)
Governmental decree 16/1957 announces that March 15 will be a school holiday.

Eastern Germany/Soviet Union- March 12, 1957 (KCA)
A Soviet- East German agreement on the status of Soviet troops in Eastern Germany is signed in East Berlin.

Hungary – March 12, 1957 (HC)
Mihály Francia Kiss, the mass murderer of the Horthy “white terror”, is arrested.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – March 14, 1957 (KAC/BER)
The new Hungarian ambassador to Yugoslavia, Lajos Cséby presents his credentials to Yugoslav Premier Josip Broz Tito.

Hungary / Soviet Union – March 14, 1957 (KAC)
Gromov, the new Soviet ambassador in Budapest, presents his credentials to István Dobi.

U.S. – March 14, 1957 (LBC)
U.S Deputy Secretary of State Christian Herter announces upon his arrival in London that the U.S. are ready to take the first steps towards arms reduction.

Yugoslavia- March 15, 1957 (KCA)
President of the Yugoslav Federal Assembly and one of the closest associates of Marshall Tito, Moshe Pijade, dies in Paris.

Hungary – March 15, 1957 (HC)
The first issue of the Élet és Irodalom, a weekly paper of literature and politics, is published.

Soviet Union – March 15, 1957 (LBC)
Soviet Defense Minister Zhukov opines that in case of war the Soviet Union’s major striking capability would be its thermonuclear arsenal. A new war would mutually destroy both sides.

Hungary / U.S. – March 15, 1957 (NMC)
The temporary deputy ambassador to Washington DC sends a memorandum to the American Foreign Ministry raising objections against the arrest of several Hungarian citizens. Presumably László Jeney and György Kárpáti (waterpolo players), Róbertné Déry and her son, László Rónai, József Kiss, József Király were arrested in the United States.

Hungary – March 15, 1957 (BBR)
Security forces assert control over Budapest and other larger cities on the anniversary of the 1848 Hungarian Revolution. In Romania by this time, more than 20 prisoners have been executed and several hundred arrested in connection with the Hungarian uprising. The first issue of the exile Irodalmi Újság ("Literary Gazette") appears in London.

Soviet Union- March 16, 1957 (KCA)
The Soviet Union issues a proposal for all-European cooperation in atomic energy and economic development.

Soviet Union / U.S. – March 18, 1957 (LBC)
Soviet disarmament plan in the U.N. Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Zorin recommends the aerial and ground supervision of the armed forces. According to the Russian proposal, nuclear weapons would be banned. Eisenhower’s disarmament advisor Harold Stassen agrees with the Soviet proposal to reduce the Soviet and American forces by 2.5 million each and the British and French by 750 thousand. According to Stassen the exchange of military plans and graduated arms reduction could lead to results in arms reduction within nine months.

Soviet Union/ Western Powers- March 18, 1957 (KCA)
Negotiations open in London between the Soviet Union and the Western Powers (U.S., U.K., France, Canada) on the issue of mutual disarmament

Hungary – March 19, 1957 (NMC)
István Kálló, the new Hungarian ambassador to Israel, presents his credentials in Tel Aviv.

Hungary / Soviet Union – March 20-28, 1957 (KAC)
A Hungarian party and government delegation negotiates in Moscow led by Kádár. According to these negotiations, in 1957 Hungary is given a loan of goods and money worth 875 million rubles from the Soviet Union. They agree to talk about the legal situation of the Soviet troops in Hungary. The leaders of the two parties meet separately on March 27-28 to discuss the international situation and the question of the international workers’ movement. The two parties decide to cooperate more.

Hungary – March 21, 1957 (HC)
The Hungarian Young Communist League is founded in the Erkel Theater in Budapest.

Hungary / U.S. – March 21, 1957 (LBC)
The U.S. give four million dollars to facilitate the settlement of Hungarian refugees outside the United States.

Poland – March 22, 1957 (PSN)
An act is passed treating the extraordinary claims of employees as void.

Hungary – March 24, 1957 (HC)
Decree no. 1957:22 by the Hungarian Presidential Council announces that the Presidential Council has to approve all appointments to top religious offices. Similarly, religious officers can be only moved or dismissed with the approval of the Presidential Council.

Poland- March 25, 1957 (KCA)
The reduction of Polish armed forces by 44 500 officers is implemented. Two reductions, in 1955 and 1956, totalling 97 000 men, had previously been made.

Poland / Soviet Union – March 25, 1957 (PSN)
A repatriation agreement is signed by Poland and the Soviet Union allowing those who were Polish citizens on September 17, 1939 (and their children) and had close relatives in Poland, but not in the Soviet Union, to be repatriated to Poland. The agreement applied to those of Jewish ancestry but not to other minorities.

Soviet Union / Norway – March 26, 1957 (CWC)
Soviet Union warns Norway not to allow NATO bases on its territory.

Hungary / Soviet Union – March 27, 1957 (KAC)
Soviet Prime Minister Bulganin during the Hungarian delegation’s visit in the Soviet Union states that the Yugoslav leaders encouraged and helped the Hungarian “counterrevolution”. Kádár criticizes Kardelj and Popvic because of their speeches about the October events.

Hungary / Austria – March 28, 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian delegation led by György Marosa planning to attend the 17th congress of the Austrian Communist Party is not given permission to enter the country.

Hungary / Soviet Union – March 28, 1957 (KAC)
Gyula Kállai, Minister of Culture, signs the Soviet-Hungarian Cultural Agreement for 1957 in Moscow.

Hungary / Soviet Union – March 28, 1957 (KRI)
Agreements on the placement of Soviet troops in Hungary are signed in Moscow.

Hungary – March 29, 1957 (NMC)
The Hungarian Foreign Ministry raises objections in a memorandum to the U.N. because the mandate of Hungary was not recognized.

Hungary – March 29, 1957 (HC)
Decree no. 1957:24 by the Hungarian Presidential Council announces that the procedure to return home will be made easier for those who fled the country. Those emigrating between October 23, 1956 and January 31, 1957 will not be punished if they return before March 31. The cases of those returning after April 1 will be evaluated individually.


April 1957

Poland / China / Korea / Mongolia / Vietnam – April 1957 (PSM)
Polish Prime Minister Cyrankiewicz visits China, Vietnam, Korea and Mongolia.

Hungary / Romania – April, 1957 (HC)
The first issue after 17 years of Korunk is published in Cluj. Editors: Edgár Balogh, Ernő Gáll.

Poland – April, 1957 (PSN)
First Secretary of the PUWP Gomulka condemns deviation as a way of fixing past mistakes.

Hungary – April, 1957 (HC)
During the month party and government leaders organize meetings, workers’ assemblies, popular assemblies and ideological lecture series in Budapest and other cities. Among others János Kádár (Budapest, Sportcsarnok), Jenő Fock (Csepel), Ferenc Münnich (Budapest, Technological University), István Dobi (Kaposvár), Gyula Kállai (Szombathely), Lajos Fehér (Tamási) talk about current political problems.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – April 1, 1957 (LKT)
U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles decides to resume some aircraft deliveries to Yugoslavia. He directs that a press release be prepared that emphasizes the training aspects involved in providing the planes in order to blunt any domestic criticism of his action.

Hungary / Soviet Union – April 2, 1957 (KAC)
Kádár reports about his negotiations in Moscow to the Temporary Responsible Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party. He states that the members of the Nagy group will be trialed. Kádár repeats these statements at the KP session on April 5.

Hungary / France – April 4, 1957 (KAC)
The French authorities continue to diplomatically boycott the Hungarian government and so they do not attend the reception organized at the Hungarian embassy in Paris to celebrate the national day. Representatives of the French Communist Party and other socialist countries attend the celebration.

Hungary / / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – April 5, 1957 (MOL/BER/KAC)
In an article titled Accusations and Facts published in Borba, Vlajko Begović criticizes the Moscow declaration of János Kádár and Bulganin and assumes that another trial against Yugoslavia is under way, based on the Rajk trial of 1949.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – April 5, 1957 (BBR)
Kádár writes to the Yugoslav government requesting that the “right of asylum” accorded to Nagy and his associates be formally annulled.

Hungary – April 6, 1957 (BBR)
The People's Tribunal Council of the Supreme Court is established. It serves on the one hand as the general court of appeals for legal proceedings connected to the process of official retaliation, and on the other hand as the court of first instance for especially important cases, providing no possibility for appeal. The people's tribunals, together with the Act of People's Jurisdiction, become the primary means of legal reprisal against the revolution.

Hungary / U.S. – April 9, 1957 (LBC)
Gleason, deputy of the U.S. military attaché is expelled from Hungary due to charges of espionage.

Poland/Soviet Union- April 9, 1957 (KCA)
The protocol on Soviet-Polish trade for the year 1957 is signed in Moscow. The value of exchanged trade should be much higher than in 1956.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – April 9, 1957 (MOL)
44 underage refugees return to Hungary from Yugoslavia.

U.S. – April 12, 1957 (LBC)
The U.N. Disarmament Subcommittee’s U.S. representative, Harold Stassen, proposes a disarmament plan: from 1958 the world’s fissionable material stock should be redirected to peaceful means and a nuclear supervisory organ should be established.

Hungary – April 13, 1957 (BBR)
The curfew in force in Budapest for the last six months is lifted.

Hungary / Romania – April 14, 1957 (BBR)
Members of the Nagy group who have been arrested are brought back to Budapest from Romania.

Soviet Union / Romania – April 15, 1957 (PLC/RFP)
Negotiations between state delegations from Romania and the Soviet Union are held in Bucharest, concerning the question of Soviet troops. Romanian Foreign Minister Grigore Preoteasa and General Leontin Salajan sign an agreement regarding the juridical status of the Soviet troops temporarily stationed in Romania.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia / Albania – April 17, 1957 (MOL)
A joint declaration of the Soviet and Albanian governments considers it necessary to improve relations with Yugoslavia.

U.S. / Egypt – April 17, 1957 (LBC)
U.S. Attorney General Brownell rejects a proposal put forward by a group of congressional representatives for the emigration of five thousand Jewish refugees from Egypt. According to the attorney general the extension of immigration laws requires Congressional resolution, except for Hungarian immigrants.

Poland / Soviet Union / Western Bloc – April 19, 1957 (LBC)
Khrushchev’s warning to the West: „Don’t try to test as you did in Hungary – with a putschcBe careful! We are not saints and if necessary we can wrap your knuckles.” According to Defense Minister Zhukov the Soviet Union is capable of retaliating any NATO measure. Khrushchev warns Polish Prime Minister Cyrankiewicz that the U.S. is wooing Poland „gas a bride” in order to „to find a lever to use against the Soviet Union and socialism.” According to Khrushchev Poland is the Soviet Union’s best ally and the USSR’s defense capability is the best guarantee for Poland’s western boundaries, since a possible attack on Poland would be regarded as an attack on the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union/ Great Britain- April 20, 1957 (KCA/ LBC)
Soviet Prime Minister Marshal Bulganin sends a conciliatory personal letter to British Prime Minister Macmillan, expressing the view that the two governments could reach agreement on all important international issues.  He calls for MacMillan to review Anthony Eden’s earlier proposal on demilitarization.  Special emphasis is placed on refraining from the use of force in the Middle East and agreeing to an immediate ban on atomic and hydrogen bomb tests.  Bulganin also calls for the resumption of discussions on the establishment of a demilitarized zone in Europe.

Hungary – April 21, 1957 (BBR)
The interior minister dissolves the Writers’ Union.

Hungary – April 21, 1957 (HC)
Decree 1-2/1957 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that “For the power of workers and peasants” medallions will be given to acknowledge the work of the police forces.

Soviet Union – April 21, 1957 (LBC)
An article in Pravda: If the West would withdraw its troops and liquidate its military bases, the Soviet Union would have “noneed for Soviet troops to remain on the territories of Poland, the GDR, Hungary and Romania.”

Hungary / Poland / Soviet Union / U.S. – April 22, 1957 (LBC)
U.S. Foreign Minister Dulles renews the doctrine of the “liberation of the captive nations,” which was a pillar of the Eisenhower administration’s foreign policy. “We seek the liberation of the captive nations…not in order to encircle Russia with hostile forces but because peace is in jeopardy and freedom a word of mockery until the divided nations are reunited and the captive nations are set free.” “We revere and honor those who as martyrs gave their blood for freedom. But we do not ourselves incite violent revolt. Rather, we encourage an evolution to freedom.”The U.S. proposes that the U.N. condemn the invasion against Hungary. When there is step toward independence, such as in the recent past in Poland, America is ready to respond with friendly deeds. “Let us see to it that the divided or captive nations know that they are not forgotten; that we shall never make a political settlement at their expense, and that a heartfelt welcome and opportunity await them as they gain more freedom.

Austria/Soviet Union- April 22-29, 1957 (KCA)
First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Council of Ministers, Anastas Mikoyan, visits Austria. It is the first official visit by a Soviet leader since the Austrian state treaty.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Austria – April 24-27, 1957 (KAC)
Soviet Vice Prime Minister Mikojan visits Austria to discuss, among other topics, Austrian-Hungarian relations.

Finland – April 24, 1957 (HJH)
Väinö Tanner, a former war leader, is elected chairman of the Social Democratic Party by a slight majority.

East Germany – April 25, 1957 (KGS)
The FDJ (Frei Deutsche Jugend – Free German Youth) is declared as an “official socialist youth organization“.

Hungary / Austria – April 28, 1957 (KAC)
A delegation of Hungarian doctors attends the Congress of Doctors in Vienna.

Hungary – April 29, 1957 (HC)
Session of the Budapest City Party Council of the HSWP. György Marosán is elected to be the secretary of the party council.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – April 29-May 4, 1957 (MOL)
The Hungarian-Yugoslav joint committee on technical cooperation in science holds its first session in Belgrade. The committee passes its statutes and discusses the technical prerequisites of their cooperation.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – April 30, 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian-Yugoslav Trade Agreement is signed in Budapest.

Soviet Union / U.S. – April 30, 1957 (LBC)
The Soviet Union puts forward the Soviet version of the “open skies” proposal, which envisions the aerial observation of territories of the U.S., the USSR, Western and Eastern Europe and China, listed by the Soviet Union.


May 1957

Hungary – May 1, 1957 (HC)
General assembly at the Heroes Square in Budapest. János Kádár gives a speech.

Hungary – May 1, 1957 (HC)
The Bakaruhában (“In the clothes of a soldier”), a film directed by Imre Fehér, is first shown.

Hungary Austria – May 1, 1957 (BBR)
Work begins on installation of the first landmine barrier along the Hungary-Austria border.

Hungary – May 5, 1957 (HC)
Spring art exhibition at the Art Gallery. This is the first exhibition since 1948 when art pieces from different schools are displayed.

Austria- May 5, 1957 (KCA)
Adolf Schärf is elected as a new Austrian President after the deceased President, Theodor Körner.

Hungary – May 6, 1957 (HC)
The trial of István Angyal, István Eörsi and their associates in front of the Budapest Courthouse. May 23: Eörsi is sentenced for 5 years, his associates for 1-6 years. May 14: the trial of Angyal is separated, later he is found guilty of initiating and leading activities aiming to overthrow the people’s democracy. He is sentenced to death.

Romania- May 6, 1957 (KCA)
M. Corcinschi, the Romanian minister in London, is asked to recall attache M. Perianu from Britain on allegations of attempting  to recruit Romanians living in Britain as spies.

Hungary / Austria / U.S. – May 7, 1957 (BBR)
A hunger strike breaks out in the Hungarian refugee camp in Austria after emigration to the United States is halted.  Some 100–120 Hungarian students demonstrate in front of the U.S. Embassy in Vienna.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – May 8, 1957 (MOL)
Based on the accord of the Hungarian and the Yugoslav Red Cross, those children under the age of 14 who crossed the Hungarian-Yugoslav border after the 1956 Hungarian revolution will be sent back to their parents to Hungary.

Hungary – May 9, 1957 (BBR)
Parliament meets for the first time since August 3, 1956. The Kossuth coat of arms is replaced by a design for the People’s Republic, known as the Kádár coat of arms

Hungary – May 9, 1957 (HC)
The Parliament chooses the new government. The President of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of Workers and Peasants: János Kádár. First deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers: Ferenc Münnich. Deputy chairman: Antal Apró. State Minister: György Marosán. Ministers: János Tausz (Internal Trade), Béla Biszku (Interior), Frigyes Doleschall (Health), Imre Kovács (Food), Rezső Trautmann (Construction), Imre Dögei (Agriculture), Géza Révész (Defense), Ferenc Nezvál (Justice), János Csergő (Furnace and Machine Industry), Józsefné Nagy (Light Industry), István Kossa (Transportation and Post), Jenő Incze (External Trade), Imre Horváth (Foreign), Ödön Kisházi (Labor), Gyula Kállai (Culture), Sándor Czottner (Heacy Industry), István Antos (Finance). Head of the State Planning Office: Árpád Kiss.

Czechoslovakia/ Poland/ German Democratic Republic- May 9-11, 1957 (KCA)
The Grotewohl-Siroky Discussions are held in East Berlin by representatives of the three parliaments to discuss questions arising from the „remilitarization of the German Federal Republic.“  On May 25 Prime Minister of the German Democratic Republic Grotewohl and Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia Siroky approve the Soviet suggestion of a „neutral zone“ in Central Europe. 

Soviet Union- May 10, 1957 (KCA/ NMC)
In a speech to the Supreme Soviet, Foreign Minister M. Gromyko reiterates his stance that British and American nuclear tests are keeping the world „on the brink of war,“ and that the U.S.S.R. would only discontinue tests if Britain and America did the same.  The Supreme Soviet adopts a resolution to appeal to the U.S. Congress and British Parliament to immediate cessate nuclear tests.

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 10, 1957 (LBC)
Interview with Khrushchev in the New York Times: the relationship of the U.S. and the Soviet Union is the basic problem of the tension in international relations. If the Soviet Union agrees with the U.S. in arms reduction it will also make an agreement with Britain and other powers. In spite of the ideological differences good neighborly relations can be established between the two states.

Soviet Union- May 10, 1957 (KCA)
In a speech to the Supreme Soviet, Foreign Minister M. Gromyko reiterates his stance that British and American nuclear tests are keeping the world „on the brink of war,“ and that the U.S.S.R. would only discontinue tests if Britain and America did the same.  The Supreme Soviet adopts a resolution to appeal to the U.S. Congress and British Parliament to immediate cessate nuclear tests.

Eastern Germany/ Soviet Union- May 10, 1957 (KCA)
A consulate agreement is signed in Moscow between representatives of the two countries.

Hungary – May 11, 1957 (HC)
The Parliament accepts Law 1957: I. stating the Parliament elected on May 17, 1957 will be in power for an extended time period and Law 1957: II. about the change in constitution.

Hungary / China – May 13, 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian-Chinese Loan Agreement is signed in Budapest. China gives a long-term loan of 100 million rubles to Hungary.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – May 13, 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian-Czechoslovak Trade Agreement for 1957 is signed in Prague, stating the volume of trade will be increased by 10%.

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 13, 1957 (LBC)
The U.S offer the Soviet Union a revision of travel restrictions.

Hungary / U.S. – May 14, 1957 (LBC)
Washington reveals that until the first of May 32,075 Hungarian refugees have settled in the U.S. The Presidential Committee for Hungarian Refugees terminates its mission. The U.S. places ten million dollars worth of agricultural products at Austriafs disposal for the use of the 35 thousand Hungarian refugees still in Austria.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 14, 1957 (LBC)
The U.S. renews Yugoslavia’s military assistance. The decision is made with Eisenhower’s consent. Yugoslavia receives 100 million dollars in aid, including 200 jet fighters.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – May 14, 1957 (MOL)
The Yugoslav authorities repatriate another group of 66 Hungarian teenagers to the Hungarian authorities at Srbobran.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 15, 1957 (CUY)
United States Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs John Foster Dulles has a conversation with Yugoslav Ambassador Leo Mates. Dulles suggests that some changes might be announced in American policy toward the supply of weapons to Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 15, 1957 (LKT)
News accounts of the U.S. administration's decision to release 1 million dollar in military aid, including dozens of jet aircraft to Yugoslavia appear in the New York Times. The State Department, in anticipation of both public and congressional criticism, confirms in its press release that the president, under legislation passed by Congress in 1956, has the right to resume such shipments if convinced that Yugoslavia is maintaining its independence.

Poland – May 15-18, 1957 (PSN)
Golmulka reads a contradictory report to the ninth plenary meeting of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers Party calling on more workers control of the economy and at the same time more centralism.

Albania- May 16-17, 1957 (KCA)
M. Panajot Plyaku, member of the central committee of the Albanian communist party, crosses the Yugoslav frontier and requests asylum. 

Hungary / Austria – May 16-18, 1957 (KAC)
Gyula Dabronkai, Vice Minister of Food, visits Vienna.

Hungary / China – May 17, 1957 (KAC)
Sándor Nógrádi, new special ambassador in Beijing, presents his credentials.

Hungary – May 17, 1957 (HC)
Session of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party (HSWP) CC. The report of Jenő Fock: “About the economic situation and the most important tasks for fulfilling the 1957 plan” is accepted. A declaration regarding the principles of the next three-year plan starting from 1958 is announced.

Soviet Union / France – May 20, 1957 (LBC)
Bulganin’s note to French Prime Minister Guy Mollet: since both the USSR and France have been the victims of „aggressive German militarism” in the past and both are powers that are particularly interested” in European security, they should start bilateral talks on disarmament. Bulganin’s proposals: non-aggression treaty between NATO and the Warsaw Pact; the parallel reduction of Soviet and American forces; the establishment of an arms limitation and control zone in Central Europe, including Germany; the reduction of conventional forces and the immediate ban on the accumulation and production of nuclear arms. Bulganin expresses his anxiety that France is deploying American nuclear weapons.

Soviet Union – May 20-23, 1957 (CEC/MMS)
Eighth session of COMECON is held in Warsaw. The principle of long term planning is adopted as well as a plan for improvements for rail and water transport  and an agreement for a multilateral clearing system is signed. The meeting shows concern over the creation of the European Economic Community

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 22, 1957 (KRI)
After incurring the ire of conservatives for decentralizing agricultural and industrial planning, Khrushchev makes a speech calling for the Soviet Union to surpass the United States in meat production within four years.

Finland – May 22, 1957 (HJH)
The Fagerholm government hands in its resignation.

Hungary – May 23, 1957 (BBR)
István Bibó and Zoltán Tildy are arrested.

Hungary / U.S. – May 23, 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian government demands in a memorandum the American government to reduce the number of employees at its embassy in Budapest, because of their „unfriendly behavior”. The American government answers on June 11 in a memorandum that they will not fulfill the Hungarian request.

Hungary / Poland / Soviet Union – May 24, 1957 (KAC)
At the highest level Polish-Soviet negotiations Gomulka asks Khrushchev not to trial Imre Nagy. Khrushchev rejects the suggestion.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – May 25, 1957 (MOL)
Chairman of the Hungarian Presidential Council István Dobi and János Kádár send a telegram to Yugoslav Premier Josip Broz Tito expressing their best wishes on the occasion of Tito's 65 birthday.

Hungary / Soviet Union – May 27, 1957 (KAC)
A Hungarian-Soviet agreement on the legal status of the Soviet troops in Hungary is signed. The text of the agreement is published on May 29.

Finland – May 27, 1957 (HJH/FGV)
The speaker of Eduskunta, Vieno Johannes Sukselainen, forms a new Government, but it has the backing of only 79 out of the 200 delegates to Eduskunta. The government consists of the Agrarian League, the Swedish People’s Party of Finland (RKP), the People’s Party of Finland and Liberal People’s Party.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – May 28, 1957 (MOL)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito speaks at the ribbon cutting ceremony of the water power plant at Navrovo and states that the aim of the Yugoslav government is to gradually reduce the misunderstandings between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union.

Hungary – May 28, 1957 (BBR)
The interior minister orders a political purge of the police force. Some 25–30 percent of the force is dismissed.

Hungary – May 30, 1957 (BBR)
The Kádár government calls on the International Committee of the Red Cross to cease its activities in Hungary by June 30.

Hungary / U.S. – May 30, 1957 (LBC)
The U.S. expels the deputy of the Hungarian military attaché in response to Hungary having expelled the U.S. military attaché.

Hungary / U.S. – May 30, 1957 (LBC)
U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy announces that he will support a law which will make it possible for 75 thousand more Hungarian refugees to enter beyond the 30,906 people already admitted.

Hungary / French – May 30-June 4, 1957 (KAC)
A delegation of the French Communist Party led by Raymond Guyot discusses the October-November 1956 events with the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party. They also talk about the international situation, the questions of the international communist movement and the relations of the two parties. The Hungarians support the peaceful efforts of the French Communist Party to resolve the Algeria conflict.


June 1957

Poland – Summer 1957 (UNW)
11 demonstrations in different industrial plants take place in Wroclaw, Poznan, Bydgoszcz, Warsaw and Lodz. The demonstration of the tram conductors in Lodz is especially serious as it blocks the communication in the second biggest city in Poland for two days.

Hungary / Romania – Summer 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian and Romanian authorities allow family visits, but visas are still required (from October 1956 again).

Hungary – June 1957 (KAC)
A delegation led by Mihály Zsofinyec, Vice Minister of Machine Industry, travels to China to sign the Technical-Scientific Cooperation Agreement.

Hungary / Soviet Union / U.S. – June 2, 1957 (LBC)
Khrushchev’s interview on U.S. television: if the West (including the U.S.) pulls back its forces from the FRG and other parts of Western Europe, the Soviet Union will withdraw its forces from Eastern Europe. On Hungary: “The Kádár regime, which is the people’s regime in Hungary, will flourish for ages to come. Where the working class has won power it will not yield that power to the exploiters.”

Hungary / Soviet Union / U.S. – June 2, 1957 [CWC]
Khrushchev appears on Face the Nation. He defends Soviet actions in Hungary and insists that America is preparing for war.

Hungary – June 5, 1957 (HC)
The Parliament accepts Law 1957: IV. about the regulations of state conduct.

Hungary – June 5, 1957 (HC)
Governmental decree 32/1957 is announced stating a Science and Higher Education Council will be established.

Bulgaria / Hungary – June 5-11, 1957 (HC/NMC)
A Bulgarian party and government delegation led by Todor Zhikov, the First Secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party, stays in Hungary. A joint declaration is signed on June 10, after the negotiations. For the occasion, a general assembly is organized where both Kádár and Zhikov give speeches on June 7.

Hungary June 6, 1957 (HC)
The Parliament accepts Law 1957: V. about the regulation of citizenship.

Finland – June 6-13, 1957 (HJH/ KCA)
Nikita Khrushchev and the Soviet Prime Minister Nikolai Bulganin travel to Finland for a one week visit, and from speeches that they make during their stay it is clear that Finland has a substantial role to play in Soviet foreign policy.  During the visit officials of both countries affirm their „good-neighborly relations.“  However, Finland maintains its neutral position with regards to contradictions between the great powers.  In addition, a new, more expansive trade protocol is signed.

Poland / U.S. – June 7, 1957 (LBC)
The U.S and Poland sign a 95 million dollar commercial agreement. The two governments agree to start talks on the liberation of Polish assets originating from the period prior to World War II that are frozen in the United States and about U.S. claims on assets nationalized in Poland. Vice President Nixon: the Polish loan is a risk worth taking in the hope that Poland will turn its back on communism. According to Nixon the agreement signifies to the world that the Polish people are not forgotten, nor are the millions of others who are behind the iron curtain.
Hungary / China – June 8, 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian-Chinese Trade Agreement for 1957 is signed in Budapest.

Soviet Union / France – June 8, 1957 (LBC)
Mollet rejects Bulganin’s offer on bilateral French-Soviet disarmament talks.

Hungary / Soviet Union / U.S. – June 8, 1957 (LBC)
The leader of the Republican caucus of the Senate, William F. Knowland calls on Dulles to react to Khrushchev’s speech on U.S. television. In this the Soviet leader offered to pull out from Hungary. The senator suggests that the U.S. withdraw from Norway in return for Russian withdrawal from Hungary. This exchange would be the first step in the „country-for-country” Soviet-American withdrawal process.

U.S. – June 11, 1957 (LBC)
Dulles rejects the Knowland plan.

Hungary / Austria – June 11, 1957 (NMC)
The Hungarian government sends a memorandum to the Austrian embassy in Budapest raising objections against the Austrian attempt of kidnapping two Hungarian border officers.

Hungary / Switzerland – June 12, 1957 (NMC)
Fritz Hegg, the new Swiss ambassador to Budapest, presents his credentials.

Hungary – June 13, 1957 (NMC)
Hungary and Egypt agree to raise their diplomatic relations to the ambassador level.

Hungary / Soviet Union – June 13, 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian-Soviet Radio and Television Cooperation Agreement is signed in Moscow.

Hungary – June 15, 1957 (HC)
Decree no. 1957:34 by the Hungarian Presidential Council announces that people’s tribunal councils will be established, the court system and the criminal procedure will be regulated. In order to maintain order and security and further consolidate the laws of socialism, the fastened criminal procedures will become more common and county people’s tribunals will be established.

Romania – June 15, 1957 (KAC)
The Buletinul Oficial’s decree no 260 states that all foreign citizens traveling to Romania must tell where they are going at the border; they have to arrive to the identified location within three days and register at the local police station within 24 hours.

Soviet Union – June 15, 1957 (LBC)
MacMillan’s letter to Bulganin: the precondition of the relaxation of East-West tension is full disarmament and simultaneous political settlements. The chief sources of East-West tension are the political division of Europe and Germany, Soviet policy in the Middle-East and Soviet oppression in Hungary.

Soviet Union / U.S. – June 15, 1957 (LBC)
The Soviet Union rejects the American proposal to abolish travel restrictions.

Soviet Union / Finland – June 18-20, 1957 (PLC)
While Khrushchev visits Finland, he is dismissed from his office by the Politburo. Molotov will be the new head of the CPSU.

Hungary / Soviet Union – June 19, 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian journalist delegation led by Dezsõ Nemes, editor of the Népszabadság, returns home having spent 5 weeks in the Soviet Union.

Hungary / Finland – June 19, 1957 (NMC)
Toiro Heikkile, the new Finnish ambassador to Budapest, presents his credentials to Imre Horváth, the Hungarian Foreign Minister.

Soviet Union – June 19, 1957 (KRI)
Conservative members of the Presidium attempt to remove Khrushchev. While the conservatives receive seven out of eleven votes, Khrushchev insists that the Central Committee make the decision.

Hungary / U.S. – June 20, 1957 (KAC)
Dallam, the American Air Force attaché, is accused of espionage and is deported from Hungary.

Hungary/ Soviet Union/ U.N.- June 20, 1957 (KCA/ BBR)
A U.N. report is published condemning the Soviet military presence in Hungary and refuting claims of the Soviet government and Kadar regime that the uprising of 1956 had been the work of „reactionaries,“ „capitalist elements,“ and „Western imperialists,“arguing instead that it had been primarily undertaken by the working-class.  The report condemns the repressive activities of the Hungarian secret police, the „massive“ Soviet military intervention in response to the uprising, and the deportation of Hungarians to the U.S.S.R. following the intervention.  The document becomes a best-seller in the United States. The Kádár government describes it as interference in Hungary’s internal affairs. In September, the U.N. General Assembly formally adopts the report.

Soviet Union – June 22- 29, 1957 (KRI/PLC)
A special plenum of the Central Committee decides to keep Khrushchev (supported by Zhukov) and condemns the action of the seven “anti-party group” conservatives. Molotov, Malenkov and Kaganovitch are removed from their offices and given low level management positions.

Hungary – June 15, 1957 (HC)
The trial of Mihály Farkas, Gábor Péter and their associates starts at the Budapest Military Court. Farkas is sentenced to 8 years, Péter to 6 years. 

Yugoslavia – June 25-27, 1957 (MOL)
The first congress of the Yugoslav workers' councils is held in Belgrade and is opened by Tito. Numerous foreign delegations are expected to attend, among them the delegations of the trade unionist councils of the Soviet Union, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Romania.

Yugoslavia – June 26, 1957 (CUY/LKT)
As part of the See It Now series, Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito gives an interview to Edward R. Murrow about, among other topics, the situation in the Communist block after the Hungarian revolution, the relations between state and church in Yugoslavia, the possibility of reunification of Germany and the general situation in the Middle East. Tito stresses that Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union are both building Socialism, but by different methods.

Yugoslavia / United Arab Republic – June 26, 1957 (RYN)
A long-term agreement on trade, economic cooperation, and payments is concluded between Yugoslavia and the United Arab Republic.

Hungary – June 27-29, 1957 (HC)
National conference of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party HSWP. The reasons and antecedents of the “counterrevolution” are analyzed. The policies of the temporary central committee of the party are approved. The tasks for consolidating power and building socialism are determined. The new organizational rules are approved. Members of the Political Committee: Antal Apró, Béla Biszku, Lajos Fehér, Jenő Fock, János Kádár, Gyula Kállai, Károly Kiss, György Marosán, Ferenc Münnich, Sándor Rónai and Miklós Somogyi. Deputy members: Zoltán Komócsin and Dezső Nemes. Members of the CC Secretariat: Jenő Fock, János Kádár, Gyula Kállai, Károly Kiss and György Marosán. First Secretary of the CC: János Kádár.

United States/ People’s Republic of China- June 28, 1957 (KCA)
U.S. Secretary of State J.F. Dulles gives a speech reiterating the American policy of non-recognition of the Chinese communist regime, citing China’s attack on American and U.N. forces in Korea and its support of communism in Indo-China. 

Romania – June 28-29, 1957 (PLC)
Session of the Central Committee of the Romanian Workers’ Party. The Muscovites lose support forever; the Stalinist national communists gain influence.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – June 30, 1957 (NMC)
The media publishes the report of the Hungarian Foreign Ministry about Hungarian-West German and Hungarian-Yugoslav relations. According to this report, Hungarian-West German relations cannot improve because of the SZER and other immigrant organizations in the FRG. Hungarian-Yugoslav relations could have improved before October 23, 1956, but since November 4, 1956 the two countries decides to follow different ideologies. Still, according to the spokesman both sides are willing to improve relations in the future.


July 1957

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – July 1957 (DCO)
Khrushchev and Bulganin visit Czechoslovakia. This is the first official visit of the Soviet political elite to the country.

Hungary – July, 1957 (HC)
The Társadalmi Szemle publishes the theories of agricultural policy of the HSWP.

Hungary / Romania – July-August 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian and Romanian authorities allow family visits, but visas are still required (from October 1956 again).

Czechoslovakia / Poland – July 1957 (PSM)
The Polish-Czechoslovak Committee for Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation is set up.

Poland – July 1957 (UNW)
The Polish Sejm (Parliament) approves the Five-Year Plan for the period 1956-1960. Emphasis will be on heavy industry, instead of production of consumer goods. Agriculture will be supported.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – July 2, 1957 (MOL)
An article published in the daily paper of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (Népszabadság) writes about Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito's speech at Brioni. According to the article, Tito concluded that the people and the working class of Hungary increasingly support the Kádár government.

Hungary – July 2, 1957 (HC)
The first Hungarian news is broadcasted on television.

Soviet Union- July 3, 1957 (KCA)
The Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party announces its decision to expell Molotov, Kaganovich, and Malenkov from the Presidium, Central Committee, and Soviet Government.  The three officials are accused of setting up an „anti-party group“ within the Presidium and Central Committee as well as opposition to the agricultural and industrial resolutions of the 20th Party Congress and measures aimed at dismantling the cult of personality. 

Romania- July 4, 1957 (KCA)
The Central Committee of the Romanian Worker’s Party dismisses M. Josip Chisinevschi and M. Miron Constantinescu on accusations of “factionalism” and “anti-party activities,” and of supporting “rightist” policies.

Poland/ France- July 9, 1957 (KCA)
A Franco-Polish cultural agreement is signed providing for the free movement of nationals between either country and the mutual importation of books and other forms of print media, as well as the teaching of the French and Polish languages.

Soviet Union/ France- July 10, 1957 (KCA)
A contract is signed between the Soviet Union and a group of French engineering companies securing the supply of 35 locomotives for Soviet railways.  In return, France will purchase coal and other raw materials from the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union/ Afghanistan- July 17-31, 1957 (KCA)
The king of Afghanistan visits the Soviet Union, reiterating “friendly and good-neighborly relations between the two countries.”

Albania / Bulgaria / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – July 18, 1957 (MOL)
First Secretary of the CPSU Nikita S. Khrushchev meets the party leaders of Yugoslavia, Albania and Bulgaria.

Hungary / China – July 18, 1957 (KAC)
The Chinese-Hungarian Cultural Agreement for 1957 is signed in Budapest.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – July 19, 1957 (KAC)
A Hungarian-Czechoslovak loan agreement of 100 million rubles is signed in Budapest to be paid back between 1960 and 1967.

Soviet Union- July 20, 1957 (KCA)
The Soviet Union announces that any foreign vessels entering the area of Peter the Great Bay in the Pacific Ocean will require the express permission of Soviet authorities.  The announcement is met with protest by the governments of the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan.

Hungary – July 20, 1957 (HC)
Governmental decree 1065/1957 announces that from September 1 people will be paid according to their efficiency, “everywhere where it is beneficial for both the workers and the national economy, and where it is possible to measure efficiency”.

Soviet Union / U.S. – July 24, 1957 (LBC)
According to an Inturist report, in 1956 487 thousand foreigners came to the USSR from 84 countries, and 584 thousand Soviets visited 61countries. 416 thousand on business, 44 thousand as tourists. According to the report 2,500 Americans went to the Soviet Union and only 350 Russians went to the U.S.

Hungary / Austria – July 25, 1957 (KAC)
Austrian Chancellor Julius Raab meets Frigyes Puja, Hungarian ambassador, to discuss the current problems about the two countries’ relations. They do not reach any agreements.

East Germany / West Germany – July 27, 1957 (KGS)
A confederation between East Germany and West Germany based on parity is proposed by the GDR.

Federal Republic of Germany/ United States/ United Kingdom/ France- July 29, 1957 (KCA)
A declaration is issued in West Berlin by representatives of the four Western states referring to the Federal Republic of Germany as “the only Government qualified to speak for the German people as a whole.”  The declaration also reiterates commitment to the reunification of Germany on the part of all parties involved

Hungary / Soviet Union – July 29-August 1, 1957 (HC/NMC)
The 6th World Youth Meeting in Moscow. The Hungarian delegation is led by Zoltán Komócsin.

United Nations- July 29, 1957 (KCA)
The creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency comes into existence.  The agency will have 27 members, including all five nuclear powers: the United States, United Kingdom, France, Canada, and the Soviet Union. 


August 1957

Hungary / U.N. – August, 1957 (HC)
Nationwide meetings are organized to protest the report of the U.N. committee working on the Hungarian question, saying the U.N. got involved with Hungary’s domestic problems.

Hungary / Vietnam – August 1-5, 1957 (HC/NMC)
A Vietnamese party and government delegation led by Ho Si Minh travels to Hungary. A general assembly is organized on August 2, Ho Si Minh and György Marosán give speeches. The same day the Hungarian-Vietnamese cultural agreement for 1957 is signed.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – August 1-2 1957 (LKT/MOL)
Tito and First Secretary of the CPSU Nikita S. Khrushchev meet (at first secretly) in Bucharest to talk out their differences. The two men agree once again to suppress their differences in the name of Communist unity and cooperation and to support a number of common foreign policy positions.

East Germany / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – August 2, 1957 (MOL)
The representatives of the Soviet Union, the German Democratic Republic and Yugoslavia sign an agreement on the planned industrial plants in Yugoslavia.

Hungary / Sweden – August 2, 1957 (NMC)
A Hungarian-Swedish air transportation agreement is signed.

Hungary / Egypt – August 6, 1957 (NMC)
Abd-El Hamid Nafeh, the first Egyptian ambassador in Budapest, presents his credentials.

German Democratic Republic/ Soviet Union/ Poland- August 7-14, 1957 (KCA)
A Soviet Delegation led by M. Khrushchev visits the German Democratic Republic.  Both sides renew their commitment to the issue of German reunification.  The German Democratic Republic expresses that this depends on withdrawal from NATO and the Warsaw Pact by the respective countries as well as the withdrawal of the four Powers from German territory.  The Polish government also declares its commitment to German reunification along the same lines.

Hungary – August 8, 1957 (HC/NMC)
The Népszabadság publishes the declaration of the Hungarian Foreign Ministry regarding the June 12 report of the U.N. committee working on the Hungarian question. The report is said to be illegal, because it gets involved with the domestic policies of a country.

Poland – August 12- 14, 1957 (PSN)
Tram workers in Lodz go on strike.

Hungary / Albania – August 16, 1957 (HC/NMC)
The Albanian-Hungarian Trade and Payment Agreement for the 1968-1960 period is signed in Budapest.

Soviet Union / U.S. – August 16, 1957 (LBC)
In a note the U.S. recommend the exchange of television and radio experts from both countries. According to the note this could be the first step towards the „regular, uncensored and mutual” exchange of television and radio programs.

Hungary / India – August 17, 1957 (NMC)
Prime Minister Nehru meets Károly Szarka, Hungarian deputy Foreign Minister, and Aladár Tamás, Hungarian ambassador to New Delhi. Nehru announces during the negotiation that he does not support the U.N. discussion of the Hungarian situation.

Hungary / U.N. – August 19, 1957 (HC/NMC)
Dag Hammarskjold, the U.N. General Secretary, calls for a general assembly on September 10 in order to discuss the report of the committee working on the “Hungarian question”. 

Hungary / Ceylon – August 20, 1957 (NMC)
Bandaranaike, the Prime Minister of Ceylon, meets Károly Szarka, Hungarian Deputy Foreign Minister. 

Hungary / Soviet Union – August 24, 1957 (KAC)
Hungary and the Soviet Union sign an agreement in Budapest about the status of dual citizens.

Soviet Union / U.S. – August 26, 1957 (LBC/PLC/CWC)
The Soviet government officially announces that a successful experiment was carried out with an Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM). The U.S. had not yet conducted a successful experiment. According to the U.S. Secretary of Defense Wilson the announcement was not unexpected and he admitted that the Soviet Union achieved significant success in the field of ICBMs.

Soviet Union / U.S. – August 27, 1957 (LBC)
Dulles opines that the Soviet achievement does not upset the military balance between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union / U.S. – August 28, 1957 (LBC)
Eisenhower calls on the Soviet Union to continue the disarmament talks. He notes that the rejection of the Western proposals coincided with the announcement that the Soviet Union made significant progress in the development of weapons of mass destruction.

Hungary – August 29, 1957 (HC)
Governmental decree 54/1957 announces that compensation will be given to the members of the collective farms in case of an accident.

Soviet Union / Canada / France / U.K. / U.S. – August 29, 1957 (LBC)
At the London conference of the U.N. Disarmament Subcommittee (August 29–September 6.) the U.S., Canada, France and Great Britain table the West’s general proposal for the first step in East-West disarmament, which deals with the reduction of nuclear and conventional arms. Soviet and American armed forces would be reduced to 2.5 million, later to 1.7 million. The French and the British armies would be reduced to 350 thousand each. The four powers would place under international control a given quantity of the various kinds of weapons on their territory. The U.S., Britain, France and the USSR would put at the disposal of an international committee the data concerning their military budgets and expenditures for the sake of international control. All sides will oblige themselves not to use nuclear weapons in response to an attack. Fissionable material would in the future be used for peaceful purposes under international control. If an agreement is made, nuclear tests would be suspended for a year. After the agreement comes into force a committee would control that only peaceful scientific rockets would be launched into the stratosphere. International control systems would be installed so as to protect against a surprise attack. The proposal on ground and aerial control zones is renewed: an international organ under U.N. auspices would supervise the treaty.

Soviet Union / U.S. – August 29, 1957 (LBC)
Moscow rejects the U.S. disarmament proposal.

Soviet Union- August 29, 1957 (KCA)
M. Molotov is appointed ambassador to Mongolia.  This is taken as a sign of his falling out of favor with the Communist Part of the Soviet Union.  He was recently removed from his post as head of the now-defunct Ministry of State Control and placed in a much less prestigious post. 

Soviet Union / U.S. – August 30, 1957 (LBC/PLC)
The Soviet Union opens five, hitherto closed cities for foreign visitors (Uzhgorod, Lvov, Chernovtsi, Irkutsk, Riga) and is willing to negotiate with the U.S. on the basis of reciprocity on the relaxation of travel restrictions applying to diplomats. At the same time, along the Chinese frontier it closes for Western tourists 210 square miles of territory in Soviet Asia – Frunze, Alma Ata, parts of Kazakhstan and Kirgizia, as well as areas around Leningrad and Moscow.

Hungary / U.S. – August 31, 1957 (KAC)
An announcement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is published about American-Hungarian relations. The US will provide a haven to Mindszenty.


September 1957

Yugoslavia / U.S. – September 1957 (MOL)
The Secretary of State for Commerce of the United States visits the Zagreb fair and meets Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito.

Hungary – September, 1957 (HC)
The first issue of the Kortárs, a periodical of literature and criticism, is published. Editors: József Darvas and Gábor Tolnai.

Hungary – September, 1957 (HC)
A csodacsatár („The miraculous striker”) a film directed by Márton Keleti, and the Gerolsteini kaland („The adventure in Gerolstein”) by Zoltán Farkas are first shown.


Hungary – September 2, 1957 (NMC)
Several committees of the Hungarian parliament raise objections against the U.N. report on the Hungarian situation.

Poland – September 3, 1957 [PSN]
A meeting protesting the closing of Po Prostu, a student journal vital to the events of 1956 is held in Warsaw, sparking several days of clashes between police and demonstrators.

Hungary / Soviet Union / U.S. – September 3, 1957 (LBC)
The U.S. presents a draft proposal in the U.N., which repeatedly condemns the Soviet Union for crushing the 1956 Hungarian revolution. It calls on the Soviet and the Hungarian governments to put an end to reprisals against the Hungarian people and proposes the inscription of the Hungarian question at the 12th General Assembly of the U.N.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – September 4-8, 1957 (MOL/ KCA)
British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Selwyn Lloyd visits Belgrade.  Lloyd expresses his “firm impression” that Yugoslavia will continue to follow and independent foreign policy despite recent attempts at improving relations with the Soviet Union.

Hungary / France – September 5, 1957 (KAC)
The production of the first Hungarian-French film (La Belle et le Tzigane) starts in Hungary. The film is shown first in 1958.

Hungary / Austria – September 6, 1957 (NMC)
A Hungarian-Austrian trade agreement is signed in Vienna.

Hungary / Syria – September 6, 1957 (NMC)
Károly Szarka, Hungarian Deputy Foreign Minister, arrives to Syria, the next stop of his journey through Asia and Africa. He meets the Prime Minister and the Minister of Defense.

Soviet Union / Canada / France / U.K. / U.S. – September 6, 1957 (LBC/ KCA)
The London conference of the U.N. Disarmament Subcommittee ends.  Talks are suspended indefinitely after the viewpoints of the two sides prove to be irreconcilable.  Negotiations had been in progress for nearly six months before they total collapse. 

Hungary / Mongolia – September 8, 1957 (HC)A Mongolian delegation led by Cedenbal, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, arrives to Hungary for a five-day visit.

Hungary / Soviet Union / U.N. – September 8, 1957 (LBC)
U.S delegate in the U.N. Cabot-Lodge’s televised speech: Hungary will sooner or later regain its freedom and the U.N.’s resolution will contribute to this. He assured the Soviet Union that his country “ has never thought that a free Hungary…should have other than neutral foreign policy, or that it should be brought into any military alliances with the West.”

Romania / Mongolia – September 9, 1957 (RCW)
A meeting between a delegation of the People's Republic of Mongolia led by Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal and the Romanian government in Bucharest. Tsedenbal describes the formation of the history and current state of relations between the Mongolian and Soviet Communist parties, Mongolia's relationship with the People's Republic of China, as well as the status of economic reforms in Mongolia.

Hungary / Egypt – September 10, 1957 (NMC)
Abd El Moneim El Kajsuni, the Egyptian Finance Minister, arrives to Budapest accepting a Hungarian invitation.

Hungary / Sweden – September 10, 1957 (NMC)
As a result of the Budapest negotiations, the Hungarian-Swedish trade agreement is extended till January 31, 1958.

Hungary – September 10-14, 1957 (NMC/ KCA/LBC)
The U.N. General Assembly meets to discuss the report prepared about the situation in Hungary. A dismissing declaration is accepted on 14 September (60 countries voted for, against: 10, abstain: 10). According to the U.N. decision, the 12th regular General Assembly will discuss the Hungarian question also. Prince Wan is chosen to be the U.N. observer in Hungary, but he is not given permission to enter the country. The U.N. condemns the Soviet Union and demands that the Soviet troops leave Hungary, asserting that “the current Hungarian regime has been imposed on the Hungarian people by the armed intervention of the U.S.S.R.”

Poland / Yugoslavia – September 10-16, 1957 (MOL/KCA)
Members of the Polish party and cabinet delegation, led by Gomulka, visit Belgrade. This is the first time since 1948 that a Polish-Yugoslav meeting takes place on such a high level.  A declaration is released calling for closer cooperation between the two communist parties.  Most importantly, Yugoslavia agrees to recognition of the German Democratic Republic for the first time, in addition to accepting the Soviet position that German reunification can only result from direct negotiations between the two German states.

Hungary / Soviet Union / U.N. – September 14, 1957 (LBC)
A special session of the U.N. General Assembly is convened on Hungary. It condemns the Soviet Union for the 1956 intervention in Hungary. It calls on the Soviet Union and Hungary for their governments “to refrain from oppressive measures against the Hungarian people.” According to the resolution the Soviet Union deprived Hungary of its freedom and the Hungarian people of the exercise of its basic rights; the present Hungarian regime was imposed on the Hungarian people by [the Soviet Union’s] armed intervention; the Soviet Union carried out mass deportations in Hungary and violated the Geneva convention of 1949; the present Hungarian government is violating the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Paris peace treaty. The resolution appoints Prince Wan Waithayakon of Thailand as the U.N. observer, but Hungary denies Wan access to the country.

Finland / U.N. – September 14, 1957 (GNI)
U.N. General Assembly calls for an immediate withdrawal of Soviet forces from Hungarian territory. Finland is the only European democracy to abstain on the demand for withdrawal of Soviet forces.

Finland – September 15, 1957 (EKK)
The Finnish markka is devaluated by 28%.

Hungary / The Netherlands – September 18, 1957 (NMC)
The Hungarian-Dutch trade agreement is extended till March 31, 1958.

Soviet Union / U.S. – September 18, 1957 [CWC]
Gromyko holds a press conference criticizing American foreign policy and the Eisenhower doctrine on the Middle East in particular. He also states that any attempt to remove Syria's government by Turkey would be a serious violation of international law.

Soviet Union / U.S. – September 18, 1957 (LBC)
A paper by U.S. Secretary of State Dulles on U.S. security policy: the doctrine of massive retaliation became obsolete with the appearance of tactical nuclear weapons. In case of a conventional attack there is no longer need to use the full striking power, mobile tactical nuclear weapons will be enough to stave off an attack if regional defense systems are installed. (The U.S. gave up the doctrine of massive retaliation because the Soviet Union became capable of delivering ballistic rockets to U.S. territory, hence the doctrine lost its credibility. It was hardly conceivable that the U.S. leadership would retaliate with strategic nuclear weapons a Soviet attack in e.g. South East Asia, thus prostrating U.S. territory to Soviet nuclear attack).

Hungary / Yugoslavia – September 19, 1957 (NMC)
Jenő Incze, the Hungarian Minister of Foreign Trade, informs the government about his visits to Syria, Egypt and Yugoslavia.

Finland – September 20, 1957 (SJM)
The national composer, Jean Sibelius, dies.

Hungary – September 22, 1957 (NMC)
The Hungarian Foreign Ministry publishes a declaration about the U.N. General Assembly declaration on Hungary.

Hungary / Austria – September 24, 1957 (NMC)
Another memorandum is sent to the Austrian Foreign Ministry about the situation of underage refugees in Austria.

Hungary / Syria – September 24-28, 1957 (NMC)
A Syrian parliamentary delegation led by Rafik Basur, the deputy chairman of the parliament, stays in Hungary.

Hungary / Austria / U.N. – September 25, 1957 (KAC)
At the U.N. General Assembly Leopold Figl, Austrian Minister of Foreign Affairs, urges for amnesty for the participants of the 1956 revolution.
Hungary / China – September 27-October 4, 1957 (KAC)
A delegation led by Kádár, First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party, discusses the international situation, the question of unity within the socialist bloc and the terms of Hungarian-Chinese relations with the leaders of the Chinese government and the Chinese Communist Party in Beijing. Kádár gives a speech at the Beijing assembly on October 3. A joint declaration is signed on October 4. Members of the Hungarian delegation: György Marosán State Minister, István Szirmai, President of the Informational Office and Péter Vályi, President of the Planning Office. 

Finland – September 30, 1957 (SJM)
J. Sibelius is buried at his home in Ainola, Järvenpää.


October 1957

East-Central Europe – October 2, 1957 (CACHPB/NMC/PLC/PSN)
The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Poland, Adam Rapacki, presents on the forum of the United Nations an initiative which aims to create a nuclear-weapons-free zone in the region of East-Central Europe, including Poland, Czechoslovakia and both parts of Germany. The plan is rejected mainly by the United States and Great Britain. The
idea becomes known as the Rapacki Plan.

France/ Poland- October 2, 1957 (KCA)
A Franco-Polish agreement is signed providing for the exchange of scientists between the two countries. 

Poland – October 3-6, 1957 (PLC) 
Student demonstrations in Poland.

Soviet Union – October 4, 1957 (HC/ KCA)
The first artificial satellite is launched. This is the first such instance in human history and was met with considerable alarm by U.S. officials, who fear that this indicates that the Soviet Union may have developed rockets powerful enough to deliver inter-continental ballistic missiles. 
Soviet Union – October 4, 1957 (CAC)
The Soviet Union launches Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth, unofficially marking the start of the space race between the United States and Soviet Union, and fueling a parallel effort in the broader area of high technology, especially in the military sphere.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – October 4-8, 1957 (MOL)
John Blatnik, representative of the U.S. House of Congress visits Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia – October 5, 1957 (PLC)
Milovan Dilas is sentenced to 7 more years in prison, because of his book, The new class, published in the United States. He will be released in 1961.

Soviet Union / U.S. – October 5, 1957 (LBC)
The Soviet Union announces that it has launched first artificial satellite, the Sputnik. Opinions: According to U.S. Senator Jackson the launching of the satellite dealt a devastatingblow to the prestige of the U.S. as the world’s leading scientific and technological power. Senator Bridges: it is time to be less “concerned with the depth of the pile on the new broadloom rug or the height of the tail fin on the new car and to be more prepared to shed blood, sweat and tears if this country and the free world are to survive.”

Soviet Union / U.S. – October 7, 1957 (LBC)
In an interview to the New York Times Khrushchev asserts that he is willing to place the satellites and the rockets under international control in the framework of a Soviet-American agreement.

Soviet Union / U.S. – October 8, 1957 (LBC)
Dulles agrees with the idea of international control, but not in the framework of a bilateral Soviet-American agreement. According to Dulles the launching of the Sputnik is “a great scientific achievement,” but means only a propaganda advantage to the Russians.

Soviet Union/ United States/ Turkey/ Syria- October 9, 1957 (KCA)
In an interview with the New York Times N. Khrushchev accuses U.S. Secretary of State J.F. Dulles of “inciting” Turkey to attack Syria, an ally of the Soviet Union.  This happens after Syria notifies the Soviet Union of alleged concentrations of Turkish troops along the border.  In response to these accusations the U.S. State Department refers to the charges as “completely unfounded.”  

Soviet Union / U.S. – October 9, 1957 (LBC)
After preliminary consultations Eisenhower congratulates the Russian scientists on Sputnik, but he does not think that U.S. security diminished even by an iota.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – October 9, 1957 (MOL)
Thomas Ashley, member of the financial committee of the U.S. Congress visits Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – October 10, 1957 (MOL)
Economic discussions between Yugoslavia and the United States terminate in Washington. The Yugoslav delegation is led by Secretary of Finance Avdo Humo.

East Germany / Yugoslavia – October 10, 1957 (PLC) 
Yugoslavia recognizes the GDR and initiates diplomatic relations.

Yugoslavia – October 11, 1957 (PLC)
Yugoslavia becomes a full member of the OEEC.

U.S. – October 12, 1957 (LBC)
It is announced that one third of the U.S. strategic air force is on constant alert, the planes are standing on the runways loaded with bombs, the crew is close to the aircrafts.

Hungary / Austria – October 12, 1957 (KAC)
The Austrian government bans the Út és Cél, pro-Hungarian immigrant newspaper, and deports its editors.

Hungary – October 12, 1957 (NMC)
It is announced in the Hungarian Foreign Ministry that Wan Waithayakon is not given permission to enter Hungary, because the Hungarian government does not recognize the U.N. declaration on Hungary, and so does not allow foreign observers to the country.

Soviet Union- October 12, 1957 (KCA)
N. Khrushchev sends letters to various Western European socialist and labor parties urging them to do everything necessary to prevent Western military action in the Middle East.  The British Labour Party replies that it is “not prepared to enter into joint activities with any Communist party.”

Yugoslavia / U.S. – October 13, 1957 (MOL)
Yugoslav ambassador to the United States Leo Mates participates in a political debate at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania and lectures on the current difficulties of the European governments. The previous year, he elaborated on the problems facing the Asian countries.

East Germany / Yugoslavia / U.S. – October 14, 1957 (LKT)
Yugoslav Ambassador to the United States Leo Mates informs the State Department that Yugoslavia will establish diplomatic relations with East Germany within 24 hours. While Mates characterizes this as Yugoslavia's attempt to facilitate a peaceful solution to the German question, the Department of State advises him that the United States will perceive the move as signaling Yugoslavia's abandonment of nonalignment and as a surrender to Soviet pressure.

East Germany / Yugoslavia / U.K. / U.S. – October 15, 1957 (LKT)
In discussing Yugoslavia's action of establishing diplomatic relations with East Germany with Selwyn Lloyd, the British foreign secretary, U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles explains that the United States does not plan to sever its ties with Yugoslavia but will again reduce the amount of military and economic aid being sent there.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – October 15-18, 1957 (NMC)
A Hungarian cultural delegation led by Gyula Kállai, the Minister of Culture, negotiates in Prague about cultural and intellectual question.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – October 17, 1957 (MOL)
U.S. Senator Allen Eblender (Democrats), chairman of agricultural committee of the U.S. Senate arrives in Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia / West Germany – October 18, 1957 (MOL/PLC)
In a note, the Federal Republic of Germany informs Yugoslavia of suspending the diplomatic relations between the two countries. This is the first time when the 1955 Hallstein doctrine is put into force.

Finland – October 18, 1957 (HJH)
The Sukselainen Government resigns.

Hungary / France – October 19, 1957 (KAC/NMC)
The French-Hungarian Trade Agreement for 1957-1958 is signed in Paris, stating the volume of trade between the two countries should be increased by 60%.

U.S. – October 19, 1957 (LBC)
Dulles states that the U.S. wishes to deploy IRBMs in Europe. According to the secretary of defense the rockets will be shipped for Britain from mid-1959.

Hungary – October 19, 1957 (HC)
The second furnace of the Danube Iron Factory is opened in Dunaújváros.

Hungary – October 19, 1957 (HC)
Governmental decree 1082/1957 announces that the higher education of party and state employees will be supported by the state. Governmental decree 1083/1957 announces that individuals can buy state-built houses.

East Germany / Yugoslavia / West Germany – October 19, 1957 (ADG)
Yugoslavia establishes diplomatic relations with East Germany. In response, West Germany breaks-off its relations with Yugoslavia.

Poland – October 21, 1957 (PLC)
In Poland Gomulka announces that the Po prostu periodical is counterrevolutionary. The periodical is soon banned.

Hungary – October 21-22, 1957 (HC)
Session of the council of the Patriotic People’s Front in Budapest. President: Antal Apró. General Secretary: Gyula Ortutay.

U.S. – October 22, 1957 (LBC)
It is announced that the U.S. military research and development budget is raised from 1.58 to 1.68 billion dollars.

Hungary – October 22, 1957 (BBR)
The Hungarian Freedom Association, Hungarian Writers’ Union Abroad, Social Democratic Party, Free Hungarian Trade Unions and British Association of Hungarian University Students hold a ceremony on the eve of the first anniversary of the revolution.

Hungary – October 23, 1957 (BBR)
The Hungarian public commemorates the first anniversary of the revolution in various ways, but no large-scale incidents occur. Nevertheless, several hundred people are arrested. Commemorations also are held throughout the West.

Finland – October 23, 1957 (EKF)
The Social Democrat Leader and the chief name on the list of unacceptable Finnish politicians, Väinö Tanner, is given the task of forming a government.

U.S. / U.K. – October 23-25, 1957 (LBC)
At the Washington meeting of MacMillan and Eisenhower an agreement is reached to establish British-American committees in order to work out coordinated policies for defense, nuclear and rocket programs. According to the two Western leaders because of the political, military and psychological challenge posed by the Sputnik, the West must unite resources.

Hungary / U.S. – October 24, 1957 (KAC/NMC)
The Hungarian U.N. representatives write a declaration as a response to the criticism of Cabot Lodge, American congressman.

Austria/ Soviet Union- October 24, 1957 (KCA)
A three-year trade agreement in total value of $150,000,000 is signed between Austria and the Soviet Union.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – October 24, 1957 (LKT)
U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles cautions his staff that the United States should not be impulsive and should thoroughly reexamine its policy toward Yugoslavia. Dulles believes that Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito can still lead the Soviet satellite states to a greater degree of independence.

Hungary – October 25, 1957 (HC)
The József Katona Theater in Budapest presents Szellemidézés (“Psychomancy”) by Ferenc Karinthy.

Hungary / Argentina – October 24, 1957 (NMC)
The media announces that in Buenos Aires a Hungarian-Argentinean trade and payment agreement was signed for a year.

Hungary – October 25-27, 1957 (HC)
The first conference of the Hungarian Young Communist League in Budapest.

Soviet Union – October 29, 1957 (KRI/KCA/PLC)
Marshal Zhukov is removed from his post by Khrushchev “for violation of Leninist principles in the leadership of the armed forces” and building a “cult of personality” around himself.  Official statements express the view that Zhukov was attempting to circumvent the supremacy of the party and the government over the armed forces.  Khrushchev appears to view Zhukov as a personal threat.
Hungary / Vietnam– October 31, 1957 (KAC)
Sándor Nógrádi, new special Ambassador to Vietnam, presents his credentials in Hanoi.

Hungary / Austria – October 31, 1957 (KAC)
An agreement is signed in Vienna about the pension of the former employees of the Danube Steamship Company.

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 31, 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian-Soviet Cultural Agreement is signed in Budapest.


November 1957

Poland – November, 1957 (PLC)
In Poland the Stalinist leaders of the communist party are harshly punished.

Soviet Union – November 1957 (RYN)
Moscow Conference of eighty-one Communist parties.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – November 1957 (MOL)
Seven members of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the U.S. Congress visit Yugoslavia.

Finland / Soviet Union – November 1957 (EKF)
Moscow reacts to Väinö Tanner’s given task to form a government by unleashing a harsh propaganda campaign against Tanner and interrupting trade discussions with Finland.

Hungary – November 3, 1957 (BBR)
The system of summary justice is abolished.

Soviet Union- November 3, 1957 (KCA/PCA)
The Soviet Union announces that a second satellite has been successfully launched into outer space and is orbiting earth.  The satellite weighs roughly six times that of Sputnik, meaning that the Soviet Union is in possession of rockets even more powerful than what was previously assumed.  In addition, the satellite contains a living dog (named Laika), the object of experiments to determine the possibility of launching a human into space.

Hungary – November 3, 1957 (HC)
Decree no. 1957:62 by the Hungarian Presidential Council abolishes martial law.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 4, 1957 (KAC)
A Hungarian delegation led by Kádár travels to Moscow to attend the 40th anniversary celebrations of the Great October Socialist Revolution.

Soviet Union- November 6, 1957 (KCA)
The 40th anniversary of the October Revolution of 1917 is celebrated in Moscow. Delegations from 37 countries are present at the festivities, with the notable exception of Yugoslav President J. Tito, who announced that a health problem would prevent his attendance.  N. Khrushchev gives speeches extolling the achievements of Soviet industrial production, technology and education, and improvements in living standards since the pre-revolutionary era.

Hungary / Austria – November 6, 1957 (KAC)
Imre Horváth, Minister of Foreign Affairs, meets Leopold Figl, Austrian Minister of Foreign Affairs, to discuss the relations of the two countries.

Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – November 6, 1957 (LBC)
Khrushchev proposes a high level East-West summit on peaceful coexistence.

East Germany – November 6, 1957 (ADG)
Erich Mielke becomes the new Minister for State Security, the successor of Ernst Wollweber.

Soviet Union / U.S. – November 7, 1957 (LBC)
Eisenhower announces that steps will be taken to overcome American disadvantages in sciences relating to defense. The President identifies the causes of U.S. lag in the fact that insufficient significance was attributed to the education of sciences on secondary or higher level.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – November 7, 1957 (MOL)
Yugoslav Premier Josip Broz Tito writes an article on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution.

Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – November 8, 1957 (LBC)
Both the U.S. and Great Britain reject the proposal for an East-West summit.

Soviet Union / U.S. – November 10, 1957 (LBC)
According to the U.S. department of education the Soviet school system is better than the American in science, technology and other areas as well. The requirements for Soviet students are higher; they seek out talents and give them excellent opportunities for development.Poland – November 11, 1957 (PSN)
The Warsaw Provincial Court gives prison sentences to former police officials for “offenses against freedom.”

Hungary / Poland / Soviet Union – November 11-12, 1957 (KAC)
At the Moscow meeting of all socialist countries Gomulka and Kádár talk with each other twice. The Polish party leader states that he does not agree with the trial of Imre Nagy, because Nagy alone cannot be responsible for the Hungarian revolution.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – November 12, 1957 (KAC)
The leaders of the Hungarian and Yugoslav delegations in Moscow, Kádár and Kardelj, talk about the international situation and about the relations of the two countries.

Czechoslovakia – November 13, 1957 (PSČZ/ KCA)
Czechoslovakian President Antonin Zapotocky dies.  On November 19 the National Assembly elects M. Antonin Novotny, another founding member of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, as President of the Republic. 

Hungary – November 13, 1957 (HC)
The Supreme Court founds guilty of taking leading role in organizing activities aiming to overthrow the state power Tibor Déry (sentenced to 9 years), Gyula Háy (6 years), Zoltán Zelk (3 years) and Tibor Tardos (1 year).

Societ Bloc / Yugoslavia – November 14-16, 1957 (HC/KRI/PLC/CAC/JVJ/MOL/KCA)
The communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries meet in Moscow. During the 40th anniversary celebrations the representatives of twelve communist parties meet to discuss “current problems in the international situation, and the struggle for peace and socialism.”  They issue a declaration denouncing colonialism and imperialism on the part of the Western powers and sectarianism within communist parties as major problems.  A joint agreement is signed about peaceful coexistence: strengthening the Warsaw Pact and COMECON  A declaration affirms the unity of the camp and the results of the XXth party congress of February 1956. The new charter of the communist movement is not signed by the Yugoslav Communist Alliance, parties because it declares the leading role of the Soviet Union in world's Communist movement but signs the appeal for peace. The declarations are published on November 27.

Bulgaria / Hungary – November 14-29, 1957 (NMC)
A Hungarian parliamentary delegation led by Istvánné Vass, the deputy head of the parliament, stays in Bulgaria.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia / China – November 16-19, 1957 (HC)
The first world congress of communist parties is organized in Moscow (64 parties participate). Mao Ce-tung in a speech rejects the idea of peaceful coexistence. The declaration of the congress is not signed by Yugoslavia. The second Yugoslav-Soviet break starts. A peace manifesto is written to the workers of the world, which is publicized on November 23.

Hungary – November 17, 1957 (BBR)
The factory workers’ councils are abolished.

Czechoslovakia – November 19, 1957 (PSČZ)
Antonin Novotny is elected the new president of Czechoslovakia.

Hungary / France – November 21, 1957 (KAC)
A delegation of seven leaders led by Viens, Secretary of the French Communist Party, arrives to Budapest.

Hungary – November 21, 1957 (HC)
A császár parancsára (“The emperor’s order”), a film directed by Frigyes Bán, is first shown.

Hungary – November 22, 1957 (HC)
The Budapest Operetta Theater presents Kard és szerelem (“Sword and love”) by János Kerekes.

France / U.K. / U.S. – November 22, 1957 (LBC)
According to French Defense Minister Chaban-Delmas the present Anglo-American nuclear plans preserve the Anglo-Saxon nuclear monopoly. Chaban-Delmas declares that France must launch its own nuclear arms program in order to avert the elimination of France’s status as a world power.

Poland- November 23-30, 1957 (KCA)
The Polish Government and the United Workers’ Party announce the dissolution of collective farms and the purge of “Stalinists” and “revisionists” from the party

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 25-December 19, 1957 (NMC)
A Hungarian economist delegation led by Antal Apró stays in Moscow.

Finland – November 29, 1957 (HJH)
All attempts to form a new government on a party basis fail and President Urho Kaleva Kekkonen appoints a caretaker government headed by the Head of the Bank of Finland Rainer von Fieandt.


December 1957

Hungary – December, 1957 (HC)
Éjfélkor (“At midnight”), a film directed by György Révész, and Külvárosi legenda (“The myth of the suburbs”) by Félix Máriássy are first shown.

East Germany – December, 1957 (PGP)
Illegal leaving of the GDR, the crime of “flight from the Republic” is punishable by up to three years prison.

Hungary / France – December 4, 1957 (KAC)
The Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party and the Algerian Communist Party publish a joint declaration in Budapest. Although the French diplomacy officially does not raise objections, the French embassy in Budapest starts to send brochures about Algeria to newspapers, radio stations, telegram offices and the major political and cultural bodies of the Kádár system.

Yugoslavia – December 4, 1957 (JVJ)
The new five-year plan of Yugoslavia abandons the forced industrial policy centered on heavy and military industries.

Hungary / France – December 5, 1957 (KAC)
János Kádár, First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party, meets the French Communist Party’s delegation and Gaston Viens.

U.S. – December 6, 1957 (LBC)
The U.S. carries out an unsuccessful satellite test. U.S. Democratic Senator Lyndon B. Johnson calls the failure one of the most publicized and most humiliating failures in U.S. history.

Yugoslavia- December 7, 1957 (KCA)
The central committee of the Yugoslav League of Communists issues a statement criticizing the joint declaration issued on November 16 in Moscow by 12 communist parties, asserting that “contains attitudes and appraisals which are contrary to the position taken by the Yugoslav League of Communists, and which it considers incorrect.”  However, it reiterates its commitment to “the struggle for socialism and world peace.”

Hungary / Syria – December 9, 1957 (NMC)
A Syrian governmental delegation led by Khaled el-Azem, Deputy Prime Minister, travels to Hungary.

Soviet Union/ Syria- December 11, 1957 (KCA)
Syro-Soviet economic and technical co-operation agreement is signed.

East Germany – December 11, 1957 (PLC)
The passport law is modified in the GDR. The “refugees of the republic” will be punished.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – December 11, 1957 (LKT)
Dulles informs U.S. Ambassador to Yugoslavia James R. Riddleberger that the United States will accede to Yugoslavia's requests and make arrangements for the termination of the military assistance program.

Soviet Union – December 12, 1957 (LBC)
Bulganin proposes an East-West summit for the purpose of a general European settlement and arms reduction and urges the demilitarization of Central Europe. A day earlier Khrushchev in proposed an East-West summit in a letter to the British philosopher Bertrand Russel. The Soviet politician addressed a similar letter to Eisenhower.

Hungary – December 13, 1957 (HC)
The first machine units of the Tiszapalkonya thermal power station start to work.

NATO- December 16-19, 1957 (KCA/ LBC)
The heads of government of the 15 NATO member states meet in Paris.  They issue a declaration of principles and statement on the international situation, placing special emphasis on German reunification and the maintenance of stability in the Middle East and Africa.  In addition, they condemn the Soviet boycott of the U.N. disarmament commission and announce that intermediate-range ballistic missiles will be made available to any NATO member who requests them.  This is the creation of a NATO nuclear missile arsenal.

Hungary / U.K. – December 17, 1957 (NMC)
Pál Földes, Hungarian ambassador to London, presents his credentials.

Hungary / Soviet Union – December 18, 1957 (KAC)
In Moscow an agreement is signed finalizing the amount of agricultural, technological and financial support (in terms of long-term loans) to Hungary.

Hungary – December 20, 1957 (HC)
The country’s best benzene processing equipment and the first sulphur processing equipment is completed in the Duna Iron Factory

U.K. – December 20, 1957 (LBC)
The House of Commons supports MacMillan’s foreign policy and approves the establishment of IRBM bases in Great Britain. MacMillan assures the Parliament that Britain has full veto rights on the activation of IRBMs to be deployed on British soil.

Soviet Union / NATO – December 21, 1957 (LBC)
Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko rejects NATO’s proposal to renew the East-West disarmament talks. Gromyko’s counter-proposal: talks at the U.N. General Assembly or a world conference, including all communist and non-communist states. Khrushchev proposes Soviet-American discussions prior to the world conference.

Hungary – December 21, 1957 (HC)
The Parliament accepts Law 1957: VI-VIII. about the people’s control, civil trials and the general rules of state conduct.

Hungary – December 21, 1957 (BBR)
Géza Losonczy dies in prison.

Hungary / Italy – December 24, 1957 (NMC)
The media announces that in Rome the Hungarian-Italian Trade and Payment Agreement for 1958 was signed.

France – December 27, 1957 (LBC)
Mollet urges an East-West summit in an interview given to a U.S. paper.

Hungary – December 28, 1957 (HC)
Decree no. 1957:65 by the Hungarian Presidential Council is announced regarding the retirement, the disability and the widow’s pensions.

U.S. – December 30, 1957 (LBC)
U.S. President Eisenhower approves a one billion dollar four-year federal aid for education in order to satisfy the needs of national security in the forthcoming years.

U.K. – December 31, 1957 (LBC)
The British government rejects the Soviet proposal for an East-West summit.

Hungary – December 30, 1957 (BBR)
László Iván Kovács is executed due to his role in the revolution of 1956.

Hungary / Finland – December 31, 1957 (NMC)
The Hungarian-Finnish Trade Agreement is extended for another year.

East Germany / West Germany – December 31, 1957 (KGD)
261,622 people flee to the FRG and West Berlin in 1957.

Albania/ United Kingdom- December 31, 1957 (KCA)
Albania announces the downing of a British freight plane containing six people after having violated Albanian airspace in disregard of warning signals.  The Albanian government releases the plane to return to Britain on January 4, 1958.

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2013