The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Assistant editors



Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Shira BORZAK, Lauren CRYSTAL, Botond CSELLE, Sonya COWELL, Péter János DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB, Kati DEPETRILLO, Doris DOMOSZLAI, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖRDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA, Kristína GABIKOVA, Zsófia GÖDE, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Ágnes HEVÉR, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Emily Jennifer HOLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU,  Dean JOLLY, Annastiina KALLIUS, János KEMÉNY, András KISS, Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zardas LEE, Karina LEGRADI, Tara LOTSTEIN, Cynthia MANCHA, Viktor NAGY, Jennifer OTTERSON, Linda RICHTER, Zita Bettina VASAS, Dániel VÉKONY, Péter VUKMAN, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2012


At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The first part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1945 to 1952, but our goal is to publish the whole chronology covering the entire Cold War era up until 1991 in parts during the next two years. The years 1953–1955 will be available by September, 2012 and the years 1956–1968 by December, 2012.
The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.



List of Sources


Chronology 1952



Romania – 1952 (PIR)
The authorities set up the so-called trial of the “[Danube] Canal saboteurs”.

Romania / Yugoslavia – 1952 (PIR)
Over 3,000 families coming from the Yugoslav border region of Banat, are accused of being former Titoists, kulaks and traitors, and are deported to Bărăgan.

Romania – 1952 (PIR)
The work colony Salcia, in Balta Mare a Brailei, with an initial housing capacity of 200 places that is later extended to 2,000 places, is created. A forced labor camp for political detainees, the colony is in fact a site for their extermination.

Soviet Union – 1952 (PLC)
The LLKS, the Lithuanian partisan movement, dissolves itself. All military anti-Soviet movements are abolished in the Baltic states (this applies to the whole of Eastern Europe).


January 1952


Hungary – January 1952 (HC)
The movie Nyugati övezet (“Western zone”), directed by Zoltán Várkonyi is first shown.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – January 1952 (HC)
In Vojvodina, an area of Yugoslavia mainly populated by Hungarians, the Hungarian Literature Association is founded by the Hungarian Cultural Committee.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – January 1952 (HC)
A new Hungarian minority periodical called Magyar Képes Újság is published in Zagreb.

Yugoslavia / France / U.K. / U.S. – January 4, 1952 (KCA)
It is announced in Belgrade that the U.S., Britain and France have agreed to provide a further immediate grant of $25 million to Yugoslavia by way of underwriting the Yugoslav foreign trade deficit for the first half of 1952.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – January 4, 1952 (CUY)
The National Intelligence Agency prepares its latest estimate on Yugoslavia, ''Probable Developments in Yugoslavia and the Likelihood of Attack Upon Yugoslavia, through 1952.''

Hungary – January 5, 1952 (HC)
Statutory rule 1952:1 by the Presidential Council states that new ministries will be established; Ministry of Forestry and Field Farming, Ministry of Food Industry, Ministry of Medium Machine Industry, Ministry of Building Materials, Ministry of Post and Ministry of Local Industry.

Hungary – January 5, 1952 (HC)
Statutory rule 1952:2 by the Presidential Council regulates the state collection system.

Poland / U.S. – January 5, 1952 (HDP)
Poland looses most-favored-nation status in the U.S.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – January 8, 1952 (KCA)
The U.S. Ambassador and the Yugoslav Foreign Minister sign an “economic co-operation agreement” setting out the conditions under which Yugoslavia is provided with U.S. economic and technical aid.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 12, 1952 (LBC)
Vishinski’s disarmament proposal: the Soviet Union accepts the “strict international control” of the International Atomic Energy Agency , which would enter into force after the banning of the A bomb, but the observers may not intervene in domestic affairs and may not stay continuously in the atomic facilities.

Yugoslavia / Austria / FRG – January 14, 1952 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs a transit traffic agreement with Austria and the Federal Republic of Germany.

Romania / Soviet Union – January 16, 1952 (PIR)
The session of the People's Republic of Romania (RPR) committee for the preparation of the International Economic Conference in Moscow (March, 1952) takes place with the participation of Al. Bârlădeanu, Minister of Exterior Commerce, Constantin Agiu, director of Centrocoop, Barbu Zaharescu, Head of the Political Economy Faculty at the University, and Manea Mănescu, Director of the Statistics Commission.

Hungary – January 17, 1952 (HC)
A nationwide work competition movement starts in Hungary which is organized for the 60th birthday of Mátyás Rákosi.

Czechoslovakia / U.S. – January 18, 1952 (LBC)
The Department of Treasury expropriates a steel mill purchased by Czechoslovakia in 1948, the parts of which are in a warehouse. The measure is taken on the basis of the 1917 Trading with the Enemy Act.

Yugoslavia – January 18, 1952 (KCA)
It is announced that the Yugoslav Finance Minister has issued an order cancelling the regulation which previously obliged holders of foreign currency to offer it to the National Bank for purchase. The order also authorizes the National Bank to purchase foreign currency from all Yugoslav holders of such currency, regardless of where it had been acquired.

Hungary – January 19, 1952 (HC)
Decree 1002/1952 by the Council of Ministers announces that all concerts will be organized by the state. The central administrative organization is to facilitate them under the name of State Philharmonic.

Hungary – January 19, 1952 (HC)
Decree 7/1952 by the Council of Ministers announces that payments for water resources will be abolished and that collective farms and state-owned factories will not have to pay taxes. Agricultural workers will not have to pay income taxes either.

Yugoslavia – January 20, 1952 (KCA)
Belgrade announces that a new dinar exchange rate has been established in the Yugoslav Zone of Trieste (Zone B) in order to conform to recent devaluation of the dinar in Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia – January 20, 1952 (ACY)
Vovk, Bishop of Ljubljana, is the victim of a particularly brutal attack. He is assaulted in the station at Novo Mesto and petrol is thrown over him and ignited.

Soviet Bloc / Western Europe / U.N. – January 22-February 8, 1952 (KCA)
The U.N. Commission responsible for investigating the fate of prisoners of war who have not been repatriated or accounted for from the Soviet Union holds hearings in Geneva. Nine of the ten countries invited attend the hearings, but the Soviet Union decides not to take part. The Commission has a questionnaire from 82 Governments regarding the status of their country’s nationals in the Soviet Union. Austria reports that the process of repatriation has commenced and the German Federal Government replies that a large number of German nationals remain unaccounted for, citing this as a cause of grave concern. Italy states that the Soviet Union has not given the requested information regarding the status of its nationals in Russia. Japan places the number of Japanese still in the Soviet Union at 370,000, and France replies that all French P.O.W.s have been repatriated, save for those sentenced or awaiting trial for alleged war crimes. 

Romania – January 22, 1952 (PIR)
A solemn meeting takes place in Bucharest, commemorating 28 years since the death of V.I. Lenin.

Hungary / Soviet Union – January 23, 1952 (HC)
A Hungarian-Soviet mutual, four-year (for 1952-55) trade agreement is signed.

Poland – January 23, 1952 (PSN)
The Constitutional Committee appointed in 1951 adopts a draft constitution on January 23, 1952. Four days later the draft was published and Poland changes its name to the Polish People's Republic.

Romania / UN – January 23, 1952 (PIR)
Romania protests against its discrimination by the admissions commissions of the UN.

Romania – January 25, 1952 (PIR)
Regimes for the sale of agricultural products by producers are established; the law on the agricultural tax is modified and the model statute of agricultural comradely associations (“întovărăşirile agricole”) is elaborated.

Soviet Union / Italy – January 25, 1952 (KCA)
Responding to a note from the Italian Government of December 8, 1951 asking for the signatory Powers to agree to a revision of the Italian Peace Treaty, the Soviet Government accuses Italy of participating in the “aggressive Atlantic bloc,” declaring it would only agree to revise the treaty if Italy left NATO.

Romania – January 26, 1952 (PIR)
MAN emits Decree no. 37 regarding the completion of the monetary reform and the reduction of commercial prices for the main food and industrial products.

Poland – January 27, 1952 (KCA)
The new Polish Constitution is published.

Hungary – January 29, 1952 (REV)
The Military Supreme Court commutes the death sentence of Colonel General Béla Király to life imprisonment. He is found guilty of war crimes and criminal acts against the state. His associates receive prison sentences of 10–12 years.


February 1952


Yugoslavia / France / U.K. / U.S. – February-April 1952 l (HWC)
The second tripartite conference is held in Washington. The conference report of 21 April 1952 concludes that Yugoslavia would need about £35 million (about $99 million), of which the U.S. should undertake to pay £28 million ($78 million), the British £4.5 million ($12.6 million) and the French £3 million ($8.4 million). The British Cabinet approves of the Washington report on 15 May 1952.

Hungary – February 3, 1952 (HC)
Szabad Szó, the central newspaper of the National Peasants’ Party since 1945, is abolished.

Yugoslavia / France / U.K. / U.S. / Greece / Turkey – February 5, 1952 (LBC)
Truman announces a $478 million military assistance for the rearmament programs of the U.K., France, Greece, Turkey and Yugoslavia.

Hungary – February 6, 1952 (HC)
The first trolleybus made in Hungary after the war is tested.

Romania / U.K. – February 6, 1952 (PIR)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of RPR sends a note to the Legation of the U.K. in Bucharest, protesting the assembly in London of Eastern European exiles in a Conference of the Commission for Central and Eastern Europe of the European movement, which organizes actions against RPR.

Poland / Soviet Union / U.S. – February 6, 1952 (CWC)
A former Polish soldier testifies to a special committee of the U.S. House of Representatives that he saw the Soviets execute 200 Polish officers in the Katyn forest in 1940.

Soviet Union / United Nations – February 6, 1952 (KCA)
Soviet Representative Malik makes it clear that his Government cannot accept the admission to the U.N. of Italy, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, Austria, Ceylon and Jordan unless Romania, Hungary, Albania and Mongolia are admitted simultaneously. 

GDR / Poland – February 7, 1952 (KCA)
Poland and East Germany announce that they have signed an agreement regulating navigation on the Order River which forms the boundary between the two countries.

Yugoslavia / France – February 8, 1952 (HWC)
The French Assemblée Nationale finally ratifies the Government's policy of granting aids to Yugoslavia.

Soviet Union / Italy – February 9, 1952 (KCA)
The Italian Government presents a strongly worded note to the Soviet Government. It points out the Soviet Union’s five vetoes on Italian membership to the U.N., contrary to the Soviet Government’s past promise in the Italian Peace Treaty to support Italy’s membership.

Hungary – February 10, 1952 (HC)
The Madách Theater presents Út a tanyákról (“Journeys from the farms”) by Imre Sarkadi in Budapest.

Romania – February 15, 1952 (PIR)
The delegation of scientists in RPR celebrates 300 years since the founding of the Leopoldine Academy in Halle.

Albania / Italy – February 16, 1952 (KCA)
The Albanian Government informs Italy that it can only agree to the revision of the peace treaty if Italy withdraws from the “aggressive Atlantic Pact”.

Hungary – February 17, 1952 (HC)
Statutory rule 1952:4 by the Presidential Council states that all privately-owned houses will be nationalized in case they need renovation and the owner cannot cover its cost or when their owner makes a profit by renting them out.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary / U.S. – February 18, 1952 (LBC)
The U.S. Senate proposes to sever diplomatic relations with Hungary and Czechoslovakia.

Hungary – February 18, 1952 (HC)
The food stamp system is brought to an end as meat stamps are abolished.

Soviet Bloc / U.S. – February 20, 1952 (LBC)
The U.S. House of Representatives warns Truman not to make secret promises about sending U.S. troops abroad.

Yugoslavia – February 21, 1952 (KCA)
An announcement from Belgrade states that the Roman Catholic theological faculties of the Universities of Zagreb and Ljubljana and the Serbian Orthodox theological faculty at the University of Belgrade had been informed that they will be closed down effective from June 28. The official reason given is the implementation of the constitutional principle of separation of Church and State.

Bulgaria / Turkey – February 23, 1952 (KCA)
Sofia announces that the Bulgarian Government has handed a note to the Turkish Chargé d’Affaires in Sofia protesting Turkey’s entry into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, declaring its admission “an immediate threat to the security of the Bulgarian People’s Republic,” warning that it “cannot remain indifferent to this hostile policy.”

Soviet Union / Egypt – February 23, 1952 (KCA)
Cairo announces that it had concluded a barter agreement with the Soviet Union for the supply of 500,000 kantars of Egyptian cotton in exchange for 200,000 tons of Soviet wheat.

Soviet Bloc / U.S. – February 24, 1952 (LBC)
Secretary of Commerce Sawyer announces that Belgium, Denmark, France, Holland, Luxembourg, Italy, U.K., Norway, Germany and Portugal joined the U.S. embargo on strategic materials to Eastern Europe. In September the U.S. Department of Commerce reports that in 1951 U.S. exports to the Soviet bloc diminished to $2.8 million from $6.7 million in 1950. U.S. imports from the Soviet bloc decreased from $80.5 million in 1950 to $63.5 million in 1952.

U.S. / FRG – February 25, 1952 (LBC)
The Lisbon conference of NATO accepts the plan relating to the establishment of the European Army, which would include West Germany.

Poland / Soviet Union / U.S. – February 25, 1952 (CWC)
The State Department sends a letter to the Soviet Union along with a House of Representatives resolution calling for an investigation of the culprit of the Katyn massacre in 1940.

Soviet Union / Italy – February 25, 1952 (KCA)
The Soviet reply to the Italian note is presented, saying that the Soviet Union ”repeatedly proposed” the admission of Italy to the U.N. simultaneously with other countries, attributing Italy’s non-admission to the Western Powers, whom they accused of being opposed of admitting other countries equally as entitled to U.N. membership as Italy.

Hungary / Yugoslavia / U.K. / U.S. – February 25, 1952 (PVC)
Hungary accuses Yugoslavia of deliberately violating Hungarian airspace. According to the Hungarian charges, two Yugoslav planes flew into the Hungarian airspace. However, the British legation in Budapest believes that the incident might be caused by a lost American airplane.

Poland / Soviet Union / U.S. – February 29, 1952 (CWC)
The Soviet Union responds to the American note of February 25 with a note describing the charges concerning the Katyn case as insulting and provides evidence that the massacre was perpetrated by the Nazis.

Yugoslavia / France / U.K. / U.S. – February 29, 1952 (KCA)
Belgrade announces that Yugoslavia will receive an additional and final grant of $45 million under the tripartite agreement between the U.S., the U.K. and France.

Hungary – February, 1952 (HC)
The movie Tűzkeresztség (‘Baptism of fire’)directed by Frigyes Bán is first shown.


March 1952


Poland / Soviet Union / U.S. – March 1, 1952 (PSN)
The Polish Government formally protests the U.S. House of the Representatives’ investigation of the Katyn massacre. According to the Polish protest, the U.S. is using Nazi propaganda to attack the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union / U.S. – March 2, 1952 (CWC)
Pravda accuses the U.S. of using biological weapons in Korea. The U.S. denies the allegations and calls for an impartial investigation.

Poland / Soviet Union / U.S. – March 4, 1952 (PSN)
The Polish press reprints the Soviet committee’s comprehensive communiqué on Katyn. According to the communiqué the Germans shot Polish prisoners in Katyn as part of their “policy of exterminating Slavic nations.”

Romania – March 4, 1952 (PIR)
Members of the Political Bureau discuss the dismissal of Vasile Luca from the position of Minister of Finance.

Yugoslavia / Ethiopia – March 4, 1952 (KCA)
Yugoslavia and Ethiopia establish full diplomatic relations, agreeing to exchange missions at legation level.

Soviet Union – March 6, 1952 (KCA)
In a meeting of the Supreme Soviet, Finance Minister Zverev presents the Soviet Budget for 1952-53 providing for the expenditure of some 476.9 billion rubles and a revenue of 508.8 billion rubles, giving an estimated surplus of 31.9 billion rubles.

Hungary / GDR– March 7, 1952 (HC)
An East German-Hungarian long-term trade agreement is signed for 1952-1955.

Hungary – March 9, 1952 (HC)
The 60th birthday of Mátyás Rákosi is celebrated. At the Hungarian Workers’ Movement Institution an exhibition is opened called “the combative life of Mátyás Rákosi”. A prose and poetry anthology (‘Hungarian writers about Mátyás Rákosi’) is published as “a present of the Hungarian writers”.

Romania – March 9, 1952 (KCA/PIR)
A Bucharest announcement states that Vasile Luca, Deputy Premier and Minister of Finance, has been relieved of his duties as Minister of Finance and is to be replaced by Dimitru Petrescu, without any official explanation.
General Iosif Iacobici, former head of the Military High Command and Minister of National Defense (1941), dies in the Aiud prison.

Soviet Union / GDR / FRG / France / UK / US – March 10, 1952 (PLC)
A Soviet note to the Western Great Powers proposes the conclusion of a German peace treaty, creating a united, neutral, demilitarized Germany. In reality, the plan offers no new elements and is mostly aimed at preventing the integration of the FRG in the Western alliance system.
Soviet Union / France / U.S. – March 10, 1952 (LBC)           
The U.S. and France restrict the movement of Soviet diplomats. U.S. authorities forbid 239 Soviet citizens to leave a 25 mile radius of Washington and New York. The measure does not involve the 144 Soviet diplomats assigned to the U.N. – May 1. The U.S. announces that the US passport is valid to the Soviet bloc if the visit is pre-approved by the State Department.

Soviet Union / Italy – March 11, 1952 (KCA)
Italy and the Soviet Union sign a new trade agreement for the year 1952, replacing the three-year trade agreement of December 1948 that expired in December 1951.

Yugoslavia / Italy / Trieste – March 11, 1952 (NBT)
The Italian Government proposes a plebiscite to take place immediately in Trieste under international supervision by disinterested states. Yugoslavia on 28 March refuses the plebiscite under such conditions.

Hungary – March 14, 1952 (REV)
In the trial of the young workers of Csepel and Benedictine students, the Supreme Court, on appeal, sentences Ádám Magasházy and Ernő Sallay to death, as well as 21 associates to prison for 3–15 years for armed conspiracy to overthrow the People’s Republic. The death sentences are carried out in May.

Romania – March 14, 1952 (PIR)
The Central Committee of PMR decides on the introduction of pioneer ranks and militaristic gradations, as distinctive signs for the leadership collectives of pioneer units and detachments.

Hungary / Soviet Union – March 15, 1952 (HC)
The Soviet Council of Ministers gives the Stalin Prize to Tamás Aczél for his novel titled A szabadság árnyékában (“In the shadow of freedom”) and to Sándor Nagy for his short story titled A megbékélés (“Reconciliation”). The prizes are awarded at the Soviet Embassy in Budapest on October 25.

Yugoslavia – March 15, 1952 (PVC)
President Tito delivers a speech in front of the representatives of the Students' Association. He speaks mainly about the Yugoslav economy and states that trade with the West cannot be conditional.

Yugoslavia / Italy – March 20, 1952 (KCA)
Italian citizens in Trieste participate in large scale demonstrations that fuel disturbances during the following week in which 200 people are injured.

Czechoslovakia / Israel – March 23, 1952 (KCA)
The Israeli Foreign Minister announces that Mordecai Oren, one of the leaders of the left-wing (Socialist) Mapam Party, has been arrested in Prague by the Czechoslovak authorities on charges of having committed “crimes against the security of the State.”

Yugoslavia / Italy / U.K. – March 24 1952 (KCA)
Prime Minister Eden of Britain meets with Italian Ambassador Brosio maintaining Britain’s stance on the tripartite declaration.

Yugoslavia / Austria – March 24, 1952 (OEH)
Yugoslavia enters into a protocol with Austria on the common utilization of the water power of the River Drava.

Poland / Canada – March 25, 1952 (KCA)
The Polish Government hands a note to the Canadian Legation in Warsaw demanding the return of Polish cultural and art treasures that had been handed to the Canadian Government for safe-keeping during the war years.

Soviet Union / U.S. / FRG / GDR – March 25, 1952 (CWC)
The U.S. answers the Soviet note of March 10, stating that the Americans want all-German free elections to occur before any meeting of foreign ministers can happen.

Yugoslavia / Italy / Trieste / U.K. / U.S. – March 25-27, 1952 (KCA)
Mass demonstrations of an anti-American and anti-British sentiment take place in Rome, Milan, and Naples because of the Triest situation.

Yugoslavia / Italy – March 26, 1952 (KCA)
The Allied Military Government announces that local elections in Trieste will be held on the same day as in Central and Southern Italy.

Hungary – March 27, 1952 (HC)
Decree 24/1952 by the Council of Ministers announces that a Fine Arts Fund will be founded in order to support the creative work of Hungarian artists.

Yugoslavia / Italy / Trieste / U.S. / U.K. – March 27, 1952 (NBT)
The British Foreign Office makes it known that the British, American, and Italian Governments have decided ''to examine jointly arrangements in Zone A of the Free Territory of Trieste''. The announcement causes a violent reaction among the Yugoslavs. March 29-30: Great mass demonstrations take place in Belgrade, Zagreb, Ljubljana and other cities.

Albania – March 31, 1952 (KCA)
Addressing a Congress of the Albanian Communist Party, Albanian Prime Minister Enver Hoxha discloses that 5,996 persons, roughly 8% of the total members, were recently expelled from the party in a campaign to “improve the quality of party membership at the expense of numerical growth”.

Yugoslavia / Italy / Trieste – March 31, 1952 (KCA)
Tito addresses the Yugoslav Assembly, reiterating Yugoslavia’s demand for full participation on any settlement of the Trieste question, rejecting Italy’s claim for the free territory, and warning the Western Powers that their attitude towards Trieste might lose them the support of the Yugoslav people.


April 1952


Poland – March-April 1952 (PSN)
In honor of Bierut's 60th birthday on April 18, Poland begins celebrations to reinforce his “cult of personality”. In late March 1952 workers at the State Wagon Factory are exonerated to hold a “socialist competition to honor the birthday of our beloved leader and teacher”.

Yugoslavia – April 1, 1952, (JVJ)
The Yugoslav Parliament passes a law on local self-management.

Hungary – April 2, 1952 (HC)
The first issue of Esti Budapest (“Evening Budapest ”), the newspaper of the Hungarian Workers’ Party and the Budapest City Council, is published.

Soviet Union / U.S. – April 2, 1952 (KCA)
At a press conference U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson comments on the responses given by Stalin on the international situation on April 1, dismissing them as nothing more than broad generalizations of no special significance.

Hungary – April 3, 1952 (HC)
The construction of the Diósgyőr foundry is completed.

Soviet Union / Cuba – April 3, 1952 (KCA)
The Soviet Chargé d’Affaires in Havana informs the Cuban Government that the USSR has decided to break its diplomatic relations with Cuba because Soviet diplomatic couriers had been refused admission to the country on March 21.

Poland / Soviet Union – April 5, 1952 (PSN)
An agreement is signed between Poland and the Soviet Union on the construction, at the expense of the Soviets, of a thirty-story palace of science and culture to house the Academy of Sciences in Warsaw.

Soviet Union / FRG / GDR / France / UK / US – April 6, 1952 (KCA)
The Soviet response to the Western Powers’ note of March 25 concerning preparations for a German peace treaty is presented to the Western Ambassadors in Moscow. It rejects the Western proposal that the special U.N. Commission on Germany should “verify the existence of conditions” for holding all-German elections on grounds that the U.N. Charter precludes United Nations “interference,” and instead suggests that the question of all-German elections should be studied by a four-Power commission.

Hungary – April 8, 1952 (HC)
Decree 28/1952 by the Council of Ministers announces that from May 1 all workers hired will need an official contract.

Albania – April 11, 1952 (KCA)
It is officially announced in Tirana that four members of the Cabinet have been dismissed and transferred to other duties, but no reason is given for their dismissal.

Soviet Union / U.S. – April 12, 1952 (LBC)
The East-West trade conference in Moscow comes to an end, where they concluded or started talks on deals worth $250-300 million.

Poland – April 19, 1952 (PLC)
In Poland the PAX Association is formed as an organization for loyal religious officers (“patriotic priests”). In 1957 the organization receives five seats in the Polish Parliament.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – April 19, 1952 (PVC)
In its latest note to Yugoslavia, Hungary accuses its southern neighbor of eighteen deliberate violations of Hungarian airspace.

Hungary – April 24, 1952 (HC)
Decree 1009/1952 by the Council of Ministers announces that the agricultural cooperatives must be consolidated and work discipline must be strengthened.

Poland – April 24, 1952 (PSN)
A decree abolishes independent foundations. Their property is nationalized without indemnities.

GDR / Soviet Union / France – April 29, 1952 (KCA)
Two Soviet fighters attack and damage a French passenger airliner engaged on a routine flight from Frankfurt to Berlin while flying in the air corridor established by the four-Power agreement for flights across the Soviet Zone. The Western Commandants in Berlin send a note of protest to General Chuikov, the Soviet Commander in Chief. The Soviets counter by saying that the plane was out of the air corridor and ignored requests to land.

GDR / Soviet Union / France – April 30, 1952 (KCA)
The Western Commandants send a further note to Chuikov, maintaining that the plane was in fact within the corridor, denouncing the attack by the Soviet fighters as “brutal and unjustifiable.” The French Cabinet launches a protest against the Soviet Embassy in Paris and the four-Power Commission in Berlin.

Hungary – April 30, 1952 (HC)
Decree 1010/1952 by the Council of Ministers announces the establishment of the Lenin Institute at the Eötvös Loránd University in order to educate Russian-speaking officials.

Hungary – April, 1952 (HC)
The movie Ütközet békében (“Battle in peace”) directed by Viktor Gertler is first shown.


May 1952


Poland – May 1952 (PSN)
The provincial court in Lodz tries by summary procedure persons accused of stealing fabrics from railway transports. The main defendant in the trial, Jan Podrolewicz, is sentenced to death.

Bulgaria – May 2, 1952 (KCA)
Vladimir Poptomov, Bulgarian Deputy Premier and former Foreign Minister, dies.

Soviet Union – May 8-July 18, 1952 (PLC)
At the end of the trial of the Jewish Antifascist Committee the Soviet Military Court sentences 13 out of the 14 defendants to death.

Yugoslavia / Italy / Trieste / U.K. / U.S. – May 9, 1952 (KCA/NBT)
The London discussions, which started on April 3, aimed at associating Italy more with the administration of the Anglo-American Zone A of Trieste conclude with a Memorandum of Understanding, subsequently called the First London Agreement.

Bulgaria – May 11, 1952 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Government issues a decree for a drastic currency reform under which the Bulgarian leva is devalued and attached to the Soviet ruble, “terminating the dependence of the Bulgarian currency system on the unstable U.S. Dollar.” To counterbalance the devaluation, other decrees are issued abolishing the food rationing system and reducing the price of those foodstuffs previously subject to rationing.

Yugoslavia / Italy / Trieste – May 11, 1952 (NBT)
Tito voices Yugoslavia's reaction to the London Agreement in his speech in Zrenjanin, denouncing it as a ''gross violation of the Italian Peace Treaty'' and a ''shameful injustice to Yugoslavia.''

GDR / Soviet Union / FRG – May 12, 1952, (KCA)
General Secretary Ulbricht warns Chancellor Adenauer from signing the impending agreements with the West, saying that if he does, all West German parliamentary officials will be “blacklisted” and “suitably punished” one day.

GDR / Soviet Union – May 13, 1952 (KCA)
The Western Powers’ reply to the latest Soviet note regarding German unification is presented in Moscow. Its principle points communicate that the Western Governments are ready to begin negotiations on German unification, the election of a free all-German Government, and the conclusion of a peace treaty with that Government; that they prefer the inquiry on Germany be held by the U.N Commission and not a four-Power commission but are also willing to consider alternate options; and that they will not be deflected from establishing a European Defense Community including the Federal Republic of Germany.

Yugoslavia / U.K. / U.S. – May 13, 1952 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government issues an aide-mémoire against the decisions of the London Conference to British and U.S. diplomatic representatives in Belgrade.

Yugoslavia – May 15, 1952 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Military Government announces a series of measures designed to create closer ties between Trieste and Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – May 17, 1952 (PVC)
The British Embassy in Belgrade reports on Tito's latest speeches delivered at Kaprina and Zrenjanin. In both speeches, Tito emphasizes the importance of ''brotherhood and unity'' and the power of the Yugoslav army.

Hungary – May 18, 1952 (HC)
Decree 1015/1952 by the  Council of Ministers announces that entrance exams will be established at all universities and colleges.

GDR / Soviet Union – May 21, 1952 (KCA)
The East German National Front Committee issues a statement accusing the Western Powers of “provocations” along the zonal frontier, declaring that it has become “unavoidably necessary” for East Germany to form its own army.

Hungary – May 22, 1952 (HC)
The National Theater in Budapest presents Az ozorai példa (“The example of Ozora”), a play by Gyula Illyés.

Soviet Union / GDR / FRG / France / UK / US – May 25, 1952 (KCA)
The series of note exchanges between the Soviet Union and the Western Powers continues as the Soviet Union replies to the Western note of May 13. The note, divided into three sections, protests the Western Powers' desire to delay the conclusion of a peace treaty on German unification. It also denunciates contractual agreements between the Western Powers and the Federal Republic of Germany, and again proposes the immediate meeting of the four powers. The Soviets reiterate that these meetings should be based on the Potsdam Agreement, that the Oder-Neisse frontier should be recognized as final, and that Germany should be permitted to have its own armed forces and be prohibited from entering into alliances with any countries with which it had formerly been at war.

Hungary / France / U.K. / U.S. / FRG – May 26, 1952 (HC)
The U.S., the U.K., France and West Germany sign a “separate treaty” in Bonn. This treaty fundamentally changes the relations of these countries. The Hungarian Workers’ Party protests against this treaty.

Romania – May 26, 1952 (PIR)
Session of the Political Bureau debating: the report of the party commission constituted for the investigation of the activity of the Minister of Finance and of the State Bank; Vasile Luca’s letter of protest; the dismissal of Teohari Georgescu from the position of vice-president of the Council of Ministers and that of Minister of Internal Affairs.

GDR / Soviet Union / FRG – May 26, 1952 (KCA)
Following the signing of the contractual agreements in Bonn, the East German Government takes a number of measures to “seal off” the Soviet Zone from Western Germany and to hamper communications between the Western sectors of Berlin and the  Federal Republic of Germany, including the creation of a “security zone” three miles in width along the East/West border and the Baltic coast.

Romania – May 26-27, 1952 (PIR)
The Plenary of the Central Committee of PMR takes place. The Ana Pauker – Vasile Luca – Teohari Georgescu Muscovite “fractionary group” is excluded from the party. Vasile Luca is accused of having sabotaged the monetary reform, of having undermined the development of individual and collective households, and of having protected capitalist commerce. Ana Pauker is criticized for having “helped and encouraged Luca’s and Georgescu’s rightist deviations.” Teohari Georgescu’s “conciliatory attitude” had hidden a “rightist opportunistic spirit,” while he had not taken any measure against speculators. All three had allegedly lived in “an aristocratic gutter,” breaking with the masses. On the same occasion, Minister of Agriculture Vasile Vaida and Minister of Labor and Social Protection Lotar Radaceanu, are removed. The plenary also decides the reorganization of the Political Bureau by reducing the number of members from 13 to 9.

Hungary – May 27-29, 1952 (HC)
The parliament passes the Laws 1952: II., III., IV. regarding central state control, the civil penal code and questions of marriage, family and guardianship.

Romania – May 27, 1952 (PIR)
Teohari Georgescu is dismissed from his offices of Vice-President of the Council of Ministers and that of Minister of Internal Affairs. Alexandru Drăghici is released from his office of Deputy Minister in MAI, and replaced with Ion Vinte.

Romania – May 28, 1952 (PIR)
The new Minister of Internal Affairs is Alexandru Drăghici.

Romania – May 28-June 3, 1952 (KCA)
Followed by a meeting of the Romanian Workers’ Party from May 26-27, the Romanian Government announces a number of widespread changes to the organization of the Romanian Government and the Communist Party involving the appointment of a new Prime Minister, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, and new Deputy Prime Minister, changes in the portfolio of the Interior, Labor and Agriculture, and the dismissal of several hitherto powerful members of the Cabinet from Ministerial or high party office.

Hungary – May 30, 1952 (HC)
The Operetta Theater in Budapest presents Állami áruház (“State department store”) by János Kerekes.

Czechoslovakia – May 30, 1952 (KCA)
A Prague announcement states that Dr. Jan Sevcik, Vice-Premier and Minister for Physical Culture in the Czechoslovak Cabinet, has been expelled from the chairmanship of the Slovak Rebirth Party and dismissed from his Ministerial posts by President Gottwald, and that Jan Valek has also been expelled from his post as Secretary-General of the Slovak Rebirth Party. Both are accused of “systematic violation of the policy of the Regenerated National Front of Czechs and Slovaks and of the organizational objectives of the Slovak Rebirth Party”. Also, an official announcement states that a new Ministry of Supply will be set up to take over the existing State machinery for the purchase of farm produce and of locally produced raw materials for industry.


June 1952


GDR / Soviet Union – June 1, 1952 (KCA)
The Soviet Government announces the appointment of Ivan Ivanovich Ilyichev as Ambassador to Eastern Germany succeeding Pushkin.

Romania – June 2, 1952 (PIR)
Gheorghiu-Dej is appointed President of the Council of Ministers, replacing Petru Groza. Gheorghiu-Dej holds the position until October 3, 1955.

Romania – June 2, 1952 (PIR)
A new law for the organization of justice establishes a hierarchical system based on the Supreme Popular Court, and regional and popular courts for regions, towns and districts sections. Their purpose is the defense of the “social and state order in R.P.R.” and “the merciless struggle against the enemies of labor.”

Romania / Yugoslavia – June 4, 1952 (PVC)
Romania sends a note to Yugoslavia protesting the border incidents and the deliberate violation of Romanian airspace.

Hungary / U.S. – June 5, 1952 (LBC)
President Truman instructs the Department of Treasury to deprive Hungary of all custom benefits by July 5.

Czechoslovakia – June 7, 1952 (KCA)
Prime Minister Zapotocky announces a forthcoming drastic reorganization of the Czechoslovak trade union movement, accusing the trade unions of having failed at instilling in their workers a new labor discipline based on “love of work and loyalty to the State.”

Yugoslavia – June 7, 1952 (KCA)
It is officially announced in Belgrade that the compulsory delivery of wheat and other grains at fixed low prices by peasants to the Government has been abolished with immediate effect, leaving wool as the only item required for sale to the Government.

Hungary – June 8, 1952 (HC)
The first factory of the Tisza-region Chemical Factories is installed in Tiszaszederkény (Borsod county).

Romania – June 11, 1952 (PIR)
Valeriu Traian Frenţiu, Metropolitan of Blaj, dies in the Sighet prison.

Yugoslavia / FRG – June 11, 1952 (JVJ)
Yugoslavia signs an agreement on economic cooperation with the West German Government.

Soviet Union / U.K. – June 13, 1952 (KCA)
The Soviet Government announces the appointment of Gromyko as Ambassador to the U.K., succeeding Zarubin.

Yugoslavia – June 13, 1952 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government issues two decrees ending Government control over the distribution and prices of a large range of industrial goods, both imported and home-produced.

Bulgaria – June 14, 1952 (KCA)
Following the recent currency reform, new foreign exchange rates are fixed at 19.04 levas to the pound sterling and 6.8 levas to the U.S. dollar.

GDR / Soviet Union – June 16, 1952 (KCA)
Ulbricht announces that all of the political parties have “unanimously agreed to a resolution affirming the necessity for East German armed forces”.

Soviet Union / Sweden – June 16-24, 1952 (KCA)
The Swedish Government hands a strongly worded note of protest to the Soviet Ambassador in Stockholm regarding the shooting down of a Swedish Catalina flying-boat by two Soviet fighters earlier in the day. The Catalina was taking part in a search mission looking for a Swedish Dakota training plane that disappeared over the Baltic on June 1 with its crew of eight. The note demands a Soviet inquiry into the matter and states unequivocally Sweden’s right to claim damages. In its reply from June 17 to the Swedish Government’s note, the Soviet Government accused the Swedish Catalina of a “gross violation” of Soviet territory in the area of Cape Ristna, asserting that the Catalina ignored repeated demands to land and that it had opened fire on the Soviet aircraft. June 18: The Swedish Government issues a note rejecting the Soviet accusations. June 19: The Soviet Government issues a second note, again rejecting Swedish protests and accounts as contrary to the truth. June 22: The Swedish Government sends a reply to the Soviet note ascertaining that the Catalina was fired at before crashing, asking whether the Soviets were responsible, and if so under what circumstances. June 24: The Soviet Government replies to the Swedish note demanding that the Swedish Government take measures to prevent further violations of Soviet territory by Swedish planes.

Hungary / Romania – June 17, 1952 (HC)
A Hungarian-Romanian long-term trade agreement is signed for 1953-1955.

GDR / Soviet Union / FRG – June 18, 1952 (KCA)
Addressing the West German Bundestag, Adenauer denounces the “brutal terror” exercised by the Soviets and their East German “puppets” against inhabitants of the security zone who were evicted from their homes, announcing that 7,500 refugees have arrived in West Germany and are cared for.

Romania – June 18, 1952 (PIR)
The sanctions against the refusal to hand over the quotas are aggravated. Peasants who did not surrender their quotas are fined with a sum that “could reach twice the value of the products due.”

Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – June 18, 1952 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Government rejects three successive notes protesting the alleged June 9 kidnapping of a Yugoslav citizen by Bulgarian authorities, from the courtyard of the Yugoslav Embassy. Subsequently, the Yugoslav Government announces the withdrawal of its entire diplomatic mission in Sofia with the exception of an attaché.

Yugoslavia / Austria – June 19, 1952 (KCA)
Austrian Foreign Minister Dr. Gruber arrives in Yugoslavia for an official visit, described by Borba as “a logical consequence of the steady improvement of relations between Austria and Yugoslavia”.

Yugoslavia / Austria – June 19-22 1952 (KCA)
During his stay in Belgrade Dr. Gruber has discussions with Yugoslav Vice-Premier and Minister of the Interior General Rankovich along with other senior officials.

Romania – June 19, 1952 (PIR)
Law no.6 for the creation and organization of the Prosecutor’s office of the R.P.R. is published.

Soviet Union / U.S. – June 19, 1952 (CWC)
American Ambassador George Kennan meets with Foreign Minister Vishinksy to attempt to tone down Soviet intolerance in their “hate-America” propaganda campaign.

Hungary – June 20, 1952 (HC)
The Budapest City Council decides to rename the Horthy Bridge in the honor of the nineteen century poet Sándor Petőfi.

Czechoslovakia / France / U.K. / U.S. / FRG – June 21, 1952 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak News Agency announces that the Czechoslovak National Assembly has sent identical letters to several Western countries protesting the British, French and U.S. Governments’ contractual agreements with Western Germany and the European Defense Committee Treaty.

Hungary – June 21, 1952 (KCA)
The Hungarian Government issues a statement declaring that it refuses to “recognize the validity of the Bonn and Paris Treaties”.

Yugoslavia / Austria – June 23-24, 1952 (KCA)
Foreign Minister Gruber visits Brioni Island as Tito’s guest.
Upon his return to Vienna in an interview with the editor of Neue Wiener Tageszeitung,  Gruber says that his discussions with Yugoslav statesmen had given a boost to Yugoslav-Austrian relations and that all practical questions between the two countries can be settled “quite easily”.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – June 25, 1952 (PVC)
Naval Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet, Admiral Louis Mountbatten arrives at Rijeka on Yugoslav invitation.

Romania – June 26, 1952 (PIR)
Alexandru Voitinovici, president of the incrimination panel in the trial of Ion Antonescu, is dismissed from his office as General Prosecutor of the R.P.R.

Hungary / Yugoslavia / U.K. – June 30, 1952 (PVC)
The British legation in Budapest is informed of another Hungarian note to Yugoslavia, in which the Hungarians protest and accuse the Yugoslavs of 48 border incidents.


July 1952


Yugoslavia / France / U.K. / U.S. – July 1952 (HWC/PVC)
In talks with Tito, U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense Frank Nash, with Allen's approval, indicates that Yugoslavia can expect some additional military aid from the West. Tito replies that while he does not wish to enter into military discussion with NATO, he does welcome the participation of the British and French in discussions between the U.S. and Yugoslavia in various strategic and operational questions.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – July 1, 1952 (HC)
The Slovak central executive power decides that the Hungarian-populated southern parts of Czechoslovakia will be considered bilingual.

Bulgaria / Denmark / Romania / Sweden / U.K. – July 2, 1952 (KCA)
The British Foreign Office announces that the British Government, along with the Danish and Swedish Governments, have protested to Bulgaria and Romania against the unilateral extension of their territorial waters in the Black Sea to a distance of 12 nautical miles.

Hungary / U.N. – July 3 and July 9, 1952 (HC)
The Western powers at the U.N Security Council again vote against the suggestion to consider Hungary and 13 other countries as possible members of the U.N.

Romania – July 3, 1952 (PIR)
Prime Minister Gheorghiu-Dej requests the intensification of the campaign against kulaks: “The press must mobilize the working peasant masses to restless struggle against kulaks.”

Yugoslavia / Greece – July 4, 1952 (PVC)
A Greek parliamentary delegation arrives in Yugoslavia. Tito holds a gala dinner in honor of the delegation on July 9, 1952.

Romania – July 5, 1952 (KCA)
An official Bucharest announcement states that Ana Pauker has been dismissed from her post as Foreign Minister within a month of her expulsion from the Central Committee and Politburo of the Romanian Workers’ Party after being accused of “deviationism”. She is succeeded by Simon Bughici.

GDR – July 6, 1952 (KCA)
The East German Government announces that a new 300-kilowatt radio transmitter, described as the most powerful in Europe except for Moscow radio, has been completed just outside of Berlin in Kopenick.

Czechoslovakia / Romania / Soviet Union – July 6, 1952 (KCA)
Moscow radio announces that the Soviet Ambassador in Bucharest Sergei Kavtaradze has been relieved of his duties and will be succeeded by Anatoli Lavrentiev, former Ambassador to Czechoslovakia, where Alexander Bogomolov will step in.

Yugoslavia / Italy / U.K. / U.S. – July 6, 1952 (KCA)
The Allied Military Government in Trieste announces that it has approved the nomination by the Italian Government of Giovanni Augusto Vitelli as Director of Civic Affairs in implementation with the recent agreement between the U.S., Britain and Italy.

Yugoslavia – July 6, 1952 (PVC)
Tito delivers a speech at Niš. He again underlines that Yugoslavia is not going to enter any military pacts under any circumstances and refutes the charges that the abolition of peasants' compulsory delivery was a result of Western political pressure.

GDR – July 7, 1952 (KCA)
It is reported from Berlin that all business of East German radio will be directed from East Berlin using the new transmitter.

Hungary – July 8, 1952 (HC)
At the national meeting of Marxism-Leninism professors it is announced that from now on all universities and colleges will establish separate Marxism-Leninism departments.

GDR – July 9, 1952 (KCA)
East German Deputy Premier and General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party Walter Ulbricht addresses the party’s Second Congress in Berlin, making an important statement on the internal and external policy of the German Democratic Republic. He announces that the German Democratic Republic should be an example for Socialism, attacks the German Federal Republic, calls for a new Church policy in which the Church cannot “cloak itself in a shield of neutrality,” proposes a complete administrative reform of East Germany, and proposes the formation of a People’s Army in the country to protect itself from Western countries. After his speech, the party congress adopts an 11-point program implementing his proposals, demanding the overthrow of the Bonn Government as “a condition for the restoration of Germany,” declaring that “the intensification of class struggle is inevitable.”

GDR / Soviet Union – July 10, 1952 (KCA)
The Western Powers present further notes on the subject of Germany to the Soviet Government. The notes propose that there should be a four-Power meeting to discuss the first steps towards the formation of an all-German Government, including appointing a commission of impartial members to determine whether conditions for free-elections exist or not. It is suggested that the Powers meet after the commission and produce a report to discuss the holding of such elections and creating conditions for such free elections to occur where necessary.

GDR / U.S. – July 10, 1952 (LBC)
The Republican Party publishes its electoral platform on foreign policy: “The present administration in seven years squandered the unprecedented power and prestige, which were ours at the close of World War II. Administration leaders abandoned friendly nations such as Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Czechoslovakia and Poland… to the communist aggression which soon swallowed them.” “The supreme goal of our foreign policy will be an honorable and just peace.” The Republican administration “will repudiate all commitments of secret understandings, such as those of Yalta, which aid communist enslavement.” It will end the “containment” policy.

Hungary / Romania – July 11, 1952 (HC)
The Ganz Ship Factory is renamed in the honor of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party.

Romania – July 11, 1952 (PIR)
Ana Pauker is replaced with Simion Burghici at the head of the Ministry of External Affairs.

Soviet Union / U.S. – July 15, 1952 (KCA)
The State Department in Washington announces that the U.S. Embassy in Moscow has informed the Soviet Foreign Ministry that the Russian language magazine Amerika hitherto issued by the Embassy will be suspended and that it has requested the Soviet Government to cease publication of its Information Bulletin and other pamphlets and periodicals in the US. At the same time it is stressed that the U.S. will be happy to resume publication of Amerika when it is afforded the same freedom of publication, distribution and sale that had been accorded to Russian publications in the U.S.

DGR – July 17, 1952 (KCA)
The East German Government decides to submit a bill on the centralization of the administration to the Volkskammer “for immediate deliberation and passage.”

Czechoslovakia – July 18, 1952 (KCA)
Prague radio announces a “purge” of the Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Trade Union Federation.

Poland – July 18, 1952 (PSN)
Bierut presents the new constitution to the Diet calling both prewar constitutions a sham used by capitalists and large landowners to maintain power. He calls the democratic rights and freedoms of capitalist society a swindle.

GDR – July 19, 1952 (KCA)
The East German Ministry of the Interior refuses to issue passports to 5,000 residents of the Soviet Zones who desire to attend the session of the Lutheran World Conference to be held in Hanover towards the end of July.

Hungary – July 19-August 3, 1952 (HC)
At the Helsinki Olympics Hungary wins 16 gold, 10 silver and 16 bronze medals. This achievement allows Hungary to be the third in the unofficial competition among countries.

Hungary – July 22, 1952 (HC)
Decree 13/1952 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that a Construction Industry Technical University will be founded.

Poland – July 22, 1952 (PSN)
Poland formally adopts the new constitution with a vote in the Diet. The new constitution states that Diet is the highest state authority that would choose from its ranks a Council of State responsible for interpretation and the issuance of decrees. The “Council of Ministers” was defined as the highest “executive and administrative agency.”

GDR – July 23, 1952 (KCA)
The Volkskammer adopts a Bill for converting East Germany into a strictly centralized Communist State.

GDR – July 24, 1952 (KCA)
The East German Government sets up a labor corps under the name of “Service for Germany” in which boys and girls of 17 will serve for six months.

Soviet Bloc / U.S. – July 24, 1952 (LBC)
According to the official platform of the Democratic Party the U.S. “will not abandon the once-free peoples of Central and Eastern Europe…now under the Kremlin’s tyranny”. We look forward to the “liberation of the Soviet satellites and we will expand “Voice of America” programs “for penetration of the Iron Curtain, bringing truth and hope for all…subjugated by the Soviet empire”.

GDR / Soviet Bloc– July 26, 1952 (KCA)
An East German decree imposes stringent travel restrictions on those living in the Soviet Zone.

Soviet Union – July 27, 1952 (KCA, PLC)
The “V.I. Lenin Volga-Don Ship Canal,” a 63-mile canal joining the two rivers from Stalingrad on the Volga to Kalach on the Don, is opened. The White, the Baltic, the Caspian, the Azovi and the Black seas are all connected by one single navigable channel.

Czechoslovakia – July 29, 1952 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government announces that as of September 1, workers will be forbidden to change their employment without official permission, and that they will not be allowed to accept new jobs except with the approval of their factory management.


August 1952


Yugoslavia – August 1952 (KCA)
The Journal of the Yugoslav armed forces reports that over 8,000 nationals from Cominform countries fled to Yugoslavia between 1948 and March 21, 1952.

Poland – August 1, 1952 (PSN)
The Diet unanimously approves the new electoral law allowing for multiple lists of candidates to be submitted with no more candidates than there are seats.

Poland / U.S. – August 5, 1952 (KCA)
The Polish Consular General in Chicago, Zygmunt Fabisiak announces that he has resigned from his post rather than obeying orders to return to Poland, and is seeking asylum from the U.S. Government.

Yugoslavia – August 6, 1952 (KCA)
A Governmental decree reduces the prices of bread, flour, sugar, lard, tobacco and cigarettes and ends the rationing of coal and wood fuel.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – August 7, 1952 (PVC)
An organization of Hungarian emigrants is set up at Novi Sad with former Minister of War Béla Linder and former Hungarian MP Rob Anton among its members.

Soviet Union / U.K. – August 8, 1952 (KCA)
The British Admiralty announces that as a result of further negotiations, the USSR will shortly return to Britain the destroyers Lincoln and Georgetown, which the British Government loaned to the Soviet Union during WW II.

Hungary – August 9, 1952 (HC)
The first Hungarian Applied Art Exhibition opens at the Ernst Museum in Budapest.

Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – August 12, 1952 (LBC)
The disarmament proposal of the U.S., the U.K. and France is unveiled in the U.N. In response of August 29 the Soviet representative declares that the USSR accepts its own disarmament policies only.

Yugoslavia – August 13, 1952 (KCA)
Belgrade announces that the Yugoslav Government has decided to reduce the obligatory contribution by five billion dinars paid from the profits of a number of industrial enterprises manufacturing consumer goods and farm requirements from their profits .

Hungary – August 14, 1952 (HC)
The Parliament recognizes the resignation of Sándor Rónai and István Dobi as Chairman of the Presidential Council and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers respectively. Sándor Rónai is elected to be the President of the Parliament, István Dobi the Chairman of the Presidential Council and Mátyás Rákosi the Chairman of the Council of Ministers. All ministers remain the same.

Soviet Union / China – August 17, 1952 (KCA)
A Chinese Government mission led by Chou En-lai arrives in Moscow for discussions on political and economic questions of mutual concern.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – August 17, 1952 (PVC)
Hungary sends a note of protest to Yugoslavia in which it accuses the Yugoslavs of deliberately blowing up the bridge over the river Drava at Letenye.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – August 18, 1952 (LBC)
The Mutual Security Administration guarantees to cover the possible losses incurred in Yugoslavia by U.S. businessmen.

Hungary – August 20, 1952 (HC)
Antibiotics are started to be produced at the Hajdúsági Medicine Factory in Debrecen.

Soviet Union – August 20, 1952 (KCA)
The Soviet State Press issues a statement from Stalin announcing that the 19th Party Congress will take place on October 5. The planned agenda includes the reorganization of the Communist Party, involving changes in the party’s statutes, and the fifth Five-Year Plan of 1951-1955. A notable change in the party’s statutes includes the dissolving of the Politburo and Orgburo.

Yugoslavia / Turkey – August 20, 1952 (PVC)
Tito entertains some Turkish journalists on the Isle of Brioni, which is widely regarded as a sign of improving relations between the two countries.

Yugoslavia / Greece – August 21-September 3, 1952 (PVC)
A Yugoslavian parliamentary delegation makes a return visit to Greece.

Romania – August 22, 1952 (PIR)
By a decision of the Council of Ministers, the “labor units,” now called “labor colonies,” are transferred into the administration of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. / West Germany – August 23, 1952 (CWC)
The Soviet Union sends a note to the Western powers suggesting that they are preventing the reunification of Germany. The note also states that the abolition of the Western occupation in May 1952 would lead to a rise of German militarism.

GDR / Soviet Union – August 23, 1952 (KCA)
The Soviet Government replies to the Western Powers’ notes of July 10 on the question of drawing up a peace treaty for Germany. The Soviet response reiterates the Soviet Government’s opposition to the Bonn contractual agreements and the Treaty of the European Defense Community, again calling for a four-Power conference to discuss various issues in the immediate future, no later than October.

Hungary – August 30, 1952 (HC)
Decree 75/1952 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that the farmers can kill or trade their swine if they have any remaining after the state collection. However, all sows must be registered.

Hungary – August, 1952 (HC)
The Csillag publishes Lila tinta (“Purple ink”) by István Örkény, a short story that initiates many debates.


September 1952


Hungary – September-October 1952 (REV/HC)
The so-called Felelet (Reply) debate, officially the ‘Debate on the Situation of Our Literature’, begins. The introductory contribution is by Miklós Gimes and the concluding contribution and summary by József Révai. Strong criticism is leveled at the novel Felelet by Tibor Déry, the story ‘Lila tinta’ (Purple Ink) by István Örkény, and the novels Almáskert (Apple Orchard) and Szegények szerelme (Love among the Poor) by Péter Veres.

Yugoslavia – September 1952 (ACY)
A group of former Silesian seminarians are tried in Ljubljana.

Soviet Bloc / France / U.K. / U.S. – September 2, 1952 (LBC)
The U.S. Department of Commerce announces an agreement between eleven countries on the stricter export control of 200 commodities, and on preventing those commodities from reaching the nations behind the Iron Curtain. The signatories include the U.S., Britain and France.

Soviet Union / U.S. – September 4, 1952 (LBC)
Presidential candidate, Eisenhower states his forthcoming agenda: “Aid by peaceful means but only by peaceful means, the right to live in freedom.” “The containing of communism… by itself is an inadequate approach.” “There is also a need to bring hope and every peaceful aid to the world’s enslaved peoples; we shall never be truculent – but we shall never appease.” Pravda compares Eisenhower to Hitler and accuses him of seeking war with the Soviet Union in order to dominate the greater part of Europe and Asia.

Hungary – September 6, 1952 (HC)
The Transportation and Technology University is opened in Szolnok.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – September 8, 1952 (PVC)
British mine sweepers arrive at the port of Split for the celebrations at the 10th anniversary of the Yugoslav Navy Day, held on September 10.

Romania – September 9, 1952 (PIR)
The Ministry of Meat, Fish and Milk is created.

Soviet Union / U.S. – September 11, 1952 (LBC)
According to Secretary of State, Dean Acheson, the proposal made by John Foster Dulles and presidential candidate Eisenhower for the forced liberation of the satellites would “lead to catastrophe”.

Romania – September 12, 1952 (KCA)
An announcement in Bucharest states that Ana Pauker has been dismissed from the Vice-President of the Council of Ministers, the last position she officially held since being dismissed from her other posts earlier.

Hungary – September 13, 1952 (HC)
The Marxist-Leninist Evening University is opened in Budapest, in cooperation with the Budapest party council.

Hungary September 15-19, 1952 (HC)
Nationwide celebrations are organized to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the birth of Lajos Kossuth. Statutory rule 1952:16 by the Hungarian Presidential Council announces that the Science University in Debrecen will be renamed in honor of Kossuth. The Kossuth Emlékkönyv (“Kossuth memorial book”) is published.

Soviet Union / China – September 15, 1952 (KCA)
The TASS Agency announces the conclusion of the Soviet–Chinese discussions, stating that they had been carried out in “an atmosphere of friendly mutual understanding and cordiality.” The Soviet Union has agreed to transfer all its right of joint administration in the Manchurian Railway to the Chinese People’s Republic without compensation, and the two countries have exchanged notes regarding the joint use of the Port Arthur naval base by both countries.

Hungary – September 16, 1952 (HC)
Decree 80/1952 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that those who do not follow the regulations of agricultural production and state collection will be punished. Decree 83/1952 is announced about the required production of some goods. In order to ensure that no surpluses are produced, the production of some goods is restricted to a certain area. While farmers at that region must produce the regulated goods at a certain proportion of their lands, farmers living elsewhere must produce only different goods.

Soviet Union / Pakistan – September 16, 1952 (KCA)
The Soviet Union and Pakistan sign a barter agreement.

Romania – September 16, 1952 (PIR)
Admiral Nicolae Păiş dies in the Sighet prison.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – September 17-23, 1952 (KCA)
British Foreign Secretary Eden visits Yugoslavia for discussions with Marshall Tito. Both leaders agree that they desire close relations between the two countries.

Romania – September 18, 1952 (PIR)
The Ministry of Internal Affairs is reorganized, it is divided into 2 ministries: Ministry of State Security and Ministry of Internal Affairs. On this occasion, on September 20th , Alexandru Drăghici is dismissed from his office of Minister of Internal Affairs and moved to the head of the Ministry of State Security. The New Minister of Internal Affairs is Pavel Ştefan.

GDR / Soviet Union – September 23, 1952 (KCA)
The Western Powers’ reply to the latest Soviet note is delivered in Moscow. The reply rejects all attacks made by the Soviet Government in their previous note and again calls for the four occupying powers to discuss the formation of an impartial commission of investigation to ensure the holding of all-German elections.

Yugoslavia – September 23-25, 1952 (ACY)
The Catholic Bishops' Conference convenes in Zagreb.

Hungary / Romania – September 24, 1952 (HC)
The new Romanian constitution splits the country into 16 regions and 2 cities with rights of a region. The four counties mainly populated by Hungarians are united under the name of Hungarian Autonomic Region. The region is given partial autonomy.

Yugoslavia / Turkey – September 24-28, 1952 (PVC)
A seven-member military delegation, headed by General Pavle Jakčić visits Turkey.

Hungary – September 25, 1952 (HC)
The Hungarian Presidential Council calls for a third peace loan program. The program ends on October 3 with 1,752,683,000 forints.

Soviet Union / U.S. – September 26, 1952 (KCA)
Pravda publishes an article accusing the U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union, George Kennan of “malicious hostility” and of violating the obligations incumbent on him as a diplomat after he allegedly made slanderous comments about the Soviet Union to U.S. and German officials at the Berlin airport on September 19.

Romania – September 27, 1952 (PIR)
The 2nd Constitution of the People's Republic of Romania, adopted September 24, is published. According to article 86, P.M.R was “the driving force for workers’ organization, as well as for the state organs and institutions,” whilst “the basis of popular power in the R.P.R. is represented by the alliance between the working class and the working peasantry,” and “Popular Councils are the basis of politics in the R.P.R.” The law for the administration and economic administration of Romania is modified, reducing the number of regions from 28 to 18.

Soviet Union / Uzbekistan – September 28, 1952 (KCA)
Pravda denounces all claims of the growth of nationalism in the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan.

Czechoslovakia – September 29, 1952 (KCA)
After recently retiring from the post of U.N. Assistant Secretary-General for Legal Affairs, Dr. Ivan Kerno announces that he will remain in the U.S. and will not return to Czechoslovakia, hoping to be granted asylum by the U.S. Government.

Hungary / Soviet Union – September 30, 1952 (HC)
The Soviet Union gives back to Hungary the ownership of those 69 factories which were originally owned by Germans and later by the Soviet Union.


October 1952


Hungary – October 1, 1952 (REV)
Thirty inhabitants of Kesztölc are convicted of conspiracy and dissident behavior. András Farsang and József Erdélyi are condemned to death and their associates are given long prison sentences. The death sentences are carried out on January 27, 1953.

Hungary – October 2, 1952 (HC)
Decree 90/1952 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that the kulaks are required to keep livestock.

Soviet Union / U.S. – October 3, 1952 9 (KCA)
The Soviet Government declares U.S. Ambassador George Kennan persona non grata and demands his immediate recall from the country. U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson issues a statement declaring that the U.S. Government does not accept as valid the charges made by the Soviet Union against Kennan.

Yugoslavia / France – October 4, 1952 (PVC)
General Blanc, Chief of Staff of the French Army, leaves for an official visit in Yugoslavia.

Hungary – October 4-5, 1952 (HC)
The Szabad Nép, a Hungarian newspaper, publishes Stalin’s “The economic problems of socialism in the Soviet Union”.

Hungary / Soviet Union– October 5-14, 1952 (REV)
The 13th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union convenes after a gap of 13 years. The Central Committee report is delivered by Georgi Malenkov, not Stalin. The name of the party changes to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). The Hungarian Workers’ Party (MDP) is represented at the congress by Mátyás Rákosi, Ernő Gerő and István Hidas.

Soviet Union – October 5, 1952 (CWC)
Georgy Malenkov delivers a speech reaffirming the Marxist doctrine of the inevitability of wars between Capitalist states. The speech is used to justify higher defense spending.

Soviet Union – October 5- 14, 1952 (KRI)
The nineteenth party congress approves the fifth Five-Year Plan.

Soviet Union / U.S. – October 8, 1952 (KCA)
The U.S. State Department contests the Soviet request to expel U.S. Ambassador Kennan from his post in Moscow.

Hungary – October 12, 1952 (HC)
Celebrations are organized in Eger for the 400th anniversary of the victorious battle against the Turks.

Yugoslavia / France / U.K. / U.S. – October 13, 1952 (KCA)
Belgrade announces that the U.S., British and French Governments have come to an agreement with Yugoslavia whereby it will continue to receive tripartite aid from the Western Powers through June 1953, the value of which is $99 million altogether. Washington contributes $78 million .

Hungary – October 23, 1952 (HC)
Session of the Central Leadership of the Hungarian Workers’ Party. It is decided that Stalin’s “The economic problems of the Soviet Union” and the outline of the 19th congress of the CPSU will be used as bases for Hungarian socialism in terms of party organization, politics, ideology, economics and culture.

GDR / Hungary – October 26-29, 1952 (HC)
A Hungarian government delegation led by Mátyás Rákosi travels to East Germany.

Poland – October 26, 1952 (PLC/PSN)
The second elections to the Diet are held. The official vote shows that the National Front wins 99.8% of the vote and that participation rates are 95%.

Yugoslavia / United Nations – October 27, 1952 (RYN)
Yugoslavia is elected to the U.N. Economic and Social Council.

Romania – October 28, 1952 (PIR)
Philosopher Mircea Vulcănescu dies in the Aiud prison.

Hungary – October 29, 1952 (HC)
The Hungarian Council of Ministers decides that the salaries of employees at universities, colleges and academic institutions will be raised.

Hungary – October, 1952 (HC)
Semmelweis, a film directed by Frigyes Bán, is first shown.


November 1952


Hungary – November 1952 (HC)
An exhibition by Sándor Ék at the Ernst Museum in Budapest is presented. A portrait of Rákosi and a painting titled “Soviet troops escorting German war prisoners” receive special attention.

Hungary – November 1952 (HC)
The film Erkel by Márton Keleti is first shown.

U.S. – November 1, 1952 (REV)
The U.S. tests a hydrogen bomb on the Marshall Islands.

Yugoslavia – November 2-7, 1952 (PLC)
At the 6th congress of the Yugoslav Communist Party the party is renamed the League of Yugoslav Communists in order to emphasize the country’s separation from the Soviet Union.

Romania – November 5, 1952 (PIR)
The Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Romanian Workers' Party takes measures to ensure the activity of party and state leadership in case of aggression against the territory of Romania. It also appoints Gheorghiu-Dej President of the Superior Military Council.

Soviet Union – November 5, 1952 (KCA)
Radio Moscow states that the Premier of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic Chernouzov has been replaced by Alenxander Puzanov, a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. No explanation is given concerning the replacement.

Poland / Yugoslavia – November 5, 1952 (PVC)
In its latest note, Poland accuses the employees of the Yugoslav Embassy in Warsaw of espionage.

Soviet Union – November 11, 1952 (REV)
Several doctors at the Kremlin Hospital who have treated Stalin and other party leaders are arrested for ‘conspiracy to liquidate the leaders of the party, government and army.’ The doctors’ trial is planned to be part of a ‘great Zionist trial’.

Hungary – November 14, 1952 (HC)
The Government is renewed. Mátyás Rákosi remains the Prime Minister. New ministers: József Györe (Interior), Erik Molnár (Foreign Affairs), Gyula Décsi (Justice), József Tisza (State Collection). Deputy Chairmen of the Council of Ministers: Ernő Gerő, Árpád Házi, István Hidas, Károly Kiss and Imre Nagy.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 15, 1952 (PVC)
The trial of Yugoslav agents on charges of espionage starts in Hungary.

Yugoslavia / France / U.S. / U.K. – November 15-20, 1952 (PVC)
Military talks between General Thomas T. Handy and the Yugoslav Government take place in Belgrade in order to co-ordinate Western and Yugoslav defense plans.

Romania / Yugoslavia – November 16, 1952 (PVC)
Romania sends a note of protest to Yugoslavia. According to the note, a serious incident took place at the Iron Gate on the Danube. The crew of a Yugoslav tug boat seized a Romanian ship and held the crew captive.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 17, 1952 (HC)
The Budapest City Court founds the Yugoslav Ambassador’s Deputy guilty of helping illegal immigrants enter Hungary. He is deported from the country.

Poland – November 20, 1952 (PSN)
Bierut is appointed Prime Minister by the Diet. Before this he had been referred to as “the first representative of the Polish nation in the Diet”, “the helmsman of People's Poland” and “the beloved leader of the nation.” The press informs readers that he had been the principle author of the Six-Year Plan.

Czechoslovakia – November 20-27, 1952 (REV)
In the Slánsky trial in Czechoslovakia, high-ranking party and state leaders are accused of Trotskyism, Titoism, spying and Zionism. Fourteen prisoners are condemned to death and three receive life sentences.

Hungary – November 21, 1952 (HC)
A celebration at the National Military Theater in Budapest is organized to celebrate the 75th  anniversary of the birth of the poet Endre Ady. József Révai and György Bölöni give speeches.

Poland – November 21, 1952 (PSN)
Bierut presents the Sejm with his Government and states that he would fight “all agencies of hostile imperialist centers.”

Hungary – November 22, 1952 (HC)
The renovated Petőfi Bridge is opened in Budapest.

Hungary – November 22, 1952 (HC)
The Opera House in Budapest presents A huszti kaland (“The adventure in Huszt”) by Pál Kadosa. 

Yugoslavia / Greece – November 23-December 1, 1952 (PVC)
A Greek military mission visits Yugoslavia. Tito receives the delegation on November 25. At the first meeting, the Yugoslavs propose the co-ordination of concrete military planning.

Hungary – November 24, 1952 (HC)
Statutory rule 1952:20 by the Hungarian Presidential Council dissolves the Economic Council. The Council of Ministers will take over their responsibilities from December 1.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 25, 1952 (PVC)
In connection with the trial of espionage which started on November 15, Hungary expels the Yugoslav Chargé d'Affaires from the country. In response, Yugoslavia also expels the Hungarian Chargé d'Affaires on the following day.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – November 26, 1952 (HC)
Hungarian-Yugoslav memorandums are exchanged regarding the deportation of the Yugoslav Ambassador’s Deputy on November 17.

Yugoslavia / Vatican – November 29, 1952 (ACY)
The Vatican issues a list of new cardinals in which the name of Archbishop Stepinac appears. The Vatican's step takes places on Yugoslavia's National Day (Stella)

Romania – November 30, 1952 (PIR)
Elections for the Grand National Assembly are won by the Front of Popular Democracy with 98,84%.


December 1952


Yugoslavia / Greece / Turkey – December 1952 (HWC)
Turco-Yugoslav and Graeco-Yugoslav talks are held in Belgrade.

Yugoslavia / Austria / Italy– December 1952 (HWC)
The Yugoslavs state their recognition of the strategic connection between the Julian Alps and the defense of Italy and Austria.

Czechoslovakia – December 3, 1952 (PLC)
Rudolf Slansky and his 10 associates are sentenced to death in Czechoslovakia at the end of an anti-Semitist trial which started on November 22.

Hungary – December 3, 1952 (HC)
Nationwide commemorations start on the 25th anniversary of the death of the poet, Attila József.

Romania – December 5, 1952 (PIR)
Verification committees for the “counterrevolutionary” detainees and for those interned in penitentiaries, camps and labor colonies begin their activity.

Hungary – December 6, 1952 (HC)
Statutory rule 1952:21 by the Hungarian Presidential Council establishes new ministries. The new ministers are: István Kossa (General Machine Industry),), Tibor Erdey-Grúz (Higher Education), Gergely Szabó (Chemical Industry).

Romania – December 8-10, 1952 (PIR)
The National Congress for the Defense of Peace opens its works.

Hungary / Soviet Union / U.S. – December 10, 1952 (LBC)
In a diplomatic note the U.S. demands that Hungary and the Soviet Union return the C-47 type aircraft forced to land on November 19, 1951 or pay $100,000 in compensation.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – December 10, 1952 (PVC)
The Archbishop of Canterbury addresses Tito's forthcoming visit in his speech and expresses hope on the improving British-Yugoslav relations, but also sympathizes with the grievances of the Christian churches and faith.

Hungary – December 12, 1952 (HC)
The Katona József Theater in Budapest presents the Fáklyaláng (“Torch flame”) by Gyula Illyés.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – December 13, 1952 (PVC)
Vladimir Velebit is officially announced as the new Yugoslav Ambassador to the U.K.

Yugoslavia / India – December 14, 1952-January 12, 1953 (RYN)
A Yugoslav Goodwill Mission, headed by Rodoljub Čolaković, then member of the Federal Executive Council, visits India.

Hungary – December 15-20, 1952 (HC)
Law 1952:V and Law 1952:Vl are accepted regarding the state budget and state statistics.

Poland / U.S. – December 15, 1952 (PSN)
A propaganda exhibition called “Such is America” opens at the old arsenal building in Warsaw. The exhibition claims to “unmask the true face of the governing clique of imperialist heirs of slave traders and exploiters of black and white slaves.”

Soviet Union – December 15, 1952 (REV)
Lieutenant General Nikolai Vlasik, commander of Stalin’s bodyguard, is arrested. At the end of the month, State Security Minister Viktor Abakumov, General and ‘their band of Zionist agents’ are arrested.

Yugoslavia / U.K. / Vatican – December 16, 1952 (PVC)
Tito delivers a long speech at Smederevska Palanka criticizing the policy of the Vatican and the appointment of Archbishop Stepinac as Cardinal. He also mentions that because of the public protests, he would rather cancel his visit to the U.K. .

Yugoslavia / Vatican – December 16, 1952 (ACY)
Cardinal Oddi, Chargé d'Affaires of the Vatican legation to Yugoslavia is summoned to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. There he is told that since no answer had been received to the Yugoslav Government's note, and instead Stepinac was made cardinal, it was obvious that the Vatican did not wish for improved relations. Therefore, there was no further reason to maintain diplomatic relations.

Hungary – December 17, 1952 (HC)
Decree 1050/1952 by the Hungarian Council of Ministers announces that May 2 will be a national holiday, but December 26 will be a normal work day.

Yugoslavia / Vatican – December 17, 1952 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government breaks diplomatic relations with the Vatican and presents a note to the papal Charge d’Affaires in Belgrade alleging Vatican “interference in Church-State relations”, in particular protesting the elevation of Archbishop Stepinac to the College of Cardinals.

Hungary – December 19, 1952 (HC)
The Third Hungarian Fine Arts Exhibition is opened. The central theme of the exhibition is the life and achievements of Rákosi.

Hungary – December 21, 1952 (HC)
The first mechanized foundry in the country is put in operation at the Salgótarján Iron Foundry and Furnace Factory. 

Hungary / Spain – December 31, 1952 (HC)
The Foreign Minister announces in a telegram to UNESCO that Hungary will leave the organization in order to protest against the membership of Spain.

Soviet Bloc / U.S. – December 31, 1952 (LBC)
President elect Eisenhower, in a message to the youth living behind the Iron Curtain declares that they are “not forgotten”.




© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2012