The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Assistant editors



Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Shira BORZAK, Lauren CRYSTAL, Botond CSELLE, Sonya COWELL, Péter János DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB, Kati DEPETRILLO, Doris DOMOSZLAI, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖRDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA, Kristína GABIKOVA, Zsófia GÖDE, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Ágnes HEVÉR, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Emily Jennifer HOLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU,  Dean JOLLY, Annastiina KALLIUS, János KEMÉNY, András KISS, Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zardas LEE, Karina LEGRADI, Tara LOTSTEIN, Cynthia MANCHA, Viktor NAGY, Jennifer OTTERSON, Linda RICHTER, Zita Bettina VASAS, Dániel VÉKONY, Péter VUKMAN, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2012


At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The first part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1945 to 1952, but our goal is to publish the whole chronology covering the entire Cold War era up until 1991 in parts during the next two years. The years 1953–1955 will be available by September, 2012 and the years 1956–1968 by December, 2012.
The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.



List of Sources


January 1947


Poland / Germany – January 1947 (KCA)
The Polish government recognizes the provisional Polish-German frontier and calls for complete liquidation of Prussia to prevent German militarism from rising again. It is calculated that 13% of Polish citizens perished in concentration camps and the destruction of ghettos during 1939-1945.

Yugoslavia / United States – January 1947 (LYE)
Richard Patterson, U.S. Ambassador to Yugoslavia, is replaced first by John Moors Cabot as Chargé d'affaires and then by Cavendish Cannon as Ambassador.

Yugoslavia / U.N. / Trieste – January 1947 (LUY)
The U.N. Security Council accepts responsibility for governing Trieste.

Germany / Great Britain / United States – January 1, 1947 (REV)
Agreements that come into force in Germany combine the American and British zones of occupation economically whilst retaining the political division.

Soviet Union / Norway – January 1, 1947 (KCA)
A Soviet-Norwegian trade agreement is reached, completing a series of trade agreements between the Soviet Union and the Scandinavian countries.

Poland – January 4, 1947 (PSN)
Ten former officers in the Home Army (Armia Krajowa) go on trial for fulfilling leadership positions in the underground organization by the name of Freedom and Independence (WiN). Their sentences are announced on February 3 and range from two years imprisonment to death.

Hungary – January 5, 1947 (HC/REV)
The Ministry of Interior publishes an official announcement about the reconnaissance of  an “anti-republic plot”. According to the announcement, the goal of the conspirators was the re-establishment of the Horthy-system, based on the resetting of rights for the usage of firearms. Amongst the accused are György Donáth, Domokos Szent-Iványi, István Szent-Miklósy, Bálint Arany, Károly Kiss and János Héder. Altogether 55 people are arrested.
An article by József Révai appears in Szabad Nép under the title “Conspirators and Privies”, which is aimed against FKGP.

Poland / United States – January 5, 1947 (KCA)
The U.S. Government delivers notes to the British and Soviet Governments to draw attention to the Polish situation and the failure of the Provisional Government to hold free and unfettered elections.


Austria / United States – January 6, 1947 (KCA)
The U.S. War Department announces that Lt.-Gen. Geoffrey Keyes will be the next Military Governor of the U.S. zone of Austria and the U.S. High Commissioner in Vienna.

Romania – January 6, 1947 (PIR)
The Ministry of National Economy decides on the rationalization of the consumption of petrol-based products.

Soviet Union / UK– January 6, 1947 (KCA)
Field-Marshal Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, Chief of the British Imperial General Staff, visits Moscow.

Hungary – January 7, 1947 (HC)
The Committee of Representatives of the FKGP condemns the conspiracy announced by the Ministry of Interior.

Poland / Soviet Union / Great Britain / United States – January 7, 1947 (LBC)
The U.S. make their note to the Soviet and British public, in which the U.S. implore these countries to demand that the Polish government hold free elections. The Soviet Union turns down the U.S. request.

Romania – January 9, 1947 (PIR)
The new Administration Council of BNR is installed. Tiberiu Moşoiu, from PNL-Tătărescu, is appointed governor.

Romania / Soviet Union – January 10, 1947 (PIR)
A Romanian delegation led by Gheorghiu-Dej, Minister of the National Economy, leaves for Moscow to conclude an economic accord with the USSR.

Albania / Great Britain – January 11, 1947 (KCA)
The British Government announces that due to the unsatisfactory nature of the Albanian reply, British representative to the UN Security Council Sir Alexander Cadogan will bring the British-Albanian dispute before the Council.

Poland / Soviet Union / United States – January 13, 1947 (KCA)
The Soviet Government responds to the American note, announcing that it will not intervene in the Polish elections.

Hungary – January 14, 1947 (HC)
The National Assembly passes the 1947 law on the end of the land reform. Throughout the land reform, 3,258,738 kat.hold (1,875,291.9 ha) land was split up between 642,342 land demanders. Of these people 90% are menial, agricultural workers, or small landowners.
Invited by President Tildy, the leaders of the coalition parties convene. Minister of the Interior László Rajk reports on the investigation of a conspiracy against the coalition.

Poland / Great Britain – January 14, 1947 (PSN)
Three death sentences are announced in the trial of Ksawery Grocholski and his companions. Grocholski is accused of having close contacts with underground organizations and with the British Embassy. In response the British recall their ambassador from the country.

Hungary ­– January 15, 1947 (HC)
Minister of Construction and Labour Endre Mistéth is arrested on charges of connection with the conspiracy. He was a member of the FKGP, but was absolved from his office on the previous day.

Soviet Union – January 15, 1947 (KCA)
A Pravda article criticizes the apparent denunciation of Great Britain of the Anglo-Soviet treaty.

Hungary – January 16, 1947 (HC)
The Council of Ministers decides that from February 1 the salary of low-income employees will be increased.

Romania – January 16, 1947 (PIR)
Ration cards for meat are introduced by the Ministry of National Economy. The ratio is established at 250 grams per person per week.

Soviet Union / Poland / United States – January 16, 1947 (CWC)
Soviet publication New Times, accuses the U.S. of interfering in Poland's internal affairs. It notes that the elections were in keeping with the Potsdam conference and rejects American claims that Poland's Western border was temporary pending a German peace treaty.

Yugoslavia / Council of Foreign Ministers – January 16, 1947 (OEH)
In its memorandum to the Council of Foreign Ministers in London, the Yugoslav Government maintains its claim on South Carinthia.

Hungary – January 17, 1947 (REV)
The Council of Ministers agrees to suspend the parliamentary immunity of Smallholder MPs László Gyulai, Tibor Hám, János Horváth, Pál Jaczkó, Sándor Kiss, Kálmán Saláta, László Vatai and Vince Vörös. All but Saláta and Vörös are already in custody before Parliament suspends their immunity on January 21. The Political Committee of the Independent Smallholders’ Party (FKGP) soon expels them from the party for their ‘right-wing conduct’.

Poland – January 19, 1947 (PSN)
Parliamentary elections are held. Official results give the Communist led Democratic Bloc 80.1% of the vote and 394 seats. The Polish Peasant Party receives 10.1% of the votes and wins 28 seats. The elections are highly corrupt. The Peasant Party’s ballots are annulled in ten out of fifty two districts, activists are intimidated and sometimes murdered, many other voters are forced to vote in public.

Romania / Bulgaria / Hungary / Italy / United States – January 20, 1947 (PIR)
James Byrnes, U.S. State Secretary signs the peace treaties with Romania, Italy, Hungary and Bulgaria.

Albania / Great Britain / United Nations – January 20, 1947 (KCA)
The British complaint comes before the UN Security Council. The Soviet Union opposes placing the matter in the Council because the Albanian Government is ready to settle the issue by negotiation. By a 10-0 vote (with the Soviet Union abstaining), the Council agrees to put the British complaint on the agenda.

Czechoslovakia / East Germany – January 20, 1947 (PLC)
The Sorb National Council (representing the Western Slav ethnic minority group in East Germany) expresses its hope to join Czechoslovakia in a memorandum.

Czechoslovakia – January 20, 1947 (KCA)
A Czechoslovak memorandum calls for Allied control over Germany and for the restoration of the 1938 frontier.

Poland – January 23, 1947 (KCA)
Deputy Prime Minister Mikołajczyk issues a statement in which he announces that he will appeal to the Supreme Court to declare the elections null and void.

Poland / US  – January 28, 1947 (LBC)
According to the State Department, Poland has violated the Potsdam and the Yalta Declarations since it has employed coercion and intimidation against democratic elements during the election campaign. The U.S. reserves the right for “full libertyof action” for the future in connection with Poland. Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg demands the establishment of responsibility for the Polish electoral abuses.

Bulgaria – January 29, 1947 (KCA)
All former members of the Bulgarian diplomatic service are ordered to return to Bulgaria by March 15 on penalty of deprivation of citizenship.

Czechoslovakia / Ireland – January 29, 1947 (KCA)
An air agreement is signed between Ireland and Czechoslovakia.

Soviet Union / Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / Finland / Italy – January 29, 1947 (PIR)
Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs Molotov signs the peace treaties with Romania, Italy, Hungary, Finland and Bulgaria in Moscow.

Czechoslovakia – January 30 - April 21, 1947 (KCA)
The trial of the previous Prime Minister Rudolf Beran, General Jan Syrovy and others takes place. Both aforementioned are found guilty of collaborating with the Germans and of contributing towards destruction of the pre-war Czechoslovak Republic. They are sentenced to 20 years imprisonment.

Hungary – January 31 - February, 1947 (HC)
The 35th Congress of the Social-Democratic Party begins. It sides with continuing the definite leftwing political line and the solidification of the workers’ united front. It condemns Károly Peyer and his colleagues for their destabilizing and anti-party policy and reelects Árpád Szakasits as the party’s general secretary.

Germany – January 1947, (KCA)
The population of the Russian zone of Germany is announced to be 17,313,581.



February 1947



Soviet Union – February, 1947 (KRI)
H.A Voznisenkii becomes a member of the Politburo.

Yugoslavia / Burma – February 1947 (RYN)
Burmese delegates to the British Empire Communist Conference held in London return home via Yugoslavia. Although the Yugoslav and Burmese communists also meet at the Calcutta Conference of Asian Communists in February 1948, the latter lose interest in the Yugoslavs by June 1948.

Hungary – February 2, 1947 (KCA)
Altogether the total number of those arrested on charges of anti-government plotting is announced to be 255 people.

Finland / Soviet Union – February 3, 1947 (KCA)
A Soviet-Finnish agreement on former German claims against Finland is reached. Finland will provide supplies to the Soviet Union worth 3 billion Finnish marks, hand over a defense vessel and cede more areas in Northern Finland. The agreement further decreases Finland’s capacity to export to countries outside the Soviet Union.

Hungary – February 4, 1947 (HC)
The Political Committee of the FKGP excludes 13 representatives from the party for their participation in the conspiracy against the Republic and for their support for rightwing ideologies. An additional five representatives, who disagree with the decision, decide to leave the party. A sixth member of the party resigns as representative.

Poland – February 4, 1947 (PSN)
The parliament passes a law on the election of the President of the Republic. The next day Bierut is voted to Presidency. At the time he is not a party member as the law forbids the president from holding any other posts. A cabinet is formed with Josef Cyrankiewicz as Prime Minister, and Wladyslaw Gomulka of the Polish Workers Party and Antoni Korzycki of the pro-government Peasant Party as deputies.

Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / Finland / Italy / Great Britain – February 4, 1947 (PIR)
Ernest Bevin, British Minister of Foreign Affairs signs the peace treaties with Romania, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary and Italy.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – February 4, 1947 (WBA)
Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union agree on the founding of the Yugoslav-Soviet Danubian Shipping Joint Stock Company, (JUSPAD) and the Yugoslav-Soviet Civil Air Transport Joint Stock Company, (JUSTA).

Hungary – February 7, 1947 (KCA)
Communist Minister of the Interior Rajk asks the National Assembly to withdraw the Parliamentary immunity of Smallholders’ Party General Secretary Béla Kovács, in order to enable his arrest due to his involvement in plans to form a counter-revolutionary government abroad. The Smallholders’ Party strongly refutes these charges and protests against the attempts of the leftist parties to drive a wedge between the peasants, workers and the intelligentsia. FKGP furthermore demands the establishment of a parliamentary investigation commission concerning this issue. The Assembly votes in favour of this proposal, but the left-wing blocrefuses to recognize the results and decides to boycott the commission in the future.

Hungary – February 8, 1947 (HC)
A special convention of the Council of Ministers assembles to discuss the alleged conspiracy against the republic. It disapproves the proposal of the FKGP, which intended to set up a special committee to investigate the case.

Hungary – February 8, 1947 (KCA)
A compromise is reached according to which a parliamentary investigation commission will not be set up, but the committee that had already been formed to investigate the matters will be given greater powers, averting the breakdown of the Coalition. A fresh crisis, however, evolves over the question of the parliamentary immunity of Béla Kovács.

Yugoslavia – February 8, 1947 (KCA)
Amnesty is offered to all Yugoslavs abroad.

Hungary – February 9, 1947 (HC)
The ashes of Zsigmond Kunfi, Commissar of the Communist Government of 1919, is transported back from Vienna and buried.

Soviet Union – February 9 - 16, 1947 (KCA)
Elections to the Supreme Soviet of the 16 Union Republics take place throughout the Soviet Union. Stalin receives 100% of the votes cast in his Moscow constituency and returns as a deputy for the Russian Soviet Republic.

Bulgaria / France / Great Britain / Soviet Union / United States / Greece – February 10, 1947 (KCA)
The peace treaty with the Allies is signed in Paris. Bulgaria protests against the reparations to Greece and the refusal of the Allies to consider Bulgaria’s claims for an outlet to the Aegean.

Finland / France / Great Britain / Soviet Union / United States – February 10, 1947 (KCA)
A peace treaty with the Allies is signed in Paris. The Soviet Union obtains the areas of the Karelian Isthmus, Vibord and the territory west of the Lake Ladoga (including Sortavala), as well as frontier rectifications in her favor further north. The area of Petsamo is also ceded to the Soviet Union, meaning that Finland no longer has direct access to the Arctic Ocean. The Soviet Union further announces a 50-year lease of the strategically important peninsula of Hanko for the establishment of a Soviet naval base. The Åland islands are to remain Finnish but demilitarized.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia / Romania / France / Great Britain / Soviet Union / United States – February 10, 1947 (KCA/REV)
A peace treaty with the Allies is signed in Paris. Hungary protests against the plans for
the expulsion of the Hungarian minority from Slovakia and the Allies’ refusal to consider minor frontier rectifications in Transylvania in Hungary’s favor. Hungarian frontiers with Yugoslavia, Soviet Union, Romania and Czechoslovakia shall be those that existed in January 1, 1938. Moreover, Hungary cedes territory to Czechoslovakia on the south bank of the Danube close to Bratislava. The Hungarian population is given a choice of voluntarily leaving the area under the provisions of the Czechoslovak-Hungarian agreement on population exchanges on February 27, 1946. Hungary renounces the whole of Transylvania to Romania and also a part of Ruthenia and Eastern Slovakia, re-annexed from Czechoslovakia in 1938. Hungary also renounces all Yugoslav territory re-annexed during the war. The state of war between Romania and Hungary is terminated.
Hungary is authorized to have 70,000 men under arms. (The strength of the Hungarian Army at the time is 14,000 men).

Romania / France / Great Britain / United States – February 10, 1947 (KCA)
A peace treaty with the Allies signed in Paris. Romania expresses gratitude at the return of Transylvania but criticizes the reparations clauses as excessive and unjust.

Bulgaria / Great Britain – February 11, 1947 (KCA)
British de jure recognition of the Bulgarian government.

Hungary / Romania – February 11, 1947 (HC)
Romanian Prime Minister Groza Petru announces that he wishes to enter a customs union with Hungary, and the two countries have already agreed with this conceptually.

Soviet Union / United States – February 14-16, 1947 (KCA)
Minister of Foreign Affairs Molotov protests a statement by Dean Acheson, U.S. Under-Secretary of State, who declares Soviet Foreign Policy to be “aggressive and expansionist”.

Hungary – February 15, 1947 (HC)
The U.S. minister in Budapest tells the Hungarian Government that the U.S. raises the loans that were previously given to Hungary to $30 million.

Poland / United States – February 15, 1947 (LBC)
In protest against his government’s Polish policy, the U.S. ambassador in Warsaw, Arthur Bliss Lane resigns. According to Lane U.S. policy is not efficient enough to preclude communist seizure of power.

Soviet Union – February 15, 1947 (KRI)
Marriages between Soviet citizens and foreigners are banned.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – February 16, 1947 (HC)
Hungary and Yugoslavia sign an economic agreement.

Hungary – February 19, 1947 (HC)
The Political Committee of the FKGP absolves Béla Kovács from his role as Party General Secretary, because, as the Ministry of the Interior claims, he participated in the conspiracy against the republic. His successor is István Balogh.

Poland – February 19, 1947 (PSN)
The law “On the System and Prerogatives of the Highest Authorities of the Republic of Poland” is passed, defining the roles of the Diet (the parliament), the President and the Government. Often called the “little constitution,” the law is in force until July 1952, when the Constitution of the Polish People's Republic is passed. The main novelty of the new law is the creation of the Council of State headed by the President.

Yugoslavia – February 19, 1947 (KCA)
A British Brigadier is assassinated in Pula.

Hungary – February 20, 1947 (KCA)
Béla Kovács of the Smallholders Party voluntarily resigns his party offices, denying any involvement in anti-republican plots, but assuming political responsibility.

Romania / Soviet Union – February 20, 1947 (PIR)
Negotiations between the Romanian delegation and the Soviet Government end in Moscow with the signing of a new economic accord between the two countries.

Hungary – February 21, 1947 (KCA)
President Tildy and Prime Minister Nagy refuse to lift the immunity of Béla Kovács on grounds of insufficient evidence of his involvement in anti-republican plotting.

Czechoslovakia – February 21, 1947 (KCA)
University of Olomouc opens.

Poland – February 22, 1947 (KCA)
The Polish Sejm unanimously votes for a far reaching amnesty bill affecting some 48,000 political or otherwise, prisoners.

Hungary – February 24, 1947 (KCA)
Béla Kovács announces his willingness to appear as a witness before the Hungarian police and judicial authorities.

Romania / Soviet Union – February 24, 1947 (KCA)
A Soviet-Romanian trade agreement is reached.

Hungary – February 25, 1947 (REV)
Béla Kovács is interrogated by the State Protection Department (ÁVO) in Budapest on suspicion of involvement in the conspiracy against the republic. As he leaves the ÁVO building at Andrássy út 60, he is arrested by officers of the Soviet secret police (NKVD), taken to the NKVD prison at Baden bei Wien in Austria, then sentenced, without a trial, to 25 years’ imprisonment and deported to the Soviet Union.

Germany – February 25, 1947 (PLC)
The Allied Controll Council formally abolishes the autonomy of Prussia.

Hungary – February 26, 1947 (KCA)
It is announced that Béla Kovács is charged with “organizing a secret armed anti-Soviet terrorist group” and “actively participating in the organization of espionage directed against the Soviet Army”. After the arrest of Béla Kovács the left-wing bloc in the Hungarian National Assembly calls for further purge measures, including the expulsion of 50 Smallholders’ deputies and four of their ministers.

Hungary – February 27, 1947 (HC)
The People’s Court begins the trials of the “anti-Republic conspirators” in Budapest.



March 1947



Soviet Union – March 1947 (KRI)
Bulganin is appointed Minister of Defense.

Soviet Union – March 1947 (PLC)
The Soviet Union establishes the Slavic Committee, as a reformed version of the former Panslavic Committee.

Yugoslavia – March 1947 (ABC)
Church sources claim that Croatian Premier Vladimir Bakarić visited Archbishop Stepinac in prison in Lepograva and attempted to convince him to sign a request for amnesty which would free him from prison and allow him to leave the country. The Archbishop refused to do so and demanded the reopening of his trial under a neutral, non-Communist court.

Yugoslavia / United States – March 1947 (LKT)
President Truman reluctantly accepts Richard C. Patterson's resignation as ambassador to Yugoslavia.

Bulgaria – March 1, 1947 (KCA)
The Bulgarian population is counted at 7,020,863 people, 1,662,255 of which live in urban areas. 

Hungary – March 2, 1947 (HC)
The Hungarian and Czechoslovak foreign ministers negotiate the execution of the relocation of Hungarians from Czechoslovakia. The negotiations are broken on 7 March.

Poland / Soviet Union – March 3, 1947 (KCA)
An agreement on Soviet economic and military aid to Poland, including an interest free loan of $27,875,000 in gold as well as the repatriation of Poles still living in the Soviet Union as a result of the war, is signed.

Soviet Union – March 3, 1947 (KCA)
The Dnepostroi hydroelectric power station is reopened.

Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / Italy / United States – March 4, 1947 (LBC)
Secretary of State Marshall and his predecessor Byrnes urge the rapid ratification of the Bulgarian, Hungarian, Italian, and Romanian peace treaties in the Senate in the hope that this may lead to quick withdrawal of Soviet troops.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Great Britain / United States March 5-6, 1947 (HC)
American-British-Soviet messages are exchanged about the conspiracy against the Republic of Hungary.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Great Britain / United States – March 6, 1947 (LBC)
The U.S. publishes its diplomatic note of March 5 sent to London, Moscow and Budapest in which it accuses the Soviet High Command of creating a political crisis in Hungary with the arrest of Smallholder Party General Secretary Béla Kovács. They demand immediate investigation on the part of the ACC and the Hungarian government. According to the note, the Soviet intervention benefits the communists, who wish to create a minority dictatorship instead of an elected government.

Hungary – March 7, 1947 (KCA)
It is reported from Budapest that Prime Minister Ferenc Nagy has rejected the demands of the left-wing bloc for further purge measures.

Soviet Union / Argentina – March 7, 1947 (KCA)
A breakdown of trade negotiations occurs after 11 months.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Great Britain / United States – March 8, 1947 (LBC)
General Sviridov, Acting President of the ACC, refutes the American allegations of March 5.

Poland – March 8, 1947 (KCA)
The Polish Sejm adopts a 13-point declaration of human rights as the basis of the new constitution.

Hungary / Soviet Union / United States – March 9, 1947 (KCA)
Moscow denies U.S. accusations and states that the Smallholders’ Party itself has not denied the existence of the conspiracy.

Soviet Union / France / Great Britain / United States – March 9-April 24, 1947 (LBC)
The Moscow conference of the Council of Foreign Ministers takes place. Major topics: the German and Austrian peace treaties and the question of German and Austrian reparations.

Yugoslavia – March 9, 1947 (KCA)
Former King Peter II and the royal family are deprived of Yugoslav citizenship.

Czechoslovakia / Poland – March 10, 1947 (KCA)
A Polish – Czechoslovak treaty of friendship and mutual aid is signed. It provides cooperation in order to maintain international peace, security and military aid in the case that the other party of the treaty becomes involved in a conflict with Germany or any other state allied with Germany. It also contains the expansion of mutual economic and cultural cooperation. It is agreed that all the territorial disputes between the two countries will be solved within two years of signing of the treaty. Minorities in both countries are given a legal right to national, cultural, political and economic development with their own schools and associations.

Soviet Union / Germany / Austria – March 10-April 24, 1947 (PLC)
At the sixth conference of the Council of Foreign Ministers in Moscow the allies do not reach an agreement regarding the peace treaties of Austria and Germany. It is decided that all German prisoners of war must be released by the end of 1948.

Austria / Hungary – March 11, 1947 (KCA)
An Austro-Hungarian Trade agreement is signed after being approved by the Allied Control Commission.

Bulgaria / France / Great Britain – March 11, 1947 (KCA)
London: Foreign diplomats in Bulgaria protest against the behavior of the Bulgarian officials and militia men, as the diplomatic missions were informed on March 7 that they must turn in all Bulgarian currency they own to the Bulgarian National Bank. Militiamen interfere with the movement of visitors and the Bulgarian National Bank refuses to exchange their currency. Mme. Boeuf, correspondent of the France-Presse Agency, is expelled by the Bulgarian government on March 10, 1947. On March 15, 1947, an official announcement from Paris states that France calls off trade negotiations with Bulgaria. On April 18, 1947, however, a joint statement from all parties concerned claims that the misunderstandings with the Bulgarian Government have been resolved.

Hungary – March 11, 1947 (HC/REV)

The Left-Wing Bloc and the rump of the Independent Smallholders’ Party (FKGP) agree to coordinate policies and “rapidly end the conspiracy.” They accept the government’s working program, including the Three-Year Plan and the expansion of the health care system and education.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Great Britain / United States – March 11, 1947 (LBC)
The U.S. State Department publishes the Soviet response to the American note of March 6. According to General Sviridov, the accusation that the communists are striving for “a minority dictatorship” is “unfounded”. He deems the “American interference” in the Béla Kovács affair an “attempt to infringe on the legal rights of the Soviet occupation authorities.”

Poland – March 11-April 2, 1947 (KCA)
The trial of Rudolf Höss, the commandant of the Auschwitz concentration camp, takes place in Warsaw before the Supreme National Tribunal appointed by the Sejm. Hess is found guilty of all charges and is sentenced to death. He was executed on April 16, 1947 in Auschwitz.

Hungary – March 12, 1947 (KCA)
Further pressure from the Communists and Socialists results in a new coalition agreement, under which three Smallholders’ members of the Cabinet withdraw.

Soviet Union / United States. March 12, 1947 (HC)
U.S. President Harry Truman announces the Truman Doctrine, according to which the U.S., for the sake of its own defense, give support to the forces that fight against Communism.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Great Britain / United States – March 12, 1947 (LBC)
In protest against Kovács’s arrest, General Weems, the U.S. representative in the ACC, presents a new note to Sviridov, accusing the Hungarian communists of wanting to seize power. Simultaneously a similar British note is also presented.

Hungary – March 13, 1947 (KCA/REV)
Five new ministers are appointed to the Cabinet. The reshuffle brings in the fellow travellers and ‘crypto-Communists’ Lajos Dinnyés, István Dobi, Ernő Mihályfi, Miklós Nyárádi and Gyula Ortutay, as well as Péter Veress of the National Peasants’ Party (NPP).

Soviet Union / Great Britain – March 13, 1947 (KCA)
The Supreme Soviet delegation arrives for a visit to Britain.

Hungary / Austria – March 14, 1947 (KCA)
Normal diplomatic relations are reached between Austria and Hungary.

Hungary – March 16, 1947 (REV)
The People’s Tribunal passes sentence in the so-called Hungarian Community trial for conspiracy against the republic. György Donáth, Lajos Dálnoki Veress and Sándor András are sentenced to death. Bálint Arany and István Szent-Miklósy are given life sentences, while Domokos Szent-Iványi receives 14 years, Károly Kiss 12 years and János Héder 11 years. Donáth’s death sentence and the sentences on Kiss and Héder are upheld on appeal. Dálnoki Veress and Szent-Miklósy’s sentences are commuted to 15 years in prison, Arany’s to 12 years, and András and Szent-Iványi’s to 10 years. Donáth is executed on October 23, 1947.

Yugoslavia / Italy – March 17, 1947 (KCA)
The diplomatic relations between Yugoslavia and Italy are reestablished with the appointment of M. Ivecovitch as Yugoslav Ambassador to Italy.

Yugoslavia / United States –  March 20, 1947 (LBC)
The U.S. turns down a Yugoslav request for $350 million in food aid.

Soviet Union – March 21, 1947 (KCA/KRI)
Marriages between Soviet citizens and foreigners are forbidden, with no official reason given. A directive to collectivize agriculture in the Baltic States is released by the Central Committee, according to which resistance to collectivization is to be put down within three years.

Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – March 25, 1947 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs a five-year agreement on investment with Czechoslovakia.


Poland / Ukraine – March 28, 1947 (PSN/PLC)

The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA ) kills Deputy Minister of National Defense, General Karol Swierczewski, in the Bieszczady Mountains in south-east Poland. As a response, the Polish government decides to solve the “Ukrainian problem” once and for all. With Soviet and Czechoslovak support, an armed force of 30,000 soldiers launches an operation against the partisans of the UPA. Eventually, the UPA is dissolved in Poland. From South Poland approximately 150,000 Ukrainians are relocated in the ‘rejoined territories’ in the western and northern areas of the country (the ‘Vistula project’).

Hungary – March 29, 1947 (HC)
The Russian Institution of the Pázmány Péter University in Budapest opens.



April 1947



Romania – April 2, 1947 (PIR)
Romania and Egypt reestablish diplomatic relations at the level of legation.

Romania / Soviet Union – April 3, 1947 (PIR)
The Romanian Parliament ratifies the treaty of commerce and navigation signed on February 20 with the USSR.

Hungary – April 4, 1947 (HC)
As part of the liberation memorial celebrations, the Liberty Monument on the Gellért-hill in Budapest (constructed by Zsigmond Kisfaludi Stróbl) is inaugurated.

Yugoslavia / Italy – April 5, 1947 (KCA)
Enrico Martino is appointed as the Italian Ambassador to Belgrade.

Yugoslavia / Sweden – April 12, 1947 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs an economic agreement with Sweden.

Yugoslavia / Italy / Great Britain – April 14, 1947 (KCA)
It is announced in London that the 12.000 displaced Yugoslav individuals in Italy, housed in British camps, will be transferred to the British zone of Germany.

Hungary – April 16, 1947 (REV)
The People’s Tribunal passes sentence in the so-called Hungarian Community trial for conspiracy against the republic. György Donáth, Lajos Dálnoki Veress and Sándor András are sentenced to death. Bálint Arany and István Szent-Miklósy are given life sentences, while Domokos Szent-Iványi receives 14 years, Károly Kiss 12 years and János Héder 11 years. (Donáth’s death sentence and the sentences on Kiss and Héder are upheld on appeal). Dálnoki Veress and Szent-Miklósy’s sentences are commuted to 15 years in prison, Arany’s to 12 years, and András and Szent-Iványi’s to 10 years. Donáth is executed on October 23, 1947.



Czechoslovakia – April 18, 1947 (PLC)
Josef Tiso, former Slovak President, is executed in Czechoslovakia.

Finland – April 18, 1947 (KCA)
President Paasikivi of Finland ratifies the Finnish Peace Treaty and signs the law for its implementation.

Germany – April 20, 1947 (PLC)
Regional elections in the British occupational zone of Germany take place. The SPD wins in Schleswig-Holstein (43.8%) and in Southern-Saxony (43.4%). The CDU wins in North-Rhine-Westphalia (37.6%).

Romania – April 20, 1947 (PIR)
The press announces the placement of 1 million lei banknotes into circulation. As a result inflation begins a steep rise, destroying small urban property.

Soviet Union / Great Britain – April 22-8, 1947 (KCA)
Trade negotiations between Great Britain and the Soviet Union are held in Moscow. Britain is interested in timber exports from the Soviet Union and the Soviet Government is concerned with British supplies for machinery and equipment needed for reconstruction. The main objectives are exploring the possibilities of long-term future trade and finding solutions to certain procedural trading problems (mostly to do with individual contracts between British exporters and Soviet trading organizations which until that point had to be countersigned by the Soviet Trade Delegation in London).

Hungary – April 22, 1947 (HC)
The so-called “Silver Train” that carried the Hungarian treasures and silver arrives in Budapest from Frankfurt am Main.

Hungary – April 23, 1947 (REV)
The convention of the leaders of the coalition parties discusses the questions of the Three-Years Plan.

Romania – April 24, 1947 (PIR)
The Executive Committee of the Plowmen’s Front decides the transformation of the Front into an organization of the working peasantry, oriented towards the “fight against the reaction from cities and villages” and “the strengthening of collaboration with the working class.”

Yugoslavia / Italy – April 22, 1947 (KCA)
A comprehensive trade agreement is reached between Yugoslavia and Italy. The agreement will stay in place for five years and make Italy the second largest trade partner of Yugoslavia after Czechoslovakia.

Yugoslavia / Italy / Great Britain / United States – April 24, 1947 (KCA)
After unsuccessful requests for two years, Yugoslavia again protests against Britain and the U.S. and demands the immediate surrender of alleged Yugoslav “quislings” in Italy, whether inside or outside of Allied detention camps. The Allied response is that the Allied authorities have no responsibility for the alleged “quislings” living outside the camps.

Hungary / United Nations – April 26, 1947 (KCA)
It is announced that Hungary has made a formal application for membership to the U.N., being the first formal enemy state to do so since the signing of the peace treaties in Paris.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – April 26, 1947 (PLC)
Yugoslavia launches its first Five-Year Plan, based on the Soviet centralized system. The Soviets do not agree with this move. Albania does not approve the Yugoslav suggestion which calls for a joint Five-Year Plan.

Finland – April 27, 1947 (KCA)
Inter-party disagreements in Finland are set aside as a coalition government is formed and ministers retain their posts. The actual cost of war reparations to the Soviet Union in the third year (against the official total of 35.6 million gold dollars) is estimated to be 70-80 million dollars.

Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – April 27, 1947 (WBA)
A convention on cultural cooperation between Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia is signed in Belgrade.

Yugoslavia – April 27, 1947 (ACY)
The Holy Episcopal Sabor, the assembly of bishops that is also the highest governing body of the Serbian Orthodox Church, assembles and sits for a month. Two new dioceses are created, one for Šumadia, with its see at Kragujevac, and Budimlje-Polimje with its see at Bijelo-Polje in southern Serbia. Six new bishops are elected. The assembly also promulgates a new constitution for the church to replace the 1931 constitution.

Yugoslavia – April 28, 1947 (KCA)
The Five-Year Plan (January 1, 1947 – January 1, 1951) for the industrialization of Yugoslavia is unanimously passed by the National Assembly. The plan aims at transforming Yugoslavia from an agricultural country to an industrially self-sufficient one. Prime Minister Tito declares that the plan aims at making Yugoslavia economically “independent of capitalist countries,” instead of being a “semi-colony.” The plan envisages exploitation of previously unindustrialized areas such as Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro.

Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / Finland / Great Britain / Italy – April 29, 1947 (PIR)
Great Britain ratifies the peace treaties with Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, Italy, and Romania.



May 1947



Yugoslavia / United States – May 1947 (LKT)
Due to the Yugoslav Government's treatment of the prisoners of war returned to them, the U.S. government withdraws its pledge to surrender the Ustaša as a group and announces that it will reserve the right to investigate the case of each individual requested by Yugoslavia.

Hungary / Romania – May 2, 1947 (KCA/PIR)
During the “Week for Romanian-Hungarian culture,” Romanian Prime Minister Groza arrives in Hungary for a visit to attend the opening of a Romanian institute of popular education in Budapest. The visit is considered as a step towards rapprochement between Hungary and Romania. Groza stresses the need for Romanian-Hungarian cooperation in order to liquidate past disagreements and secure peace.

Poland / Great Britain – May 2, 1947 (KCA)
Poland and Great Britain reach a provisional trade agreement as a result of trade negotiations which commenced on March 3, 1947. It is announced that Poland plans to order raw materials, capital goods and machinery totaling £35,000,000 over the next three years. Meanwhile, Poland will export goods to Great Britain to a total value of £23,000,000. Discussions between Polish Prime Minister Bierut and British PM Bevin stress that Poland is in great need of repatriating those Poles working abroad.

Romania – May 2, 1947 (PIR)
A conference of the Communist leaders and army commanders takes place. Problems discussed include army equipment, the situation in the army and the relations with the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union / United States – May 3, 1947 (KCA)
A transcription of the April 9, 1947 conversation on Soviet-American relations between Stalin and U.S. Republican Harold E. Stassen is issued in Washington. In the conversation Stalin expresses his belief in the possibility of collaboration and cooperation between the free-market U.S. and state-led USSR. Stalin presses that the possibility for cooperation exists. Furthermore, he claims that the U.S. and the USSR will gain nothing by calling each other names such as “totalitarian” and “monopolist”.

Hungary – May 4, 1947 (HC)
The 3rd national electoral convention of the National Peasant Party takes place in Budapest. According to its proclamation, the basis of Hungarian democracy is peasant-democracy. The convention considers the interest of the entire peasantry when creating its program. The party elects Péter Veress as its Chairman, and Ferenc Erdei as General Secretary.

Romania – May 5, 1947 (KCA)
The Romanian Ministry of Interior announces that an undisclosed number of people, mostly political opponents of the régime, have been arrested on charges of conspiring to overthrow the régime and “preparing and carrying out acts of terror and sabotage”.

Poland / Soviet Union – May 6, 1947 (PLC)
A Ukrainian-Polish announcement states that the program to exchange minorities is completed.

Poland / Soviet Union – May 7, 1947 (PLC)
A Polish-Soviet agreement is signed confirming that the East-Prussia temporary borderline (from Braunsberg to Goldap) will become the permanent border.

Hungary – May 10, 1947 (HC)
Large parts of the collection of the Hungarian Museum of Fine Arts arrive back in Budapest from Germany.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – May 11, 1947 (WBA)
A Treaty on Economic Cooperation in the aluminum industry between Yugoslavia and Hungary is signed in Belgrade.

Hungary – May 13, 1947 (HC)
The People’s Court announces its verdict in the trial of the white terrorist murderers of 1919-1920. Iván Héjjas and Mihály Francia-Kiss receive the death penalty (in their absence), four others receive life imprisonment, and an additional 17 people receive imprisonment from 1 to 15 years.

Hungary / Soviet Union – May 14, 1947 (HC)
Nagy travels to Switzerland for additional weeks of vacation. In his absence, government matters are led by his assistant, Mátyás Rákosi.

The Soviet Government announces that it begins the transportation of the Hungarian prisoners of war back to Hungary.

Hungary –May 14, 1947 (REV/HC)
Prime Minister Ferenc Nagy travels to Switzerland, ostensibly on holiday, to acquaint the West with the situation that has developed in Hungary. Direction of the Council of Ministers is taken over by Deputy Prime Minister Mátyás Rákosi.
The Soviet Government announces that it begins the transportation of the Hungarian prisoners of war back to Hungary.

Romania – May 15, 1947 (PIR)
The Parliament adopts the law for the regulation of citizenship to certain categories of inhabitants; the law sanctions initial measures to abrogate racist legislation, and denies Romanian citizenship to persons such as those who arrived in northern Transylvania from Hungary after the 1940 Vienna award.

Germany – May 18, 1947 (PLC)
Regional elections in the French-occupied zone of Germany take place. The CDU wins.

Romania – May 19, 1947 (PIR)
In the presence of government members and the Prime Minister, the Zambaccian Museum opens, containing collections donated to the state by the great collector Krikor Zambaccian.
Courses at the “Ştefan Gheorghiu” Party University begin.

Hungary – May 22, 1947 (HC)
An assembly of the coalition parties takes place convened by President Zoltán Tildy. They discuss the issue of the nationalization of the banks.

Soviet Union / United States – May 22, 1947 (CWC)
American sources report on the launch of a new Soviet propaganda program in response to the Truman Doctrine. The propaganda offensive claims that American businessmen and German fascists plan to launch another war and that American aid to nations is used to subjugate them.

Hungary / Great Britain – May 23, 1947 (KCA)
The first round of the trade negations takes place between Hungary and the U.K. They are continued in London in July.

Yugoslavia / Greece / United Nations – May 23, 1947 (LUY)
The U.N. Commission of Investigation Concerning Greek Frontier Incidents votes eight to three on the issue involving Yugoslavia’s, and to a lesser extent Albania’s and Bulgaria’s, efforts in supporting “guerilla warfare in Greece.”

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – May 24, 1947 (HC)
The representatives of Hungary and Czechoslovakia sign an agreement about the population exchange. In the first wave, 11,127 Hungarians are to be transported to Hungary by 13 July.

Romania – May 24, 1947 (PIR)
Gheorghe Tătărescu addresses an incriminatory memoire to the BPD parties, criticizing governmental policies, especially those supported by the PCR.

Poland / Yugoslavia – May 24, 1947 (WBA)
An agreement on Economic Cooperation between Yugoslavia and Poland is signed in Warsaw. The agreement and the attached protocol provides for a permanent Polish-Yugoslav Commission for Economic Cooperation between the two countries.

Romania / Greece – May 25, 1947 (PIR)
A protest assembly is organized in Bucharest by the Macedonian-Romanian Cultural Society against the persecution of Romanians in Greece.

Romania / Bulgaria – May 26, 1947 (PIR)
A cultural convention between Romania and Bulgaria is concluded in Sofia.

Soviet Union – May 26, 1947 (KCA)
A decree is issued by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet that abolishes the death penalty throughout the USSR. The death penalty will be replaced by confinement in reformatory labor camps for 25 years.

Hungary – May 28, 1947 (HC)
The Economic High Council makes a proposal about the nationalization of the banks. Head of the Allied Control Commission, Sviridov, gives to the Hungarian Government a document about former General Secretary of the FKGP Béla Kovács (now in custody in the Soviet Union) and the case of conspiracy against the Republic. The proposal contains charges against Prime Minister Nagy. Deputy Prime Minister Mátyás Rákosi calls for a special meeting of the council of ministers that asks Nagy to come home from his vacation in Switzerland and clarify himself.

Hungary – May 30, 1947 (HC)
Nagy announces his resignation as Prime Minister at the Hungarian legation in Bern, and that he would not fulfill the demand of the government to return to Hungary.

Romania – May 30-June 2, 1947 (PIR)
The session of the Executive Committee of the Hungarian Popular Alliance takes place in Bucharest.

Hungary – May 31, 1947 (HC, KCA)
The President appoints the new Prime Minister: Lajos Dinnyés (FKGP). His deputies: Mátyás Rákosi (MKP) and Árpád Szakasits: (SZDP). State ministers are: the two deputies and István Dobi (FKGP). Ministers: Interior: László Rajk (MKP), Housing and Public Construction: Péter Veres (NPP), Agriculture: Károly Bárányos, Defence: Lajos Dinnyés, Justice: István Ries (SZDP), Industry: Antal Bán (SZDP), Trade and co-op: Sándor Rónai (SZDP), Traffic: Ernő Gerő (MKP), Information: Ernő Mihályfi (FKGP), Foreign Affairs: Ernő Mihályfi (FKGP), Finances: Miklós Nyáradi (FKGP), Religion and public education: Gyula Ortutay (FKGP). One of the main tasks of the new Government is stated to be the nationalization of the banks.

Italy – May 31, 1947 (REV)
The De Gasperi Government is formed in Italy without the Communists.


June 1947



Hungary / Romania – June 1947 (HC)
Due to the efforts of the Hungarian Popular Alliance of Romania, the Hungarian railroad workers do not have to take Romanian language exams.

Hungary – June 1947 (KCA)
In Hungary the government crisis intensifies following the aftermath of the alleged anti-republican conspiracies in January 1947. Communist and Socialist attacks are especially directed toward Béla Kovács, former Secretary-General of the Smallholders Party and one of the most prominent peasant leaders. He stands accused of plotting to overthrow the Government earlier in the year.

Yugoslavia / United States – June 1947 (LKT)
The U.S. concludes an agreement with the International Refugee Organization to help Yugoslav refugees resettle in other countries

Hungary – June 2, 1947 (KCA)
Prime Minister Dinnyés declares that there is now peace and order in the country and that “only reactionaries and traitors” pretend there is unrest. Meanwhile it is announced that the speaker of the National Assembly, Béla Varga, (who was also accused by the Soviet Union of plotting against the republic), fled the country to join Ferenc Nagy in Switzerland.

Hungary / United States – June 2, 1947 (LBC)
In response to political events in Hungary, (Prime Minister Nagy’s forced resignation on May 31), the U.S. suspends the remaining part of the $30 million surplus credit until the situation is clarified.

Romania – June 3, 1947 (PIR)
The Institute for Romanian-Soviet Studies is inaugurated in the Cantacuzino Palace in Bucharest, in the presence of patriarch Aleksei of Moscow.

Hungary – June 4, 1947 (KCA/HC)
The Smallholders’ Party expels both Ferenc Nagy and Béla Varga. The office of General Secretary is taken by Ferenc Implom.
 Aladár Szegedy-Maszák, the Hungarian Minister to Washington, announces that he will not recognize the new Government.
The first train of Hungarian prisoners of war arrives in Debrecen from the Soviet Union.

Hungary / Austria / Germany / United States – June 4, 1947 (LBC)
In response to the failure of Hungary to grant transit rights for U.S. commercial airlines, Maszovlet (Hungarian-Soviet Airlines) may no longer fly over the U.S. zones of Austria and Germany.

Eastern Europe / United States – June 5, 1947 (LBC)
US Secretary of State Marshall’s speech at Harvard University takes place, where he announces the European Reconstruction Program (Marshall Plan). The aid is officially offered to all European Countries, including the Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern Europe.

Bulgaria – June 6, 1947 (KCA)
The leader of the Agrarian Party, Nikola Petkov, is arrested on charges for plotting against the Communist-dominated Government, preparing an “armed force” and contacting members of Macedonian terrorist organizations.

Hungary – June 6, 1947 (HC/KCA)
Hungarian Minister in Paris Pál Auer, Consul-General in Brussels Csaba Perlaki and the Hungarian delegate to the International Red Cross in Geneva announce that they will not represent a government set up by a coup d’état.
The government relieves Aladár Szegedy-Maszák, the Minister to Washington, and Ferenc Gordon, the Minister to Bern.

Romania – June 6, 1947 (PIR)
The Parliament adopts the Law of Agricultural Goods circulation which impedes the breakdown of small peasant households (establishing the lower limit of those at 2ha) and the concentration of large estates (the maximum being established at 25ha).

Bulgaria / Great Britain / US – June 7, 1947 (KCA)
The British and American political representatives in Bulgaria request details on the arrest of Petkov. On June 8, the Bulgarian Premier gives his reply, stating that the matter is a “purely internal Bulgarian question.” The British and American representatives also protest the banning of two opposition papers, Svoboden Narod and Narodno Zemedelsko Zname.

Hungary – June 7, 1947 (KCA)
The official Hungarian News Agency publishes the alleged confession of Béla Kovács, in which he declares his active participation in planning a conspiracy by the leaders of the Smallholders’ Party.

Hungary – June 7,1947 (REV)
József Kővágó, the Smallholder Mayor of Budapest, resigns. He is succeeded on July 18 by József Bognár, who belongs to the left wing of the Independent Smallholders’ Party (FKGP), which is willing to cooperate with the Hungarian Communist Party.

Romania / Yugoslavia – June 7-9, 1947 (PIR)
A Romanian governmental delegation, led by Petru Groza, pays a visit to Yugoslavia. A cultural convention between the two countries is concluded on this occasion.

Hungary – June 8, 1947 (HC)
The leadership of the Social-Democratic Party demands the nationalization of banks and chemical industry.

Poland – June 9, 1947 (PLC)
August Zaleski becomes the new Polish president of the government in exile following the death of Raczkiewicz. Tadeusz Komorowski remains Prime Minister in exile.

Hungary – June 9, 1947 (HC)
The assembly of the leaders of the coalition parties takes place in Budapest. It approves the proposal about the envisioned Three-Year Plan.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Great Britain / United States – June 9, 1947 (LBC)
The Soviet Acting Chairman of the ACC, General Svridov, rebuffs the U.S.-British demand for information on the background of the Hungarian events.

Hungary – June 10, 1947 (HC/KCA)
A special session in the Hungarian National Assembly on the nationalization of the large commercial banks, economic Three-Year Plan and the new electoral law begins. It is announced that all large banks shall be nationalized before August 1, 1947. This act would effectively lead to ending private enterprise in Hungary by 1948. Furthermore, Minister of Justice István Riesz announces that about 10% of the electorate will lose their franchise, including “collaborationists,” those sentenced for “crimes against democracy,” and those who returned from Western Europe after January 1, 1947.
The Government creates the National Planning Office. Its Chairman is Imre Vajda, (SZDP), and its main Secretary is Andor Berei (MKP).

Hungary / United States – June 10, 1947 (LBC)
The US State Department publishes the exchange of letters between acting Secretary of State Acheson and former Hungarian Prime Minister Ferenc Nagy. The aim is to deny the accusations made by the Hungarian Communists who claim that the U.S. secretly pledge support to Nagy.

Poland / Ukraine – June 10, 1947 (KCA)
It is announced that those Ukrainians who refused to be repatriated from Poland to Soviet Ukraine will be transferred to the Olsztyn area of East Prussia and their Polish citizenship would be retained.

Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / Italy / United States – June 11, 1947 (LBC)
The U.S. Senate ratifies the Bulgarian, Hungarian, Italian and Romanian peace treaties.

Hungary / Bulgaria / Soviet Union / United States – June 11, 1947 (LBC)
At the instruction of US Secretary of State Marshall and President Truman, the State Department instructs General Weems to protest in a strongly worded note to Sviridov against the Soviet Union’s “flagrant” interference in Hungary.
The State Department launches a strong diplomatic offensive against Bulgaria in response  to the arrest of opposition Peasant Party leader Nikola Petkov and the banning of opposition papers.

Bulgaria – June 12, 1947 (KCA)
The Bulgarian National Assembly unseats 23 Agrarian deputies on the grounds of their support for Nikola Petkov and their “unconstitutional letters of loyalty” to him.

Hungary – June 12, 1947 (HC/KCA)
The Dinnyés Government in Hungary is given special powers by the parliament for a period of four months, but the Freedom Party and 20 representatives from the Smallholders’ Party oppose this. Sulyok, leader of the Freedom Party, announces in the National Assembly that the new Hungarian state is a police state and that the whole country is covered by a net of political spies and denouncers. Furthermore he claims that there is no freedom of press, speech or thought. Sulyok asserts that the “new Hungarian democracy” is a “ridiculous travesty”. On the same day, Béla Varga arrives in the American zone of Germany.
The Council of Ministers approves the bill on the Three-Year Plan.

Hungary – June 12, 1947 (REV)
The trial of former minister Endre Mistéth (FKGP) and 43 associates begins in the People’s Tribunal. They are accused for their connections with the Hungarian Community conspiracy.  

Albania / Yugoslavia – June 12, 1947 (WBA)
The following are signed in Belgrade: an agreement between Albania and Yugoslavia on the payments of the Albano-Yugoslav stock companies, protocol on the formation of an Albano-Yugoslav coordination commission, protocol on the formation of the Albano-Yugoslav arbitration council, treaty on trade exchange between Albania and Yugoslavia, and a protocol on the price of goods with regard to the implementation of provisions under Article 3 of the Treaty on trade exchange and payments of July 1, 1946.

Romania / United States – June 13, 1947 (LBC)
The State Department publishes a warning to Romania that the U.S. demands full and immediate compensation for the U.S. property nationalized under the new law. The total value of U.S. property in Romania is $35 million.

Hungary – June 14, 1947 (KCA)
On his arrival to Washington from Geneva, Ferenc Nagy reiterates his view that the U.N. should carry out an investigation into the events in Hungary, on the grounds that Hungarian liberty and sovereignty are threatened.

Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / Italy / United States – June 14, 1947 (PIR)
President Truman signs the peace treaties with Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, and Romania.

Czechoslovakia – June 15, 1947 (KCA)
The foundation stone for rebuilding the village of Lidice (wiped out by the Germans on June 10, 1942) is laid by members of the Czechoslovak Government and foreign delegations.

Hungary / Soviet Union / United States – June 15, 1947 (LBC)
Sviridov turns down the U.S. request that the three powers investigate the Hungarian political transition, as it would constitute crude intervention in Hungary’s domestic affairs.

Soviet Union / United States – June 15, 1947 (LBC)
Pravda condemns the Marshall Plan.

Czechoslovakia – June 18, 1947 (KCA)
The total cost of World War II and the German occupation of Czechoslovakia is estimated at 780 billion Kc., with 242,000 people dying in concentration camps, 90,000 killed as members of the resistance movement in Czechoslovakia, 45,000 still missing and 114,00 war invalids. 600,000 people  were deported by Germans and 62,000 compelled to work on fortifications.

Soviet Union / France / Great Britain / United States – June 18, 1947 (LBC)
British Foreign Secretary Bevin and French Minister of Foreign Affairs Bidault invite Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov to work out the European reconstruction plan based on U.S. assistance.

Hungary /US – June 18, 1947 (LBC)
Truman calls the Hungarian “communist coup” outrageous and declares that the U.S. has no intention to stand idly by. He supports a strongly worded note of protest to the Soviet High Command.

Romania – June 18, 1947 (PIR)
The Romanian section of the International Association of Democratic Journalists is constituted in Bucharest.

Poland / Great Britain – June 19, 1947 (KCA)
The Anglo-Polish Financial Agreement is ratified and entered into force.

Poland / Soviet Union – June 19, 1947 (KCA)
The city and port of Stettin (Szczecin) is officially given back to the Polish authorities by  the Soviet Union.

Eastern Europe / Great Britain – June 19, 1947 (LBC)
Bevin warns the USSR in the House of Commons that the policy of appeasement is over. On Eastern Europe he declares, “We have lived through all these - in Poland, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria. Why blind our eyes to it?…I am against the one party state... It is developing over a very wide area of Eastern Europe, not by desire but by force…I cannot help feeling…that this kind of thing should be stopped.”

Romania – June 21, 1947 (PIR)
Law No. 205 and 206 for the organization and functioning of the Ministry of National Defense, and the organization of the army are promulgated.

Austria / United States – June 22, 1947 (KCA)
The American headquarters in Vienna announce that the cost of the U.S. occupation in Austria for the Austrian economy amounts to $4,500,000 per every 3-month-period. From July on, the U.S. forces are to purchase their schilling requirements from the Austrian Government in U.S. dollars, so that there would be no further cost for the occupation for the Austrian Government. This new arrangement will enable Austria to import food, fuel, raw materials and equipment and have a steady dollar income.

Romania / Soviet Union – June 22, 1947 (PIR)
A governmental delegation, led by Gheorghiu-Dej and Traian Săvulescu, leaves for Moscow to negotiate cereal imports, which are needed because of serious droughts (8,000 wagons of cereal from the USSR are obtained).

Hungary – June 23-25, 1947 (HC)
Deputy Prime Minister Mátyás Rákosi, General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party, and Mihály Farkas, member of the Political Committee of the party, negotiate with the leaders of the Czechoslovak Communist Party and President Benes in Prague.

Poland / Australia – June 23, 1947 (KCA)
Dr. Stefan Litauer is appointed as Minister to Australia.

Poland / United States – June 24, 1947 (LBC)
The Polish Ambassador in Washington indicates that his country wishes to participate in the Marshall Plan.

Romania / Great Britain / United States – June 24-25, 1947 (PIR)
The governments of the U.K. and the U.S. address two notes of protest to the Romanian Cabinet due to human rights violations in Romania.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – June 24, 1947 (WBA)
An agreement on long-term Hungarian deliveries and Yugoslav counter-deliveries is signed in Budapest.

Romania / Great Britain / United States – June 25, 1947 (LBC)
British protest against Romania for the “drastic deprivations of civil liberties to which the Romanian people are being subjected” and against “the arbitrary arrest...of hundreds of opposition party leaders and non-party persons.” The U.S. presents a similar protest.

Soviet Union / Iceland – June 25, 1947 (KCA)
A new trade agreement between Iceland and the Soviet Union is signed.

Hungary – June 26, 1947 (KCA)
The Hungarian National Assembly decides to deprive Béla Varga of his citizenship.

Romania / Yugoslavia – June 26, 1947 (PIR)
Romania and Yugoslavia conclude a cultural convention.

Soviet Union – June 26, 1947 (KCA)
In the Soviet Union an industrial call-up with tens of thousands of youths takes place, with the aim of obtaining 4,500,000 fully trained industrial workers by 1950 which is laid down in the first post-war Five-Year Plan.

Soviet Union / Great Britain / France / United States – June 27-July 2, 1947 (PLC)
A meeting of the foreign ministers of the four great powers about the Marshall plan takes place Paris.

Yugoslavia / Greece / United Nations – June 27, 1947 (LUY)
The final report of the Commission of Investigation Concerning the Greek Frontier Incidents is proposed to the Security Council. The Security Council debates the issue until August 12, 1947.

Yugoslavia / Denmark – June 28, 1947 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs an economic and payment agreement with Denmark.

Romania – June 30-July 2, 1947 (PIR)
The first national conference of the Union of Antifascist Women of Romania takes place.



July 1947



Bulgaria – July 1947 (KCA)
Bulgaria refuses to attend the European Economic Conference on Marshall Aid because of possible implications of the “division of Europe into two hostile camps”.

Hungary / Austria – July 1947 (KCA)
In Vienna it is announced that there have been many refugees escaping Hungary following the political crisis. The resignation of Hungarian ministers abroad continue.

Yugoslavia – July 1947 (RSB)
The trial against Čvrtomir Nagode begins in Ljubljana. The accused is considered to be the leader of the ‘bourgeois’ opposition.

Yugoslavia / United States – July 1947 (LKT)
The new U.S. Ambassador to Yugoslavia, Cavendish Cannon, a veteran Balkan expert, arrives in Belgrade.

Hungary – July 1, 1947 (HC)
The National Assembly approves a law regarding a Three-Year Plan.

Romania – July 1, 1947 (PIR)
Six-month production programs are introduced in the main enterprises and industrial branches.

Poland – July 2, 1947 (PSN)
The Diet adopts the “Plan of Economic Reconstruction for the Years 1947-1949”. The goals of the plan are to “raise the quality of life for the working strata of the population above the pre-war level,” to integrate “the regained territories with the rest of the country” and to create spaces for private cooperatives.

Soviet Union / France / United States – July 2, 1947 (LBC)
The USSR turns down the Marshall Plan. In a speech French Foreign Minister Bidault states: “I should like to warn the Soviet delegation against any action which might result in dividing Europe into two groups.”

Romania – July 3-5, 1947 (PIR)
The general conference of ARLUS takes place in Bucharest.

Hungary – July 4, 1947 (HC)
The National Assembly elects Árpád Szabó (FKGP) as its chairman in the place of Béla Varga.

Czechoslovakia – July 4, 1947 (PLC)
The Czechoslovak Government unanimously agrees to attend the Marshall Plan conference in Paris.

Romania – July 4, 1947 (PIR)
The British and French governments invite Romania to participate in a conference on the application of the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe.

Austria / United Nations – July 7, 1947 (KCA)
Austria applies for U.N. membership.

Soviet Union / Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / Finland / Hungary / Poland / Romania – July 7, 1947 (PLC)
The Soviet Union informs all countries in its sphere of influence (including Finland), that they cannot accept the Marshall Plan. This move shows a radical change in Soviet foreign policy.

Poland – July 9, 1947 (PLC/KCA)
Under Soviet pressure, Poland refuses to attend the Marshall Plan conference in Paris. Poland claims to oppose the benefits of the program to Germany and expresses the fear that accepting the aid might have negative implications for the economic independence and the sovereignty of the recipients.

Romania / United Nations – July 9, 1947 (KCA)
The Romanian Government decides to apply for membership in the U.N.

Romania – July 9, 1947 (PIR/KCA)
The Romanian government rejects the invitation by the French and British government to participate in the conference on the Marshall Plan. Romania states that accepting the aid would lead to interference in internal affairs.

Yugoslavia – July 9, 1947, (OEH/KCA)
Yugoslavia refuses to attend the European Economic Conference on Marshall Aid, declaring that the Marshall Plan would be an attempt to interfere in the economic affairs of other countries and to secure new markets for the U.S.

Czechoslovakia – July 10, 1947 (KCA)
Czechoslovakia announces its refusal to attend the European Economic Conference on Marshall Aid, as this could be interpreted as an act against the Soviet Union. The announcement was a direct result of Stalin’s harsh warnings to a Czechoslovak government delegation hastily invited to Moscow for “consultation.”

Hungary – July 10, 1947 (HC)
The Council of Ministers decides that Hungary will not participate in the Paris conference on the Marshall Plan.

Finland – July 11, 1947 (PLC/KCA)
Finland refuses to attend the European Economic conference on Marshall Aid on grounds that the Marshall plan has been a “serious cause of disagreement between the Great Powers” and that Finland “wants to remain outside international conflicts”.

Hungary / Finland – July 11, 1947 (HC)
Hungary and Finland sign an economic agreement.

Romania – July 11, 1947 (PIR)
Gheorghe Tătărescu requests Romania’s admission to the U.N. from Trygye Lie, General Secretary of the U.N.

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – July 12, 1947 (KCA)
The Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia sign a trade agreement.

Romania / Great Britain / United States – July 12, 1947 (KCA)
The British and American notes condemning the political conditions in the country are rejected by the Romanian Government on the grounds that they constitute interference in the country’s internal affairs.

Soviet Union – July 12-September 22, 1947 (PLC)
16 Western European countries (including Austria and the French, British and American occupational zones of Germany) meet in Paris to agree on the terms of the Marshall Plan. Under Soviet pressure, Albania, Bulgaria, Finland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia do not attend the conference. Spain later joins the Marshall Plan.

Bulgaria / Soviet Union – July 13, 1947 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Vice-Premier announces that a Soviet-Bulgarian trade agreement has been signed.

Romania / Bulgaria – July 13-16, 1947 (PIR)
Groza pays an official visit to Bulgaria and meets with Bulgarian Prime Minister Georgi Dimitrov.

Hungary / Soviet Union – July 15, 1947 (KCA)
A Soviet-Hungarian Trade agreement is signed in Moscow.

Romania – July 15, 1947 (HC/KCA)
New arrests of approximately 100 members of the opposition take place in Bucharest and in the provinces.

Romania – July 15, 1947 (PIR)
The Commission for Economic Rectification and Monetary Stabilization is instituted. New economic legislation is adopted, focused on the control of credit utilization, the organization of state economic control, and the circulation of agricultural products.

Hungary – July 16, 1947 (PLC)
The Hungarian parliament ratifies the Peace Treaty of Paris.

Poland / France – July 16, 1947 (LBC)
A four-year French-Polish economic treaty is signed in Paris, allowing French companies to construct Poland’s waterpower system.

Romania – July 17, 1947 (PIR)
Under the accusation of being “involved in an action of overthrowing the existing regime in Romania,” Parliament decides to lift the parliamentary immunity of six PNŢ deputies: Iuliu Maniu (leader of the Peasant Party) , Aurel Leucuţia, Emil Ghilezan, Vasile Serdici, Ilie Lazăr and Gr. Niculescu-Buzeşti, all of whom are arrested.

Hungary – July 20, 1947 (HC)
István Balogh, the former Chairman of the FKGP, announces the establishment of the Independent Hungarian Democratic Party.

Hungary – July 22, 1947 (HC)
In the National Assembly, Vince Nagy announces that the “Szabadságpárt” (Freedom Party) is disbanded. Its leader, Dezső Sulyok, resigns from his parliamentary seat (and goes into exile on August 14).

Hungary – July 22, 1947 (REV)
Margit Schlachta applies to the Interior Ministry for a permit to form a party named the Christian Women’s Camp.

Soviet Union / Great Britain – July 22, 1947 (KCA)
Trade negotiations between the Soviet Union and the U.K. break down over the terms of repayment of the 1941 credit.

Hungary – July 23, 1947 (HC)
The National Assembly passes a law on the right to vote.

Poland / United States – July 23, 1947 (HDP)
The U.S. ends WWII aid to Poland.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – July 24, 1947 (REV)
A five-year Hungarian-Yugoslav economic and cooperation treaty is signed.

Hungary – July 25, 1947 (REV)
President Zoltán Tildy dissolves Parliament and calls for elections on August 31.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – July 25, 1947 (KCA)
A Soviet-Yugoslav Trade Agreement is signed.

Bulgaria / United Nations – July 26, 1947 (KCA)
A Bulgarian application for membership of the U.N. is received by the U.N. Secretary-General Trygve Lie.

Hungary / Poland / United States – July 26, 1947 (LBC)
U.S. Congress excludes Poland and Hungary from the Marshall Plan. Previously both had turned down the invitation.

Hungary – July 28 1947 (REV)
The Hungarian Independence Party is formed with Zoltán Pfeiffer as president.

Yugoslavia – July 28, 1947 (CRM)
The District Court of the City of Zagreb sentences four priests from the Franciscan Monastery in Zagreb to death. On August 13, 1947 the Supreme Court of Croatia confirms the first-instance judgment, and all four are executed.

Hungary – July 29, 1947 (REV)
An Electoral Alliance of the Hungarian National Independence Front is formed by the coalition parties.

Romania – July 29, 1947 (KCA)
The Romanian Government dissolves the strongest opposition party, the National Peasant Party. The Peasant Party is accused of plotting to overthrow the Government.

Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / Soviet Union / Great Britain / United States – July 30, 1947 (LBC)
The U.S. publishes its protest against the USSR taking former Axis property from Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania before the signing of the peace treaty. On the previous day Britain protested against the same issue.

Hungary – July 30, 1947 (HC)
The Economic High Council discusses the collective contracts and the salaries of public servants.

Austria / United States – July 31, 1947 (KCA)
The U.S. Export-Import Bank announces the granting of credits to Austria, totaling $13 million to enable them to finance urgently needed materials and equipment.



August 1947



Hungary – August 1947 (KCA)
The Hungarian Council of People’s Court confirms the findings of the Budapest People’s Court in the first trial against the leaders of the anti-republican plot, but commutes two death sentences into that of penal servitude.

Yugoslavia / Greece – August 1947 (SGY)
Yugoslavia recalls its minister from Athens.

Bulgaria / Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – August 1, 1947 (PLC)
A Bulgarian-Yugoslav agreement is signed by Tito and Dimitrov at their meeting in Bled. The agreement addresses the questions of a possible Balkan confederation. According to the envisioned plan Bulgaria would give Pirini-Macedonia to Yugoslavia in exchange for the Caribrod and Bosilgrad territories taken away in 1919. Stalin raises objections against this meeting in a secret letter.

Hungary – August 1, 1947 (HC)
The execution of the Three-Year Plan begins. The Lajos Kossuth Military Academy opens.

Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – August 2, 1947 (KCA)
The Yugoslav and Bulgarian governments announce an extensive pact providing for mutual assistance and full economic, political and cultural cooperation.

Romania – August 3-4, 1947 (PIR)
The conference of the presidents and secretaries of district organizations of the Plowmen’s Front takes place in Bucharest. The gathering analyzes the progress of the reorganization based on the April 1947 communiqué of the Executive Committee of the Front to transform it to an organization of the the “working peasantry.”

Poland / Soviet Union – August 4, 1947 (KCA)
A Soviet-Polish trade agreement is signed.

Bulgaria – August 6, 1947 (REV)
The trial of Nikola Petkov and his associates begins in Bulgaria. He is found guilty and hanged on August 16.

Poland – August 6, 1947 (PSN)
Zygmunt Augustynski, editor of the Peasant Party's daily Gazeta Ludowa, is sentenced to fifteen years imprisonment. At the same trial Father Leon Pawlina is sentenced to ten years in prison and Ensign Zygmunt Maciejec, from the security service, is given the death sentence.

Romania – August 7, 1947 (PIR)
The law for the abolition and ban of fascist, pro-fascist or terrorist, military and paramilitary organizations is adopted. The law for the investigation and penalization of those guilty of war crimes or crimes against peace and humanity is also adopted.

Soviet Union – August 8, 197 (KCA)
General Anton Denikin, Commander of the Belorussian Army in the post-revolutionary campaign against the Bolsheviks, dies in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Hungary / Great Britain – August 9, 1947 (KCA)
A British-Hungarian trade agreement on food imports is signed in London.

Czechoslovakia / Great Britain – August 10, 1947 (LBC)
Czechoslovakia receives 100 fighter planes from the U.K.

Hungary / Great Britain – August 11, 1947 (KCA)
A British Note to the Hungarian Government protests the privileges granted to Soviet-Hungarian companies.

Yugoslavia / West Germany – August 11, 1947 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs a payment agreement and a protocol on economic cooperation with the West German Economic Area.

Hungary – August 14, 1947 (HC)
Dezső Sulyok, the ex-chairman of the “Szabadságpárt” (Freedom Party), emigrates from Hungary.

Romania – August 15, 1947 (KCA)
Facing increasing inflation, the Romanian Government decides to devaluate the lei. The Romanian Parliament passes emergency laws for the immediate confiscation of all gold, foreign currencies and foreign exchange balances held by Romanians and foreign residents in Romania.

Bulgaria / Great Britain / US – August 16, 1947 (KCA)
Nikola Petkov, leader of the opposition Agrarian Party, is sentenced to death by hanging for conspiring to overthrow the Fatherland Front Government. Foreign press correspondents are allowed to follow the trial. The British and U.S. governments ask the Soviet Deputy Chairman of the Allied Control Commission to suspend the sentence pending a review of the case by the ACC.

Hungary – August 19, 1947 (HC)
The Social-Democratic Party holds its first party festival on Heroes’ Square.

Eastern Europe / United Nations – August 21, 1947 (HC)
The UN Security Council starts to discuss the application of the countries defeated in World War II to join the UN. (Eventually each application is rejected.)

Bulgaria – August 22, 1947 (KCA)
Lt. Gen. Charepanov, the Soviet Deputy Chairman of the ACC, states that the Commission cannot interfere in the verdict of the Bulgarian court in any way: “it is purely an internal Bulgarian matter”.

Romania – August 23, 1947 (KCA)
The Romanian National Assembly ratifies the Paris Peace Treaty.

Romania – August 24, 1947 (PIR)
The new railway line Bucharest-Roşiori-Caracal-Craiova is inaugurated.

Bulgaria – August 25, 1947 (KCA)
The Bulgarian National Assembly ratifies the Peace Treaty.

Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – August 25, 1947 (WBA)
Agreement on the utilization of properties cut by the Yugoslav-Bulgarian frontier line is signed in Sofia.

Bulgaria – August 26, 1947 (KCA)
The Bulgarian National Assembly dissolves the Nikola Petkov’s Agrarian Party on the grounds that it had become “a centre for Fascist forces seeking revenge”.

Soviet Union – August 26, 1947 (PLC)
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet ratifies the Italian, Bulgarian, Hungarian and Finnish peace treaties.

Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – August 27, 1947 (WBA)
Agreement on facilitating the crossing of the frontier between Yugoslavia and Bulgaria for citizens of both countries, and on citizenship is signed in Sofia.

Hungary – August 29, 1947 (REV)
At their trial, Endre Mistéth and his associates receive sentences for their involvement in the alleged Hungarian Community conspiracy. Mistéth receives three and a half years of hard labor, Pál Jaczkó four years of hard labor, László Gyulai four years of penal servitude, János Horváth three and a half years of hard labor, Sándor Kiss two and a half years of penal servitude, István Csicsery-Rónay two years of penal servitude, and László Vatai six months of penal servitude. However, Tibor Hám is acquitted. After appealing, Mistéth’s sentence is changed to six years of penal servitude, Jaczkó’s to five years of imprisonment, Gyulai’s to five years’ imprisonment, Horváth’s to three years’ penal servitude, Kiss’ to three years of prison, Csicsery-Rónay’s to three years in prison, and Vatai’s to six months imprisonment.

Hungary – August 31, 1947 (HC)
General elections are held. The division of the elected representatives is as follows:
Hungarian Communist Party: 100
FKGP: 68
Social-Democratic Party: 67
National Peasant Party: 36
Christian Women Camp: 4
Democratic People’s Party: 60
Hungarian Independent Party: 49
Hungarian Radical Party: 6
Independent Hungarian Democratic Party: 18
Civil Democratic Party: 3

Hungary / United States –­ August 31, 1947 (LBC)
The U.S. criticizes Hungary for manipulating the August 31 national elections to help the Communists win.

Hungary – August 31, 1947 (REV)
Budgetary funds of Ft. 372.5 million are spent on supplies for the Red Army during the fiscal years of 1946–7. This represents more than 10% of Hungary’s public spending.



September 1947



Hungary – September 1, 1947 (HC)
Leaders of the Social-Democratic Party suspect election fraud and question the legitimacy of the voting. The Social-Democratic ministers protest and refuse to take on work.

Romania / Czechoslovakia – September 3-5, 1947 (PIR)
A Romanian Governmental Delegation headed by Petru Groza and Gh. Tătărescu pays an official visit to Czechoslovakia. A commercial and cultural accord is signed on the occasion.

Germany – September 5, 1947 (KCA)
It is announced that Dr. Rudolf Paul, the Prime Minister of Thuringia (Soviet Zone), has disappeared with his wife.

Hungary – September 5, 1947 (HC)
A discussion between the leadership of the Hungarian Communist Party and the National Peasant Party takes place. The Peasant Party aims for re-establishing the December 2, 1944 government coalition.

Hungary – September 6, 1947 (HC)
A large crowd protests on Heroes’ Square. They demand the immediate solution to the government crisis.

Hungary – September 8, 1947 (HC)
The Electoral Assembly of the Social-Democratic Party takes place. Some members suggest leaving the coalition, but the assembly disapproves this option.

Poland / United States – September 8, 1947 (LBC)
U.S. representative Christian Herter announces in Warsaw that the U.S. is interested in Poland’s rehabilitation, despite its aid being revoked.

Czechoslovakia / United States – September 9, 1947 (LBC)
The U.S. announces the conclusion of an economic agreement with Czechoslovakia in which it will deliver industrial equipment to Prague.

Poland / Romania – September 9, 1947 (PIR)
Romania and Poland conclude an economic convention.

Hungary – September 11, 1947 (HC)
The Assembly of the Central Leadership of the Communist Party takes place in Budapest. The party demands a representation in the government, proportional to the party’s increased popularity.

Hungary – September 11-13, 1947 (HC)
The great assembly of the FKGP takes place in Budapest. The right wing unsuccessfully attempts to take over the leadership of the party. The assembly decides to continue to participate in the coalition government and clarifies the conditions of its cooperation.

Romania – September 11-12, 1947 (PIR)
A session of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of PCR takes place. It discusses the situation of prices after the stabilization, the relationship between prices and salaries, industrial production as well as the circulation of goods.

Hungary – September 12, 1947 (HC)
The convention of the leaders of the Communist Party and the Social-Democratic Party takes place in Budapest. An agreement is formed on the issues concerning cooperation between the two parties, and on governmental matters.

Yugoslavia / United States September 12, 1947 (KCA)
A U.S. note is delivered to the Yugoslav Government, demanding the release of two American and seven British soldiers arrested by the Yugoslav authorities in the previous weeks. The note charges the Yugoslav Government with “unwarranted detention and maltreatment” of Allied military personnel.

Poland / Vatican – September 14, 1947 (HDP)
The government denounces the 1925 Concordat with the Vatican.

Czechoslovakia – September 15, 1947 (KCA)
It is officially announced that the Czechoslovak police have discovered an anti-republican plot to overthrow the government, and that 80 people were arrested on September 13, 1947 for their involvement.

Bulgaria / Finland / Hungary / Romania  – September 15, 1947 (PLC)
After the ratifications, the Paris peace treaties are put into force. The Allied Control Commissions are abolished in Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary and Romania.

Yugoslavia / Italy – September 15, 1947 (RSB)
Peace Treaty between Italy and Yugoslavia is enforced; the Slovene coastland is annexed to Yugoslavia and the Free Territory of Trieste is established.

Hungary – September 16, 1947 (HC/REV)
The first session of the new National Assembly takes place. Imre Nagy (Communist Party) is elected as Speaker.

Romania / Great Britain – September 17, 1947 (PIR)
The governments of Romania and the U.K. decide upon the transformation of their political representations into legations.

Bulgaria – September 18, 1947 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Supreme Court rejects Nikola Petkov’s appeal.

Hungary – September 18, 1947 (HC)
The convention of the four parties of the Hungarian National Independence Front supports the coalition government.

Soviet Union / Greece / Turkey / United States / United Nations – September 18, 1947 (CWC)
Soviet Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Vishinksy accuses the U.S., Greece and Turkey of engaging in “criminal propaganda for a new war” during the U.N. General Assembly debate on a Soviet resolution against “warmongering”. He attacks the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine. He also accuses the U.S. of engaging in an arms race and using West Germany to expand American power in Europe. Finally, he rejects American accusations that Soviet allies are assisting communists in Greece and Turkey.

Finland / United Nations – September 19, 1947 (KCA)
Finland formally applies for membership to the U.N.

East Germany – September 20-24, 1947 (PLC)
At the second congress of the SED in Berlin it is decided that the East German communist party will be reorganized.

Yugoslavia / Albania – September 20, 1947 (WBA)
An agreement on the abolition of visas between Yugoslavia and Albania is signed in Tirana.

Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / Hungary / Poland / Romania / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – September 22-28, 1947 (PLC/MMS)
In Szklarska Poreba, Poland the Cominform (Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties) is formed at the secret conference of the communist parties of nine European countries; Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Italy and France. The parties from Greece, Germany, Albania and Finland are not represented. The bipolar world order (two camps doctrine) is declared by Andrej Zhdanov, head of the Soviet delegation. The Cominform is officially founded in order to coordinate responses to the Marshall Plan.

Bulgaria – September 23, 1947 (KCA)
Nikola Petkov is executed in Sofia’s Central Prison.

West Germany – September 23, 1947 (KCA)
German Press reports the arrival of Dr. Rudolf Paul the Prime Minister of Thuringia (Soviet Zone), and his wife to the American zone of Germany, also claiming that the disappearance was faked for political reasons.

Bulgaria / Great Britain / United States – September 24, 1947 (KCA)
The U.S. and the U.K. denounce the execution of Nikola Petkov, the British Minister in Sofia condemning it as a “judicial murder”.

Hungary – September 24, 1947 (HC)
The President names Lajos Dinnyés as Prime Minister again. The deputies: Mátyás Rákosi (MKP), Árpád Szakasits (SZDP). Ministers: Interior: László Rajk (MKP), Construction and Public Labour: József Darvas (NPP), Agriculture: Árpád Szabó (FKGP), Defence: Péter Veres (NPP), Justice: Ries Ferenc (SZDP), Traffic: Ernő Gerő (MKP), Foreign Affairs: Erik Molnár (MKP), Finances: Mikós Nyárádi (FKGP), Religion and Education: Gyula Ortutay (FKGP).

Romania – September 24, 1947 (PIR)
The PCR and PSD leaderships discuss the reconstruction of the organizational unity through the Unitary Labor Front, in the context of the action of the internal and external “reaction”.

Bulgaria – September 25, 1947 (KCA)
It is announced that 18 members of Bulgarian opposition parties have been arrested for helping “diversionists” enter the country from Greece.

Hungary – September 25, 1947 (HC)
The first Russian-language library opens in Budapest. It is called the Gorky Library.

Yugoslavia /Great Britain / US – September 26, 1947 (KCA)
It is announced in Belgrade that the British and American citizens being the subject of the recent American protest are released.

Albania – September 28, 1947 (KCA)
Sixteen Albanians are sentenced to death for allegedly having worked with foreign agents to overthrow the government.

Romania – September 28, 1947 (PIR)
The activity of the Allied Control Commission in Romania comes to an end.

Hungary – September 29, 1947 (REV)
Parliament passes legislation on the nationalization of the banks.

Yugoslavia / Cominform – September 30, 1947 (OEH)
The Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties establishes itself with its headquarters based in Belgrade.



October 1947



Yugoslavia – October 1947 (PVC)
Seven alleged agents of IMRO are found guilty of spying. Two of them are shot and the other five are sentenced to twelve years' forced labor.

Bulgaria / United States – October 1, 1947 (KCA)
The U.S. resumes full diplomatic relations with Bulgaria.

Hungary / United States / United Nations October 1, 1947 (HC)
The UN Security Council rejects Hungary’s application for U.N. membership.

Romania – October 1, 1947 (KCA)
It is announced that the Romanian Communist and Social-Democratic parties have decided to fuse into one party under the name of “United Workers Party”. Their intention is to bring about political and ideological unity.

Romania – October 1, 1947 (PIR)
The UN Security Council rejects Romania’s application to the U.N.

Hungary – October 3, 1947 (HC)
The Communist and Peasant Party representatives file a petition for the abolition of the mandates of the Pfeiffer-party.

Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / Hungary / Poland / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia / France / Italy – October 5, 1947 (KCA/CWC)
It is simultaneously announced in Moscow, Belgrade, Warsaw, Prague and Paris that the Communist parties of nine European states, (The Soviet Union, Bulgaria, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia) had a secret meeting in Warsaw during September and decided to set up a Communist Information Buro, Cominform. According to the published manifesto its announced purpose is to “co-ordinate the activities of the Communists on the basis of mutual agreement”. In the document, it is stated that “as a result of the Second World War and the post-war period, substantial changes have occurred in the international situation”, and that the policies of Britain and the U.S. are “aimed at strengthening imperialism and strangling democracy”.
The manifesto accuses the U.S. and Great Britain of fighting Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan only to eliminate them as economic rivals. It accuses Western powers of imperialism, opposition to democracy and preparing for another war. The manifesto also denounces non-Bolshevik leftists such as socialists, leading to the arrest of many non-communist leftists in Eastern Europe.
The document calls for the “anti-imperialist democratic camp to unite” and “work out a coordinated program of action”.
The New York Times declares that the Communist move constitutes “a clear declaration of political war”.

West Germany / France – October 5, 1947 (PLC)
The Saar region starts an economic union with France.

Romania – October 5, 1947 (PIR)
The ministerial commission for economic rectification decides to make a national inventory of industrial, commercial and transportation enterprises.

Romania – October 5-9, 1947 (PIR)
The 18th general congress of the PSD takes place in Bucharest.

Hungary – October 7, 1947 (HC)
Prime Minister Lajos Dinnyés announces the program of the Government in the National Assembly. Its main objectives: the cooperation of the democratic parties, the nationalization of the banks, the realization of the Three-Year Plan and the elevation of living standards.

Bulgaria – October 8, 1947 (KCA)
The trial of 39 army officers charged with plotting to overthrow the present regime, begins. The chief defendant is General Cyril Stanchev. General Stanchev, the head of the underground military resistance movement during the war and German occupation, is claimed to have been directly in contact with Petkov. All of the defendants plead guilty and appeal for mercy, alleging that they joined the organization having understood General Damian Veltchev, War Minister in the Fatherland Front Government (1944-46), to be the leader.

Romania / Austria – October 8, 1947 (PIR)
Romania and Austria establish diplomatic relations at the level of political representation.

Albania / Italy – October 9, 1947 (PLC)
Albania ratifies the Italian peace treaty.

Romania – October 10, 1947 (PIR)
The work of the 17th Congress of the General Association of Engineers in Romania (AGIR) ends.

Romania / Argentina – October 10, 1947 (PIR)
Romania signs an economic accord with Argentina.

Austria / France / Great Britain / Soviet Union / US  – October 11, 1947 (KCA)
The Quadripartite Commission examining the Austrian peace treaty fails to reach an agreement on previously submitted disputed articles. In Moscow, the main point of disagreement is the definition and disposal of German assets in Austria. Other disagreements concerns questions and clauses of refugees and displaced persons. The failure to reach an agreement leads to deep disappointment.

Poland / Germany – October 12, 1947 (KCA)
It is announced from Warsaw that the deportation of Germans from Poland will be completed by November.

Austria / Soviet Union – October 13, 1947 (KCA)
It is announced in Vienna that in the Soviet Zone the Soviet authorities have dismissed the Austrian police chiefs on the grounds that they are ‘Fascists’ and had not carried out Soviet orders. They are replaced by Communists. Furthermore, the Austrian Government announces that it will take all the necessary measures to safeguard its sovereign rights as recognized by the Allied agreement. Later the Austrian Nationalrat requests the Government to approach the Allied Control Council to help obtain and restore Austrian sovereignty.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 13, 1947 (HC)
Led by Prime Minister Lajos Dinnyés, a government delegation travels to Yugoslavia for an official visit.

Soviet Union / Armenia – October 13, 1947 (KCA)
The Soviet-Armenian Commission announces that during 1947, 60 000 Armenians had been repatriated from different countries.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – October 15, 1947 (KCA)
The villages of Oroszvár, Horvátjárfalu and Dunacsún, ceded to Czechoslovakia under the peace treaty, are formally transferred to the Czechoslovak authorities.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 15, 1947 (KCA)
A five-year cultural agreement between Hungary and Yugoslavia is signed in Belgrade. The following day it is announced that further development of “economic, cultural and other relations on the basis on friendship and cooperation” is necessary.

Hungary – October 15, 1947 (HC)
A group from the Social-Democratic Party gives a memorandum to the party leadership. It suggests that the party announce its dissolution.

Romania – October 15-24, 1947 (PIR)
Industrial, commercial and credit enterprises are inventoried.

Czechoslovakia – October 16, 1947 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak National Assembly decides to lift the Parliamentary immunity of two deputies belonging to the Slovak Democratic Party, Dr. Bugar and Dr. Kempny, alleged to be involved in the plot. Both strongly deny the accusations. The Slovak Democratic Party is accused of siding with the capitalists.

Romania – October 18, 1947 (PIR)
The 2nd national Congress of the Union of the Syndicates of writers, artists and journalists takes place in Bucharest.

Bulgaria – October 21, 1947 (KCA)
General Stanchev is found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment. All other defendants are found guilty as well, with sentences ranging between 1 and 15 years.

Poland – October 21, 1947 (PSN)
Mikolajczyk secretly leaves Poland in the wake of increasing persecution of Peasant Party members.

Soviet Union / United States – October 21, 1947 (CWC)
The Soviet Union and the U.S. spar over a U.N. General Assembly resolution to help resolve the conflicts between Greece and its three communist neighbors, Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. The resolution is passed despite Soviet resistance.

Soviet Union – October 22, 1947 (CWC)
Andrei Zhdanov's “two camps speech” at the Cominform founding meeting is published by Pravda. The speech states that the world is divided into two camps, the imperialist and the anti-imperialist and that no state can be neutral. He calls for European states to reject the Marshall Plan, which he claims would turn Europe into the forty-ninth American state. Vishinski attacks American officials for warmongering at the U.N. General Assembly.

Yugoslavia – October 22, 1947 (ACY)
The first Organizing Committee of the Slovenian Catholic priests is established by priests from Primorska.

Bulgaria – October 24, 1947 (KCA)
Veltchev announces his resignation from the post of Bulgarian Minister in Bern, protesting the accusations made against him in the recent political trial.

Soviet Union – October 24, 1947 (KCA)
It is announced that Alexander Panyushkin will be the new Soviet Ambassador to Washington.

Romania – October 25-November 13, 1947 (PIR)
At the Military Tribunal of the 2nd Military Region Bucharest, the trial of the PNŢ leaders, most notably Iuliu Maniu and Ion Mihalache (condemned to life imprisonment), takes place.

Poland – October 26, 1947 (KCA)
A statement is issued by the Polish News Agency, announcing that Mikołajczyk, leader of the Polish Peasant Party, along with seven other people, has fled the country.

Yugoslavia / Great Britain – October 28, 1947 (KCA)
It is announced in London and Belgrade that under an agreement signed on September 8, 1947, Britain will hand over every Yugoslav national in the British occupation zones to the Yugoslav authorities.

Austria / Italy – October 29, 1947 (KCA)
Diplomatic relations between Italy and Austria are resumed.

Poland – October 29, 1947 (KCA)
After a recent pastoral letter criticizing the Government, Polish Prime Minister Cyrankiewicz warns the Roman Catholic bishops that the Government would not tolerate the use of religious freedom for political purposes by the Catholic Church.

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 30, 1947 (HC)
The 100,000th Hungarian prisoner of war arrives in the country from the Soviet Union.



November 1947



Czechoslovakia – November 1, 1947 (KCA)
It is announced that due to bad harvest, all extra food rations for physical workers, high officials and foreign correspondents will be reduced by half.

Hungary – November 1-2, 1947 (HC)
The fourth assembly of the national electoral committee of the National Peasant Party takes place in Budapest. It supports and enables the cooperation of the coalition parties and the foreign policy of the Government. Furthermore, it strengthens the leadership elected on May 4.

Poland / Great Britain – November 2, 1947 (KCA)
It is announced that an Anglo-Polish agreement has been signed regarding the principles of compensation for British property in Poland affected by the Polish nationalization law.

Poland / Germany / Great Britain – November 3, 1947 (KCA)
Mayhew, the British Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs announces that Mikołajczyk has arrived in the British zone of Germany. In a press statement on the same day Mikołajczyk clarifies the reasons for his escape, claiming he learned that his parliamentary immunity would be revoked in order to sentence him and others to death.

Romania – November 3, 1947 (PIR)
The Parliament’s Commission for External Affairs adopts a vote of no confidence against Minister of External Affairs Gheorghe Tătărescu.

Soviet Union – November 3, 1947 (KCA)
General Nikolai Bulganin is promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union.

Hungary – November 4, 1947 (HC)
Zoltán Pfeffer leaves the country. His party, the Hungarian Independence Party, is dissolved. The 48 representatives of the party lose their mandates.

Poland – November 4, 1947 (KCA)
Mikołajczyk announces that he is determined to continue fighting for Polish democracy and freedom, but that this struggle unfortunately cannot be done from Poland. He also expresses his views that political terror has decreased the working efficiency of the people.

Austria / France / Germany / Great Britain / United States – November 4, 1947 (KCA)
A protocol is signed in London by British, American, French and Austrian representatives giving Austria a share in the monetary gold looted by Germans and recovered by the Allies.

Hungary – November 6, 1947 (HC)
Hungary is admitted to UNESCO.

Romania – November 6, 1947 (PLC)  
The last oppositional politician, Tatarescu, is removed from the Romanian government.

Soviet Union – November 6, 1947 (KCA)
Molotov gives a speech marking the 30th anniversary of the Russian Revolution in which he emphasizes the division between the Great Powers and criticizes the “so-called ‘Western’ freedom” and American imperialism. Furthermore, he calls for all the anti-imperialist countries of the world to unite.

Romania / Portugal – November 7, 1947 (PIR)
Romania breaks diplomatic relations with Portugal.

Romania – November 7, 1947 (PIR)
The Groza government is reorganized after the removal of the PNL-Tătărescu ministers. The new members are: Ana Pauker ,Minister of External Affairs; Vasile Luca, Minister of Finances; Theodor Iordăchescu, Minister of Public Works; Stancu Stoian, Minister of Cults.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 8, 1947 (REV)
Stalin is awarded honorary citizen of Budapest.

Soviet Union / United States – November 8, 1947 (LBC)
The Harriman report states that, “The U.S. has vital interest – humanitarian, economic strategic and political – in helping” Western Europe recover while resisting communism, even at high costs.

Austria / Germany / Soviet Union / Great Britain – November 9-December 15, 1947 (PLC)
At the seventh meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers in London no agreement is reached regarding the peace treaties of Austria and Germany.

Romania – November 10-11, 1947 (PIR)
The national conference of UFAR adopts a platform-project for the unification of all feminist organizations into the Union of Democratic Women in Romania.

Romania – November 11, 1947 (PLC)
Maniu, arrested in July, is sentenced to life imprisonment.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 12, 1947 (REV)
The Hungarian-Yugoslav Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance is signed in Belgrade.

Poland / France – November 12, 1947 (KCA)
A Franco-Polish property compensation agreement is signed.

Poland / Sweden – November 12, 1947 (KCA)
Korbonski, member of the Peasant Party and a strong supporter of Mikołajczyk, makes an announcement after his recent flight to Stockholm, stating that he had received information of plans to put him on trial in Poland for “collaboration with foreign powers” and to execute him. Consequently he “fled for his life”.

Romania / Great Britain – November 12, 1947 (PIR)
King Mihai I and his mother, Queen Elena, leave for London to assist in the marriage of Princess Elisabeth of Britain.

Romania /France – November 14-15, 1947 (PIR)
In Paris, the first congress of the Romanian Diaspora takes place with the support of the regime in Romania; 63 delegates from Switzerland, Belgium, England, Italy and France participate.

Soviet Union / France – November 14, 1947 (KCA)
French police raid a Soviet repatriation camp near Paris.

Austria / United States – November 15, 1947 (KCA)
Lt.-Gen. Keyes, High Commissioner for the U.S. in Austria, announces that with the help of food supplies from the American Army, the Austrian Government will increase the basic food rations with immediate effect.

Poland – November 15, 1947 (KCA)
The Sejm considers the report of a special Parliamentary Commission appointed to investigate the flight of Mikołajczyk and other Peasant Party leaders. The parliamentary immunity of  Mikołajczyk is withdrawn, he is proclaimed guilty of treason to the Polish State and nation and banished for life.

Hungary – November 16, 1947 (HC)
The reconstructed “Margit-híd” (Margaret Bridge) is opened in Budapest.

Romania – November 17, 1947 (KCA)
It is reported that 165 members of the Romanian diplomatic service have been dismissed and recalled.

Soviet Union / France – November 17, 1947 (KCA)
The Soviet Ambassador in Paris, Bogomolov, delivers a “vigorous protest” against the actions of the French police in the Soviet repatriation camp, stating that it violates the Franco-Soviet repatriation act of 1945. France responds the same day, claiming that the Soviets have no extraterritorial rights at Beauregard and that there are reasons to suspect the Soviets plan to take three unregistered children of Franco-Soviet parentage to the USSR. Furthermore, as of December 1, 1947, the French authorities will take over the repatriation area.

Poland / Sweden – November 19, 1947 (KCA)
The Polish Government sends a strong note to the Swedish Government accusing the Swedish Consul in Gdansk (Danzig) of helping Korbonski and his wife flee Poland by smuggling them on board a Swedish vessel Drottning Victoria. The Swedish Government rejects the note as devoid of foundation and says it can take no responsibility for the individual acts of Swedish sailors.

Romania / United States – November 19, 1947 (LBC)
The State Department publishes its protest against the Romanian accusation that the U.S. is trying to overthrow the Bucharest government.

Hungary – November 20, 1947 (HC)
Károly Peyer, ex-chairman of the Social-Democratic Party, emigrates to the West.

Soviet Union / Iran – November 20, 1947 (KCA)
A strong Soviet protest against the nullification of the Soviet-Iranian oil agreement is issued.

Albania / Yugoslavia – November 20, 1947 (BST)
Nako Spiru, the member of the Albanian Communist party’s Politburo responsible for economic policy, commits suicide. Despite his long association with the Yugoslavs, he opposed the Yugoslav measures to control the Albanian economy.

Hungary – November 21, 1947 (HC)
The National Assembly passes a law about the nationalization of the banks.

Romania – November 21, 1947 (KCA)
The Romanian Defense Ministry announces that all men who could not serve in the army due to their limitations (an estimated number of 120,000), will be conscripted in labor battalions for “work in the national interest”. The length of this service is announced to be the same as their mandatory service in the army.

Hungary / Romania /– November 22, 1947 (HC)
Led by Prime Minister Lajos Dinnyés, a government delegation travels to Romania for a four-day visit.
On November 23, accompanied by Romanian Prime Minister Petru Groza, the delegation visits the Congress of the Hungarian Popular Alliance in Timişoara (Temesvár).

Hungary / France – November 22, 1947 (HC)
Hungary and France form a trade and economic agreement in Budapest.

Poland – November 22, 1947
The Polish cabinet deprives Mikołajczyk of his Polish citizenship.

Romania – November 22-23, 1947 (PIR)
The 3rd Congress of the Hungarian Popular Alliance takes place in Timişoara.

Hungary – November 23, 1947 (HC)
The program of the Hungarian Communist Party for the transformation of the sports movement is publicized.

Poland – November 24, 1947 (KCA)
It is announced that a special exchange rate (400 zlotys to the dollar instead of 100) will be applied to certain kinds of remittances to Poland from the U.S., e.g. assistance from relatives.

Soviet Union / Iran – November 24, 1947 (KCA)
Iranian Prime Minister Qavam replies to the Soviets denying that the Iranian Government follows “a hostile policy towards the Soviet Union”.

Hungary / Romania – November 25, 1947 (HC)
Hungary and Romania form a cultural agreement.

Soviet Union / France – November 26, 1947 (KCA)
The French authorities expel 20 Soviet citizens from France due to alleged interference in French internal affairs. The Soviet Union sends a note of protest to the French Government.

Austria / Soviet Union – November 27, 1947 (KCA)
The Austrian Government issues a statement in which the total value of industrial equipment sent to the Soviet Union during the 2 ½ years of occupation is estimated at 700 million Austrian schillings.

Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – November 27, 1947 (KCA)
Tito and Dimitrov sign a 20-year treaty of friendship, collaboration and mutual aid.

Yugoslavia / Italy – November 28, 1947 (KCA)
The initial trade agreement between Italy and Yugoslavia from April 1947 is formally signed in Rome.

Soviet Union – November 29, 1947 (KCA)
A survey is published in the Soviet Communist journal Party Life claiming the following Communist Party strengths around the world:
          Soviet Union: 6,000,000
            Italy: 2,200,000
            China: 2,000,000
            Czechoslovakia: 1,250,000
            France: 1,000,000
            Poland: 800,000
            Romania: 700,000
            Bulgaria: 500,000
            Yugoslavia: 400,000
            Belgium: 100,000
            Holland: 50,000
            Sweden: 48,000
            Great Britain 43,000

Romania – November 29 – December 6, 1947 (KCA)
The trial of Dr. Juliu Maniu, leader of the dissolved National Party, and 18 other members of the same party, takes place in the Bucharest military court. The defendants are accused of conspiring to promote intervention by foreign powers in Romanian internal affairs, and of leaking secret documents to the American and British officials in Bucharest. At the end of the trial Maniu and Mihalache are sentenced to penal servitude for life, the sentences of others ranging from one year imprisonment to 20 years of hard labor.

Romania – November 30, 1947 (PIR)
In the capital and elsewhere in the country, manifestations of the Jewish population and of Zionist organizations support the decision adopted by the U.N. regarding the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.



December 1947



Czechoslovakia / Romania – December 1, 1947 (PIR)
Romania and Czechoslovakia upgrade diplomatic relations to the level of embassy.

Romania – December 2, 1947 (PIR)
Youth brigades complete the construction of the natural gas pipe line Agnita-Botorca.

Soviet Union / Great Britain – December 2, 1947 (KCA)
The British and Soviet Governments agree on the immediate resumption of the trade negotiations suspended in July, 1947.

Poland – December 3, 1947 (KCA)
A trial in the military court of Warsaw opens with seven accused individuals who played a role in the coordination committee of the underground WIN organization. They are found guilty of high treason and espionage.

Austria – December 4, 1947 (KCA)
The Allied Control Council unanimously approves the bank bill.

Hungary – December 4, 1947 (HC)
The National Assembly approves a law on the complete equality of churches.

Bulgaria – December 4, 1947 (KCA)
The Bulgarian National Assembly, Sobranje, unanimously adopts the new Bulgarian Constitution and proclaims the country as People’s Republic.

Hungary / Romania – December 5, 1947 (HC)
In Romania a law is passed according to which, at those locations where the non-Romanian population exceeds 30%, only people with the knowledge of the particular minority’s language can become a judge.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – December 6, 1947 (HC)
Led by Tito, a Yugoslavian Government delegation travels to Budapest. They sign an agreement about mutual aid and support.

East Germany – December 6-7, 1947 (KCA)
The National Congress for Unity and Just Peace, mostly attended by representatives of the Socialist Unity Party (SED), is held in Berlin.

Bulgaria – December 7, 1947 (PLC)
The constitution of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria comes into force.

Soviet Union / France – December 9, 1947 (KCA)
The French authorities expel the Soviet repatriation mission in France for engaging in subversive activities.

Yugoslavia / Great Britain – December 10, 1947 (KCA)
The Yugoslavian Government denounces the recent Anglo-Yugoslav agreement on the disposal of Yugoslav displaced persons. The denunciation is founded on grounds that the British Government has not fulfilled the terms of the agreement, citing as evidence that after two months no Yugoslav displaced person nor traitor was delivered to the Yugoslav authorities. Mayhew, Under Secretary at the British Foreign Office, expresses his surprise at the Yugoslav announcement.

Bulgaria – December 11, 1947 (KCA)
Dimitrov forms a new Fatherland Front Cabinet.

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – December 11, 1947 (KCA)
A Czechoslovak-Soviet trade agreement is signed.

Soviet Union – December 14, 1947 (KRI)
Rationing for industrial and commercial goods ends. Monetary reform is announced.

Romania / Great Britain / United States – December 15, 1947 (KCA)
It is officially announced that the Romanian Government will take over the two largest British-owned oil companies in Romania, the Astra Romana and Phoenix Oil. A Communist press campaign claims that the British and American oil companies have been “sabotaging” Romanian oil production.

Albania / Bulgaria – December 16, 1947 (PLC)
An Albanian-Bulgarian agreement on friendship and mutual assistance is signed.

Bulgaria / Soviet Union – December 16, 1947 (KCA)
Moscow Radio announces that all Soviet troops have been withdrawn from Bulgaria in accordance with the Bulgarian peace treaty.

Soviet Union – December 16, 1947 (KCA)
A new decree comes into effect, devaluing the Russian ruble and abolishing the rationing of food and other commodities. Furthermore, it is announced that the Soviet Union will be divided into three geographical zones for food prices.

Romania / Yugoslavia – December 17-19, 1947 (PIR)
Tito visits Romania. He signs the treaty for friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance (December 19).

Hungary – December 18, 1947 (HC)
MTI (Hungarian News Agency) reports that the Soviet Union has accepted that the Hungarian Government would deliver in 1948 the 600,000 quintals of wheat due in 1947 as part of the reparations.

Yugoslavia – December 18, 1947 (ACY)
The trial of a group of Franciscans takes place in Ljubljana. They are accused of organizing the escape of Ustaše to Italy and Austria, sending information to Ustaše abroad, and of collaborating with Martinčić, the provincial of the Croatian Franciscans, who came to Ljubljana to organize the escape routes.

Romania / Great Britain – December 21, 1947 (PIR)
King Mihai I and Queen Elena return from their trip to the U.K.

Soviet Union – December 21, 1947 (KCA)
The first municipal elections since 1939 are held in the Soviet Union. It is officially stated that over 99% of the electorate went to the polls, and in Moscow 99.36% of the votes are cast to the Communist and non-party bloc.

Romania – December 23, 1947 (PIR)
Emil Bodnăras is appointed Minister of War, replacing General Mihail Lascăr.

Bulgaria – December 24, 1947 (KCA)
The Bulgarian National Assembly passes a law providing for the nationalization of virtually all Bulgarian industry, except for industrial enterprises in Bulgaria belonging to foreign nationals.

Romania / Italy – December 24, 1947 (PIR)
Romania signs a new economic accord with Italy.

Poland – December 27, 1947 (KCA)
Seven people in a military court in Warsaw are found guilty of high treason and espionage, with death sentences given to two.

Yugoslavia – December 28-29, 1947 (ACY)
Simenc, former secretary to Bishop Rozman, and several laymen are tried in Ljubljana. They are sentenced to prison sentences ranging from two to six years.

Romania – December 30, 1947 (PLC)
Mihai I, the Romanian king, is forced to abdicate and emigrate. The People’s Republic of Romania is proclaimed.


Hungary -Throughout the year  (HC)
Nearly 50 thousand people with German ethnicity are relocated to the Soviet-occupied zone of Germany.


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2012