The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Assistant editors



Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Shira BORZAK, Lauren CRYSTAL, Botond CSELLE, Sonya COWELL, Péter János DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB, Kati DEPETRILLO, Doris DOMOSZLAI, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖRDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA, Kristína GABIKOVA, Zsófia GÖDE, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Ágnes HEVÉR, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Emily Jennifer HOLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU,  Dean JOLLY, Annastiina KALLIUS, János KEMÉNY, András KISS, Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zardas LEE, Karina LEGRADI, Tara LOTSTEIN, Cynthia MANCHA, Viktor NAGY, Jennifer OTTERSON, Linda RICHTER, Zita Bettina VASAS, Dániel VÉKONY, Péter VUKMAN, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2012


At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The first part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1945 to 1952, but our goal is to publish the whole chronology covering the entire Cold War era up until 1991 in parts during the next two years. The years 1953–1955 will be available by September, 2012 and the years 1956–1968 by December, 2012.
The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.



List of Sources



January 1948


Hungary – January 1948 (REV)
The number of people serving in the Hungarian military reaches 20,000.

Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – January 1, 1948 (KCA)
Visas for Bulgarian and Yugoslavian nationals travelling between the two countries are abolished.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – January 2, 1948 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note to the U.S. Government demanding the unconditional release of Yugoslav funds totaling $60-70 million, which had been removed from Yugoslavia just before the German invasion. The money was deposited with the Federal Reserve Bank in New York.

Austria – January 3-10, 1948, KCA
The repatriation of prisoners of war from the Soviet Union is completed.

Hungary / Soviet Union – January 4, 1948 (REV)
The Soviet Union informs the Hungarian Government that as of December 14, 1947, in line with the Paris peace treaty, only Soviet communication units for the Austrian occupation forces are stationed in Hungary. Remaining Soviet forces of the Third Army provide rail and road connections for army supplies. The Command and Staff of the 17th motorized armed division will move to Szombathely, and several of its units to Transdanubian posts; an airborn division will move to Veszprém and a bomber division to Debrecen; all divisions will be subordinate to the High Command of the Soviet Central Army Group in Baden, Austria.

Romania – January 4, 1948 (PIR)
King Mihai I, Queen Elena and their entourage leave Romania.

Romania – January 5, 1948 (PIR)
The first state-owned commercial company for foreign trade, “Romano-Export”, is founded.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – January 7, 1948 (KCA)
Leontic, the Yugoslav Ambassador in London, states that the Yugoslav funds in the United Kingdom, amounting to £3 million, have been handed back with no difficulties.

Romania – January 8, 1948 (PIR)
The Society of Democratic Writers in Romania, headed by Zaharia Stancu, is created.

Yugoslavia – January 8, 1948 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Cabinet is reorganized under the leadership of Tito.

Hungary – January 9, 1948 (REV)
The deportation of the German-speaking population of Hungary resumes: 36,000 Germans with Hungarian citizenship are moved to the Soviet occupation zone of Germany in the next six months.

Romania – January 9, 1948 (KCA)
A decree is published in Bucharest providing for the transfer of powers formally vested in King Michael to the new 5-man State Presidium. Professor Constantin Parhon is appointed as the chairman of the State Presidium.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – January 9, 1948 (PVC)
The Yugoslav Parliament unanimously ratifies the Yugoslav-Hungarian treaty of friendship.
Romania – January 10, 1948 (PIR)
The process of unmasking the monarchy begins through a sustained press campaign, chiefly in the Communist daily Scânteia, under the title “the biggest predator of wealth”.

Romania – January 10, 1948 (PIR)
Avram Bunaciu is inaugurated as the State Under-Secretary at the Presidency of the Council of Ministers.

Soviet Bloc / U.S. – January 10, 1948 (LBC)
The U.S. State Department decides to tie the East European export of radar equipment to licensing, since these are classified as arms.

Romania / Soviet Union – January 11, 1948 (PIR)
A commercial delegation of Romania, led by Vasile Luca, Minister of Finance, I. Gh. Maurer, under-secretary of State at the Ministry of Industry and Commerce, and Miron Constantinescu, leaves for Moscow.

Romania – January 12, 1948 (PIR)
Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu is elected president of the Romanian Economic Institute. The Order Steaua RPR (RPR Star) is created through decree.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – January 13, 1948 (PVC)
Yugoslavia and Hungary exchange notes on ratification of the treaty of friendship and cultural exchange between the two countries.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – January 14, 1948 (KCA)
U.S. Secretary of State Marshall rejects the Yugoslav request for the return of confiscated funds, and demands compensation for the two U.S. planes shot down in Yugoslavia in August 1946.

Romania / Bulgaria – January 15-16, 1948 (PIR)
During an official visit to Bucharest, Georgi Dimitrov and Petru Groza sign a treaty for friendship, collaboration and mutual assistance between Bulgaria and Romania. Additionally, an Economic Collaboration Protocol is signed between the two countries.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 15, 1948 (LBC)
According to an announcement of the U.S. Department of Commerce, all shipments to Europe need to be licensed. The announcement is the beginning of an economic embargo against the Soviet zone. The principal goal is to preclude the sale of raw materials and industrial products that would increase the USSR’s military potential. Moreover, the embargo also aims to force the satellite nations to purchase high technology commodities from the USSR. It is believed that the Soviet Union would be unable to satisfy these needs, hence the satellites would be forced to turn to the West and purchase them in return for political concessions.

Hungary – January 16, 1948 (HC)
The Centre of Heavy Industry is formed. Its objective is to unite and govern the heavy  industrial corporations.

Hungary / Soviet Union – January 19, 1948 (HC)
The Soviet Union decreases the Hungarian reparations requirements by 17 million dollars.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 21, 1948 (LBC)
The U.S. State Department releases documents pertaining to Soviet-German relations between 1939 and 1941.

Hungary / Romania – January 22, 1948 (HC)
Led by Prime Minister Petru Groza, a Romanian Government delegation arrives in Budapest for an official visit. On January 24 they sign an agreement of mutual aid and support.

Romania – January 23, 1948 (PIR)
The Assembly of Deputies adopts a new electoral law, awarding the right to vote to all citizens of 20 years of age.

Bulgaria / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – January 23, 1948 (LUY)
Pravda prints Dimitrov's January 17 Bucharest speech .

Hungary / Romania – January 24, 1948 (KCA)
A treaty of friendship, alliance and mutual assistance is signed between Hungary and Romania.

Greece – January 24, 1948 (REV)
Markos Vafiadis forms a communist counter-government in Greece.

Romania – January 24 – May 1, 1948 (PIR)
The Bucharest Confections Factory (APACA) is constructed using voluntary labor force.

Romania – January 25, 1948 (PIR)
The Central Institute for Statistics organizes the agricultural census of Romania.

Poland / Soviet Union – January 26, 1948 (KCA)
A Soviet-Polish trade agreement as well as an agreement on Soviet deliveries of industrial equipment on credit to Poland is signed.

Yugoslavia / Albania – January 26, 1948 (BST)
Tito formally requests from Hoxha a military base for the Yugoslav divisions at Korce, opposite Grammos, in order for Yugoslav units to be able to intervene quickly in case of the interference of Greek nationalists.

Hungary – January 27, 1948 (HC)
100 staff members are fired from the Hungarian Foreign Ministry.

Poland – January 28, 1948 (KCA)
The Polish Sejm passes a Bill introducing compulsory 6-month physical and military training for all Polish youth (ages 16 to 21 )in order to inculcate the spirit of citizenship, train people in agriculture and industry, and develop physical efficiency in preparation for defending Polish independence.

Romania – January 29, 1948 (KCA)
The population of Romania is calculated at 15,872,624, with 85.7% Romanians, 9.4% Hungarians, 2.2% Germans and 0.9% Jews.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 29-30 1948, (KCA)
The Soviet Government sends three notes to the United States Government protesting the recent reopening of the Mellaha Air Base in Libya for U.S. transport planes, the presence of American warships in Italian waters and alleged flights by U.S. aircraft over Soviet merchantmen in Far Eastern waters.

Soviet Union / Bulgaria – January 29, 1948 (BST)
Pravda disavows the statement of January 23, 1948 on Dimitrov's speech in Bucharest.

Hungary / Poland – January 31, 1948 (HC)
Hungary and Poland sign an agreement on cultural exchange.



February 1948



Hungary / Czechoslovakia – February 1948 (HC)
Új Szó, a newspaper of the Hungarian minority in Czechoslovakia, is first published in Czechoslovakia.

Yugoslavia – February 1948 (ACY)
Bishop Varnava is put on trial, accused of treason by weakening the military and economic strength of Yugoslavia, of helping terrorist bands, and of hostile propaganda. It is the first trial of an Orthodox bishop in Yugoslavia

Hungary – February 1, 1948 (HC)
The Police Academy opens in Budapest.

Poland – February 1, 1948 (KCA)
The results of a census held on January 1, 1948 in the city of Wroclaw show that out of the 241,000 inhabitants, only 2,500 are Germans. The city has thus assumed a completely Polish character.

Romania – February 1, 1948 (KCA)
A statement is issued in Bucharest informing of the merger of the Ploughmen’s Front led by Prime Minister Groza and of the Peasant Party led by Anton Alexandrescu into the United Peasant Party of Romania.

Soviet Union / U.S. / Iran – February 2, 1948 (KCA)
Moscow radio announces that a strong Soviet note has been handed to the Iranian Government, protesting U.S. activities in Iran. 

Romania / Soviet Union – February 2-4, 1948 (PIR)
A Romanian governmental delegation (Petru Groza, Gh. Gheorghiu-Dej, Ana Pauker, Vasile Luca, and others) negotiates in Moscow with the Soviet leadership. A treaty of friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance is signed.

Romania / U.S. / U.K. – February 3-4, 1948 (KCA)
British and American notes protesting Romania’s denial of human rights violations and violation of the peace treaty are presented in Bucharest, drawing attention to the recent Romanian elections and persecution of opposition parties.

Soviet Union / Iran – February 5, 1948 (KCA)
The Iranian Government rejects the February 2 Soviet note as interference in internal affairs.

Soviet Union – February 5, 1948 (KCA)
Moscow announces that the Minister of Justice, Nikolai Rychkov, has been removed from office for “unsatisfactory work” and replaced by Konstantin Gorshenin.

Hungary – February 5, 1948 (HC)
In his speech in Csepel, Mátyás Rákosi promises the return of every prisoner of war, who is held in the Soviet Union by the end of 1948.

Bulgaria / U.S. – February 6, 1948 (LBC)
The State Department protests the trial of a former Bulgarian agrarian politician, Gichev.

Finland – February 6, 1948 (KCA)
The Bank of Finland increases its discount rate from 5.25% to 7.25%.

Hungary February 6, 1948 (HC)
The National Assembly approves the 1948:XIII Law on the nationalization of the bauxite and aluminum industries.

Poland – February 8, 1948 (KCA)
The part of the Peasant Party which, under leadership of Jan Niecko had renounced Mikolajczyk’s leadership, is admitted to the Government bloc parties.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union / Bulgaria – February 10, 1948 (PVC)
On Stalin's order, a Soviet-Yugoslav-Bulgarian meeting takes place in Moscow. The Yugoslav delegation is forced to sign an agreement on consultation with the Soviet Union. The meeting means the beginning of the emerging Soviet-Yugoslav rift.

Soviet Union – February 11, 1948 (KCA)
The Central Committee of the Communist Party issues a statement criticizing three famous Russian composers, Dmitri Shostakovitch, Sergei Prokofiev and Aram Khatchurian as well as other composers, music critics, the Moscow Conservatoire, and the Arts Commission of the Government, for encouraging anti-democratic tendencies in Soviet music, and lays out a four-point programme to be followed by the Soviet musical world.

Poland – February 11- March 2, 1948 (PSN)
The Warsaw regional court sentences two members of the “Polish Organization” and the national armed forces, Stanislaw Kasznica and Lech Neyman, to death.

Yugoslavia / Romania – February 12, 1948 (LUY)
An article appears in the French paper Figaro, stating that ''according to reports arriving from Bucharest, the Communist Party of Romania has ordered the removal of Marshal Tito's portrait from public view.''

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – February 13, 1948 (KCA)
Marshal Sokolovsky issues an order defining the powers, purposes and composition of an Economic Commission for the Soviet zone of Germany.

Hungary / Soviet Union – February 13, 1948 (HC)
Led by President Zoltán Tildy, Prime Minister Lajos Dinnyés and Deputy Prime Minister Mátyás Rákosi, a Hungarian government delegation travels to Moscow. On February 18 they sign a treaty of friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance.  
The National Assembly passes the 1948:XVIII Law about the establishment of the Kossuth prize. It is a national prize to award scientists, artists and other physical and intellectual workers who excel in their field.

Romania – February 14, 1948 (PIR)
The conference of tribunal presidents and of representatives of popular establishments from over 30 districts takes place in the presence of Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu, Minister of Justice.

Romania – February 15, 1948 (PIR)
The national Conference of the UFDR opens, electing Ana Pauker as honorary president.

Romania / Bulgaria – February 15, 1948 (PIR)
Romania and Bulgaria upgrade their diplomatic representations to the rank of embassy.

Romania / Soviet Union – February 16, 1948 (PIR)
The Romanian Parliament ratifies the treaty of friendship between the USSR and Romania.

Czechoslovakia – February 17, 1948 (KCA)
In a Cabinet meeting, the Communist ministers demand the introduction of measures dealing with nationalization. The non-Communist ministers protest strongly against the idea of nationalization and against Interior Minister Nosek’s appointing of fellow communists to important positions in the security police and dismissing the non-communists.

Soviet Union – February 17, 1948 (KCA)
Moscow Radio announces that Alexei Kosygin has succeeded Arseny Zverev as Minister of Finance.

Czechoslovakia – February 18, 1948 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Communist Party issues a manifesto accusing the non-Communist parties of provoking a crisis in the Cabinet and of working to overthrow the National Front Government before the upcoming general elections.

Hungary – February 18, 1948 (REV)
Anna Kéthly and several other ostensibly right leaning politicians are removed from the leadership of the Social Democratic Party (SZDP). On March 5–7, the party’s 36th Congress expels them from the party and empowers the leadership to start negotiating with the Hungarian Communist Party (MKP) on forming a unified workers’ party.

Soviet Union / Burma – February 18, 1948 (KCA)
Burma and the Soviet Union agree to establish diplomatic and consular relations and an exchange of Ambassadors.

Soviet Union / Belgium – February 18, 1948 (KCA)
A trade agreement is signed between the Soviet Union and the Belgo-Luxemburg Economic Union.

Czechoslovakia – February 21, 1948 (KCA)
The Czech National Socialist Party, the People’s Party and the Slovak Democratic Party withdraw their 12 ministers from the National Front Government after Nosek refuses to withdraw the Communist appointments from the security police. The Communist Party sends a letter to President Beneš urging him to accept the resignations. President Beneš answers that he wishes to accept no resignations before the general elections. Gottwald, the leader of the Communist Party calls for the setting up of action committees around the country to carry out arbitrary purges of political opponents, the press, educational and cultural institutions and government offices.

Romania – February 21-23, 1948 (PIR)
The First Congress of the PMR takes place during which the PCR and PSD unite to form the Romanian Workers’ Party (PMR). Gheorghiu-Dej is elected Secretary General of the party. Members of the Political Bureau are elected: Gh. Apostol, Emil Bodnăraş, Iosif Chişinevski, Vasile Luca, Alex Moghioroş, Ana Pauker, Gh. Vasilichi, Ştefan Voitec. Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu is removed from the leadership of the new party: the first step towards his future liquidation.

Czechoslovakia – February 22, 1948 (KCA)
In a Communist mass demonstration in Prague, Gottwald, the leader of the Communist Party accuses the leaders of the opposition parties of trying to block the government’s programme of Socialist reforms and calls for early elections.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – February 22, 1948 (BST)
Moscow rejects new Yugoslav economic requests.

Yugoslavia / Albania / Soviet Union – February 23, 1948 (BST)
On the Soviet Army Day’s reception at the Soviet embassy in Tirana, Albania, Soviet chargé d'affaires Gagarinov lifts his glass before the assembled Albanian leadership and Yugoslav diplomats. He proposes an odd toast to ''Marshal Tito, insofar as his work strengthens the world democratic front.'' This is considered to be the first open indication of the Soviet-Yugoslav rift.

Czechoslovakia – February 24, 1948 (KCA)
Action Committees are in full operation around the country. As a result, the editors and journalists of a number of opposition newspapers are expelled from the Union of Journalists. The Minister of Interior announces that all articles appearing in any paper or periodical magazines must first be submitted for official approval.

Romania – February 24, 1948 (PIR)
Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu resigns from the position of Minister of Justice, and is replaced with Avram Bunaciu. The Assembly of Deputies is dissolved by law; the Great National Assembly is called and legislative power transferred to the Government.

Czechoslovakia – February 25, 1948 (KCA)
President Beneš accepts the resignations of 12 non-Communist ministers. A new cabinet is formed with increasing Communist representation, and Communists begin to take up all the key portfolios.

Czechoslovakia / France / U.K. / U.S. – February 26, 1948 (KCA)
In a joint statement, the American, British and French Governments condemn the new Czechoslovak regime as a disguised dictatorship and accuse the Communists of seizing power.

Romania / Poland – February 26-28, 1948 (PIR)
Petru Groza visits Poland, where he holds discussions with Prime Minister Josef Cyrankiewicz and signs a convention for cultural collaboration.

Czechoslovakia – February 27, 1948 (KCA)
The new Czechoslovak Cabinet is sworn in. The Communist Minister of Education Nejedly orders every schoolroom to display a portrait of Stalin.

Finland / Soviet Union – February 27, 1948 (KCA)
It is officially announced in Helsinki that Stalin proposed to Finnish President Paasikivi the conclusion of a mutual assistance pact between Finland and the Soviet Union, calling for a Finnish delegation to be sent to Moscow to discuss the matter.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – February 27, 1948 (KCA)
Marshal Sokolovsky issues a decree declaring that the denazification of the Soviet zone of Germany has now been completed.

Romania – February 27, 1948 (PIR)
PMR, Plowmen’s Front, PNL-Bejan and the Hungarian Popular Alliance form the Front of People’s Democracy (FDP).

Czechoslovakia – February 28, 1948 (KCA)
Communist leader Gottwald calls for a purge to be carried out “sternly and ruthlessly” so that no conspiracy could threaten the Republic. The Ministry of Information imposes a ban on foreign newspapers. Drtina, one of the former ministers, is found on a street close to his apartment with a severely fractured skull.  A letter is found in his pocket stating his will to commit suicide.

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union / U.S. – February 28, 1948 (LBC)
Senator Vandenberg’s speech: the Czech coup and the Soviet pressure on Finland make it vital to accomplish the European Reconstruction Program.



March 1948



Poland / Soviet Union – March 1948 (HDP)
Polish Prime Minister Cyrankiewicz travels to Moscow to discuss the unification of the Polish worker's movement.

Hungary / Romania – March 1, 1948 (HC)
The Romániai Magyar Szó the newspaper of the Hungarian Popular Alliance is first published.

Romania – March 1, 1948 (PIR)
The institution of popular assessors is founded through the new law of judicial organization.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – March 1, 1948 (RYE)
Tito takes the Soviet-Yugoslav conflict before the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, the first time it has been discussed outside Tito's inner circle. It is also the first time the Central Committee has met in full session since its election in Zagreb in 1940. The CC rejects the Soviet demands in a vote of confidence. Until May, Stalin continues to try to bring the Yugoslav communists back to its allies.

Czechoslovakia – March 2, 1948 (KCA)
Czech Minister of Justice Cepicka issues an official order making the Action Committees the “supreme organs on cultural and political matters”, and the Central Action Committee in Prague a permanent institution.

Finland / Soviet Union – March 2, 1948 (KCA
The Finnish People’s Democratic League, comprising of the Communist Party and the pro-Communist Socialist Unity Party, express their support for a Soviet-Finnish treaty of mutual assistance; other parties express their willingness to discuss the matter.

Czechoslovakia – March 3, 1948 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Ambassadors in Ottawa and Washington DC resign, claiming Czechoslovakia has become a “totalitarian police state”.

Soviet Union – March 3, 1948 (KCA)
Moscow announces that the Soviet Minister of Internal Trade, Alexander Lyubimov, has been suspended “in view of unsatisfactory work”.

Soviet Union / Egypt – March 3, 1948 (KCA)
A trade agreement is signed between Egypt and the Soviet Union.

Czechoslovakia – March 4, 1948 (KCA)
16 leading officials in the Ministry of Justice are purged, along with many judges.

Hungary – March 4, 1948 (HC)
The number 2730/1948 governmental order is announced concerning the creation of the National Bauxite and Aluminum Incorporated Company.

Romania – March 4, 1948 (KCA/PIR)
The former Romanian king, King Mihai I, arrives in London and issues a press statement on his abdication, saying that he was forced to abdicate under pressure from the Groza Government. He outlines that the abdication was forced on him, and that he considers it null and void.

Romania – March 4, 1948 (PIR)
The plenary of the Union of Democratic Priests takes place. Participants “take note with vivid satisfaction of the consolidation and organization of working forces in the PMR.”

Yugoslavia / U.S. – March 4, 1948 (KCA)
The Economic Committee of the U.N. Economic and Social Council decides that the U.S.-Yugoslav dispute on the return of the $56 million of Yugoslav gold falls outside the Council’s jurisdiction.

Bulgaria – March 5, 1948 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Minister in Brussels announces his resignation.

Hungary – March 5, 1948 (HC)
The number 3190/1948 governmental order is announced on the organization of evening schools for workers.

Hungary – March 5-7, 1948 (HC)
The 36th Congress of the Social-Democratic Party takes place in Budapest. It condemns the behavior of the right wing Social-Democrats, and authorizes the party leadership to begin negotiations with the Hungarian Communist Party to create a united workers party. It approves the exclusion of Anna Kéthly, Ferenc Szeder and Imre Szélig from the party.

Czechoslovakia – March 7, 1948 (KCA)
The Government’s new Nationalization Bill provides for far-reaching nationalization of enterprises and state control on all foreign trade.

Bulgaria – March 7, 1948 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Minister in London announces his resignation.

Czechoslovakia – March 8, 1948 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government announces that Jan Masaryk, the Foreign Minister, committed suicide by jumping out of his window.

Finland / Soviet Union – March 8, 1948 (KCA)
Helsinki announces that President Paasikivi has accepted Stalin’s invitation for negotiations on a mutual assistance traty. A Finnish delegation will be sent to Moscow.

Romania – March 9, 1948 (KCA)
The Astra Romana Oil Company is shut down under government pressure.  

Czechoslovakia / UN – March 10, 1948 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak representative to the United Nations Jan Paanek, formally requests the UN Security Council to investigate the events which have lead to the Communist seizure of power in the Czech Republic, suspecting a massive Soviet involvement in the chain of events.

Czechoslovakia / U.S. – March 10, 1948 (LBC)
Following the death of Czech Foreign Minister Masaryk, U.S. Secretary of State Marshall declares the world situation “very, very serious”. He calls for “cool judgment” instead of passion in deciding U.S. strategy in a “great crisis”.

Hungary – March 10, 1948 (HC)
The Connective Committee of the Social-Democratic Party and the Communist Party decides that the unification of the two parties will be executed by the 1st of July.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – March 10, 1948 (KCA)
Berlin announces that the new Economic Commission for the Soviet zone of Germany will take over the functions formerly performed by the various central agencies set up after the occupation.

Romania – March 11, 1948 (PIR)
A decree of the Council of State regulates the succession to the leadership of the Romanian Orthodox Church. According to it, the metropolitan of Moldavia, Iustinian Marina, is provisionally installed at the head of the Patriarchy with the agreement of the permanent Synod.

Hungary – March 12-13, 1948 (HC)
High ranking Bulgarian, Czechoslovak, Yugoslavian, Polish, Romanian and Soviet delegations arrive in Hungary to celebrate the 100th anniversary (March 15) of the 1848 Hungarian Revolution and Fight fro Freedom.

France / U.K. / Belgium / The Netherlands, Luxembourg – March 12, 1948 (LBC)
The United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg sign the Brussels pact. The pact includes the mutual defense treaties of the signatories. According to Izvestia the Brussels pact guarantees unchallenged intervention in Western Europe for the United States.

Czechoslovakia – March 13, 1948 (KCA)
The funeral of former Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Jan Masaryk takes place.

Soviet Union – March 15, 1948 (KCA)
Moscow announces the demobilization of the senior age groups from the Soviet Army.

Yugoslavia – March 15, 1948 (KCA)
The population of Yugoslavia numbers 15,751,953.

Hungary – March 17, 1948 (HC)
The unified Budapest Committee of the Hungarian Communists Party and the Social-Democratic Party is formed. Its chairman is János Kádár.

Romania / Albania – March 17, 1948 (PIR)
Romania and Albania re-establish diplomatic relations at the level of legation.

Bulgaria / Soviet Union – March 18, 1948 (KCA)
A treaty of friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance between Bulgaria and the Soviet Union is signed.

Romania – March 18, 1948 (PIR)
Authorities continue the series of manifestations and rallies supporting the electoral campaign.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – March 18, 1948 (WBA)
The withdrawal of Soviet military advisers from Yugoslavia begins.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – March 18, 1948 (WBA)
Agreements on the Exchange of Commodities and on payments arising from the Exchange of goods are signed between Yugoslavia and Hungary

Czechoslovakia – March 19, 1948 (KCA)
Vladimir Clementis is appointed as the new Czechoslovak Foreign Minister.

Allied forces / Germany – March 20, 1948 (KCA)
The Soviet delegation of the Allied Control Council walks out of a meeting in Berlin, accusing the Western powers of undermining the quadripartite control of Germany.

Yugoslavia / Trieste / Allied forces – March 20, 1948 (CUY/BST)
The Tripartite Declaration on Trieste takes place. The Western powers propose that both zones of the disputed territory of Trieste, including the Yugoslav held Zone B, be assigned to Italy.

Yugoslavia – March 20, 1948 (PVC)
Decrees relating to dealings in real estate and amendments to the Nationalization Law are promulgated in Belgrade on March 20 and April 23.

Soviet Union / Western allies – March 21, 1948 (LBC)
According to a Soviet accusation, the West is acting behind the Soviet Union’s back concerning the proposals on Trieste.

Czechoslovakia / U.K. – March 22, 1948 (LBC)
According to the United Kingdom U.N. representative, Communism must be held back even at the risk of war. The diplomat expresses this view at the U.N. Security Council debate on the Czechoslovak coup.

Romania / U.S. – March 22, 1948 (PIR)
Former Romanian King Mihai I is received by President Truman in the White House.

Soviet Union / U.K. – March 25, 1948 (KCA)
The British Government sends a note to the Soviet Government repudiating the allegations made by Marshal Sokolovsky on March 20.

Hungary March 25, 1948 (REV)
Companies with over a 100 workers are nationalized without notice and worker-managers are appointed. The nationalization does not apply to foreign-owned companies.

Soviet Union / U.S. – March 25, 1948 (KCA)
U.S. Navy Secretary John Sullivan, declares that “submarines not belonging to any nation west of the Iron Curtain” were recently sighted off U.S. coasts, implying Soviet involvement.

Soviet Bloc / U.S. – March 26, 1948 (LBC)
President Truman prohibits the sale of aircrafts to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.A spokesman of the Department of Commerce says that the complete termination of trade with the USSR would be a significant diplomatic measure. Although the USSR delivers manganese and chrome to the U.S. steel industry, no export licenses are allowed without the necessary investigation.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – March 27, 1948 (WBA)
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union sends a letter to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, criticizing the policy of the Yugoslav Communist Party. It is the first Soviet letter to the Yugoslav Communist Party in a series of exchange of letters.

Yugoslavia / The Netherlands – March 27, 1948 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs an agreement on economic cooperation with the Netherlands.

Romania – March 28, 1948 (KCA, PIR)
General elections are held in Romania.The elections (for the Grand National Assembly) are won by the Front of People’s Democracy (93.2%) which obtains 405 seats; PNL-Bejan obtains 7 seats while the Peasants’ Democratic Party-N. Lupu gains 2 seats.

Romania – March 29, 1948 (PIR)
Greek-catholic bishops forward a memorandum to the President of the RPR Presidium to request the modification of certain articles of the Constitution project. They propose that article 28 should have the following text: “freedom of consciousness and religious freedom are guaranteed and supported by the state.”

Soviet Union / U.S. – March 29, 1948 (KCA)
The Soviet News Agency Tass declares that both Sullivan’s statements and the rumors of Russian submarines spying on the United States are “an absurd and slanderous fabrication calculated to deceive American opinion”.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – March 31, 1948 (KCA)
The Soviet Military Government informs the U.S., British and French authorities in Berlin that starting on April 1, 1948 new and stricter traffic regulations will be put into effect between the Eastern and Western zones of Berlin.

Hungary – March 31, 1948 (HC)
The Budapest Stock and Commodity Exchange stops its operation.

Yugoslavia – March 31, 1948 (KCA)
Belgrade reports the formation of youth brigades to take part in the reconstruction of Yugoslavia.



April 1948



Yugoslavia / U.K. – April-May 1948 (PVC)
Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs Aleš Bebler visits London.

Czechoslovakia / Poland – April 1, 1948 (KCA)
Following Polish-Czechoslovak negotiations, a duty-free zone for imports is leased to Czechoslovakia at Szezecin.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – April 1, 1948 (KCA)
As a response to the new Soviet regulations, American and British authorities cancel all rail traffic between Eastern and Western Germany.

Hungary – April 1, 1948 (HC)
The Social-Democratic Party recalls 32 of its representatives.

Romania – April 1, 1948 (PIR)
Work on the national construction sites for youth patriotic labor in Bumbeşti-Livezeni - “Gh. Gheorghiu Dej”, Salva-Vişeu - “Vasile Luca,” and Lunca Prutului, begin.

Soviet Union / Turkey – April 3, 1948 (KCA)
The new Soviet Ambassador, Lavrischev, arrives in Ankara.

Hungary / Soviet Union – April 4, 1948 (REV)
During the liberation festivities, the Soviet Union returns some Hungarian military banners captured by the Russian army after the defeat of the 1848–1849 revolution and war of independence.

Hungary – April 4-5, 1948 (HC)
The Great Electoral Convention of the Hungarian Peasant Party takes place in Budapest. It re-elects Péter Veress as its chairman, and Ferenc Erdei as its party secretary.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – April 5, 1948 (KCA)
A serious incident occurs when a Viking passenger aircraft of British European Airways crashes in the Soviet Sector of Berlin after colliding with a Soviet fighter plane. All people are killed. Consequently all subsequent British planes flying in the Soviet zone would have accompanying fighter protection.

Hungary / U.K. April 5, 1948 (KCA)
A Hungarian communiqué states that in Anglo-Hungarian financial negotiations held on March 17-25, an agreement was reached for a short term Hungarian pre-war debt settlement with the United Kingdom.

Poland – April 5-29, 1948 (KCA)
A trial is held in Gdansk in which Albert Forster, former Gauleiter of Gdansk, is sentenced to death for multiple crimes while he was associated with the Nazis.

Finland / Soviet Union – April 6, 1948 (KCA/CSB)
After tough negotiations, the Finno-Soviet treaty of friendship and mutual assistance is signed in Moscow. Contrary to Soviet treaties with Hungary and Romania, the Soviet Union may give military assistance to Finland only after talks between the two governments. The treaty lasts 10 years instead of 20, and according to it Finland preserves freedom of action in foreign political affairs. – In reality the treaty was the starting point of the process of “Finlandization”: this meant the preservation of the country’s democratic political system with relatively little Soviet interference in internal affairs, but in the field of foreign policy - in spite of the country’s neutral status – Finland was subordinated to Moscow’s policy.

Yugoslavia / Italy – April 7, 1948 (KCA)
The Yugoslav and Italian governments reach an agreement to grant reprieves to each other’s citizens who were previously sentenced in the other’s military and civil courts, or were in prison while waiting for trial. 

Czechoslovakia – April 9, 1948 (KCA)
Prime Minister Gottwald declares that all parties in the National Front Government have agreed to present a single list of candidates.
The Ministry of Social Welfare states that approximately 8,300 people were affected by the purges that occurred since the “February Revolution”.

Hungary – April 10, 1948 (HC)
The relocations and citizen exchanges between Hungary and Czechoslovakia end. It affects the lives of approximately 200 thousand people.

Yugoslavia – April 11, 1948 (KCA)
Preparations to rebuild Belgrade begin as a part of the national reconstruction plan.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – April 12-13, 1948 (RYE)
A two-day meeting of the Central Committee of the Yugoslav Communist Party refutes Soviet accusations of revisionism.

Romania – April 13, 1948 (PIR)
The Provisional Presidium of RPR is transformed in the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly, its presidency is held – until June 2nd, 1952 – by dr. C.I. Parhon, dr. Petru Groza – President of the Council of Ministers –, Prof. Traian Săvulescu –vice-president of the Council of Ministers –, Ştefan Voitec – Second Vice-President of the Council of Ministers –, Ana Pauker – Minister of External Affairs –, Vasile Luca – Minister of Finance –, Teohari Georgescu – Minister of Internal Affairs –, Emil Bodnăraş – Minister of National Defense –, Avram Bunaciu – Minister of Justice –, Theodor Iordăchescu – Minister of Public Works –, dr. Florica Bagdasar – Minister of Health –, Lothar Rădăceanu – Minister of Work and Social Provision –, Gh. Vasilichi – Minister of Education –, prof. Stanciu Stoian – Minister of Culture –, Octav Livezeanu – Minister of Arts and Information –, Vasile Vaida – Minister of Agriculture –, Ion Vinţe – Minister of Silviculture –, Miron Constantinescu – minister of Mines and Petrol –, Chivu Stoica – Minister of Industry –, Bucur Şchipu – Minister of Commerce

Romania – April 13, 1948 (PIR)
The Grand National Assembly adopts the first Constitution of the People’s Republic of Romania.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – April 13, 1948 (WBA)
A letter by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (written by Tito himself) is sent to Stalin and Molotov, including the famous saying: ''No matter how much each of us loves the land of socialism, the USSR, he can in no case love his own country less.''

Romania – April 15, 1948 (KCA)
A new Romanian Cabinet is formed with Groza re-elected as Prime Minister.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – April 15, 1948 (PVC)
Yugoslavia sends a note to the United Kingdom inviting the British Government to consider reducing the number of British consulates in Yugoslavia.

Romania – April 16, 1948 (KCA)
The Romanian-American Oil Company is a subsidiary of Standard Oil of New Jersey whose capital is exclusively American and is responsible for 13-14% of Romanian crude oil production. It is taken over by the Romanian Ministry of Mines.

Hungary – April 17-18, 1948 (HC)
The Great Electoral Convention of the FKGP takes place in Budapest. It proclaims that the basic ideology of the party is the people’s democracy, stressing the importance of uniting the parties against right wing forces. It also highlights its support for the government’s foreign policy. It re-elects István Dobi as Chairman, and János Gyöngyösi as General Secretary.

Romania – April 17, 1948 (PIR)
The National Student Congress takes place in Iasi.

Finland / Soviet Union – April 21, 1948 (KCA)
The Finnish-Soviet mutual assistance treaty is ratified in the Finnish Parliament.

Yugoslavia – April 21-27, 1948 (PVC)
The trial of Stane Osvald, assistant of the Federal Ministry of Industry, Oskar Juratović, General Secretary at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and others takes place in Ljubljana.

Romania – April 22, 1948 (PIR)
The RPR Government addresses a note to the “monarcho-fascist” government in Athens, protesting the abuses against Greek communists.

Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia – April 23, 1948 (KCA)
A Czechoslovak-Bulgarian treaty of mutual assistance and friendship is signed.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – April 24, 1948 (WBA)
The Soviet Ambassador in Belgrade informs the Yugoslav Deputy Foreign Minister, Aleš Bebler, on the arbitrary annulment of the Agreement on Consultation between Yugoslavia and the USSR.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – April 25, 1948 (WBA)
The Yugoslav authorities demand the reduction of the number of United States consulates in Yugoslavia.

Romania – April 28, 1948 (PIR)
Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu, former Minister of Justice and communist since the interwar period, is arrested and imprisoned at Jilava. His arrest is followed by one of the longest investigations in communist history.

Yugoslavia – April 28, 1948 (RSB)
The National Assembly adopts the second law on nationalization.

Czechoslovakia – April 29-July 31, 1948 (KCA)
The trial of five of the leading ministers of the war-time ‘puppet’ government takes place. Four of the five defendendents are found guilty, and sentences range from 1 year of hard labor to 25 years of prison.

Romania – April 29, 1948 (PIR)
The Order of Labor is created through a state decree.

Hungary – April 30, 1948 (HC)
The first prizes for exceptional workers are awarded.

Soviet Union / Australia – April 30, 1948 (KCA)
It is announced that Australia and the Soviet Union will raise their legations in Moscow and Canberra to the status of embassies, and that the present ministers will henceforth have Ambassadorial rank.



May 1948



Yugoslavia / Austria – May 1948 (HWC)
Negotiations on the Yugoslav claims to Austrian Carinthia, particularly to two power stations on the River Drava, are interrupted and will only be resumed in early 1949.

Hungary / U.K. – May 3, 1948 (KCA)
The Board of Trade in London announces that Anglo-Hungarian trade negotiations in London reached an agreement and were concluded successfully.

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 4, 1948 (LBC)
The message of President Truman and Secretary of State Marshall to Molotov states that the U.S. has no aggressive designs against the USSR, and that it only supports other democracies’ defense against Soviet and domestic communist threats. They deem inexplicable Moscow’s lack of participation in the Marshall Plan. It is within Moscow’s power to relieve many problems that complicate the international situation.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – May 4, 1948 (WBA)
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union sends its second letter, probably written by Stalin himself, to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia.

Romania – May 5-6, 1948 (PIR)
Constantin Titel Petrescu along with other notable members of the Social-Democrat Independent Party is arrested violently.

Yugoslavia – May 6, 1948 (KCA)
Belgrade announces that Minister of Finance Zujovic and the Minister of Light Industry Andrije Hebrang, have been relieved from their duties and succeeded by Dobrivoje and Sava Zlatic.

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 9, 1948 (LBC)
Molotov sends a message to U.S. Ambassador Smith in response to Truman’s May 4 statement. Molotov states that the Soviet Government agrees with the U.S. on the necessity of talks to clear up certain differences of opinion, but he also criticizes U.S. foreign policy.

Yugoslavia – May 9, 1948 (BST)
At the plenum of the Central Committee of the Yugoslavian Communist Party, the Yugoslavian leadership expels Andrije Hebrang and Sretan Žujović from the Central Committee and the Party, thereby opening the door for their formal arrest under charges of treason and espionage.

Romania – May 10-11, 1948 (PIR)
The plenary of the CC of the PMR investigates the way the electoral campaigns and the verification of party members were conducted.  Also discussed is the inclusion of Pintilie Bodnarenco in the Central Committee and the nationalization of the means of production. Additionally, the political activity of Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu is on the agenda.

Hungary – May 11, 1948 (HC)
The Hungarian Radical Party and the Civic Democratic Party form the Civic Radical Party Alliance. Its objective is the cooperation of the two parties.

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 11, 1948 (KCA)
Moscow announces that the Soviet Government has accepted the American proposal to negotiate all outstanding questions between them.

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 11, 1948 (KCA)
Henry Wallace describes a recent exchange of letters with Marshal Stalin on important questions concerning the United States and the Soviet Union. In a letter to Marshal Stalin, Wallace advocates unity in rehabilitiating Europe, the conclusion of a Germany peace treaty, peace in the Far East, mutual trade and assurances with regard to Soviet and American intentions, and constructive competition between Communism and Capitalism.

Czechoslovakia / Switzerland – May 12, 1948 (KCA)
A Czechoslovak-Swiss agreement on compensation for nationalized Swiss property in Czechoslovakia is announced.

Soviet Union – May 14, 1948 (KCA)
It is announced that Jacob Malik will replace Gromyko as the Soviet representative to the United Nations.

Czechoslovakia – May 15-22, 1948, (KCA)
The post-war population of Czechoslovakia is calculated at 12,250,000.  8,200,000 are Czechs, 2,900,000 Slovaks, 400,000 Germans, 400,000 Hungarians, 70,000 Poles and 20,000 Jews (compared to 180,000 Jews before the war).

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 17, 1948 (KCA)
Marshal Stalin describes Wallace’s letter as a “most important document” which “does not confine itself to making declarations but gives a concrete programme for the peaceful settlment of differences between the USSR and the U.S.”
Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – May 17, 1948 (YPP)
The Central Committee of the Yugoslav Communist Party sends another letter to the Soviet Communist Party addressed to comrades Stalin and Molotov rejecting the charges presented in the previous Soviet letter.

Yugoslavia / Greece – May 17, 1948 (HWC)
According to the French Military Attaché in Athens, Belgrade has decided not to supply the Greek rebels with any further weapons.

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 19, 1948 (KCA)
The American State Department describes Stalin’s reply to Wallace’s letter as encouraging, and issues an 11-point statement of issues covering not only bilateral relations of the U.S. and USSR, but many other concerns too. The points include reduction of armaments, the German peace settlement, respect of national sovereignty, and international trade.

Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – May 19, 1948 (LBC)
U.S. Secretary of State Marshall announces that a U.S. proposal was sent to the USSR, France and the United Kingdom to convene a four-power conference in order to draft a convention guaranteeing the freedom of navigation on the river Danube for July 30.

Romania – May 22, 1948 (PIR)
The Administration of State Farms and of Engine Stations is created.

Soviet Union – May 22, 1948 (KCA)
The Soviet news agency Tass issues a point-by-point reply to the 11-points of the U.S. State Department.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – May 22, 1948 (YPP)
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union sends its third letter to the Yugoslav Communist Party leadership.

Germany /Soviet Union – May 24, 1948 (KCA)
In a meeting of the Allied Kommandatura, (four power control body for Berlin) U.S. representatives formally accuse the Soviet Military Organization in Germany of kidnapping Germans and forcing them to work in uranium mines, alleging that 25,000-30,000 people had been forced to do so.

Romania – May 24, 1948 (PIR)
The Land, Air and Marine forces are demobilized and placed under a peace regime.

Yugoslavia – May 24, 1948 (PVC)
For the first time Borba, the official Yugoslav party daily paper, openly criticizes Andrija Hebrang and Sretan Žujović.

Czechoslovakia – May 25, 1948 (KCA)
A Czechoslovak-Yugoslav trade agreement is announced in Prague.

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – May 25, 1948 (KCA)
The Soviet Union uses its veto power in the U.N. Security Council, when an Argentinian motion is presented calling for a sub-committee to hear evidence relating to the governmental changes in Czechoslovakia.

Romania – May 25, 1948 (PIR)
The decision is made by the Council of Ministers to convert the property of former King Mihai I and that of the members of the former royal family to state property.

Yugoslavia – May 25, 1948 (RYE)
The Central Committee formally approves the decision to convene a Party Congress as soon as possible.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – May 25, 1948 (HWC)
The absence of a message from Stalin in the Yugoslav press on Tito's birthday is an indicator of the well-kept secret dispute between the Yugoslavs and the Soviet Union.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – May 27, 1948 (KCA)
The German Economic Commission for the Soviet Zone announces the creation of the Deutsche Emissions- und Girobank, responsible for regulating note circulation,organizing the payments system, and managing all foreign currency transactions.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – May 29, 1948 (KCA)
The Tass Agency in Berlin announces that 72.35% of the electorate has signed a petition for German National Unity.

Bulgaria / Poland – May 30, 1948 (KCA)
A Polish-Bulgarian treaty of friendship, co-operation, and mutual aid is signed in Warsaw.

Romania – May 30-June 1, 1948 (PIR)
The national conference of those responsible for sports affairs takes place in Bucharest. Professional activity is banned, and private tourism associations are dissolved and placed under the patrimony of the National Office of Tourism (ONT).

Finland / Soviet Union – May 31, 1948 (KCA)
The Finnish-Soviet treaty of friendship and mutual assistance comes into force.



June 1948



Hungary – June 1948 (REV)
An agreement to arm and supply the Hungarian Army with Soviet weaponry is signed, heralding a forced pace of expansion of the Hungarian armed forces.

Romania – June 1948 (PIR)
The First Direction for State Security fabricates and systematizes the evidence necessary to arrest leaders of the “Army of God” (Oastea Domnului), a moral missionary orthodox movement for mutual aid formed by Priest Iosif Trifa in 1923 in Transylvania. Some of the leaders of the movement are arrested, including Cornel Rusu from Simeria, Traian Dorz from Beiuş, Ioan Opriş from Călan, Serghie Paraschiv, Eftimie from Moldova, Alexandru Codruţ from Nămoloasa, Vasile Axinuţă from Lasna (Dorohoi), Carlinca from Suceava, Haraşniuc from Bukovina, Răcoviţeanu.

Hungary – June 1, 1948 (HC)
According to the announcement of the Political Committee of the FKGP, the party supports the nationalization of schools maintained by the churches.

Romania – June 1, 1948 (PIR)
The Romanian government ratifies constitutive acts of the World Health Organization with the headquarters in Geneva.

Yugoslavia – June 2, 1948 (PVC)
The official gazette announces the dismissal of Sretan Žujović from his rank of Colonel-General for ''unfriendly and anti-national work which has harmed the interests of the State.''

Finland / Soviet Union – June 3, 1948 (KCA)
The Soviet Union reduces the Finnish reparations payments due to be paid to the Soviet Union by 50%, starting July 1, 1948. Furthermore, Finland accepts an offer from the Soviet Government of a $5,000,000 short-term credit at 2% interest.

Hungary – June 3, 1948 (REV)
A clash between locals and the authorities at Pócspetri, Szabolcs-Bereg-Ugocsa County over nationalization of the local school leads to the killing of a police officer in a brawl outside the village hall. Death sentences are passed by a summary court on the deputy notary of the village for murder and the parish priest for incitement for murder. The second sentence is commuted to life imprisonment. The Communists make use of the incident in their propaganda for nationalization of schools.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – June 3, 1948 (PVC)
In a note to the Yugoslav Government, the United Kingdom demands compensation for nationalized British property. The compensation is considered as a prerequisite for entering into a trade agreement.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – June 5, 1948 (PVC)
Kathleen O’Connor, secretary of the British Legation in Bucharest, is taken into custody at Kotoriba on charges of insulting a Yugoslav border guard. On June 12 the Yugoslav Foreign Ministry decides to expel her from Yugoslavia. She crosses the Yugoslav-Romanian border at Jimbolia on June 14.

Romania – June 6, 1948 (PIR)
Iustinian Marina is selected for Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church.

Czechoslovakia – June 7, 1948 (HC)
Referring to his health conditions, President E. Beneš resigns as the Czechoslovakian Head of State.

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – June 7, 1948 (KCA)
Ivo Duchacek, chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee of the Czechoslovak National Assembly until the Communist coup d’ état in February, reveals in London that in October 1945 an agreement signed between the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia gave the Soviets absolute control of the Bohemian mines of Joachimsthal.

Hungary / Soviet Union – June 7, 1948 (KCA)
It is announced that the Soviet Government has decided to reduce the amount of Hungarian reparation payments to the Soviet Union by 50%, effective July 1, 1948.

Yugoslavia / Argentina – June 7, 1948 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs an agreement on economic cooperation with Argentina.

Romania – June 9, 1948 (PIR)
Through a MAN decree, the Romanian Academy is restructured and transformed into the RPR Academy.

Romania – June 9-11, 1948 (PIR)
The CC Plenary of the PMR debates and approves the nationalization of the main means of production (industrial, mining, transportation, banking and insurance enterprises).

Czechoslovakia – June 10, 1948 (KCA)
Gottwald succeeds Beneš as President and nominates Zapotocky as Prime Minister.  Since the “February Revolution”, many Czechoslovaks do not approve of the new regime, including former politicians, deputies and army officers, many of whom escape to West Germany, the U.S., Britain and France.

Romania – June 10, 1948 (KCA)
The former King of Romania Mihai I and Princess Anne of Bourbon-Parma marry in Athens.

Romania – June 11, 1948 (PIR)
The Romanian Government recognizes the State of Israel and establishes diplomatic relations.

Hungary – June 12-14, 1948 (HC) (REV)
The First Congress of the Hungarian Workers’ Party takes place in Budapest. It approves the program of the party, its structural regulation, and stresses that the ideological base of the party is Marxism-Leninism. It articulates the main objectives of the party. It elects Árpád Szakasits as its Chairman and Mátyás Rákosi as its General Secretary. The official daily of the new party is the Szabad Nép. The Social Democrats’ Népszava continues as the daily of the Free Trade Unions.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – June 12, 1948 (HWC)
The Soviet Union sends the Western powers a note proposing that a scheduled conference to settle issues regarding the use of the Danube should not be held in Belgrade as planned, but elsewhere.

Hungary – June 16, 1948 (HC) (REV)
The National Assembly passes the 1948: XXXIII Law about the nationalization of the schools of churches. 6,505 church schools become the property of the state, 18 thousands teachers become employees of the state. Church-state separation and loss of their schools are accepted by most churches due to the pressure on them, but the Catholic Church under Cardinal József Mindszenty resists.

Hungary / Poland – June 16, 1948 (HC)
Led by Prime Minister Lajos Dinnyés, a governmental delegation travels to Warsaw. They sign the Hungarian-Polish treaty of friendship, co-operation and mutual aid.

Romania – June 16, 1948 (PIR)
The trial of the Iaşi massacres of June 1941 begins; among the defendants are: Gen. Gh. Stavrescu, Constantin Lupu and Dumitru Captaru.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union / U.K. – June 16, 1948 (HWC)
In a conversation with Peake, Aleš Bebler, the Yugoslav Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, vents his anger at the Soviet government for having suggested a change of venue for the Danube Conference. It makes clear to Charles Peake, British ambassador to Yugoslavia, that there are tensions between the two Communist governments.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – June 18, 1948 (KCA)
Marshal Sokolovsky denounces the separate currency reforms of the Western zones of Germany, prohibits the circulation of the currency in the Soviet zone and in Berlin which “lies in the Soviet zone and forms economically part of it”, and threatens punishment for imports of the currency which will be regarded as economic sabotage. According to Sokolovsky, the Western currency reform was carried out against the wishes and interests of the German people.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – June 19, 1948 (KCA)
The Berlin City Assembly approves a resolution protesting against Marshal Sokolovsky’s June 18 proclamation.

Yugoslavia – June 20, 1948 (PVC)
The plenary meeting of the Federal Committee of the Yugoslav People’s Front decides to exclude Andrija Hebrang and Sretan Žujović for their hostile and anti-national work which had harmed the interests of the State and the unity and reputation of the People’s Front. Žujović's seat is offered to Petar Stambolić, who would later serve as President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia from 1982 to 1983.

Romania – June 21, 1948 (HC)
In Romania the banks, railways, mines and industrial corporations are nationalized.

Soviet Bloc – June 19-23, 1948.
The second conference of the Cominform is held in Bucharest. The organization unanimously condemns the Yugoslav leadership for their anti-Soviet attitude and expels Yugoslavia from the Cominform.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – June 24, 1948
The Soviet Union blocks the Western Allies' railway and road access to West Berlin.
The “Berlin Blockade” is unfolding.

Germany / U.K. – June 25, 1948 (KCA)
The British authorities order the complete cessation of all goods and traffic exchanged between the British and Soviet zones of Germany.

U.K. / U.S. – June 26, 1948 (REV)
The United States and Britain establish an air bridge to supply West Berlin.

Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – June 27, 1948 (PVC)
The plenary meeting of the Central Committee of Bulgarian Workers Party unanimously approves the Cominform resolution and instructs its Politburo to organize immediately a country-wide explanatory campaign.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – June 28, 1948 (KCA)
The Anglo-American air service for the provision of supplies to the blockaded Berlin is brought into full operation, with over 100 American aircrafts bringing food provisions, arriving at the Tempelhof airport at intervals of every few minutes.

Yugoslavia / Cominform – June 28, 1948 (KCA)
An announcement of Yugoslavia’s expulsion from the Cominform is issued. A statement from the Cominform accuses Tito’s government of deviating from Marxism-Leninism, of pursuing a policy of nationalism, of Trotskyism, of hostility towards the Soviet Union, and of failing to take action to liquidate the Yugoslav kulaks.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone / U.N. – June 29, 1948 (KCA)
The Berlin City Council approves an appeal to the United Nations for immediate aid in the city’s plight.

Yugoslavia – June 29, 1948 (KCA)
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia issues a reply to the Cominform statement, refuting the charges contained therein and describing them as lies and invented slander.

Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – June 29, 1948 (WBA)
Bulgarian Government’s note No. 6266-I states that the Cominform resolution in no way alters the existing friendly relations between Bulgaria and Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – June 29, 1948 (PVC)
It is the first time that the South Department of the British Foreign Office deals with the Soviet-Yugoslav conflict in its meeting.

Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / Hungary / Romania / Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – June 30-August 18, 1948 (PIR)
The International Conference regarding the problems of navigation on the Danube takes place in Belgrade. A new Danube Commission is created, with the headquarters in Budapest, composed of the representatives of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania ,Yugoslavia, Ukraine, and the USSR.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – June 30, 1948 (HWC)
The American National Security Council (NSC) accepts the advice given by George F. Kennan and his Policy Planning Staff, encapsulated in the policy statement NSC 18, which is to support Tito if he wishes it.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – June 30, 1948 (CUY)
U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall gives instructions to U.S. Diplomatic Missions asking for caution when dealing with the Cominform split.

Yugoslavia / Albania – June 30, 1948 (PVC)
Albania expels all Yugoslav technical advisers from the country within 24 hours.



July 1948



Yugoslavia – July 1948 (KCA)
Mass rallies gather in support of Tito and the Yugoslav Communist Government, against accusations made in light of the Cominform expulsion.
Yugoslavia – July 1948 (ACY)
Bishop Čule of Mostar is sentenced to eleven and a half years imprisonment for conspiracy, of which he serves seven.

Romania – July 1, 1948 (PIR)
The Romanian parliament, MAN, approves law no. 116 for the punishment of sabotage.

Yugoslavia / Albania – July 1, 1948 (WBA)
The Albanian Government renounces all economic agreements, conventions and protocols concluded between Yugoslavia and Albania. On July 2, also the protocol on frontier traffic and the agreement on the abolition of visas are, unilaterally, cancelled.

Hungary – July 2, 1948 (HC)
The Hungarian Government establishes, by law, state-controlled centers to govern state corporations.

Romania – July 2, 1948 (PIR)
The State Commission for Planning is created. It takes over the tasks of the Superior Council of the National Economy in designing the general plans for the national economy.

Yugoslavia / Albania – July 2, 1948 (WBA)
The Yugoslav Government instructs its legation in Tirana to seek agreement with the Albanian Government on the formation of mixed commissions to discuss the position of Albanian-Yugoslav companies.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – July 2, 1948 (OEH)
Yugoslavia concludes an agreement on timber exports with the United Kingdom.

Yugoslavia / Albania – July 3, 1948 (WBA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note condemning the unilateral breach of economic treaties, agreements and conventions by the Albanian government.

Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – July 5, 1948 (PVC)
In an outburst of spontaneous sympathy, Yugoslav artists are given a thunderous applause at the Sokol Festival in Czechoslovakia.

Poland – July 6-7, 1948 (PSN)
A plenum of the Central Committee of the Polish Workers Party is held to discuss the condemnation of Yugoslavia. Gomulka is said to be unable to attend due to bad health. Other issues discussed at the plenum are the fusion of the Polish Socialist Party and the Polish Workers Party, as well as the economic situation.

Romania – July 6, 1948 (PIR)
The cereal collection regime is formed.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – July 6, 1948 (WBA)
A note of the Yugoslav embassy in Moscow states the Yugoslav Government’s decision to urge all Yugoslav citizens in the USSR to return to Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – July 6, 1948 (CUY)
The U.S. State department prepares a report on U.S. policy towards Yugoslavia for the National Security Council. According to the conclusions, “The Department […] should observe extreme circumspection in discussing the Yugoslav differences with the Cominform. […] This government would welcome a genuine re-emergence of Yugoslavia as a political personality in its own right. [But] Tito’s defiance does not mean that Yugoslavia has ‘come over’ to the West. Yugoslavia remains a communist state and its negative attitude towards the western democracies is yet unchanged.”

Czechoslavakia – July 7, 1948 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government orders an investigation into incidents which had occurred the previous day. In Prague, during a parade for the Sokol organization, a national association that promotes gymnastics and physical culture, people had cheered for former President Beneš and Marshall Tito. Some even waived British and American flags.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – July 7, 1948 (PVC)
In a communiqué published in Pravda, the Soviet Communist Party refuses the invitation of the Yugoslav Communist Party to attend its fifth party congress.

Austria – July 8, 1948 (KCA)
It is announced in Vienna that with $300 million of aid from the U.S., Austria has purchased two U.S. corvettes which have been rebuilt for cargo and will constitute the first unit of a new Austrian merchant fleet.

Romania – July 8, 1948 (PIR)
Industrial offices are replaced with industrial centers, which will run nationalized enterprises.

Hungary / U.S. – July 9, 1948 (LBC)
The State Department condemns Hungary for arresting civilians listening to radio station Voice of America.

Soviet Union / Denmark – July 9, 1948 (KCA)
Denmark and the Soviet Union sign a new barter agreement in Moscow.

Yugoslavia – July 9, 1948 (ACY)
Patriarch Gavrilo, accompanied by Metropolitan Josif and Bishop Venjamin of Braničevo, travels to Moscow at the invitation of Patriarch Alexei for the celebrations of the five hundredth anniversary of the autocephaly of the Moscow patriarchate.

Romania – July 10, 1948 (PIR)
The Secretariat of the CC of the PMR discusses the reorganization of the General Direction of State Security.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – July 10, 1948 (PVC)
Szabad Nép officially states that Hungary will not send a delegation to the fifth party congress of the Yugoslav Communist Party.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – July 10, 1948 (PVC)
A student from Subotica is killed by the Yugoslav Press Attaché Živko Boarov in Budapest.

Poland – July 11, 1948 (KCA)
Joseph Buhler, former Deputy Military Governor of Poland under Hans Frank, who was executed at Nuremburg, is sentenced to death after being found guilty of sanctioning the mass murder of Polish citizens during the Nazi occupation.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – July 13, 1948 (PVC)
Hungary sends a note of protest to Yugoslavia about the murder of a student by the Yugoslav Press Attaché. Yugoslavia complains in its notes of protest of July 14 and July 16 about the behaviour of the Hungarian authorities.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – July 13, 1948 (PVC)
The British embassy in Yugoslavia informs the Foreign Office about a demonstration that took place at the University of Belgrade. The demonstrators stood up for the communiqué of the Cominform. The demonstration was dispersed by armed forces.

Bulgaria / Hungary – July 14, 1948 (HC)
Led by Prime Minister Lajos Dinnyés, a government delegation travels to Sofia. The delegation signs a treaty of friendhip, co-operation and mutual aid.

Czechoslovakia – July 17, 1948 (KCA)
An announcement is issued that starting on September 1, the Government will handle Czechoslovakia’s entire foreign trade.

Romania / Vatican – July 17, 1948 (PIR)
The Romanian Government denounces the Concordat with the Holy See and decides to stop the application of the dispositions mentioned in the act.

Czechoslovakia / Romania – July 19-21, 1948 (PIR)
In Bucharest, Prime Minister Petru Groza and Czechoslovak Prime Minister Antonin Zapotocky sign the treaty for friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance between Romania and Czechoslovakia.

Yugoslavia – July 19, 1948 (KCA)
The Roman Catholic Bishop of Mostar, Pietro Cule, is sentenced to 11 years of imprisonment by the Mostar provincial court on charges of having organized and assisted the Ustachi (Croat Fascist) organization during the war. It is reported that he pledged guilty to the charges of collaborating with the Italian forces. Eight other priests and nuns are also sentenced to periods from 6 months to 8 years, under the same charges.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – July 19, 1948 (HWC)
The American Government makes accessible the gold of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which was frozen at the German invasion of Yugoslavia in the spring of 1941.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – July 21, 1948 (LUY)
In his eight-hour opening speech at the fifth party congress of the CPY, Tito summarizes for the Congress the history of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia from its founding in April 1919. It is a carefully constructed review avoiding personal or national extremes and designed to arouse the pride of the party and not offend the Soviet Union. Communist Party representatives from the USSR, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Albania had declined invitations to attend the Congress.

Poland – July 22, 1948 (KCA)
At a congress in Wroclaw the four main Polish youth organizations (Communist, Socialist, Peasant and Democrat) are fused into a single government-sponsored Union of Polish Youth.

Yugoslavia – July 22, 1948 (CRM)
The Supreme Court of the People's Republic of Croatia sentences Ljubo Miloš and 20 other persons, all members of illegal Crusader resistance groups, to death by hanging, and 23 to death by shooting squad. The sentence is executed on August 31, 1948.

Hungary – July 25, 1948 (HC)
It is announced by the Ministry of Interior that a conspiracy in the Ministry of Agriculture has been uncovered. Its leaders are Béla Perneczky, Ernő Ottó and Ernő Solt. The People’s court sentences them to life imprisonment.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – July 26, 1948 (KCA)
It is announced in the House of Commons that the government will no longer consider requests for the surrender to the Yugoslav Government of any Yugoslavs found in Britain or British-controlled territory, who were charged with collaboration with the enemy during the war.

Yugoslavia – July 26, 1948 (CUY)
Borba publishes Yugoslav Vice Premier Edvard Kardelj’s six-hour speech on the international situation during the congress of the Yugoslav Communist Party.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – July 26, 1948 (PVC)
The Hungarian police arrest the Yugoslav press attaché in Budapest in connection with the murder of a Yugoslav student of ethnic Hungarian descent.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – July 27, 1948 (CUY)
Tito receives ex-Governor Olsen of California, who is visiting Belgrade privately, and tells him that Yugoslavia would welcome a trade agreement with the United States, if there were no political strings attached

Hungary – July 29, – August 24, 1948 (HC)
The 14th Olympic Games take place in London. The Hungarian athletes earn 10 gold, 5 silver and 13 bronze medals.

Hungary – July 30, 1948 (HC/REV)
President Zoltán Tildy is forced to resign and is kept under house arrest until May 1, 1956. His son-in-law Viktor Csornoky, Hungarian Minister in Cairo, is charged with espionage and sentenced to death.  He is executed on November 15. Parliament elects Árpád Szakasits as President of the Republic.

Czechoslovakia – July 30, 1948 (KCA)
Because of the investigation into the incidents at the Sokol parade, the Czech Government announces it will set up a committee to supervise all sports and gymnastics activities.

Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – July 30-August 18, 1948 (LBC)
The Danube conference opens in Belgrade with the participation of ten nations. With seven votes to one (the U.S. and the United Kingdom abstained, France voted against), the Soviet proposal on the international control of navigation on the river Danube is passed, which excludes the Western powers from participation. The Western powers do not participate in the signing ceremony. The U.S. State Department accuses the Soviet Union of political and economic “enslavement” of the Danubian peoples and announces that the U.S. does not accept the convention for itself or the U.S. zones of Germany and Austria.

Romania – July 31, 1948 (KCA)
All schools in Romania come under State control.

Yugoslavia / Romania – July 31, 1948 (PVC)
The Romanian Communist daily Scanteia publishes an open letter written by  Yugoslav Ambassador Golubović, in which he accuses the Yugoslav government of nationalist deviation and anti-Soviet foreign policy. The Ambassador is replaced on September 7 by Radoš Jovanović.



August 1948



Poland – August 1948 (PSN)

The Catholic newspaper Tygodnik Warszawski is shut down.

Hungary – August 1, 1948 (HC)
The Margit Bridge of Budapest opens for public traffic.

Romania – August 2, 1948 (PIR)
In reducing the role of the church and clergy, the Romanian Government passes a law for the nationalization of all property of the former church schools.

Hungary – August 3, 1948 (HC)
The National Assembly elects Árpád Szakasits as President.

Bulgaria – August 3, 1948 (KCA)
A decree orders all foreign schools in Bulgaria to close by September 1. The Bulgarian Government denounces the Franch-Bulgarian cultural convention of 1936 on the status of French schools in Bulgaria.

Romania – August 3, 1948 (PIR)
MAN emits Decree no. 175 for the reform of education, through which the entire education system is unified and secularized.

Romania – August 3, 1948 (PIR)
The new law of education decides the transformation of the National Academy of Physical Education (ANEF) into the Institute for Physical Education (IEF) (from 1950 – the Institute for Physical Culture – ICF).

Hungary – August 4, 1948 (HC)
The Hungarian Parliament passes a law on the establishment of the Hungarian Science Board. On August 5, three members of the Hungarian Workers’ Party are appointed ministers: János Kádár as Minister of the Interior, László Rajk as Minister of Foreign affairs and István Kossa as Minister of Industry.
In Budapest the congress of the FKGP takes place. It stresses the importance of cooperation and alliance between workers and peasants.

Romania – August 4, 1948 (PIR)
Decree no. 177 of MAN regulates the general regime of religious cults. Priests become state employees and the church is controlled by the state. The law was meant to ensure freedom of consciousness, equality and the autonomy of cults.

Czechoslovakia – August 5, 1948 (KCA)
The Ministry of Industry announces that 93% of all Czechoslovak industry had been nationalized.

Czechoslovakia / France – August 6, 1948 (KCA)
Czechoslovakia and France sign a series of trade and financial agreements in Paris.

Soviet Union / U.S. – August 9, 1948 (KCA)
Alexander Panyushkin, Soviet Ambassador in Washington, announces that he handed a note to the U.S. State Department from his Government accusing U.S. authorities of having allowed the kidnapping of two Soviet citizens, Mikhail Samarin and Oksana Kosenkina, in New York and demanding their release. The two had been scheduled to return to the USSR on July 31 by means of transport on the S.S. Pobeda. Samarin had voluntarily sought the help of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the U.S. because he did not want to return to the USSR; Kosenkina’s situation and intentions are not clear. 

Yugoslavia – August 11-12, 1948 (WBA)
Chief of the General Staff of the Yugoslav Army General Arso Jovanović is killed during the night from August 11 to August 12 while trying to escape to Romania. Branko Petričević is caught by security forces while Vladimir (Peko) Dapčević returns to Belgrade where he hides until August 31. He again attempts to flee the country, but is caught on the Yugoslav-Hungarian frontier by the Yugoslav border patrol on September 2, 1948. Their trial is held in early June, 1950. Their escape is considered to be part of a Soviet attempt to form a Yugoslav government abroad.

Romania – August 12, 1948 (PIR)
The Secretariat of the CC of PMR debates the Doncea case. The creation of the Department of State Control is proposed in the same session, along with a project to organize the Department for the Co-Inhabiting Nationalities.

Soviet Union / Denmark – August 12, 1948 (KCA)
It is announced in Copenhagen that the Danish negotiations on the price of the Soviet barley supplies provided on July 9 broke down due to unacceptable Soviet demands.

Soviet Union / U.S. – August 12, 1948 (KCA)
Oksana Kosenkina jumps out of a window in the Soviet Consulate in New York and is rushed to the hospital with severe injuries.

Romania – August 13, 1948 (KCA)
All banks and credit institutions are dissolved except for the Romanian National Bank, the joint Romanian-Soviet Bank, and certain other co-operative and professional institutions.

Soviet Union / U.S. – August 13, 1948 (KCA)
The U.S. State Department announces that asylum will be granted to Soviet citizens Samarin and Kosenkina.

Soviet Union / U.S. – August 14, 1948 (KCA)
Ambassador Panyushkin issues a note to the U.S. State Department, demanding that Soviet Consul General Lomakin have more control over the arrangements for the medical care of Kosenkina.

Romania – August 15, 1948 (PIR)
Gheorghe Pintilie is awarded the rank of General Lieutenant of security and is charged with the leadership of the General Direction of the People’s Security.

Yugoslavia / Italy – August 16, 1948 (KCA)
The joint Italian-Yugoslav Commission for the delimitation of the new frontier resumes its work after the Yugoslav Government expressed hope that the border situation would be solved in a direct and friendly manner on August 4, 1948.

Yugoslavia / Austria – August 17, 1948 (OEH)
Yugoslavia concludes a trade and payments agreement with Austria.

Romania – August 18, 1948 (PIR)
The Secretariat of the CC of PMR discusses the law for the organization of the Red Cross, price reductions for some products and services, and the appointment of Petru Borilă in the Central Verification Commission.

Hungary – August 19, 1948 (HC)
The inauguration of fresh military officers takes place in the Military Academy.

Poland – August 19, 1948 (KCA)
The Polish Ministry of Justice announces that since the end of the war Polish Courts have issued death sentences on 1,055 German war criminals.

Soviet Union / Afghanistan – August 19, 1948 (KCA)
The conclusion of a Soviet-Afghan trade agreement that remains in effect until September 1949 is announced.

Hungary – August 20, 1948 (HC)
Mátyás Rákosi delivers a speech about the Hungarian Workers’ Party’s plans for agricultural restructuring in Szeged.

Czechoslovakia – August 20, 1948 (KCA)
The Sokol directorate in Moravia and Sokol officials in other areas are dismissed due to the demonstrations during the Sokol parade in Prague on July 6.

Poland – August 20, 1948 (KCA)
Joseph Buhler is hanged in Cracow.

Yugoslavia / Trieste – August 21-24, 1948 (KCA)
The expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform leads to a schism in the Trieste Communist Party between the pro-Tito and orthodox factions.

Romania – August 22, 1948 (PIR)
The first political detainees are brought to Sighet prison. The most important politicians of the pre-1947 period would be imprisoned here, Sighet becoming the ministerial prison.

Romania / Yugoslavia – August 25, 1948 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government issues a strong note to Romania protesting the anti-Yugoslav campaign conducted by Romania’s press and radio.  The note claims that such campaigns are inadmissible in the view of the Yugoslav-Romanian treaty of friendship.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – August 25, 1948 (PVC)
According to British diplomatic sources, the Hungarian government has made its decision to suspend the shipment of reparations to Yugoslavia on instructions of the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union – August 26, 1948 (KCA)
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet issues a decree granting permission to individual citizens to build and purchase their own homes, either in urban or rural areas. They must fulfill specific requirements and will be subject to State inspection.

Soviet Union – August 27, 1948 (KCA)
Moscow announces that L. Orbeli, a Soviet academician and leading biologist, has been removed from his post at the Soviet Academy of Sciences for failing to place biology “at the service of the vital needs of the Socialist construction”. Further complaints about him are that he follows Mendelian biological theory, which is based on heredity rather than hybridization, the theory of the official party line.

Yugoslav / Hungary – August 27, 1948 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government issues a strong note to Hungary protesting the anti-Yugoslav campaign conducted by Hungary’s press and radio.  The note claims that such campaigns are inadmissible in light of the Yugoslav-Hungarian treaty of friendship.

Yugoslavia – August 27, 1948 (KCA)
The Supreme Court of Croatia meets in Zagreb and sentences 43 Ustashis (Croat Fascists) to death. 12 others are sentenced to long-term imprisonment.

Romania – August 28, 1948 (PIR)
The General Direction of the People’s Security is founded inside the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – August 28, 1948 (PVC)
The Hungarian press reports a decree suspending the crossing of the Hungarian-Yugoslav frontier at Magyarbóly and Gyékényes.

Yugoslavia / Albania – August 28, 1948 (PVC)
According to British sources, the former Secretary of the Albanian-Yugoslav Cultural Society, Nuri Huta, is arrested and imprisoned in Albania.

Romania – August 30, 1948 (PIR)
Decree no. 221 for the creation and organization of the General Direction of the People’s Security is published. The new structure of political repression has the declared purpose of “defending democratic achievments and safe-guarding the security of the People’s Republic of Romania against the plots of foreign and internal enemies.”

U.S. – August 30, 1948 (LBC)
The second peacetime conscription in U.S. history begins.

Romania – August 31, 1948 (PIR)
The Secretariat of the CC of PMR analyzes the law for the transfer of forests under state property and the report of the Party Commission for the reorganization of the Ministries of Public Works and Communications.

Poland – August 31-September 3, 1948 (PSN)
A plenary meeting of the Central Committee of the Polish Workers Party is held at which Gomulka is removed from the post of Secretary General. Bierut resumes his party membership and assumes Gomulka's post. He holds a speech that condemns nationalist and rightist deviation and calls for the collectivization of agriculture.

Soviet Union – August 31, 1948 (KCA)
Andrei Alexandrovic Zhadnov, Secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party, close co-worker of Stalin and one of the most influential members of the Politburo, dies.

Yugoslavia – August 31, 1948 (KCA)
Belgrade announces a number of changes in the Cabinet. Notably, Kardelj and Rankovic, who had both been strongly denounced by the Cominform, are promoted.



September 1948



Yugoslavia / U.N. – September 1948 (RYN)
At the third session of the U.N. General Assembly, the Yugoslav delegation fully supports and praises the Soviet Union.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – September 1948 (LKT)
Yugoslavia expresses its wish to purchase oil-drilling equipment in exchange for ores and minerals from the US. The State Department, still awaiting for a “loyal and cooperative attitude” from Yugoslavia, deems the request “unattractive”.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – September 1948 (LBY)
By September 1948, American diplomats in Belgrade are sufficiently convinced of the stability of Tito's Government to argue that Washington should consider the possibilities of pursuing a more active policy towards Yugoslavia that had been thought appropriate hitherto.

Romania – September-November 1948 (PIR)
The members of the National Resistance Movement of Oltenia, led by General Ioan Carlaonţ, are arrested.

Romania – September 1, 1948 (PIR)
Major General Alexandru Nikolski (Boris Grunberg), is appointed General Deputy Director in the General Direction for the People’s Security.

Yugoslavia – September 1, 1948 (PVC)
Milovan Djilas openly speaks about the ideological rift between the Soviet and the Yugoslav communist parties in front of the Second Proletarian Brigade.

Hungary – September 2, 1948 (HC)
The Political Committee of the Hungarian Workers’ Party delivers a proposal on the reconsideration of the party membership and orders a cap on additional entrees (until March 6, 1949).

Soviet Union – September 2, 1948 (KCA)
Zhadnov’s burial ceremony takes place on the Red Square, with national honors in the presence of Stalin, Molotov and other Soviet leaders.

Czechoslovakia – September 3, 1948 (KCA)
Edward Beneš dies just a few months after his resignation.

Czechoslovakia – September 4, 1948 (KCA)
Vladimir Krajina, former Secretary-General of the Czechoslovak Socialist Party, who escaped from Czechoslovakia to London in March, is sentenced in absentia to 25 years imprisonment in Prague for allegedly supporting the Nazi regime. Krajina denies these charges and declares that he does not take the sentence seriously.

Poland – September 4, 1948 (KCA)
The Polish Communist Party issues a statement calling for President Bierut to resume the active roll he played in Party affairs before he was appointed President.

Poland – September 5, 1948 (KCA)
An announcement is made, proclaiming that Bierut is to succeed Wladyslaw Gomulka as Secretary-General of the party. Among the reasons for his dismissal, Gomulka is cited for disagreeing with the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform, and for opposing the collectivization of agriculture.

Hungary – September 6, 1948 (HC/REV)
The number 288 009/1948 order of the Ministry of Interior is released on establishing the State Defense Authority (ÁVH) of the Interior Ministy. Its leader is Gábor Péter. Its tasks are extended to cover surveillance of foreigners, borders, air traffic and river policing, banishment, supervision of the police, internment, and the issuance of passports.

Romania – September 6, 1948 (PIR)
The Secretariat of the CC of PMR decides to rename the Superior School of Lectors of PMR after A. A. Zhdanov.

Romania / UK – September 7, 1948 (KCA)
The British Government sends a note to the Romanian Government protesting the treatment of British interests, affected by the recent Romanian nationalization law, and demanding compensation of British financial claims in connection with this legislation.

Yugoslavia / Albania – September 7, 1948 (WBA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note of protest against the insulting and inappropriate tone used in the Albanian Government’s notes.

Hungary – September 9, 1948 (HC)
President Árpád Szakasits nominates Ferenc Erdei as Minister of State (NPP) and Mihály Farkas (MDP – Hungarian Workers’ Party) as Minister of Defense.

Romania – September 9, 1948 (PIR)
Following Decree no. 232, nine private railway enterprises, previously not included in the June 11 law, are nationalized.

Bulgaria – September 10, 1948 (KCA)
Former Tsar Ferdinand I dies.

Hungary – September 12, 1948 (HC)
The reconstructed Southern Connecting Railway Bride of Budapest is opened to traffic.

Austria – September 13, 1948 (KCA)
The basic food rationing is increased to 2,100 calories daily as proposed by the Austrian Government to the Allied Control Council. The increase is made possible by a good harvest and Marshall aid.

Hungary – September 14, 1948 (HC)
The National Assembly of the National Peasant Party takes place in Budapest. The main objectives of the Party are to further suppress right wing forces, support central planning, develop the movement of cooperatives and raise the standard of living. It reelects Péter Veres as Chairman and Ferenc Erdei as General Secretary.

Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – September 15, 1948 (LBC)
A disarmament proposal is announced by Deputy Foreign Minister Andrei Vishinsky: The U.S., China, the USSR, France and the United Kingdom should reduce their armed forces by one third in one year, offensive nuclear weapons should be banned, and an organization within the U.N. Security Council should be established to control disarmament and the banishment of nuclear weapons.

Hungary – September 16, 1948 (HC)
József Révai announces that the Hungarian Workers Party suggests sending 1,000 workers’ children to high school and an additional 800 young workers to a year long college preparation throughout the year of 1948.

Romania / U.S. – September 16, 1948 (LBC)
The U.S. announces the recall of four members of its diplomatic representation in Bucharest after the Romanian authorities accuse them of taking photographs of a Danube port.

Hungary – September 17, 1948 (HC)
The Minister of Education orders the organization of courses that prepare students for the technical school exit exams.

Romania – September 17, 1948 (PIR)
Alexandru A. Voitinovici is appointed general attorney of the RPR, replacing Gheorghe Stere.

Yugoslavia – September 17, 1948 (KCA)
Belgrade announces that the law liquidating small shops which was passed in April, 1947 has ended most private retail trade in the country. 

Romania – September 20, 1948 (KCA)
A decree of the National Assembly in Romania limits the number of church dioceses.

Hungary – September 21, 1948 (HC)
The Ministry of the Interior announces that a plan of sabotage by the Hungarian-American Oil Company is unveiled.

Romania – September 21, 1948 (KCA)
A decree is published that will dissolve and confiscate the property of 220 associations of businessmen and employers registered in Bucharest on grounds that they are representatives of capitalist interests.

Bulgaria / U.S. – September 24, 1948 (LBC)
The U.S. condemns Bulgaria for the systematic, ruthless obliteration of Bulgarian democracy. The declaration comes in response to a Bulgarian accusation that the U.S. is excluding Bulgaria from the U.N., despite the fact that it had kept the terms of the peace treaty conscientiously.

Hungary – September 24, 1948 (HC)
The number 9960/1948 government order is published. It is about the nationalization of the Hungarian-American Oil Company and the MAORT Gas Selling Company.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – September 24, 1948 (LBY)
The implications for British military planning concerning the Soviet-Yugoslav conflict are subsequently put before the Chief of Staff in a JIC paper submitted on 24 September. The immediate priority seems to be to coordinate any response with the Americans. If the dispute proved to be genuine, then it will be the United States and not Britain which has the wherewithal to assist Tito in maintaining the Yugoslav state as an independent entity

Hungary – September 25-26, 1948 (HC)
The National Education Assembly of the Hungarian Workers’ Party takes place in Budapest. József Révai declares that people’s democracy is a station in the transition from capitalism to Socialism.

Hungary / U.S. – September 26, 1948 (LBC)
Hungary expels two U.S. businessmen, Ruedemann and Bannantine, the leaders of the Hungarian-American Oil Company.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – September 26, 1948 (PVC)
Tito has a three-hour long conversation with British Labour Party MP Koni Zilliachus.

Yugoslavia / Switzerland – September 27, 1948 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs a trade and compensation agreement with Switzerland.

Yugoslavia / Albania – September 28, 1948 (PVC)
Yugoslavia informs the Albanian government that it no longer protects Albania's interests towards third countries.

Yugoslavia – September 30, 1948 (PVC)
Both houses of the Yugoslav parliament unanimously adopt a resolution about supporting Tito and the Yugoslav leadership.



October 1948



Poland – October 1948 (PSN)
Minister of Food Supply Wlodzimierz Lechowixz and his deputy Alfred Jarozewicz are arrested for working in non-Communist organizations during the war, even though it was under Communist instructions.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – October 1948 (LKT)
In a meeting with Eric Johnson, an American motion picture industry official visiting Yugoslavia, Tito declares that the breach with the Cominform can be healed only if the Kremlin admits it has erred.

Poland – October 1, 1948 (KCA)
An account of the progress made in the reconstruction of Warsaw, which was almost entirely destroyed at the end of the war, is given in The Times along with the Polish Government’s long-term plans to rebuild it.

Romania – October 1, 1948 (PIR)
The Assembly for the unification of the Greek-Catholic Church with the Romanian Orthodox Church takes place in Cluj. 61 delegations from 22 districts, representing 423 parishes, participate.

Yugoslavia / Finland – October 1, 1948 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs a trade and payments agreement with Finland.

Czechoslovakia – October 3, 1948 (KCA)
Czechoslovak Minister of Trade Gregor announces that an agreement has been signed with Moscow relating to the second year of the five-year Soviet-Czechoslovak trade pact.

Hungary – October 3, 1948 (HC)
The reconstructed railroad track between Budapest and Miskolc opens.

Czechoslovakia – October 6, 1948 (KCA)
The Law for the Defense of the People’s Republic is passed in Czechoslovakia.

Romania – October 6, 1948 (PIR)
The Secretariat of the CC of PMR debates the plan for the celebration of the 30th anniversary of the founding of Comsomol, the proposals to organize a week of Romanian-Soviet friendship, a decree on professional education, the freezing of Romanian gold in Switzerland, the nationalization of private hospitals and cinemas, and a law regarding superior schools.

Yugoslavia / Poland – October 6, 1948 (WBA)
Z. Majevski, president of the Polish Delegation to the Permanent Polish-Yugoslav Commission for Economic Cooperation, informs Tadija Popović, president of the Yugoslav delegation, on Warsaw’s intention to postpone indefinitely the meeting of the permanent commission. The permanent commission never meets again.

Hungary – October 7, 1948 (HC)
The Hungarian Government signs an agreement with the Reformed Church, according to which priests receive salaries from the government. The church may run four religious high schools, and four theology colleges.

Romania – October 7, 1948 (PIR, KCA)
The Machine and Tractors Stations (SMT) are organized through decree. Also by decree, the Romanian Ministry of Trade and Industries is divided into two separate ministries, that of Foreign Trade and that of Trade and Food.

Romania – October 9, 1948 (PIR)
Seven military tribunals which would function annexed to the command of Military Regions 1, 2, and 3, 2nd Infantry Division, 4th Infantry Division, ‘Horia, Cloşca and Crişan’ Division and the Commandment of the Fluvial Forces, are organized.

Soviet Union / U.K. – October 9, 1948 (LBC)
Former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill calls upon the West to deal with the Soviet Union while it (the West) still has a nuclear monopoly. According to Churchill, “nothing stands between Europe today and complete subjugation to communist tyranny, but the atomic bomb in American possession.” He calls on the Soviet Union to release the satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – October 12, 1948 (HC)
The Czechoslovak Council of Ministers gives back the citizenship and civil rights to the members of the Hungarian minority living in the country (decree 254/1948).

Romania – October 12, 1948 (PIR)
In the Political Bureau, Romania’s membership application to the U.N. is discussed.

Soviet Union / U.S. – October 12, 1948 (LBC)
The U.S. turns down Vishinsky’s proposal on disarmament (September 15.).

Yugoslavia / Romania – October 14, 1948 (WBA)
The Romanian Embassy in Belgrade sends a note to Yugoslavia announcing the expulsion of Yugoslav teachers from Romania.

Hungary – October 15, 1948 (HC)
The government asks the Polish Government to represent Hungarian interests in countries where there is no Hungarian representation.

Czechoslovakia – October 15, 1948 (HC)
The first Five-Year Plan is approved in Czechoslovakia.

Yugoslavia – October 15-19, 1948 (PVC)
The trial of Andrija Lončarić and his collaborators takes place. They are accused of planning a conspiracy with the Chetniks in order to help King Petar back to the throne. Lončarić is sentenced to death.

Romania – October 19, 1948 (PIR)
The Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church approves the Act of Union with the Greek-Catholic Church.

Romania / Hungary – October 19, 1948 (PIR)
The project of the Convention regarding the Hungarian estates in Romania and that of the Cultural Accord with Hungary are discussed.

Romania / Yugoslavia – October 19, 1948 (PVC)
Scanteia publishes the latest note of the Romanian Government, withdrawing Romanian teachers from the Banat region, because of the nationalistic and chauvinistic tendencies in Yugoslavia.

Soviet Union – October 24, 1948 (KCA)
The Soviet Council of Ministers signs a decree launching a large-scale program of afforestation and irrigation designed to protect the wealthiest agricultural areas of the USSR.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – October 25, 1948 (PVC)
According to Yugoslav charges, the Hungarian secret police broke into the office of the Yugoslav news agency, Tanjug, arrested Dušan Devedjić and tried to persuade him to spy for the Hungarian authorities.

Romania – October 26, 1948 (PIR)
Romania and the People`s Democratic Republic of Korea establish diplomatic relations at the level of embassy.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – October 26, 1948 (WBA)
Vaso Jovanović, Yugoslav Secretary of Legation and Chargé d’Affaires in Budapest is expelled from Hungary by the Hungarian Foreign Ministry.

Austria / Soviet Union – October 27, 1948 (KCA)
The Austrian Government announces that the Soviet Government has demanded the entire railway rolling stock in the Soviet zone of Austria as war reparation.

Romania – October 28, 1948 (PIR)
Reluctant Uniate bishops are interned with mandatory domicile.

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 28, 1948 (HC)
Hungary and the Soviet Union sign an agreement about scholarship programs for Hungarian students in Soviet universities.

Hungary – October 28-29, 1948 (HC)
The National Assembly of the FKGP takes place in Balatonkenese. It suggests the reorganization of the Hungarian National Independence Front based on the worker-peasant alliance. It suggests further attention to the restructuring of the agriculture. It supports the interior and the foreign policy of the government.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – October 29, 1948 (PVC)
Thirteen employees of the Yugoslav legation in Budapest are expelled from Hungary on short notice.



November 1948



Yugoslavia / Greece / U.N. – November 1948 (SGY)
The U.N. General Assembly votes to establish a Conciliation Committee in order to assist Greece and its three northern neighbours settle their differences and resume normal diplomatic relations.

Romania / Soviet Union – November 1, 1948 (KCA)
Romania and the Soviet Union sign an economic agreement that will set up two joint Romanian-Soviet companies, one to produce tractors and the other to produce chemicals.

Romania – November 2, 1948 (PIR)
The law regarding the nationalization of cinematographic industry and the regulation of commerce with cinematographic products is promulgated.

Romania  / US – November 2, 1948 (PIR, KCA)
The trial of the group led by Max Auschnitt, Vice-President of the association ‘Friends of America’ begins. The set-up is part of a scheme, ordered by Nikolski, regarding the American involvement in the organization of a clandestine government. Max Auschnitt is judged by the Military Tribunal in Bucharest and condemned in absence for high treason, insurrection, plot with treacherous aim, undermining constitutional order and rebellious attempts. The sentence is forced labor for life, civic degradation, and the confiscation of estates.

U.S. – November 2, 1948 (HC)
American President Harry S. Truman is reelected.

Poland – November 3, 1948 (PSN)
At a joint meeting of the Central Committee of the Polish Workers Party and the Central Executive Committee of the Polish Socialist Party, it is decided that the unification congress be held on December 8. A report on the purging of party ranks is reportedly read.

Romania – November 3, 1948 (PIR)
Private hospitals and cinemas are nationalized.

Poland – November 5- 19, 1948 (PSN)
Six Socialist Party activists are tried before a military court for trying to overthrow ‘the system’. This sets the stage for the liquidation of the Socialist Party and the unification of the workers movement.

Poland / Yugoslavia – November 5, 1948 (KCA)
The newspaper Borba, organ of the Yugoslav Communist Party, announces that the publication and translation of Yugoslav books has been discontinued in Poland and that the showing of Yugoslav films has been banned by the Film Polski Organization, violating the Polish-Yugoslav cultural agreement of May 5, 1948.

Czechoslovakia – November 6, 1948 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Communist organ Rude Pravo announces that in the future no new members will be accepted into the Communist Party except after a probationary period, that some current members would be lowered to the status of candidates, and that every person’s membership is subject to strict review.

Austria / US – November 10, 1948 (KCA)
Washington announces that the Economic Co-operation Administration has so far released to the Austrian Government $33,052,000 of Marshall Aid funds.

Yugoslavia – November 11-16, 1948 (PVC)
The congress of the Slovenian Communist Party takes place in Ljubljana. Some Slovenian delegates from Trieste and Carinthia also participate. Several speeches deal with the international situation.

Soviet Union – November 12, 1948 (KCA)
The Soviet Council of Ministers issues a decree appointing General Sergei Shtemenko as Chief of General Staff, succeeding Marshal Alexander Vassilievsky.

Soviet Union / U.S. – November 13, 1948 (LBC)
The U.N. Security Council votes against Vishinsky’s proposal on disarmament (September 15).

Yugoslavia / U.K. – November 13, 1948 (PVC)
The British Embassy in Belgrade learns that Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs, Vladimir Velebit, has been dismissed.

Romania – November 15, 1948 (PIR)
The National Bank of Romania is reorganized and renamed the State Bank of the RPR.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – November 18, 1948 (CUY)
The Central Intelligence Agency prepares its estimate on the Trend of Soviet-Yugoslav Relations.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – November 20, 1948 (HC)
Hungary and Czechoslovakia form a long-term economic agreement.
The Institution of Hungarian Workers’ Movement opens in Budapest.

Romania – November 20, 1948 (PIR)
Doctor Iosif Capotă and Alexandru Dejeu, anti-communist fighters in the Apuseni Mountains and on the Drăgan Valley, are arrested.

Czechoslovakia / Yugoslavia – November 21, 1948 (PVC)
The Society of Friends of Tito-Yugoslavia is renamed as the Society of the Friends of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. The new organization is headed by Deputy Prime Minister Siroky.

Czechoslovakia – November 23, 1948 (KCA)
It is announced in Prague that Zlin, seat of the famous Bata shoe factories, will be renamed Gottwaldov from January 1, 1949 onwards, after President of the Republic Klement Gottwald.

Soviet Union / U.K. – November 25, 1948 (KCA)
Sir Henry Dale, former President of the Royal Society, announces that he has resigned his honorary membership of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in protest of the dismissal of eminent Russian scientists for their adherence to so called bourgeois and reactionary scientific principles, notably in the case of Academician Orbeli.

Hungary – November 26, 1948 (HC)
The National Assembly passes the 1948:XLIII Law about the complete equality of women.

Yugoslavia – November 26, 1948 (CUY)
Tito delivers a speech before the closing session of the Croatian Communist Party Congress and another one at his visit to the Trbovlje coal mines in Slovenia. In both speeches, he emphasizes economic difficulties and blames the lack of Socialist help.

Czechoslovakia – November 28, 1948 (HC)
In Czechoslovakia a law is passed that enables the return of those Hungarians to Slovakia who were earlier relocated into the Sudetenland.  

Romania – November 29-30, 1948 (PIR)
The national Conference of the National People’s Party elects the CC and the Executive Bureau.

Hungary – November 30-December 5, 1948 (HC)
The 2nd World Congress of the Democratic Women takes place in Budapest.



December 1948



Romania – December 1, 1948 (PIR)
Through Decree no. 358, the Romanian Church United with Rome is abolished. All Greek-Catholic dioceses and religious communities are disbanded, and their properties taken over by the state.

Yugoslavia / Belgium / Luxembourg – December 3, 1948 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs a trade agreement with Belgium and Luxembourg.

Hungary – December 4, 1948 (HC)
Minister of Finance Miklós Nyárádi, sent abroad on an official visit, resigns from his office and announces that he will not return to Hungary. The Ministry of Finance is temporarily taken over by Ernő Gerő.

Romania – December 6, 1948 (PIR)
Under the direction of Securitate General Al. Nikolski, the process of reeducating political detainees begins in Piteşti prison, whereby victims of repression were compelled to become torturers. Until the system was ended in 1952, 780 students were tortured and another 30 killed as part of the “Piteşti phenomenon.”

Austria / France / Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – December 7, 1948 (KCA)
Austrian Ministers in London, Washington, Moscow and Paris issue identical notes to the Governments requesting the continuation of negotiations on the Austrian peace treaty in order to liberate Austria from the occupation dividing the country into four zones.

Austria / France / U.K. / U.S. – December 8, 1948 (KCA)
The British, U.S., and French Governments inform the Austrian Ministers in their countries of their sympathetic consideration of the request and willingness to resume talks as long as the representatives deem that talks can be productive.

Hungary – December 9, 1948 (HC)
The Economic High Council prepares a proposal about the creation of a Centre of Heavy Industry.

Hungary – December 10, 1948 (HC)
The President names István Dobi (FKGP) as new Prime Minister. Deputy-Prime Minister is Mátyás Rákosi (Hungarian Workers’ Party - MDP), State Minister: Ferenc Erdei (NPP), Interior: János Kádár (MDP), Construction and Public Labor: József Darvas (NPP), Agriculture: István Csala (FKGP), Justice: István Ries (MDP), Defense: Mihály Farkas (MDP), Industry: István Kossa (MDP), Trade: Sándor Rónai (MDP), Foreign Affairs: László Rajk (MDP), Finance: Ernő Gerő (MDP), temporarily: Religion and Education: Gyula Ortutay (FKGP)

Czechoslovakia – December 12, 1948 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Cabinet approves a bill that will regulate the status of Czechoslovak lawyers.

Hungary – December 12, 1948 (HC)
The Petőfi Military Academy opens in Budapest.


Romania / Hungary – December 12, 1948 (HC)
The State Hungarian People’s Opera opens in Kolozsvár.

Romania / Yugoslavia – December 12, 1948 (PIR)
A resolution of the Political Bureau of the CC of PCR is published. The document denounces “the treacherous clique from the leadership of the Yugoslav Communist Party”, and attacks Zionism, described as a “nationalist and reactionary political movement of the Jewish bourgeoisie”. It also proclaims the fight against the chauvinism of minorities inside the country.
Romania / India – December 14, 1948 (PIR)
Romania and India establish diplomatic relations at the level of legation.

Hungary – December 14, 1948 (HC)
The government signs an agreement with the Lutheran Church. The priests receive pay from the government, and the church can run a religious high school as well as a theology college.

Bulgaria / Belgium / France / The Netherlands / Switzerland / U.K. – December 15, 1948 (KCA)
An agreement between the Bulgarian Government and representatives of bondholders in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, on resuming the service on the Bulgarian external debt, is announced.

Poland – December 15-21, 1948 (PSN)
The fusion congress of the Polish Socialist Party and the (Communist) Polish Workers Party is held in Warsaw. The new Polish United Workers Party is mostly a continuation of the Polish Workers Party, its membership drawing about one million from the Workers Party, and about half of that from the Socialist Party.

Hungary – December 16, 1948 (HC)
Twelve parliamentary representatives of the FKGP resign as deputies.

Austria / Soviet Union – December 18, 1948 (KCA)
The Soviet Union expresses its willingness to resume negotiations on the Austrian peace treaty.

Hungary – December 18, 1948 (HC)
A law is passed organizing and regulating the agricultural collectives.

Austria – December 19, 1948 (KCA)
The 800 year-old St. Stephen’s Cathedral is reopened in Vienna after being heavily damaged in the war.

Hungary – December 19, 1948 (HC)
The Hungarian Alliance of Lawyers forms. Its chairman is István Ries.

Austria – December 20, 1948 (KCA)
The first post-war High Mass is celebrated at St. Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna; the ceremony is widely broadcasted.

U.N. – December 20, 1948 (REV)
The United Nations adopts the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Romania – December 22-24, 1948 (PIR)
The Plenary of the CC of PMR takes place, discussing the “tasks which lay ahead of the syndicates in the present period,” trade unions representing “the main transmission belt between the party and the proletarian mass” and helping the party “in its efforts of mobilizing and educating the working class.” Party activity among the youth is also addressed, “the unique organization of the working youth” being destined “to become a school of constructors of socialism and communism.” On the same occasion, the law project for the budget and state plan for the year 1949, the new salary system, and the collective labor contract are discussed.

Hungary – December 23, 1948 (HC) (REV)
Cardinal József Mindszenty, the Archbishop of Esztergom is arrested on charges for disloyalty, plans for toppling the Government, spying, and currency trafficking. His secretary was arrested previously, on November 19 and several searches had been carried out of the Primate’s Palace in Esztergom. Mindszenty forcefully opposed the creation of a communist dictatorship since 1945, leading those fighting for freedom of worship, civil values and national independence, while symbolizing an anachronistic retention of church influence on the state and in society.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – December 23, 1948 (KCA)
Three trade agreements, concerning short-term trade, compensation for nationalized and expropriated British property in Yugoslavia, and a financial and property agreement are signed in London between Britain and Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia – December 27, 1948 (KCA)
In an address to the Yugoslav National Assembly, Tito accuses the Eastern European countries of violating their economic agreements with Yugoslavia and of instituting a virtual boycott of the country. He threatens them, claiming that if the countries violate their agreements, Yugoslavia will be forced to trade with capitalist countries to obtain the equipment needed for her industrialization.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – December 27, 1948 (WBA)
The Mutual Trade Exchange Protocol between Yugoslavia and the USSR for 1949 is signed in Moscow. The Soviet government reduces its economic exchange with Yugoslavia for political reasons.

Romania – December 28, 1948 (PIR)
MAN adopts the general economic plan for the year 1949.

Yugoslavia – December 28, 1948 (PVC)
Yugoslav Foreign Minister Edvard Kardelj delivers a speech during the annual debate of the federal budget. He blames the Western imperialist powers for the current world situation, but does not deny that Yugoslavia's relations with the other people's democracies have deteriorated.

Poland – December 29, 1948 (PSN)
The government decides to end food rationing as of January 1, 1949.

Yugoslavia / India – December 29, 1948 (RYN)
Yugoslavia signs its first trade agreement with India.

Hungary – December 30, 1948 (HC)
Electric public lights are installed in the 250th village. This process is part of the Three-Year Plan.

Romania / Soviet Union – December 31, 1948 (PIR)
Two agreements between RPR and the USSR, regarding the supply and transportation of Soviet troops on the territory of Romania, are concluded.





© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2012