The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Assistant editors



Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Shira BORZAK, Lauren CRYSTAL, Botond CSELLE, Sonya COWELL, Péter János DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB, Kati DEPETRILLO, Doris DOMOSZLAI, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖRDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA, Kristína GABIKOVA, Zsófia GÖDE, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Ágnes HEVÉR, Zoltán HERKUTZ, Emily Jennifer HOLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU,  Dean JOLLY, Annastiina KALLIUS, János KEMÉNY, András KISS, Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zardas LEE, Karina LEGRADI, Tara LOTSTEIN, Cynthia MANCHA, Viktor NAGY, Jennifer OTTERSON, Linda RICHTER, Zita Bettina VASAS, Dániel VÉKONY, Péter VUKMAN, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2012


At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The first part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1945 to 1952, but our goal is to publish the whole chronology covering the entire Cold War era up until 1991 in parts during the next two years. The years 1953–1955 will be available by September, 2012 and the years 1956–1968 by December, 2012.
The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.



List of Sources


Hungary – 1949 (HC)
According to the reports of the Central Statistical Office, the number of the active workforce is 3,910,000 people. There are 25,000 co-operative members. Of those, 10 thousand are in agriculture. The national income is 37,703 million forints. Of this, 18,800 is in industry, 2,266 is in construction, 9,883 is in agriculture, 1,504 is in cargo transportation, 4,876 is in trade.
The number of employees working in the industry: 520,127 in factories, 11,060  in collective farms. 180,732 people are employed in the small industry, with 187,732 assistants. There are 45,777 industrial students.



January 1949



Hungary – January 1, 1949 (HC)
An official census begins in Hungary. The number of inhabitants: 9,204,799 people.  There are 1,081 women for every 1,000 men. The 10 largest cities (in thousands): Budapest 1590, Debrecen 110, Miskolc 109, Szeged 86, Pécs 79, Kecskemét 59, Győr 57, Hódmezővásárhely 49, Nyíregyháza 48, Szombathely 47.

Poland – January 1, 1949 (PSN)
Food rationing is stopped, coupons for edible fats are introduced which provide purchase priority. State owned real estate is replaced by state farms.

Romania – January 1, 1949 (PIR)
The General Economic Plan for 1949 is published. A law is passed on the organization of state social insurances.

Hungary – January 3, 1949 (HC)
The Academy of Foreign Affairs opens in Budapest.

Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – January 3, 1949 (KCA)
The British, U.S. and French Ambassadors in Moscow hand identical notes to the Soviet Government stating that the Western Powers have fulfilled the Foreign Ministers agreement reached in Moscow in April 1947, which called for the repatriation of all German prisoners of war by the end of 1948. The notes inquire whether the USSR has done the same.

Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – January 3, 1949 (PVC)
The daily organ of the Bulgarian Communist Party publishes an article on the formation of an organization of Yugoslavian citizens living in Bulgaria. The article has a sharp anti-Titoist edge.

Hungary – January 4, 1949 (REV)
Talks begin between the Roman Catholic Conference of Bishops and the Government on normalizing state-church relations. Previous agreements had been reached with the Lutheran and Calvinist churches on containing their activities in return for state financial support. On January 7, the Pope forbids the discussions.

Soviet Union – January 5, 1949 (KCA)
The Soviet Tass Agency issues a statement saying that the overwhelming majority of German prisoners of war had been repatriated, and that the process would be completed in 1949.

Soviet Bloc – January 5-8, 1949 (PIR) (MMS)
The Council for Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) is founded in Moscow. Member states: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union. Albania joined the organization in February, 1949, the GDR in 1950. The Comecon is tasked with coordinating economic cooperation among the states of the Eastern Bloc.
The establishment of the organization is publicly announced on January 25, 1949.

Soviet Union / U.K. – January 6, 1949 (KCA)
The Admiralty announces that the Soviet Union has agreed to return eleven British warships lent to the Soviet Union in 1944.

Poland / Vatican – January 8, 1949 (KCA)
The Vatican announces that Pope Pius XII has nominated Stefan Wyszynski, Bishop of Lublin, as Archbishop of Gniezo and Poznan and Primate of Poland in succession to Hlond.

U.S. – January 10, 1949 (LBC)
President Truman requests from Congress the largest peacetime military budget ($14.268 billion) in U.S. history.

Hungary / U.S. – January 11, 1949 (KCA/LBC)
The U.S. turns down Hungary’s request for the Crown of Saint Stephen. Hungary ties the release of the Hungarian-U.S. Oil Company’s former director, Robert Vogeler to the return of the Holy Crown. Vogeler was arrested and sentenced for alleged sabotage. U.S. military authorities in Frankfurt state that the ancient crown of St. Stephen, the 950 year old historic symbol of Hungarian sovereignty, is held at the Military Government’s art-collecting center at Munich, pending a decision by the U.S. State Department, after the U.S. Military found it in a salt mine in Austria.

Poland – January 11, 1949 (KCA, PLC)
The former German territories occupied by Poland since the end of the war are officially incorporated into the Polish Republic by a law fusing the “recovered territories” with the rest of the country.
After the exchanges of populations and relocations, the population of Poland is 22.4 million, 93.7% of which is Polish.

Hungary – January 12-14, 1949 (HC)
The Parliament passes the 1949:II-IV Law about the elimination of the administrative courts, about the supervision of the patent courts and about the (sales) apprentices.

Romania – January 12, 1949 (KCA)
The Romanian National Assembly passes a law for the creation of People’s Councils in villages, towns, districts and countries.

Czechoslovakia – January 13, 1949 (KCA)
It is announced that all new judges, advocates and notaries will be required to pass a political examination in Marxist-Leninist doctrine before being admitted to the legal profession.

Finland / U.K. – January 13-26, 1949 (KCA)
Finland and Britain reach a trade agreement for 1949, and express hope to further expend mutual trade.

U.S. / NATO – January 14, 1949 (LBC)
The State Department announces that the U.S. will join a North-Atlantic security alliance to keep Soviet threats from undermining “the efforts we and others made to promote international economic recovery”.

Romania – January 14, 1949 (KCA)
The Romanian National Assembly passes a law introducing the death penalty for crimes against the State. Hitherto only crimes of high treason during war were susceptible to the death penalty.

Poland / U.K. – January 14, 1949 (LBC)
Great Britain and Poland announce the largest commercial agreement signed by an Eastern European nation after the war: a trade turnover of over USD one billion over five years. Great Britain takes the Soviet Union’s place as Poland’s largest commercial partner. Poland is to export bacon, eggs, poultry, fish, berries, fruit, cheese, butter, lard and other foodstuffs to Great Britain and purchases wool, rubber, crude oil, semi finished goods, copper products, textile dye and other finished goods and productive equipment from England. – Great Britain releases 200 million dollars worth of Polish assets frozen during the war. Poland deposits USD 200 million to pay in one month for its British debt originating from the interwar period and pledges to remit 4% of its proceeds from British exports to compensate the owners of nationalized British property.

Soviet Union – January 15, 1949 (CWC)
The Soviet Union launches the “Peace Offensive” propaganda campaign. The campaign emphasizes the American responsibility for rising international tensions and states that Stalin is willing to meet with Truman one-to-one to resolve international conflicts.

Hungary – January 16, 1949 (HC)
In his article “Some Problems of People’s Democracy”, Mátyás Rákosi declares that people’s democracy fulfills the role of the dictatorship of the proletariat.

Romania – January 17, 1949 (PIR)
The Central Committee Secretariat of the PMR discusses the measures necessary for the organization of the Party Plenary, the institution of the State Commission for the application of the law of popular councils, and the organization of the Chancellery of the Secretariat.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – January 17, 1948 (HWC)
It is agreed in a meeting that takes place in 10 Downing Street, that long-term trade negotiations should be speeded up by British ambassador Charles Peake in Belgrade.

Yugoslavia – January 17-22, 1949 (PVC)
The congress of the Serbian Communist Party takes place in Belgrade.

Hungary – January 19, 1949 (KCA)
Prior to the trial of Cardinal Mindszenty in Budapest, which is to start on February 3, the Hungarian Government issues a list of ‘confessions’ the Cardinal made on charges of high treason, conspiracy against the State, and black marketeering.

Hungary / US – January 20, 1949 (HC)
The People’s Court ends the trial of the Hungarian-American Oil Company. It changes the verdict of general manager Simon Papp from death penalty to life imprisonment.
The so-called Yellow Book is published, containing the documents of the Mindszenty-case.

Poland – January 20, 1949 (PSN) (KCA)
Gomulka is replaced as Deputy Prime Minister by Alexander Zawadski.
Minister of Public Administration Osubka-Morawski is replaced by the Communist Wladyslaw Wolski.

Romania – January 20, 1949 (PIR)
The session of the CC Secretariat of the PMR debates the law projects for the salaries of civil servants and for the organization of ministries.

Yugoslavia – January 21, 1949 (KCA)
At the congress of the Serbian Communist Party in Belgrade, Tito strongly criticizes the anti-Yugoslav campaigns that are being carried out by other socialist countries.

Hungary – January 22, 1949 (HC)
A law is passed on the creation of the National Work Health Institution.

Romania – January 22, 1949 (PIR)
The Police and the Gendarmerie are abolished and replaced with the Militia, placed under the Ministry of Internal Affairs. General Director of the new institution is Pavel Cristescu. 

Romania – January 24, 1949 (KSA)
Romania and the Soviet Union sign a trade agreement for the year 1949, with goods amounting up to 465 million rubles. This is two and a half times more than the amount of trade in 1948.

Romania / Poland – January 24-26, 1949 (PIR)
During an official visit of a Polish government delegation in Bucharest, Prime Ministers Petru Groza and Josef Cyrankiewicz sign a treaty (on January 26, 1949) of friendship, collaboration and mutual assistance between Romania and Poland.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – January 25-28, 1949 (PLC)
At the first congress of the SED in the Soviet occupational zone of Germany the SED is bolshevized. The principle of democratic centralism is introduced and purges will begin attacking social democrats.

Yugoslavia / Greece / U.K. – January 25, 1949 (PVC/HWC)
An informal meeting takes place between Deputy Foreign Minister Aleš Bebler and British Ambassador Charles Peake. The British suggest that Yugoslav and Greek representatives in Paris conduct their own informal meeting.  Bebler gives a non-committal reply, but later, possibly at Peake's instigation, the Yugoslavs do attempt a secret prise de contract with the Greeks some time in March 1949, with no concrete results.

U.S. – January 26, 1949 (LBC)
Secretary of State Dean Acheson declares at a press conference that the Atlantic Alliance will preserve the right of Congress to declare war, but makes it “absolutely clear in advance, that any attack affecting our national security would be met with overwhelming force”.

Austria / Hungary – January 27, 1949 (KCA)
An Austrian-Hungarian trade agreement is signed in Vienna under which Austria will supply $3,270,000 worth of U.S. cotton, bought out of its Marshall Aid allocation, in exchange for Hungarian deliveries of 20,000 tons of rye and 3,000 tons of sunflower oil.

Czechoslovakia – January 28, 1949 (KCA)
Former Deputy Chief of Staff of the Czechoslovak Army, General Heliodor Pika, is sentenced to death on charges of military treason, espionage and abuse of official authority.

Romania – January 28, 1949 (PIR)
The CC Secretariat of PMR discusses the self-dissolution of the National People’s Party, the abolition of PNL-Brătianu, PNL-Bejan and PSD-Titel Petrescu, as well as the creation of the Information Section of the Party.

Soviet Union / Belgium / France / Luxembourg / The Netherlands / U.K. – January 28, 1949 (LBC)
The United Kingsom, France, Belgium, Holland and Luxembourg announce the establishment of the Council of Europe. According to the Soviet Foreign Ministry it is a step towards new aggression in Europe and a breach of peace policy.

Yugoslavia – January 28-30, 1949 (YPH) (PLC)
The second session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia adopts a motion to speed up collectivization by establishing agricultural collectives. As a result of forced collectivization Yugoslav agriculture collapses.

Hungary – January 29, 1949 (HC)
The last convention of the National Committee takes place in Budapest. It declares the dissolution of the Committee.

Soviet Union / Norway – January 29, 1949 (KCA)
The Soviet Ambassador in Norway hands the Norwegian Government a note requesting Norway to clarify its position on the proposed Atlantic Pact, drawing attention to the fact that Norway and the Soviet Union have a common frontier.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 30, 1949 (LBC)
Stalin proposes a disarmament agreement, an anti-war pact, and a stop to the blockade of West Berlin. Tom Connaly, member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and Chairman of the Congress Foreign Relations Committee Sol Bloom, receive the offer favorably. President Truman seems ready to receive Stalin in Washington, altough Stalin would rather negotiate in Moscow or Eastern Europe.



February 1949



Yugoslavia – February 1949 (PLC)
The Western powers end the economic blockade of Yugoslavia.

Hungary – February, 1949 (HC)
Mass demonstrations are held in Budapest against the flow of (negative) foreign propaganda linked to the Mindszenty-case.

Romania – February, 1949 (PIR)
Following an agreement between the Ministry of Agriculture and the Romanian Orthodox Church, the property of Bishoprics is appropriated to the former; priests hold only the parochial land, which they cultivate using either salaried or common voluntary labor of the believers.

Czechoslovakia – February 1, 1949 (KCA)
The new Czechoslovak legal and judicial system comes into force, whereby trial by jury and other “Western” conceptions of justice are abolished in favor of a system completely subordinated to control by the State. The change comes after an extensive purge of “politically unreliable” lawyers.

Hungary – February 1, 1949 (KCA) (REV)
The Hungarian Independence People’s Front, grouping all the Hungarian political parties, is set up in Budapest. It is headed by a National Council of 43 members, including 17 representatives from the United Workers’ Party (Communists and Socialists), 8 from the Smallholders’ Party, 5 from the National Peasants’ Party and the remainder from the trade unions, women’s organizations and youth organizations. Its National Council elects Mátyás Rákosi as its Chairman and László Rajk as its Secretary. The first national congress is held on March 15. This brings a de facto end to the multi-party system.

Soviet Union / Norway – February 1, 1949 (KCA)
In reply to the Soviet note of January 29, the Norwegian Foreign Ministry declares that it will not be part in any organization with an aggressive policy towards other countries.

Romania – February 1, 1949 (PIR)
The CC of the PMR discusses, inter alia, the problem of having troops divided between the military and the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
A law is passed organizing the Ministry of Industry.

Bulgaria – February 2, 1949 (KCA)
Bulgarian Foreign Minister Vasil Kolarov presents a law on the organization of the churches in Bulgaria to the Sobranje.

Hungary – February 2, 1949 (REV)
István Barankovics goes into exile. As a protest against the political situation, his Democratic People’s Party dissolves itself.

Yugoslavia – February 2, 1949 (KCA)
In a note to Moscow the Yugoslav Government protests its exclusion from the recently created Comecon.

Yugoslavia – February 2, 1949 (PVC)
Moša Pijade delivers a speech at the congress of the Serbian People's Front in which he rebuffs the charges of the Cominform in twelve points.

Hungary – February 3-8, 1949 (REV)
The trial of Cardinal József Mindszenty and six associates begins in the Budapest People’s Tribunal. He is sentenced to life imprisonment. On February 12, Pope Pius XII asks the Western powers for aid in defending the Eastern European Catholic churches.

Norway – February 3, 1949 (KCA)
In an address to the Storting, Norwegian Foreign Minister Halvard Lange emphasizes that Norway would have to make further investigations before deciding whether it wishes to be invited to join the Atlantic Pact, and that its decision would be based on the best interests of protecting Norway.

Yugoslavia / Italy – February 3, 1949 (KCA)
An Italian-Yugoslav frontier agreement is signed, whereby both countries agree to open their borders (for the first time since 1947), make certain minor rectifications in the frontier by agreement of the joint frontier commission, and freely exchange goods.

Hungary / U.K. / U.S. – February 4, 1949 (LBC)
The U.K. and U.S. protest for being unable to send observers to the Mindszenty trial, which according to the peace treaty they should be allowed to do.

Hungary – February 4, 1949 (HC)
The Hungarian Government issues a protest note against the admission of Yugoslavia into the Comecon.
Romania – February 4, 1949 (PIR)
Petru Borilă is appointed Deputy Minister of the Armed Forces.

Yugoslavia / Albania – February 4, 1949 (PVC)
The Albanian Communist daily accuses the Yugoslav secret police of breaking into the building of the Albanian Embassy in Belgrade.

Yugoslavia / Albania – February 5, 1949 (PVC)
The Albanian Government protests in a note about 46 Yugoslav border incidents between July 27, 1948 and January 17, 1949. It is the first time that articles on the border incidents have appeared in the Albanian press.

Romania – February 6, 1949 (KCA)
The National People’s Party, which aims to represent the middle class and is the smallest of the parties in the Government coalition, decides to dissolve itself. It states that the middle class had already been liberated from the influence of the bourgeoisie and that the middle class alliance with the working class could only be translated into practice within existing mass organizations such as the people’s councils.

U.S. / Norway – February 6-11, 1949 (KCA)
Norwegian Foreign Minister Halvard Lange visits Washington to further discuss the Atlantic Alliance with US Secretary of Sate Dean Acheson. At the end of their meeting they jointly issue a statement saying that “no decisions were contemplated or reached during these discussions” regarding Norway’s membership of the Atlantic Pact.

Soviet Union / France / U.K. – February 7-8, 1949 (LBC)
British Foreign Secretary Clement Attlee and French Minister of Foreign Affairs Robert Schuman declare that they are against further four-power talks either at the level of the foreign ministers or higher level until the Soviet Union shows readiness to cooperate by reducing tension, preferably by eliminating the Berlin blockade.

Romania – February 7-8, 1949 (PIR)
Colonel Ion Uţă, head of the anti-communist resistance group of the Banat Mountains, is killed in battle against the troops of the Securitate.

Hungary – February 8, 1949 (KCA)
The court’s verdict in the Mindszenty trial is read. Cardinal Mindszenty is found guilty of all charges and is sentenced to life imprisonment. The other accused receive sentences ranging from three to ten years imprisonment.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – February 8, 1949 (PVC)
In a letter to the British Embassy in Belgrade, the British Foreign Office suggests the re-establisment of unofficial contact between the Yugoslavian and Greek Governments, using the Greek Ambassador in London and the High Commissioner of Australia as mediators.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union / U.N. – February 8, 1949 (LBY)
The Soviet representative requests that the U.N. Security Council considers appointing a governor to the Free Territory of Trieste in the near future. He also suggests that the Yugoslavs be permitted to try their case regarding Southern Carinthia, possibly with the hope of provoking a direct clash between the West and Yugoslavia.

Austria / Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – February 9, 1949 (KCA)
The four-power discussions on the Austrian Peace Treaty are resumed at Lancaster House, London.

Hungary / U.S. / U.K. – February 9, 1949 (LBC)
U.S. Secretary of State Acheson condemns the outcome of the Mindszenty trial, and Congress passes a resolution bringing the case to the U.N. The next day the U.N. claims the right to investigate possible violations of human rights and the peace treaty. The First Secretary of the Hungarian legation in Wahington is expelled, and U.S. Minister in Budapest Chapin is recalled.

Bulgaria – February 10, 1949 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Ministry of Interior announces that 15 pastors of the United Evangelical Churches in Bulgaria have been arrested and will be brought to trial on charges of espionage for Britain and America, high treason and currency offences. It is further stated that they had confessed their alleged guilt while in prison.

Romania / Hungary – February 10, 1949 (PIR)
A Romanian-Hungarian convention on citizenship is signed in Bucharest.

Romania – February 10, 1949 (PIR)
A law on the constitution of the investment work fund, and for the realization of paying benefits, is adopted.

Yugoslavia / Pakistan – February 10, 1949 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs a trade agreement with Pakistan.

Soviet Union / India – February 11, 1949 (KCA)
It is announced in New Delhi that a new food agreement has been signed with the Soviet Union.

Romania – February 12, 1949 (PIR)
Spiru Blănaru, leader of the anti-communist resistence group of Teregova (Banat), is arrested.

Hungary – February 13, 1949 (HC)
In his proclamation given to MTI, Minister of Foreign Affairs László Rajk condemns the “flow of world-wide aspersion” due to the Mindszenty-case.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – February 14, 1949 (PVC)
Hungary sends a note protesting the treatment of Yugoslav citizens of Hungarian descent, the ongoing border incidents and the alleged espionage of Yugoslav diplomats in Hungary.

Czechoslovakia – February 15, 1949 (KCA)
General Rajmund Mrazek, leader of the Czechoslovak resistance during the war, a prominent figure in the Prague uprising of May 1945 and Military Attaché in Moscow after the war, is sentenced to life imprisonment on charges of transmitting secret information to British and U.S. agents.

Germany / Soviet Union / U.S.  – February 16, 1949 (KCA)
U.S. Commander-in-Chief in Germany, General Lucius Clay, informs the Soviet repatriation mission in Frankfurt-am-Main that it will be requested to leave the U.S. zone by March 1, since “sufficient time has elapsed since the surrender of Germany for a voluntary repatriation to be completed.”

Soviet Bloc / U.S. – February 17, 1949 (LBC)
According to Truman, the aim of the North Atlantic Alliance is “to provide unmistakable proof of the joint determination of the free countries to resist armed attack from any quarter”. According to Senators Tom Connally and Arthur Vandenberg the pact does not obligate the U.S. to automatically enter the war in the interest of a European member.

Yugoslavia / Albania – February 17, 1949 (PVC)
Yugoslavia charges the Albanian authorities of breaking into the flat of the Yugoslav press attaché and arresting two Yugoslav citizens and two employees of the mission.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – February 17, 1949 (HWC)
National Security Council's estimate NSC 18/2 confirms that U.S. policy should continue not to extract specific political commitments from Tito.

Hungary – February 18, 1949 (HC)
The President absolves Ernő Gerő from his leadership of the Ministry of Transportations, and names him Minister of Finance. The new Minister of Transportations is Lajos Bebrits.

Yugoslavia / Hungary / Bulgaria – February 18, 1949 (PVC)
Yugoslav authorities announce the arrest of 20 Hungarian and Bulgarian agents.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – February 18, 1949 (LBY)
The effective reversal of American policy is approved by President Truman after discussion at the National Security Council.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – February 18, 1949 (HWC)
British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin talks to Deputy Foreign Minister of Yugoslavia, Aleš Bebler, who is in London attending a conference. Bevin tries to persuade Bebler to end the Yugoslav help to the Greek partisans, and not to be as adamant about Yugoslav claims to parts of Carinthia and Northern Epirus.

Bulgaria – February 19, 1949 (KCA)
The Zveno party, led by Colonel Kimon Georgieff, decides to discontinue its existence as an independent party and merge into the Fatherland Front, stating that the party had already fulfilled its program, and that its members should support the establishment of Socialism in Bulgaria.

Hungary – February 19, 1949 (HC)
The Iron Factory of Diósgyőr challenges the workers of all other factories to a so-called performance competition. Numerous big and middle-sized factories join the challenge in a few weeks.

Soviet Union / U.S. – February 19, 1949 (LBC)
East-West agreement on drawing up an export-import list aimed at reviving trade between the two regions. According to the agreement, the U.S. will continue to ban exports of potential war materials to Eastern Europe unless the Soviet Union gives up its ‘aggressive’ politics.

Hungary – February 20, 1949 (HC)
The so-called Black Book is released. It contains the aspersions of the Mindszenty-case.

Finland – February 21, 1949 (KCA)
Former Finnish Premier Rangell, who had been sentenced to six years imprisonment in February 1946, on charges of permitting the entry of Finland into the war, is released after serving three years.

Albania – February 21, 1949 (CEC/KCA)
Albania joins the Comecon.

Hungary – February 23, 1949 (HC)
The Hungarian Independent People’s Front admits the Independent Hungarian Democratic Party and the Alliance of Radical Democratic Parties.

Romania – February 23, 1949 (PIR)
MAN approves the Organization and functioning Statute of the Romanian Orthodox Church.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – February 23, 1949 (PVC)
Another Yugoslav note is sent to the Hungarian government protesting border incidents and accusing the Hungarians of fueling tension.

Bulgaria – February 24, 1949 (KCA)
The Sobranje adopts the Church Law.

Hungary – February 25, 1949 (HC)
Based on the 1948: XXXVIII Law, the Hungarian Scientific Board is formed. Its objective is to guide scientific life and the approach of scientific research towards ordinary life.

Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – February 26, 1949 (KCA)
The Soviet Government sends notes of protest to both the U.S. and British Governments alleging that the Anglo-American military authorities in Germany and Austria had impeded the repatriation of Soviet nationals.

Soviet Union – February 28, 1949 (KCA)
A decree for considerable reductions in the retail prices of consumer goods, which will take effect March 1, is announced.



March 1949




Romania – March 1949 (PIR)
The Academy Institute for Literary History and Folklore is founded (in 1965 renamed the Institute for History and Literary Theory ‘G. Călinescu’).

Germany, Western Zone – March 1, 1949 (KCA)
Despite promises, the Soviet Repatriation Mission has not yet left Frankfurt to this date. The U.S. blocks the Mission’s premises and cuts off supplies of gas, water, electricity and communication.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – March 1, 1949 (LBY)
Negotiations begin in Belgrade for an British-Yugoslav long-term trade agreement. Just a few days into the negotiations, serious differences arise.

Romania – March 2, 1949 (PIR)
The law for the expropriation of estates larger than 50 ha and of model-farms is adopted: 6,258 estates and 4,456 manor houses are nationalized. All land, buildings, agricultural installations, agricultural products, as well as titles and debts resulting from class exploitation are seized by the state. Resistance against confiscation and hiding of goods is punished with 5-15 years of forced labor and the seizure of all holdings.

Hungary – March 3, 1949 (HC)
The previously separated Civic Democratic Party and the Hungarian Radical Party unite and participate in the People’s Front under the name of the Hungarian Radical Party.

Romania – March 3-5, 1949 (PIR)
The CC Plenary of the PMR adopts the resolution regarding “the battle for the strengthening of the alliance between the working class and the working peasantry, as well as the socialist transformation of agriculture.” The resolution establishes the five non-socialist agricultural categories – agricultural proletariat, poor peasants, middle peasants, kulaks and landowners – and stipulates the transformation of agriculture through the organization of CAP, SMT, GAC. The Plenary’s immediate objective was the containment of the kulaks, aimed at putting an end to “kulak exploitation”.

Germany – March 4, 1949 (KCA)
The Soviet Repatriation Mission leaves Frankfurt for the Soviet zone.

Hungary – March 4, 1949 (HC)
The Council of Ministers raises the salary of scientists and researchers.

Soviet Union – March 4, 1949 (KCA)
It is announced in Moscow that Molotov has been released from his duties as Foreign Minister and is to be replaced by Vyshinksky; that Mikoyan is to be followed by Menshikov as Minister of Foreign Trade, and that Gromyko is to succeed Vyshinsky as First Deputy Foreign Minister.

Hungary – March 5, 1949 (HC)
The Central Leadership of the Hungarian Workers’ Party convenes in Budapest. Mátyás Rákosi talks about the defeat of the reaction in the Mindszenty-case, the support of the middle-class peasants, about the regulation of the kulaks, the Five-Year Plan, and the results of the reconsideration of party membership.

Hungary – March 10-23, 1949 (HC)
Laws are passed on regulations of the international treaty on Danube transport, changes in the electoral law, avoidance of double taxation in Hungarian-Romanian trade, and changes in the justice system. In the last case the participation of laymen as judges in trials is added.

Soviet Union – March 15, 1949 (KCA)
Moscow radio announces the large-scale reorganization of Soviet Ministries, including the merger of several existing ministries and the creation of several new ones. The general effect is to reduce the total number of Ministries from 60 to 48.

Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – March 15, 1949 (KCA)
Britain, the U.S. and France continue to protest the retention of German prisoners of war in the USSR.

Yugoslavia / U.S. / Macedonia – March 15, 1949 (HWC)
According to some rumours, the proclamation of an independent Macedonian state was planned for 15 March. By June 10, 1949 the CIA believes that the proclamation of such an independent state is highly unlikely in the immediate future and estimates that the idea could only have limited support among Macedonian Yugoslavs.

Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / U.K. / U.S. – March 16, 1949 (LBC)
The U.S and U.K. accuse Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary of violating their peace treaties and human rights.

Romania – March 16, 1949 (PIR)
The CC Secretariat of PMR discusses the decree-project for judicial organization and the one for the nationalization of small industrial enterprises.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – March 16, 1949 (WBA)
The Yugoslav Government proposes the liquidation of the JUSPAD and JUSTA joint stock companies. The Soviet Government consents.

Romania – March 17, 1949 (PIR)
Aurel Vernichescu, head of an armed anti-communist resistance group in Vârciorova, is arrested by Securitate troops.

Romania / U.S. – March 17, 1949 (LBC)
The U.S. protests the nationalization of foreign property in Romania.

Romania – March 18, 1949 (PIR)
A decree is passed which aims to regulate the salary system based on quantity and quality of work.

Romania – March 19-21, 1949 (PIR)
The congress for the constitution of the Union of the Working Youth (later, the UTC) takes place.

Poland – March 20, 1949 (PSN)
A letter written by the Minister of Public Administration, Wladyslaw Wolski, addressed to Bishop Zymunt Choromanksi is published. The letter states that though the Government does not intend to restrict religion, the Church should not interfere in public life. Later meetings are held in which representatives of the government demand that church leaders confine themselves to church matters and not politics.

Albania / Soviet Union – March 21-April 10, 1949 (KCA)
An Albanian Government delegation accompanied by the Soviet Ambassador in Tirana visits Moscow for negotiations, resulting in an agreement with the USSR to deliver equipment and materials on credit to Albania.

Yugoslavia / India – March 22, 1949 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs a trade agreement with India.

Czechoslovakia / U.K. – March 23, 1949 (KCA)
The British Embassy in Prague announces that Capt. Philip Wildash, British Military Permit Officer in Prague, had been detained and interrogated by police on the previous day, and was subsequently released. The Embassy was notified by the Czechoslovak Foreign Ministry that Wildash was facing serious charges and was liable to arrest unless he left the country in 24 hours, which he did. During his seven-hour interrogation, Wildash was given no valid reason for his detainment, only the vague statement that it was due to a “serious offence against the State”.

Czechoslovakia – March 23, 1949 (KCA)
Several Czech employees of the British Military Permit Office in Prague are arrested, along with Capt. Wildash’s secretary.

Czechoslovakia – March 23, 1949 (KCA)
The government announces that 17 prominent émigrés, including a number of former political leaders, will be tried in absentia on charges of treason.

Romania – March 23, 1949 (PIR)
The CC Secretariat of PMR adopts a series of measures for the prevention of acts of sabotage in state enterprises, and discusses the project for the Labor Code and the use of political detainees for work.

Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – March 23-24, 1949 (PVC)
A trial of Yugoslav citizens takes place in Bulgaria. They are accused of espionage and sentenced to imprisonment.

Czechoslovakia – March 24, 1949 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak National Assembly adopts legislation making the publication, printing, illustration and distribution of all books and music the prerogative of the State, terminating the right of the individual to undertake such activities.

Hungary / U.S. – March 24, 1949 (LBC)
Two assistant military attachés (Kopcsak and Merrill) are expelled from Hungary.

Soviet Union – March 24, 1949 (KCA)
Moscow radio announces that Marshall Alexander Vassilievsky, Chief of Staff of the Soviet Army, has been appointed Minister for the Armed forces, replacing  Bulganin.

Soviet Union / US – March 24, 1949 (CWC)
An article in Pravda denies the American charge that the Soviet Union uses slave labor. In addition to denouncing the United States for making such an allegation, it accuses the United States of using slave labor itself.

Czechoslovakia / UK – March 25, 1949 (KCA)
The British Government issues a strong note to the Czechoslovak Government categorically rejecting the charges brought against Wildash.

Romania – March 25-27, 1949 (PIR)
The Conference of Writers in Bucharest decides the foundation of the Romanian Writers’ Union.

Yugoslavia / U.K. / Soviet Union – March 25, 1949 (PVC)
The British Ministry of Defence prepares a detailed analysis for Ernest Bevin on the possible developments in Soviet-Yugoslav relations. The analysis deals with four possibilities: direct Soviet attack against Yugoslavia, satellite attack on Yugoslavia; military coup and creating internal difficulties. Of the four possibilities, the last one is considered to be the most likely.

Czechoslovakia – March 26, 1949 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government issues two statements alleging that Capt. Wildash had been involved in “a plot against the Republic”.

Bulgaria – March 26-27, 1949 (KCA)
The Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party meets. During the meeting it is announced that Kostov, Vice-Premier since the formation of the Fatherland Front, has been removed from the party’s Politburo and relieved of his posts as Deputy Premier and as chairman of the National Economic and Financial Committee, because he had pursued an “insincere and unfriendly policy towards the USSR” during trade negotiations. Kostov was subsequently appointed Director of the National Library.

Hungary – March 27, 1949 (HC)
The first session of the reorganized Hungarian Historical Association takes place.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – March 30, 1949 (KCA)
General Vassili Chuikov is appointed as the Military Governor of the Soviet zone in Germany.

Soviet Union / U.S. – March 31, 1949 (LBC)
In a note, the Soviet Union accuses the seven states initiating NATO of  preparing to sign an openly aggressive treaty, and of violating the Atlantic Charter and other Soviet-Western treaties.

Yugoslavia – March 31, 1949 (PVC)
Tito delivers a speech in front of the delegates of the Istrian and Slovenian coast. Tito denies that he has received British or American delegates.

Yugoslavia / Germany, Western Zone – March 31, 1949 (OEH)
Yugoslavia concludes a trade agreement and a protocol supplementing the agreement signed on August 11, 1947 with the Western German Economic Area.

Germany, Western Zone – March, 1949 (PLC)
It is stated that the only accepted currency in West Germany is the Western mark.



April 1949



Yugoslavia / Albania / Greece / U.N. – April-May 1949 (SGY)
The U.N. Conciliation Committee initiates a new round of talks with Greece and its three northern Balkan neighbours. The Committee's efforts soon focus on the problem of the Greek-Albanian frontier.

Romania – April 1, 1949 (PIR)
The government discusses the law of popular councils, the organizational scheme of the capital, districts and urban communes, and the law for the organization of cooperations.

Soviet Union – April 1, 1949 (KCA)
Through its diplomatic representatives in Washington, London, Paris, Ottawa, Brussels, The Hague, and Luxembourg, the Soviet Government sends notes protesting the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

Yugoslavia / France – April 1, 1949 (PVC)
A French delegation of 12 members arrives in Belgrade to negotiate the reparations for nationalized French property and a possible trade agreement.

Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / U.K. / U.S. – April 2, 1949 (LBC)
In diplomatic notes, the U.S. and United Kingdom accuse Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary of violating the peace treaty by disregarding human rights.

Romania – April 2, 1949 (PIR)
Decree no. 134 for the nationalization of all means of medical assistance (pharmacies, chemical-pharmaceutical laboratories) is published.

Romania – April 2, 1949 (PIR)
Ana Pauker exposes the working program for the creation of collective farms before the CC Secretariat, which is approved by the PMR leadership.

Czechoslovakia April 3, 1949 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government rejects the British note of March 25.

Hungary – April 3, 1949 (PVC)
Employees of the British legation in Budapest visit the area around Szeged, because of alleged Soviet troop manoeuvres. They do not see any unusual activities.

Hungary – April 4, 1949 (HC)
Within the frameworks of an official opening ceremony at the FTC stadium, the first actions of the paramilitary MHK movement (‘Ready to work and fight’) take place.

Soviet Union – April 4, 1949 (KCA)
Further Soviet notes are presented in Rome, Copenhagen and Oslo protesting  the association of the countries with the North Atlantic Treaty.

NATO – April 4, 1949 (LBC)
The North Atlantic Treaty is signed.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – April 4, 1949 (PVC)
A trial of Hungarian agents accused of espionage starts in Novi Sad. Among the eight accused, seven are Yugoslav citizens of Hungarian nationality.

Hungary – April 5, 1949 (PLC)
The U.N. raises objections against the trial of Cardinal Mindszenty in Hungary.

Soviet Union / NATO – April 5, 1949 (KCA)
A joint statement by the twelve NATO signatories is made to counter Soviet worries. It claims the Soviet Government to have misinterpreted the purpose of the North Atlantic Treaty.

U.S. – April 5, 1949 (LBC)
U.S. Army Chief of Staff General Omar N. Bradley talks about the necessity of planning to save Western Europe from invasions coming from the East.

Poland – April 5, 1949 (KCA)
Warsaw announces a number of changes in the cabinet.

Germany, Western Zone / France / UK / US – April 8, 1949 (PLC)
The foreign ministers of the United States, France and United Kingdom meet in Washington. They decide on the establishment of a West German state – the new state will no longer be administered militarily. The occupying powers keep some power.

Yugoslavia – April 9, 1949 (KCA) (PVC)
The third congress of the Yugoslav People's Front takes place in Belgrade with 1,600 delegates. Tito is reelected president of the people's front.
In an address to a congress of the Yugoslav People’s Front, he strongly denounces the Cominform.

Yugoslavia / U.K. / Albania – April 9, 1949 (PVC)
The International Court of Justice at The Hague gives its verdict on the incident at the Corfu Channel on October 22, 1946 and declares that Albania has full responsibility for the mining of the channel.

Romania – April 10, 1949 (PIR)
Provisional Committees of the Popular Counsels are instituted.

Hungary – April 12, 1949 (REV)
Parliament is dissolved and general elections are called to take place on May 15.  The parties of the Hungarian Independent People’s Front put forward a joint list.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – April 14, 1949 (HC/KCA)
Led by Prime Minister Antonin Zapotocky, a Czechoslovakian government delegation arrives in Hungary. On April 16 they sign a 20-year pact of friendship cooperation and mutual assistance.

Romania – April 14, 1949 (PIR)
The PMR Political Bureau approves the proposal to release Ştefan Voitec and Traian Săvulescu from their positions as Vice-Presidents of the Council of Ministers, appointing Ana Pauker and Vasile Luca instead.

Yugoslavia / Italy – April 14, 1949 (KCA)
Italy and Yugoslavia sign a trade agreement in Rome according to which Italy will deliver 3 torpedo-boats, 4 tug boats, a tanker, and a pontoon to Yugoslavia as repayment for Yugoslav ships Italy destroyed during the war. This and the agreement signed the previous day are regarded as being indicative of an improvement in Italian-Yugoslav relations.

Bulgaria – April 15, 1949 (KCA)
It is announced in Sofia that Prime Minister Dimitrov has been granted leave of absence for health reasons and is, in the Soviet Union, receiving medical treatment. In his absence an ‘inner cabinet’ has been set up to supervise governmental activities, with Kolarov as leader of the Government ad interim.

Germany, Western Zone – April 16, 1949 (KCA)
In the past 24 hours, the Berlin Airlift has brought a record number of supplies to the city. During this short time frame 10,904 tons were flown in by the Americans and 2,036 by the British, which is considered to be an unprecedented accomplishment. 

Yugoslavia – April 16, 1949 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Information Office releases a Cabinet list showing multiple changes in the Cabinet.

Romania / Yugoslavia – April 18, 1949 (PIR)
The CC of PMR decides on the foundation of an organization for Yugoslav communist political immigrants.

Soviet Union – April 19, 1949 (KCA)
A three year plan for the expansion of livestock production is announced in a decree issued jointly by the Soviet Council of Ministers and the Central Committee of the Communist Party.

Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – April 19-23, 1949 (PVC)
A trial of espionage takes place in Niš. Yugoslav citizen Miroslava Janković and Bulgarian citizens Aleksander Dotchev and Angel Popov are accused of committing acts of war against Yugoslavia. It is impossible to verify the charges, but its timing indicates that it is a response to the arrest of Traicho Kostov.

France – April 20, 1949 (CWC)
The World Congress of Partisans for Peace, a communist front organization working to support the Soviet “peace offensive” meets in Paris for five days.

Hungary – April 21, 1949 (KCA)
The Ministry of the Interior announces that only 5 parties grouped in the Communist-controlled Hungarian Independent People’s Front (the Hungarian Workers’ Party, the Smallholders’ Party, the National Peasant Party, the Independent Democratic Party and the Radical Party) will present candidates, and that the election will be held on a single list.

Poland – April 22, 1949 (KCA)
Hilary Minc, Minister of Trade and Industry, is appointed Deputy Premier.

Hungary – April 23, 1949 (HC)
A law is passed declaring May 1 an official holiday.

Romania – April 25, 1949 (PIR)
The Romanian Society for Medical Sciences is created.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – April 25, 1949 (PVC)
Yugoslav border guards shoot József Salgó and József Molnár at Elsőszölnök. According to the Yugoslav version of the story, the Hungarian border guards went across the border line into Yugoslav territory, in spite of a warning.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone / U.S. – April 26, 1949 (KCA)
Soviet TASS Agency announces that the Soviet Government has made known to the U.S. Government its willingness to raise the blockade of Berlin if the Western Powers lift their counter-measures and set a definite date to discuss the question of Germany.

Romania – April 28, 1949 (PIR)
General Radu Korne dies in the Văcăreşti prison.

Romania – April 29, 1949 (KCA)
The Romanian Government places roughly 2/3 of the country’s territory under a ‘restricted area’-policy which may not be visited by foreign diplomats.
Bulgaria / Hungary / U.K. / U.S. / U.N – April 30, 1949 (LBC)
A U.N. resolution calls on Hungary and Bulgaria to respond to the Anglo-American charge that the trials of ecclesiastical officials are in violation of the peace treaty.

Romania – April 30, 1949 (PIR)
Decree no. 183 regarding the punishment of economic crimes is published. “Concealing, destroying or altering products or goods” is punishable with forced labor from 5 to 15 years and a fine between 50,000 and 200,000 lei (art. 4); and the non-observance of state plans is punishable with corrective imprisonment from 1 to 12 years and a fine ranging from 10,000 lei to 100,000 lei.



May 1949



Hungary / Soviet Union – May 1949 (HC)
An 80-member Hungarian peasant delegation studies Soviet agriculture.

Yugoslavia – May 1949 (ACY)
Reverends Franc Ramšak and Aloyz Tome, together with a number of other priests, are tried for cooperating with the Četniks during the war and for alledged contacts with the Bitenc group. The same week a group of Jesuits, including the Reverend Ludwig Lederhas, superior of the community in Ljubljana, is tried. All Jesuit property in Ljubljana is confiscated.

Hungary – May 1, 1949 (HC)
A great military parade of the Hungarian People’s Army takes place in Budapest.

Yugoslavia – May 1, 1949 (PVC)
In his speech on May 1, Moša Pijade openly criticizes Andrei Zhdanov and states that the Yugoslavs want cooperation, not obedience, with the Soviet Union.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – May 2, 1949 (PVC)
Hungary sends a note to Yugoslavia protesting the shooting of two Hungarian border guards on April 25, 1949.

Austria – May 3, 1949 (KCA)
The Austrian Government dedicates the former Nazi concentration camp at Mauthausen as a national memorial to the memory of those who died and were murdered there by the Nazis.

Austria / Soviet Union – May 4. 1949 (KCA)
The Tass Agency announces that Lt.-Gen. Sviridov, formerly the Chairman of the Allied Control Commission in Hungary, has been appointed Military Governor of the Soviet zone in Austria.

Germany / Allied forces – May 5, 1949 (KCA)
A communiqué is issued by London, Paris, Washington and Moscow agreeing that, starting May 12, both the Soviet Union and the Western Powers will lift all restrictions on Berlin they had placed since March 1, 1948 and that the Powers will meet on May 23 to discuss questions relating to Germany,

Hungary – May 5, 1949 (HC)
József Grősz, Archbishop of Kalocsa, informs the electoral committee of the People’s Front in a letter that the council of the Roman Catholic priests asks their followers to use their voting rights, and should vote according to their own conscience.

Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – May 5, 1949 (WBA)
A note of protest of the Yugoslav Embassy in Prague against the fact that the Czechoslovak Government made it impossible for a delegation of the Yugoslav National Committee for the Defence of Peace to take part in the work of the Prague Peace Congress in April, 1949, is handed to the Czechoslovak government.


Yugoslavia / U.K. – May 5-9, 1949 (PVC/LBY)
Fizroy Maclean visits Tito in Yugoslavia. During their meeting, Tito promises to seal the Yugoslav-Greek frontier, and relinquish the support of Greek partisans. Tito takes full advantage of the opportunity to state Yugoslavia's urgent need of credits from Britain valued at £11.6 million in the form of ''medium term credit on the British market.''

Yugoslavia / Albania / Hungary – May 5, 1949 (PVC)
The Yugoslav authorities force the landing of a MASZOVLET regular flight between Budapest and Tirana at Belgrade, most likely because the Albanian Minister of Justice is among the plane's passengers.

Romania – May 6, 1949 (PIR)
A communiqué on the realization of the state plan for the first trimester of 1949 is issued.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – May 6, 1949 (PVC)
Borba accuses the Hungarian authorities of sending six agents of Yugoslav descent across the Hungarian-Yugoslav border between Kelebia and Subotica.

Romania – May 7, 1949 (KCA)
The Bucharest Supreme Court dismisses appeals by Julio Maniu, leader of the outlawed National Peasant Party, Ion Mihalache, Vice-President of the party, and 13 other associates of the sentences to life imprisonment for alleged treason that were passed in November 1947.

West Germany – May 8, 1949 (PLC)
On the 4th anniversary of the German capitulation, the temporary West German constitution, the Grundgesetz, is accepted.

Austria / Yugoslavia / Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. – May 10, 1949 (KCA)
The four-Power discussions on the Austrian Peace Treaty are once again adjourned without an agreement being reached on the disputed articles, notably Yugoslavia’s demands for frontier rectifications, autonomy for Carinthian Slovenes, and the amount and method of payment of reparations to the Soviet Union.

Romania – May 10, 1949 (PIR)
The CC Secretariat analyzes the situation of party members excluded after verification, the distribution of party membership cards, the organization of trials against members of anti-communist resistance fighters from the mountains, and the donation of the Cotroceni Palace to the Pioneers’ Organization.

Austria – May 11, 1949 (KCA)
The Austrian Parliament unanimously adopts a resolution appealing to Britain, the U.S., France and the Soviet Union to conclude a peace treaty with Austria at the earliest possible moment.

Romania / Soviet Union – May 11, 1949 (PIR)
The USSR offers a new state loan to Romania; a total of 77 billion rubles has been lent between 1945 and 1949.

Albania / Yugoslavia– May 11, 1949 (PVC) (REV)
The trial of Interior Minister Koci Xoxe starts in Tirana behind closed doors. He is
sentenced to death and is executed. His trial is part of the campaign against Yugoslavia and preludes a spate of show trials in the Soviet-bloc countries.

Germany – May 12, 1949 (KCA)
The Soviet blockade of Berlin and the Western Powers’ counter measures end at one minute past midnight.

Austria – May 13, 1949 (KCA)
Soviet authorities inform Figl, the Australian Chancellor, that the existing restrictions on the control of goods traffic between the Western and Soviet zones of Austria will be relaxed starting May 25.

Romania – May 13, 1949 (PIR)
The Grand Assembly of the Committee for the Defense of Peace in the RPR is summoned.

Hungary – May 15, 1949 (HC) (KCA)
General Elections take place in Hungary. Participation is 96,04%, of which 96,27% votes are cast for the representatives of the People’s Front. 270 seats are given to the Hungarian Workers’ Party, 62 for the Smallholders, 30 for the National Peasants, 12 for the Independent Democrats, and 4 for the Radicals. U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson denounces the Hungarian election as a “flagrant violation” of the political freedoms guaranteed in the Hungarian Peace Treaty.

Germany, Soviet Occupied Zone – May 15-16, 1949 (PLC)
At the single-listed elections in the Soviet occupational zone of Germany, the SED receives 66.1% of the votes.

Czechoslovakia – May 16, 1949 (KCA)
General Karl Kutlvasr, who led the Prague uprising in Germany in 1945 and who was a leader of the Czechoslovak resistance movement, is sentenced to life imprisonment on charges of conspiracy against the State and espionage on behalf of an unnamed Western Power.

Romania – May 16-18, 1949 (PIR)
Elections for popular assessors in Bucharest take place.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 16, 1949 (HWC/LYE)
The Yugoslav pursuit of $25 million worth of export credits from the U.S. Export-Import Bank in Washington begins. The request is eventually fulfilled: a $20 million credit is granted to Yugoslavia in September at a 3.5% interest rate over seven years and with no payment until 1954.

Finland – May 19, 1949 (KCA)
Former President Risto Ryti, who was sentenced to ten years imprisonment with hard labor by the war guilt tribunal in February 1946, is pardoned by President Paasikivi on the recommendation of the Cabinet. The pardon is issued based on the advice of Ryti’s doctors, who allegedly said he suffers from an incurable disease.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – May 19, 1949 (PVC)
Yugoslavia sends a note to Hungary protesting the delay in the shipment of Hungarian repatriations.

West Germany – May 20, 1949 (KCA)
Railway workers in the Western sectors of Berlin commence a strike demanding the Reichsbahn, which is under the jurisdiction of the Soviet transport authorities, to pay employees in Western marks, to remove restrictions on trade union membership, and to reinstate workers dismissed by the Communist head of the Railway Administration Herr Kreykemeier.

Hungary – May 20, 1949 (HC)
The Government of István Dobi resigns.
The number 4043/1949 decree of the government is published, according to which the Budapest Stock and Commodity Exchange is eliminated from May 31.

Soviet Union / U.S. / U.N. – May 21, 1949 (LBC)
The European Economic Committee of the U.N. decides to set up a permanent committee for the development of East-West trade. The U.S. and the Soviet Union support the resolution.

Yugoslavia / France – May 21, 1949 (PVC)
Yugoslavia signs a one-year trade agreement with France.

Finland – May 22, 1949 (KCA)
President Paasikivi extends pardons to Vaino Tanner and Erwin Linkomies, who were released on parole in 1948 after serving half of their sentences.

West Germany – May 23, 1949 (PLC/REV)
The Grundgesetz is put into force in West Germany. The Federal Republic of Germany is founded in the three Western zones of occupation.

Germany / Austria/ Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – May 23-June 20, 1949 (PLC)
The 8th session of the Council of Foreign Ministers in Paris discusses the German question. At the end of the session, the three Western powers accept the occupational charter of West Germany. The Allied Highest Council of Germany is formed.
It is decided that Yugoslavia cannot get Karintia and other parts of Styria, because Visinshky announced in June that he no longer intends to support the Yugoslavs.
It is decided that Austria’s frontiers shall be those of January 1, 1938 (the frontiers existing before the Anschluss), that Austria shall guarantee to protect the rights of the Slovene and Croat minority in the country, that reparations shall not be extracted from Austria but that Yugoslavia shall have the right to seize, liquidate or retain Austrian property on Yugoslav territory, that Austria shall pay the Soviet Union $150,000,000 in war reparations over 6 years, and that Austria shall relinquish all property, rights, or interests held or claimed as German assets and of war industrial enterprises, houses and similar immovable property in Austria held as war booty.

Romania – May 23, 1949 (PIR)
By Decree no. 218, the General Press and Print Direction of the Council of Ministers is founded. The Romanian Press Agency (Agerpres) is created. Another decree regulates the expansion of the radio audience and the content of radio programs.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – May 23, 1949 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a strongly-worded note to the Soviet Government complaining that the “incomprehensible acts of the USSR and its attitude towards Yugoslavia” are turning the 20 year Soviet-Yugoslav Treaty into a “dead letter”.

Romania – May 25, 1949 (PIR)
The Political Bureau approves the project for the completion of the Danube-Black Sea canal, where tens of thousands of political detainees would work in inhumane conditions.
The trial of the “gang of crooks” – Anton Dumitriu, Radu Xenopol, George Litman – begins; they are accused of fraud and condemned to maximum sentences.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – May 25, 1949 (WBA)
Eleven members of the Yugoslav reparations and restitution delegation are expelled from Hungary by the Hungarian Foreign Ministry’s note No. 4990.

Germany – May 26-30, 1949 (KCA)
The Reichsbahn rejects offers by the U.G.O. trade union of the railway employees to maintain inter-zonal traffic, bringing railway traffic between Berlin and Western Germany to a standstill.

Czechoslovakia – May 28, 1949 (KCA)
Minister of Information Kopecky attacks Roman Catholic hierarchy at the Communist Party Congress in Prague.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – May 28-29, 1949 (PVC)
In its latest note to Hungary, Yugoslavia demands that Hungary comply with the regulations of the peace treaty and continue the shipment of reparations.

Czechoslovakia – May 29, 1949 (KCA)
In a letter to his clergy Beran, Archbishop of Prague and Roman Catholic Primate of Czechoslovakia, declares that resuming negotiations with the Government to improve relations between Church and State would be “hopeless and vain” in light of the Communist attitude towards religion.

Yugoslavia – May 29, 1949 (RSB)
In his two-hour speech Edvard Kardelj introduces to the Yugoslav Parliament the Law on People’s Committees.

East Germany – May 30, 1949 (PLC/REV)
The elected representatives of the Soviet-occupied zone of Germany accept the constitution of the German Democratic Republic. Inauguration of the republic is proclaimed on October 7.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – May 30, 1949 (KCA)
Belgrade announces that the Yugoslav Reparations Mission in Hungary has been ordered by the Hungarian Government to leave the country after an exchange of notes in which Hungary virtually cancelled its reparations obligations to Yugoslavia by unilateral action.

Soviet Bloc / U.S. – May 30, 1949 (LBC)
US Secretary of Commerce Sawyer admits in a Toronto speech that U.S. foreign policy is directed at holding back East European exports, and only an improvement of East-West relations can change this.

Czechoslovakia / U.S. – May 31, 1949 (LBC)
At a commercial conference in France, Czechoslovakia protests that the U.S. is precluding the delivery of $27 million worth of goods ordered from the U.S.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – May 31, 1949 (KCA)
The Soviet Government sends a reply to the Yugoslav note of May 23, describing Yugoslavia’s allegations as “gross slander” and declaring that the Yugoslav Government had “deprived itself of the right to expect a friendly attitude from the Soviet Government inasmuch as Yugoslavia pursues a policy hostile to the Soviet Union.



June, 1949



Hungary / Yugoslavia – June 17 1949 (HC)
The Hungarian Government sends a note to the Yugoslav Government concerning the Yugoslav failure to meet its obligations in light of the July 1947 economic agreement.

Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / U.K. / U.S. – June 1, 1949 (LBC)
The United Kingdom and the U.S. announce that, in the name of the peace treaty, they demand Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria to rectify the injustices committed against church leaders.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – June 1, 1949 (HWC)
The British Cabinet's Economic Policy Committee, chaired by Attlee, decides that credit can be granted to Yugoslavia, even if it were justified only by political, and not by commercial considerations.

Hungary – June 2, 1949 (HC) (KCA)
Count Mihály Károlyi, Hungarian Minister in Paris since July 1947, presents his resignation to President Szakasits on the grounds of age and poor health. He then leaves the country permanently.

Romania – June 2, 1949 (PIR)
General Radu R. Rosetti dies in the Jilava prison.

Romania – June 2, 1949 (PIR)
The RPR Academy promises its involvement in the building of the Cernavodă – Black Sea canal, through a telegram of its president, Traian Săvulescu.

Hungary – June 3, 1949 (HC)
The Economic High Council is eliminated.

Austria / Czechoslovakia – June 6, 1949 (KCA)
The trustees of the Austrian Government Guaranteed Conversion Loan announce that Czechoslovakia has failed to pay its portion of the guaranteed interest loan due on June 1 and that the coupons will only be met at 75% of their face value.

Romania – June 7, 1949 (PIR)
The CC Secretariat of PMR discusses the nationalization of the printing press and some private theaters.

Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – June 7, 1949 (WBA)
Negotiations on trade policy begin in Prague between delegations of the Yugoslav and the Czechoslovak Governments. The negotiations are broken off by the Czechoslovak Government on June 11, 1949.

Hungary – June 8, 1949 (HC)
The first meeting of the reelected Parliament takes place in Budapest. It approves the number 1949: XV Law about the establishment of new ministries, and about the formation of the new government. According to this, the Ministry for the People’s Education, Interior and Foreign Trade Ministries, Ministries of Heavy and Light Industry, Traffic and Post Ministries and Construction Ministries are established. It also approves the number 1949:XVI Law about the foundation of the Council of the People’s Economy. The President nominates Ernő Gerő as its Chairman, and János Szita as its Secretary.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – June 8, 1949 (HWC)
British military planners include the possibility of Yugoslav neutrality in their defense strategies.

Czechoslovakia – June 9, 1949 (KCA)
Alois Petr, the Czechoslovak Minister of Transport, announces the formation of a Catholic Action Committee, sponsored by the People’s Party which is “dedicated to reaching an agreement between the Church and Government”, recognizing the Archbishops and Bishops, but insisting that” the Catholic Church should not mix in secular matters.”

Yugoslavia / Albania – June 9, 1949 (WBA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note to the Albanian Government proposing negotiations on unsettled economic questions, resulting from the breach of economic agreements by Albania.

Romania – June 9, 1949 (PIR)
The Society for Historical and Philological Sciences in Romania is founded.

Soviet Union / U.K. – June 9, 1949 (LBC)
In a speech, British Foreign Minister Bevin states that if the Soviet and Western peoples cannot live in the same system, they could at least agree on coexistence.

Albania – June 10, 1949 (KCA)
Tirana radio announces that former Deputy Prime Minister and General Secretary of the Communist Party Lt.-Gen. Koçi Xoxe received the death sentence and that former chief of the Albanian Politburo and head of State Commission Pandi Kristu received a sentence of 20 years imprisonment. Both men were charged of collaborating with Tito and attempting to submit Albania to Yugoslav rule.

Hungary – June 11, 1949 (KCA/REV)
Following the elections President Szakasits appoints a new cabinet that is dominated by Communists. István Dobi is reappointed as Prime Minister

Albania – June 11, 1949 (KCA)
Koci Xoxe is executed by a firing squad.

Czechoslovakia / Yugoslavia – June 11, 1949 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government announces that it has broken off trade relations with Yugoslavia and has ceased all deliveries to the country, claiming that the Yugoslav Government is deliberately withholding important export goods from Czechoslovakia.

Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – June 11-12, 1949 (KCA)
The Soviet Government issues notes to the U.S. and Britain, rejecting their suggestion of a joint-approach to Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. The notes state that the three countries are accurately fulfilling the obligations assumed under the peace treaties, including those that guarantee human rights and fundamental freedoms; the notes also assert that the U.S. and Britain want to make use of the treaties to interfere in the domestic affairs of the three nations, and that the Soviet Union sees no reason to convene with the U.S. and Britain to discuss the issue.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – June 11, 1949 (WBA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note requesting the Soviet Government to return the children sent to school in the Soviet Union, and now forcibly detained in the USSR, to their parents in Yugoslavia. In connection with this question, the Yugoslav Embassy in Moscow had already addressed two notes (April 20, 1949, and May 18, 1949) to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR, requesting that the Yugoslav children be returned to their parents in Yugoslavia, but the Soviet Government did not answer either of these notes.

Bulgaria – June 14, 1949 (KCA)
The central committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party announces the expulsion from the party of Traicho Kostov, who was recently removed from the Deputy-Premiership on charges of nationalist deviation.

Soviet Union – June 14, 1949 (KCA)
Moscow announces the appointment of Ivan Tevosyan as Deputy Premier of the Council of Ministers and of Anatoli Kuzmin as Minister for the Metallurgical Industry. Tevosyan’s nomination brings the number of Deputy Premiers in the Soviet Council of Ministers to 14.

Soviet Union / U.S. – June 14, 1949 (LBC)
It is revealed that the Soviet Union drastically reduced its chrome and manganese deliveries to the U.S. Soviet exports to the U.S. diminish, but imports increase.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – June 16, 1949 (PVC/REV)
The Hungarian press announces that Minister of Foreign Affairs László Rajk has been expelled from the Communist Party under accusation of espionage and Trotskyism. On June 19, it is announced that the State Protection Authority (ÁVH) has arrested Rajk, Szőnyi, Pál Justus and 17 others. (In fact, Szőnyi was arrested on May 18.)

Bulgaria – June 17, 1949 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Government announces that Kostov has been deprived of his seat in the Sobranje (the National Assembly) after a party inquiry into his “anti-Dimitrov and anti-Stalin” activities.

Czechoslovakia – June 17, 1949 (KCA)
The Catholic Action Committee holds its first meeting, unanimously electing Ferdinand Pujman, director of the National Theater, as Chairman and Torok, a layman and member of the National Assembly, as General Secretary.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – June 18, 1949 (KCA)
The Hungarian Government breaks trade relations with Yugoslavia, annulling the five year trade agreement between the countries, declaring that Yugoslavia has withheld exports to Hungary.

Austria / Soviet Union / France / U.K. / U.S. / Yugoslavia – June 19, 1949 (WBA)
The Council of Foreign Ministers reaches a decision regarding the treaty with Austria in which the Yugoslav request for the incorporation of Slovene Carinthia into Yugoslavia is rejected. The Yugoslav request that the treaty compel Austria to pay reparations to Yugoslavia is also rejected.

Poland – June 18-July 11, 1949 (PSN)
The Warsaw Regional Military Court tries Adam Doboszynki, a National Party activist, for espionage.

Czechoslovakia / Vatican – June 20, 1949 (KCA)
In accordance with instructions from the Pope, the Sacred Congregation of the Holy See issues a decree condemning the Government-sponsored Catholic Action Committee in Czechoslovakia.

Poland – June 20, 1949 (KCA)
A spokesperson of the Polish Government announces that the State has taken over the Roman Catholic printing press as an executive measure taken under the nationalization law, adding that Church property was exempted from agrarian reform, but not from nationalization.

Czechoslovakia – June 21, 1949 (KCA)
Czechoslovak Premier Zapotocky delivers a radio speech accusing Archbishop Beran of ordering priests to participate in political actions against the Republic, warning that law and justice must be used against “marauders, provocateurs, and those who call for disorder and unrest”.

Romania – June 21, 1949 (KCA)
Áron Márton, (Hungarian) bishop of Alba Julia, is arrested.

Yugoslavia / Austria – June 21, 1949 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government issues a statement expressing bitterness at the Council of Foreign Ministers’ decisions regarding Austria, declaring that Yugoslavia will never renounce its justified territorial claims in relation to Slovene Carinthia.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – June 22, 1949 (WBA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note to protest Hungary’s unilateral breach of the agreement on Hungarian long-term deliveries and Yugoslav counter-deliveries. The Hungarian Government does not answer to this note.

Czechoslovakia / U.S. – June 23, 1949 (LBC)
U.S. Secretary of State Acheson claims that the procedure against Cardinal Beran in Czechoslovakia violates “the decencies of civilization”. He compares Cardinal Beran’s trial to the Hungarian, Bulgarian and other East European campaigns, which according to Acheson are interrelated and part of a communist plan to subjugate the Catholic Church.

Hungary – June 23, 1949 (KCA)
Speaking in Prague, where he had gone to ratify the Czechoslovak-Hungarian treaty of friendship and alliance, Rákosi states that 200,000 members had been expelled from the Hungarian Communist Party, about 18% of the total.

Romania – June 25, 1949 (PIR)
The creation of the Society for the Spreading of Science and Culture takes place.

Romania – June 25, 1949 (PIR)
Decree no. 267 for the recognition of the Writers’ Union as judicial entity of public utility is issued.

Czechoslovakia – June 26, 1949 (KCA)
Despite the speech given by the Czechoslovak Premier days earlier, Archbishop Beran along with other Bishops issues another pastoral letter in which he maintains the position taken up in earlier letters. The letter is read in many churches.

Hungary – June 26, 1949 (HC)
A law is passed eliminating the Law Acadmies of Eger, Kecskemét and Miskolc and the Law and Public Administration Faculty of the University of Debrecen.

Romania – June 26, 1949 (KCA)
Anton Durcovici, Bishop of Jasi is arrested.

Romania – June 26, 1949 (PIR)
The resolution of the Political Bureau of the CC of PMR regarding the stimulation and development of physical culture and sport is published.

Czechoslovakia – June 27, 1949 (KCA)
Following Beran’s pastoral letter, three decrees are published in the Government’s Catholic Clergy Gazette prohibiting Church officials from issuing such letters and from holding meetings unless authorized by the Government. It declares the most recent “political excommunications” imposed by the Church to be invalid.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – June 27, 1949 (WBA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note to protest the violation of the agreement on joint measures regulating the hydraulic system of watercourses between Yugoslavia and Hungary.

Romania / Vatican – June 28, 1949 (KCA)
An announcement from the Vatican Secretariat of State announces that the Roman Catholic hierarchy had been eliminated by the arrest of Bishops Márton and Durcovici. The announcement alleges that a violent persecution of the Catholic Church had been going on since 1948.

Austria – June 29, 1949 (KCA)
In an interview with the Paris Le Monde, Austrian Foreign Minister Karl Gruber expresses his satisfaction with the agreement on Austria, reached during the conference of the CFM, and expresses his hope of complete agreement on the Austrian peace treaty during the next few months.

Czechoslovakia / Finland / Poland / Soviet Union – June 29, 1949 (KCA)
Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union sign interlocking trade agreements for the year July 1949-June 1950 involving a considerable increase in commercial exchange.

Yugoslavia / Romania – June 30, 1949 (WBA)
The Romanian Government unilaterally cancels the agreement with Yugoslavia on the policy regarding real estate in the border region, dating back to 1924.

Yugoslavia – June 30, 1949 (PVC)
A trial of espionage begins in Skopje. During the trial, five Bulgarian citizens of Macedonian descent are accused of economic and military espionage, organizing sabotage and plotting the assassination of leading Yugoslav politicians.



July 1949



Romania / Hungary – July 1949 (HC)
Petőfi celebrations were held in Shigishoara (Segesvár) at the 100th anniversary of the death of the Hungarian poet Sándor Petőfi.

Hungary – July 1, 1949 (HC)
Former left wing Social Democrat György Marosán is dismissed as a secretary of the Central Leadership of the Hungarian Workers’ Party.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – July 1, 1949 (PLC)
In Belgrade a Yugoslav-American agreement is signed on Yugoslav neutrality and American economic aid. Conditions for the economic aid are, inter alia, abstaining from future claims on Trieste and from support for the Greek partisans. In line with the agreement Yugoslavia closes its Greek borders.

Bulgaria / Soviet Union – July 2, 1949 (KCA)
The Soviet Council of Ministers and the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party jointly issue a statement announcing the death of Georgi Dimitrov in a Moscow sanatorium.

Yugoslavia / Egypt – July 2, 1949 (OEH)
Yugoslavia concludes a trade and payments agreement with Egypt.

Czechoslovakia – July 3, 1949 (KCA)
At the request of the Czechoslovak Government, Godfrey Lias, correspondent of The Times in Czechoslovakia and Harold Melahn of the United Press agency leave the country.

Yugoslavia / Trieste – July 3, 1949 (KCA)
It is officially announced in Belgrade that from July 7, the Yugoslav dinar would become the official currency in “Zone B” of the Free Territory of Trieste, the area under Yugoslav occupation.

Romania – July 5, 1949 (PIR)
In the Arpasel commune in the district of Bihor, peasants protesting against collectivization take PMR activists hostage.

Romania – July 5-6, 1949 (PIR)
The Agrarian Commission of the CC of PMR establishes the first model-statute for the GAC’s (collective farms), with the purpose of ensuring “the victory over kulaks, exploiters and enemies of those who work.”

Soviet Bloc – July 5, 1949 (KCA)
After a two-day conference in London, attended by representatives of the émigré Bulgarian Socialist Party, the Czech Social Democratic Party, the Hungarian Social Democratic Party, the Polish Socialist Party and the Yugoslav Socialist Party, a common center of Socialist parties from Central and Eastern Europe is formed under the name of the Socialist Union of Central-Eastern Europe. The new organization is representative of all the Socialist parties in Central and Eastern Europe that have been suppressed by Communist regimes.

Poland / Yugoslavia – July 5, 1949 (KCA)
Warsaw radio announces that the Polish Government has also broken off trade relations with Yugoslavia.

Romania / Soviet Union – July 5, 1949 (KCA)
Conventions are signed in Bucharest to establish three joint Soviet-Romanian companies to control Romanian metal production, coal production, and the building industry.

Bulgaria – July 6, 1949 (KCA)
The body of Dimitrov, embalmed by the same process used to preserve Lenin, arrives in Sofia.

Poland / France / U.K. / U.S. – July 6, 1949 (KCA)
British, U.S., French and Polish Governments sign an agreement allowing Poland to participate in the distribution of monetary gold looted during the war by Germany. The amount to which it is entitled has yet to be established.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – July 6, 1949 (HWC)
A Yugoslav official informs the U.S. embassy in Belgrade that his government is “extremely anxious to liquidate the Greek situation as soon as possible”. It is the first time that the Americans are informed about Yugoslavia’s changed attitude toward the Greek question.

Germany – July 8-9, 1949 (KCA)
Without explanation, the Soviet authorities close all crossing points for road traffic between the Western and Soviet zones of Germany.

Soviet Union / U.K. – July 8, 1949 (LBC)
The Soviet Union and the U.K. sign a commercial agreement for the exchange of military material and grain.

Germany – July 9-26. 1949 (KCA)
The four Deputy Military Governors in Berlin hold joint meetings in connection with the implementation of the Paris decisions of the Council of Foreign Ministers for the establishment of a modus vivendi in Germany.

Hungary – July 9, 1949 (KCA)
The National Council of the People’s Courts rejects Cardinal Mindszenty’s appeal of his sentence to life in prison that was given the previous February. The sentence of Béla Ispánky is reduced from life imprisonment to 15 years, that of Professor Baranyai from 15 to 12 years, and that of András Zakar from 6 to 4 years. Sentences for Prince Pál Esterházy, László Tóth and Miklós Nagy remain unchanged (15, 10 and 3 years respectively).

Bulgaria – July 10, 1949 (KCA)
Dimitrov is buried with national honors in the presence of nearly 500,000 people, including top Communist leaders from several countries.

Poland / Vatican – July 13, 1949 (HDP)
The Pope excommunicates all Catholic members of Communist Parties.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – July 13, 1949 (PVC)
Djilas delivers a speech at Cetinje on the eighth anniversary of the outbreak of the Montenegrin uprising and praises the war efforts of the partisans while criticizing the Soviet leaders. According to British sources, the main aim of Djilas's speech is to take the wind out of sales of the Montenegrin internal opposition.

Romania – July 14, 1949 (PIR)
An agricultural tax for small and medium households is established. The Law contributes to the containment of the economic power of kulaks and to the limitation of the exploitation of the masses of working peasantry, obliging kulaks to hand over to the state a significant part of their revenues, created through the exploitation of rural paupers.

Czechoslovakia – July 15, 1949 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government issues the text of a new Church Law applicable to all religious denominations, providing for full State control over churches.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – July 16, 1949 (LUY)
It becomes known that the World Bank has agreed in principle to make a token loan to Yugoslavia.  Later in the month it dispatches a study mission to survey Yugoslav needs in regard to the larger request.

Czechoslovakia – July 17, 1949 (KCA)
A proclamation affirming the loyalty of the Czechoslovak priests to Archbishop Beran and disowning the government-sponsored Catholic Action Committee is read in a number of churches throughout the country, including the Cathedral of St. Vitus.

Romania – July 17, 1949 (PIR)
Members of an armed resistance group (attorney Spiru Blănaru, commander Petre Domoşneanu, Ion Tănase, Petre Puşchiţă, Romulus Mariţescu) active in Banat in 1948-1949 are executed.

Czechoslovakia – July 18, 1949 (KCA)
After their appeals against their conviction for treason, espionage, and sabotage were rejected, the five men sentenced to death on June 9 for alleged conspiratorial contact with Captain Wildash, the former British military permit officer in Prague, are executed.

Romania – July 18, 1949 (PIR)
Leonte Rautu presents proposals regarding the organization of the party apparatus to the Politbureau.

Bulgaria – July 20, 1949 (KCA)
The Sobranje unanimously elects Vasil Kolarov, acting-Premier during the illness of the late Dimitrov, as the new Prime Minister of Bulgaria. Five Deputy-Premiers are also nominated.

Hungary – July 20, 1949 (HC)
Kálmán Pongrácz from the MDP is elected as the major of Budapest. His deputy is József Köböl.

Romania – July 21, 1949 (PIR)
The cereal collection regime is established. Agricultural producers are obliged to hand over to the state, at an official price, part of their harvest, quotas being established by the State Commission for Cereal Collection.

Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – July 22, 1949 (LBC)
In a note to London and Washington the USSR turns down the Anglo-American invitation for a three power conference to discuss the alleged violations of the peace treaty by Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania.

Romania – July 23-28, 1949 (PIR)
Incidents occur in a number of communes in the Bihor district (Spinuş, Sarsig, Mişca, Tria, Dernişoare) during a campaign of collecting the quotas of agricultural products.

Romania – July 24, 1949 (PIR)
The first Agricultural Production Cooperatives are inaugurated.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – July 25, 1949 (REV)
Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Vladimir Clementis and Hungarian Finance Ministry State Secretary István Antos sign the Štrbské Pleso (Csorba-tó) agreement resolving pending financial and economic issues between the two countries.

East Germany – July 25, 1949 (KCA)
The Soviets lift all restrictions on traffic along the entire frontier zone of East Germany.

Poland / Vatican – July 27, 1949 (KCA)
The Polish Government issues a statement describing the Papal edict threatening excommunication of Catholics supporting the Communist doctrines as a brutal violation of the freedom of conscience, declaring that attempts to split the nation’s unity by implementing foreign directives cannot be tolerated, and threatening to severely punish all activities which disturb public order or weaken the people’s democracy.

Germany / U.K. / U.S. – July 29, 1949 (KCA)
Britain and the U.S. jointly announce that the Berlin airlift will be progressively reduced from August 1.

Romania / Soviet Union – July 29, 1949 (KCA)
A new joint Soviet-Romanian insurance company is set up.

Romania – July 29, 1949 (PIR)
Peasant revolts against the collectivization of agriculture occur in several communes from the Bihor district (Ucuriş, Belfir, Girişul Negru, Tăut, Tinca, Batâr, Homorog, Marginea, etc.). 16 peasants are executed and another 295 deported.

Hungary – July 30, 1949 (HC)
An agreement on border changes between Hungary and the Soviet Union is signed by both countries in Moscow.

Romania – July 30, 1949 (PIR)
New identity cards are introduced: the identity bulletin for all citizens of Romania, a new means of sorting and arresting regime opponents.



August 1949



Soviet Bloc – August 1949 (CEC)
During the second session of the Comecon in Sofia, agreement is reached on the common coordination of scientific and technological cooperation and of long-term economical planning.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union / Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania – August 1949 (KCA)
The tension between the USSR and Yugoslavia is accompanied by intense radio and press attacks on Yugoslavia from Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria.

Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / U.K. / U.S. – August 1, 1949 (LBC)
The U.S. and the United Kingdom request Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania through diplomatic channels to allow unbiased observers to ensure observation of the peace treaties and human rights.

Romania – August 1, 1949 (PIR)
A law is passed founding the Agricultural Collectives (GAC: Gospodăriile Agricole Colective, Collective Agricultural Households).

Romania – August 1, 1949 (PIR)
The Council of Ministers orders the abolition of monastic orders with educative, missionary and charitable character.

Romania – August 1-2, 1949 (PIR)
Peasant revolts against collectivization take place in several communes from the Arad district (Gurba, Şepreuş, Apateu, Sintea Mare, Atea, Şornoscheş). 12 peasants are executed.

Yugoslavia – August 2, 1949 (PVC)
Tito speaks in Skopje on the anniversary of the proclamation of the Republic of Macedonia. He criticizes the policies of the people's democracies, and states that trade relations with the West are needed for the successful completion of the five year plan.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – August 3, 1949 (WBA)
An agreement on mixed commissions for the investigation and ascertainment of frontier incidents between the FPRY and the Republic of Hungary is signed in Subotica.

Yugoslavia / Italy – August 4, 1949 (KCA)
The Italian Minister for Foreign Trade and the Yugoslav Deputy Minister of Foreign Trade sign a new trade agreement between the two countries, supplementing the 5-year agreement concluded in 1947.

Poland – August 5, 1949 (PSN)
A decree is issued “On the Promotion of Freedom of Conscience and Religion.” It mandates prison terms for the “abuse of the freedom of religion and conscience for the purposes hostile to the system.”

Bulgaria – August 6, 1949 (KCA)
The new Bulgarian Prime Minister Kolarov relinquishes the portfolio of foreign affairs to Vladimir Poptomov.

Hungary – August 6, 1949 (HC)
A law is passed founding the Criminal Judge and Prosecutor Academy of Budapest.

Romania – August 6, 1949 (PIR)
A peasant uprising against the collectivization of agriculture breaks out in Calafindeşti, district of Suceava.

Yugoslavia / Italy – August 6, 1949 (KCA)
A further Italian-Yugoslav agreement is signed concerning the restitution by Italy of property removed from Yugoslavia during the war.

Poland – August 7, 1949 (KCA)
The Polish Government issues a decree that, whilst reaffirming religious freedom and freedom of conscience, administers heavy penalties for religious activities that the Government does not approve of.

Romania – August 9, 1949 (PIR)
The decree for the creation and organization of the Committee for Physical Culture and Sport of the Council of Ministers is published.

Yugoslavia / Italy – August 10, 1949 (KCA)
Carlo Sforza, Italian Foreign Minister announces that Yugoslavia has ordered the immediate release of all Italian fishing vessels which had been confiscated in recent months for allegedly fishing too close to the Yugoslav coast, indicating a further improvement in Italian-Yugoslav relations.

Czechoslovakia / Vatican – August 11, 1949 (KCA)
Church sources announce that a few weeks before, the Vatican appointed Ambrosius Lazik and Robert Pobozny as titular ishops of Appia and Neila, without seeking the approval of the Czechoslovak Government, violating the modus vivendi which requires government approval of all new appointments.

Hungary – August 11, 1949 (HC)
The Council of People’s Economy nationalizes all theaters in the countryside.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – August 11, 1949 (KCA)
The Soviet Union issues a strong note to the Yugoslav Government, repudiating Yugoslav charges that the USSR was responsible for overruling, in the Council of Foreign Ministers, Yugoslavia’s territorial claims on Austria, declaring that the Soviet Union regarded Yugoslavia “not as a friend and all, but as an enemy and an opponent” of the Soviet Union.

Yugoslavia – August 11, 1949 (ACY)
In an interview with an Associated Press correspondent, Patriarch Gavrilo emphasises that the Serbian Orthodox Church is completely loyal to the state and the government, and does not concern itself with politics or political parties. He also adds that there is no conflict between the government and the church.

Hungary / France – August 13, 1949 (KCA)
Zoltán Szántó is announced as Mihály Károlyi’s successor as Hungarian minister in Paris.

Czechoslovakia – August 14, 1949 (KCA)
The two new Bishops are consecrated. 

Czechoslovakia – August 14, 1949 (KCA)
When assembled at Trnava for the consecration, the Roman Catholic bishops in Czechoslovakia draw up a memorandum stating their grievances and laying down their conditions for a settlement of the Church-State conflict.

West Germany – August 14, 1949 (PLC)
At the general elections in West Germany, the CDU receives 31% of the votes, the SPD 29.2%. Participation rate: 78.5%.

Hungary – August 14-28, 1949 (HC)
The Second World Festival of Youth and Students takes place in Budapest with 10.000 participants from 82 countries.

Bulgaria – August 15, 1949 (KCA)
General Blagoje is appointed Minister of Public Works replacing Sakelarov, whose resignation for reasons of health is announced at the same time.

Romania – August 15, 1949 (KCA)
By law, all Roman Catholic welfare support in Romania is dissolved. 

Yugoslavia – August 16, 1949 (KCA)
Radenko Stankovic and Ivo Petrovic, who were members of the Council of Regency which ruled Yugoslavia from 1934-1941, are sentenced to 12 and 11 years imprisonment by a Belgrade court on charges of having made Yugoslavia economically dependent on Germany, promoting a pro-Fascist policy, and supporting pre-war Governments which ruled by undemocratic and terrorist methods.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – August 16, 1949 (LUY)
Ambassador Sava Kosanović informs U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson of  Yugoslavia’s economic problems. The following day the United States grants Yugoslavia permission to purchase a $3 million steel finishing mill from Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co.

Czechoslovakia – August 17, 1949 (KCA)
Archbishop Beran, who had been confined to his palace since June 19, publishes a letter dating August 5, protesting his internment, the presence of government agents in his office, and the seizure of his funds and estates.

Poland / Soviet Union – August 17, 1949 (PLC)
A Polish-Soviet treaty is signed finalizing the division of East Prussia.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – August 17, 1949 (PVC)
Yugoslavia protests the expulsion of the Yugoslav delegate of the World Festival of Students and Youth from Hungary.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – August 17, 1949 (PVC)
A delegation of the World Bank arrives in Belgrade.

Czechoslovakia / UK – August 18, 1949 (KCA)
Britain and Czechoslovakia sign a new payment agreement, replacing their Monetary Agreement of November 4, 1945.

Hungary – August 18, 1949 (HC/REV)
The Hungarian Parliament approves the new constitution of the Hungarian People’s Republic. It is based on the Soviet constitution, and secures the right to employment and bread.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – August 18, 1949 (KCA/PVC/WBA)
The Soviet Government condemns the alleged ill treatment of Soviet citizens in Yugoslavia. The statement is a reply to the Yugoslav arrest of Soviet citizens on July 30.

Hungary – August 23, 1949 (HC)
The Parliament elects a Presedential Council headed by President Árpád Szakasits.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – August 23, 1949 (PVC)
All traffic through Trieste to and from Hungary is diverted by the Hungarian authorities along Tarvisio, thereby avoiding Yugoslav territory.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – August 24-25, 1949 (HWC)
Agreement is reached within an inner Cabinet consisting of Attlee, Harold Wilson of the Board of Trade, and Bevin, agreeing that the Yugoslavs should be given a medium-term credit of £8 million and a short-term credit of £5 million. The trade agreement is eventually signed on 26 December 1949.

Albania – August 26, 1949 (KCA)
The formation of a Committee for Free Albania comprising a number of anti-Communist Albanian groups and persons in exile is announced in Paris.

Hungary – August 26, 1949 (HC/REV)
A law is passed ordering the elimination of the food ticket system, starting September 1, but precluding refined flour.

Soviet Union – August 28, 1949 (PLC)
The abolition of the Ukrainian Unitus Church is declared in Munkacevo (Munkács).

Yugoslavia / U.K. / Hungary – August 28, 1949 (PVC)
British Ambassador to Yugoslavia Charles Peake meets Aleš Bebler. Their conversation raises the possibility of reporting to the UN Security Council Yugoslavia’s fears of Soviet Army manoeuvres (notably in Hungary).

Soviet Union – August 29, 1949 (PLC)
In Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, the first Soviet atomic bomb is tested. The United States loses its monopoly of nuclear weapons; the nuclear arms race begins. The Soviet Union announces the news on September 25.

Czechoslovakia – August 30, 1949 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government announces that it has discovered and frustrated an insurrectionary plot to overthrow the régime; that after a trial six persons were sentenced to death, and 10 others were sentenced to life imprisonment, and that a number of others received sentences ranging from one to 25 years of hard labor. 

Yugoslavia / U.S. – August 31, 1949 (PVC)
During a press conference, U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson mentions Yugoslavia and states that the Soviet army manoeuvres in the neighbouring countries are being watched closely and are considered part of the war of nerves against Yugoslavia. Still, the U.S. does not plan any shipments of arms and ammunition to Yugoslavia.


September 1949



Poland – September 1949 (PLC)
A few priests in Poland found the Association of Fighting for Freedom and Democracy.

Romania – September 1949 (PIR)
The General Direction of the People’s Security decides that all political detainees be liberated after the termination of their punishment, without the assent of the Securitate. However this does not include those with sentences over one year, which were deposed at the regional Securitate organs.

Yugoslavia / U.K. / U.S. – September 1949 (LBY)
The British and the Americans announce that they would regard an attack on Yugoslavia as an action that would require Western response. The terms of this response are left deliberately vague.

Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia / Greece – September 1949 (SGY)
Facing problems with the Cominformist activities of Greek refugees in Yugoslavia, the Yugoslav leaders decide to let a number of them emigrate to Czechoslovakia via Hungary.

Romania – September 1, 1949 (PIR)
Decree no. 362 regarding the dissolution and liquidation of enterprises and insurance societies is approved.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – September 2, 1949 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government announces that the agreements of February 4, 1947, which established mixed Soviet-Yugoslav corporations for civil aviation and Danube navigation, have been dissolved at the request of Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia – September 2, 1949 (PVC)
The Yugoslav press denies the accusations that riots take place at Rijeka and Pula.

Hungary – September 3, 1949 (HC)
The meeting of the Central Leadership of the Hungarian Worker’s Party takes place in Budapest. A report is delivered about the Rajk case and about ‘Imre Nagy’s right wing and opportunist deviationism’.

Hungary – September 5, 1949 (HC)
The Presidential Council reelects the government that resigned after the establishment of the new Constitution.

Hungary – September 5, 1949 (REV)
Compulsory religious education in schools is abolished.

Yugoslavia / Albania – September 5, 1949 (WBA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note proposing to the Albanian Government the conclusion of an agreement on the investigation of border incidents.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – September 5, 1949 (PVC)
The British Embassy in Belgrade informs the Foreign Office that the Yugoslav Chief of Staff is requesting a meeting with the British military attaché, probably in connection with the Soviet army manoeuvres. In its reply, the Foreign Office urges the Embassy to act in caution and reserve.

Hungary – September 10, 1949 (HC)
The Central Leadership of the Hungarian Worker’s Party announces that it excludes Zoltán Horváth, Pál Justus, and György Pálffy as foreign spies of the imperialist states.

East Germany – September 11, 1949 (KCA)
The Socialist Unity Party’s acceptance of the Oder-Neisse line as Germany’s final Eastern frontier is emphasized at a large demonstration in the Soviet sector of Berlin.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – September 11, 1949 (PVC)
The indictment in László Rajk’s trial is made public.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – September 14, 1949 (KCA)
Tito presents a strongly worded note to the Hungarian Minister in Belgrade describing the László Rajk trial as a “disgusting attack on the honour, independence and sovereign rights of Yugoslavia.”

Romania – September 15, 1949 (KCA)
A State Control Commission to be attached to the Council of Ministers is created by decree.

Yugoslavia – September 15, 1949 (PVC)
King Petar gives an interview to the Continental Daily Mail in which he describes the conflict between Tito and Stalin as a fight between two gangsters. At the given moment, he considers Tito as the lesser evil, but only asks for cautious help.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – September 15, 1949 (PVC)
The United Kingdom renounces its compensation claim on Yugoslavia.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – September 16, 1949 (KCA)
The trial of László Rajk along with seven other defendants opens in Budapest. All the defendants are charged with conspiracy, plans to overthrow the Hungarian Government with the alleged help of Yugoslavia, plotting to assassinate Deputy Premier Rákosi and other prominent Communists, and carrying out espionage on behalf of Yugoslavia and the Western Powers.

East Germany / Soviet Union – September 16, 1949 (PLC)
The Soviet Communist Party and the SED finalize their decision to proclaim the German Democratic Republic.

Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – September 17, 1949 (WBA)
The Yugoslav Embassy in Sofia sends a note to the Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs protesting the expulsion of a delegation of Yugoslav students from Sofia that had been scheduled to participate in the proceedings of the Council of the International Union of Students.

Soviet Union / U.S. – September 20, 1949 (PLC)
American President Truman announces that the Soviet Union has nuclear weapons.

Yugoslavia / U.K. / U.S. – September 20, 1949 (HWC)
The Yugoslavs inform various Western delegations of their intention to be elected to one of the UN Security Council seats which rotate among the smaller member states of the United Nations.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – September 21, 1949 (KCA)
The Chief Prosecutor in the Rajk case Alapi calls for the death sentence for all the defendants.

Soviet Union / Canada / U.K. / U.S. – September 22, 1949 (KCA)
The U.S., British and Canadian Governments issue statements announcing that they have evidence that an atomic explosion had taken place within the Soviet Union in recent weeks.

Austria – September 23, 1949 (KCA)
The Austrian Cabinet decides to abolish all food rationing, except that of meat and rice, from September 12.

Soviet Union / U.N. / U.S. – September 23, 1949 (CWC)
Vishinsky introduces a resolution into the United Nations accusing the United States of planning for a new war. He proposes that the five permanent Security Council members sign a peace pact.

Hungary – September 24, 1949 (HC)
The People’s Court releases its verdict in the case of László Rajk and his accomplices. László Rajk, Tibor Szőnyi, András Szalai receive the death penalty, Lázár Brankov, Pál Justus receive life imprisonment for crimes against the people, for spying, disloyalty, the support of the war efforts of the imperialist states and the attempt to topple democratic order.
The convicted are executed on October 15.

Soviet Union / France / U.S. – September 25, 1949 (LBC)
The Soviet Union announces that it possesses the nuclear bomb. According to Acheson the foundations of U.S. foreign policy will not be changed by the Soviet possession of nuclear weapons. Charles de Gaulle claims that the fact that the USSR has the atomic bomb weakens the Atlantic Alliance. According to De Gaulle the U.S. “is neither obliged nor prepared to participate in the direct defense of our continent”. France will have to take care of its own defense. He proposes a direct French-German agreement.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – September 26, 1949 (KCA)
Ten members of the Yugoslav legation in Budapest are ordered by the Hungarian Government to leave the country within 24 hours.

Yugoslavia / U.N. – September 26, 1949 (RYN)
In his speech at the U.N. General Assembly, Edvard Kardelj, Yugoslav Minister of Foreign Affairs, sharply reverses his uncritical support of the Soviet Union of the previous year and opens with a blistering attack on Soviet interference in Yugoslav affairs. It is the first time that the Soviet-Yugoslav dispute has been raised in the U.N.

Soviet Union / U.S. – September 27, 1949 (KCA)
The Soviet Ambassador in Washington and the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State sign an agreement providing for the return to the U.S. of 30 small naval vessels turned over to the USSR during the war under the Lease-Lend Program.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – September 27, 1949 (PVC)
As a reply to the expulsion of the employees of the Yugoslav legation in Budapest, nine members of the Hungarian legation are expelled from Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – September 27, 1949 (WBA)
The Yugoslav Minister in Hungary sends a letter to the chiefs of diplomatic missions of the USSR, the United States and the United Kingdom, requesting the consideration of the reparations dispute between Yugoslavia and Hungary.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – September 27, 1949 (PVC)
The Russian Committee of the Foreign Office deals with the Yugoslav situation and rules out the possibility of a Soviet armed intervention against Yugoslavia in the near future.

Czechoslovakia / U.K. – September 28, 1949 (KCA)
Representatives of the British and Czechoslovak Governments sign a 5-year Trade and Financial Agreement, an Inter-Governmental Debts Agreement, and a Compensation Agreement.

Czechoslovakia / Sweden – September 28, 1949 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government arrests Swedish businessman Holger Hjelm.

Soviet Union – September 28, 1949 (KCA)
The American, British and French Commandants in Berlin announce that, on the instructions of the Allied High Commission, they had broken off the talks with the Soviet authorities for the normalization of the city’s life, for the time being.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – September 28, 1949 (KCA)
In a note handed to the Yugoslav Ambassador in Moscow, the Soviet Government formally denounces the 20-year Soviet-Yugoslav treaty of friendship and mutual assistance concluded in April 1945, due to the László Rajk trial, which the Soviet Government said proved that the Yugoslav Government had long carried out hostile acts against the Soviet Union.

Yugoslavia / Hungary / U.K. – September 28, 1949 (PVC)
British Ambassador Charles Peake meets Leo Mates who assures him that Yugoslavia has no interests in completely breaking diplomatic relations with Hungary.

Germany – September 30, 1949 (KCA)
The Berlin Airlift, which commenced June 26, 1948, officially ends.

Hungary / Poland / Yugoslavia – September 30, 1949 (KCA)
Hungary and Poland denounce their post-war treaties of friendship and mutual assistance with Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union / U.K. – September 30, 1949 (PVC)
The United Kingdom sends a note to the Soviet Union suggesting that the four great powers deal with the question of Hungary's suspension of the reparation shipments to Yugoslavia.



October 1949



Hungary – October 1949 (REV)
A fourth Soviet division is stationed in Hungary at the request of Mátyás Rákosi. The 2nd Mechanized Guard Division is redeployed from Romania to Danube-Tisza region towns, with its headquarters in Kecskemét.

Romania / Hungary – October 1949 (HC)
The leaders of the Hungarian Popular Alliance are brought to justice for high treason. Edgár Balogh, Lajos Csődör, János Demeter, Lajos Jordáky, Gyárfás Kurkó and József Méliusz receive imprisonment. They are released in 1955 (except Kurkó, who is released in 1965).

Poland – October 1949 (PSN)
International charitable organizations such as the Red Cross are ordered to stop their activities in Poland.

Yugoslavia – October 1949 (LYE)
The IMF has extended a token loan of $2.7 million to Yugoslavia for the purchase of timber equipment.  It dispatches the first of many missions to Belgrade to evaluate the investment opportunities for the larger request made earlier that year.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Bloc / U.S. – October 1949 (LKT)
The chiefs of U.S. Missions in Eastern Europe, meeting in London, agree that Tito should be assisted, but that economic pressure be maintained elsewhere in the Bloc.

Yugoslavia / Albania / Greece / U.N. – October 1949 (SGY)
A new Conciliation Committee is set up by the unanimous decision of the Fourth U.N. General Assembly. Again, the Committee's effort flounders on the problem of the Greek-Albanian frontier.

China  – October 1, 1949 (REV)
The Chinese People’s Republic is declared, with Mao Zedong as Head of State.

Soviet Union / West Germany – October 1, 1949 (KCA)
The Soviet Government issues notes to the U.S., British and French diplomatic representatives in Moscow protesting the creation of a separate West German State.

Soviet Union / China – October 1, 1949 (KRI)
The Soviet Union announces its recognition of the People’s Republic of China and breaks its ties with Chang Kai Shek's government.

Hungary – October 2, 1949 (HC)
The University of Heavy Industry is founded in Miskolc.

Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – October 3, 1949 (KCA)
Bulgaria denounces its post-war treaty of friendship and mutual assistance with Yugoslavia.

Romania / China – October 3, 1949 (PIR)
Romania establishes diplomatic relations with China.

Yugoslavia / U.N. – October 3, 1949 (JVJ)
Yugoslav Foreign Minister Edvard Kardelj delivers a speech at the U.N.

Czechoslovakia – October 4, 1949 (KCA)
Czechoslovakia denounces its post-war treaty of friendship and mutual assistance with Yugoslavia.

Czechoslovakia – October 4, 1949 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Government approves the text of the Church Bill.

Hungary – October 4, 1949 (KCA)
The Hungarian Government hands a note to the Western Powers protesting the creation of a West German State.

Yugoslavia – October 4, 1949 (KCA)
Minister of Interior Rankovic signs an amnesty for the release of 713 political prisoners, understood to be supporters of the Cominform.

East Germany – October 5, 1949 (KCA)
News on the foundation of the German Democratic Republic, as agreed upon September 16, is published in Berlin. It takes place on October 7.

Yugoslavia / U.N. – October 5, 19 (RYN)
The Yugoslav delegation in the U.N. submits a proposal, the “Declaration of Rights and Duties of States”, which is intended to ensure national security through elaboration and codification of the principles of the U.N. Charter.  In particular, the sovereign equality of states, the right of self determination, and the guarantee of the security of each state are to be converted into formal conventions having a binding character under international law.

Yugoslavia / U.K. / U.S. – October 5, 1949 (HWC)
Josep and Stewart Alsop of the Washington Post and New York Herald Tribune and, a day later, Eric Bourne of the British Daily Telegraph, report on governmental decisions to give Tito full arms aid. This press leak deprives the Americans of any bargaining counters in dealing with the Belgrade government.

Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia / Poland – October 6, 1949 (KCA)
Belgrade announces that eight members of the Polish Embassy and five of the Czechoslovak Embassy have been ordered to leave the country.

Romania / Czechoslovakia / Poland / Albania – October 6, 1949 (KCA)
The Romanian, Czechoslovak, Polish and Albanian governments send notes to the Western Powers protesting the establishment of the West German State.

Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – October 6, 1949 (WBA)
Žarko Žarković, Yugoslav Chargé d’affaires in Prague, is expelled from Czechoslovakia by the Foreign Ministry.

Yugoslavia – October 6, 1949 (PVC)
Tito delivers a speech in front of army officers and states that the peace loving Yugoslavs are fighting a heroic fight for justice.

Bulgaria – October 7-8, 1949 (KCA)
Finance Minister Petko Kunin and the Minister for Railways Stefan Tonchev are relieved of their posts by the Presidium of the Bulgarian National Assembly.

East Germany – October 7, 1949 (HC/PLC)
The German Democratic Republic is officially proclaimed. The capital is East Berlin. A peace treaty no longer seems necessary after the proclamation of both German states. The President of the newly formed state is Wilhelm Pieck, the Prime Minister is Otto Grotewohl.

Romania – October 7, 1949 (PIR)
The decree for the organization, functioning and administration of the House of Economies and Consignments (Casa de Economii şi Consemnaţiuni – CEC) is published.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 8, 1949 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note of protest to the Hungarian Government, accusing it of acting with hostility towards Yugoslavia.

Hungary – October 10, 1949 (REV)
Nationalization of wholesale trading begins.

Romania – October 10, 1949 (PIR)
The members of the CC Secretariat of PMR discuss restructuring the investments plan for 1949, the abrogation of some laws from the war period, the establishment of locative space for state institutions, the systematization of cities, the opening of the labor faculty for the workers in forestry, and the suspension of pension rights for former landowners.

Yugoslavia – October 10, 1949 (KCA)
The International Monetary Fund in Washington announces that it had sold $3,000,000 to Yugoslavia in exchange for the equivalent Yugoslav dinars, stating that the transaction in effect amounted to a loan from the Fund.

Hungary – October 11, 1949 (HC)
A law is passed concerning citizens of German ethnicity. It ends the relocation, eliminates restrictions on moving and switching jobs and grants them citizenship. All restrictions are lifted as of March 25, 1950.

Yugoslavia / Albania – October 12, 1949 (PVC)
Yugoslavia sends a note protesting the killing of a Yugoslav border guard at the Yugoslav-Albanian border on October 7, 1949.

Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / U.N. – October 13, 1949 (LBC)
In a resolution the U.N. requests that the International Court give legal opinion on whether the Romanian, Hungarian and Bulgarian trials of treason violate the human rights provisions of the peace treaty.

Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – October 13, 1949 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note of protest to Bulgaria, accusing the country of hostility towards Yugoslavia.

Soviet Union / GDR – October 13, 1949 (KCA)
Stalin sends a message to Pieck and Otto Grotewohl, President and Prime Minister of the German Democratic Republic respectively, congratulating them on their inauguration.

Czechoslovakia – October 14, 1949 (KCA)
The National Assembly unanimously passes the Church Bill.

Hungary – October 14, 1949 (HC)
Led by Mátyás Rákosi, a government delegation is established for the preparation of the 70th birthday ceremony of Stalin.

Hungary – October 15, 1949 (KCA)
Szőnyi, Rajk, and Szalai are hanged after both the Court of Appeals and President Szakasits refused appeals for clemency by the defendants’ lawyers.

Soviet Union / GDR – October 15, 1949 (PLC)
The Soviet Union initiates diplomatic relations with the GDR. An East German-Soviet treaty on friendship and mutual assistance is signed.

Greece – October 16, 1949 (REV)
The communist counter-government ceases its resistance in Greece, bringing the civil war to an end.

Yugoslavia / Romania – October 16, 1949 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note of protest to Romania, accusing them of hostility towards Yugoslavia.

Romania – October 16, 1949 (PIR)
The festive opening of the exhibition “Soviet Industry” in the National Park in Bucharest takes place.

Romania – October 17, 1949 (PIR)
Aurel Aldea, former Minister of Interior (1944), dies in the Aiud penitentiary.

Soviet Union / West Germany / US – October 17, 1949 (KCA)
The U.S. rejects the Soviet notes of protest regarding the formation of the West German State.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia / U.N. – October 18, 1949 (WBA)
At a press conference held at Lake Success, the Chief of the Soviet Delegation to the U.N., A. J. Vishinsky, Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs, makes a statement against the Yugoslav candidacy for membership in the Security Council.

Hungary / GDR – October 19, 1949 (HC)
Hungary and the German Democratic Republic establish diplomatic relations.

Hungary – October 19, 1949 (HC)
The Military High Court of Budapest affirms the death penalties of György Pálffy, Béla Korondy, Dezső Németh, Ottó Horváth. The charges are spying, disloyalty, supporting the warring efforts of the imperialist powers, and attempting to topple the democratic order. The convicted are executed on the October 24.

Yugoslavia / U.N. – October 20, 1949 (WBA)
Yugoslavia is elected as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council to replace Ukraine at the plenary session of the UN General Assembly.

Czechoslovakia – October 21, 1949 (KCA)
A decree places the import and export of antiques under State control, setting up a new nationalized company that will have a monopoly in the business.

Czechoslovakia – October 21, 1949 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Foreign Ministry hands a note to the U.S. Embassy in Prague demanding that Isaac Patch, the Political Attaché at the Embassy, leave the country within 24 hours, and stating that Samuel Meryn, who does not enjoy diplomatic privileges, be placed under arrest, alleging that the two men had directed an anti-State espionage organization in Czechoslovakia.

Romania – October 21, 1949 (PIR)
The Romanian Composers’ Union is founded.

Hungary / UN – October 22, 1949 (REV)
The United Nations again rejects Hungary’s membership application.

Hungary / US / UK – October 22, 1949 (REV)
The managers of Standard Electric and several U.K. citizens are arrested on charges of spying and sabotage.

Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – October 22, 1949 (WBA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note concerning the breach by the Czechoslovak Government of the Treaty of Friendship, Mutual Assistance and Cooperation.

Hungary – October 24, 1949 (REV)
The judiciary is reorganized. The Supreme Court of the People’s Republic and the county courts are established. The Budapest People’s Tribunal is abolished on November 1.

Romania / GDR – October 24, 1949 (PIR)
Romania and the German Democratic Republic establish diplomatic relations at the level of legation.

Czechoslovakia / US – October 25, 1949 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Foreign Ministry hands a note to the U.S. Embassy in Prague demanding that another U.S. Attaché, Mr. John Heyn, leave the country within 24 hours.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – October 25, 1949 (KCA)
The Soviet Government announces that the Yugoslav Ambassador in Moscow, Mrazovic, who left Moscow in August and has not returned, is regarded as a persona non grata, stating that during the Rajk trial in Hungary, Mrazovic had engaged in “spying and subversive activities against the USSR”.

Czechoslovakia / U.S. – October 26, 1949 (KCA)
U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson rejects the Czechoslovak espionage charges against U.S. officials.

Poland – October 26, 1949 (PSN)
A decree on the protection of state and official secrets is published, providing prison terms for collecting, keeping and transferring information accessible solely to authorized persons.

Austria / U.K. – October 27, 1949 (KCA)
The Foreign Office in London announces that from January 1, 1950 Lt.-Gen. Sir Alexander Galloway, British High Commissioner in Austria, will be succeeded by Major-General T. J. W. Winterton.

Czechoslovakia / France – October 27, 1949 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Foreign Ministry hands a note to the French Embassy in Prague demanding that Colonel Georges Helliot, the French Military Attaché, and his assistant Marcel Salabert, leave the country within 12 hours, accusing them of having obtained a quantity of uranium ore and having sent 9 lbs of it to France.

Czechoslovakia – October 27, 1949 (KCA)
The U.S. Government issues to the Czechoslovak Foreign Ministry a formal denial of the Czechoslovak charges made against U.S. officials.

GDR / China – October 27, 1949 (PLC)
China initiates diplomatic relations with the GDR.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – October 27-28, 1949 (PVC)
Another border incident takes place at the Hungarian-Yugoslav border near Gyürüspuszta. According to the Yugoslavs Hungarian soldiers threw grenades on Yugoslav territory, while according to the Hungarians Yugoslav soldiers crossed the border at Donji Miholjac. They were forced back by Hungarian soldiers, and there were no casualties on either side.

Czechoslovakia / France – October 29, 1949 (KCA)
The French Government denies the charges brought against Helliot and Salabert.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – October 29, 1949 (WBA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note to protest the groundless expulsion of the Yugoslav Ambassador to the USSR, Karlo Mrazović.

Czechoslovakia / France – October 30, 1949 (KCA)
Colonel Helliot leaves Prague.

Czechoslovakia / U.S. – October 31, 1949 (KCA)
As a response to the Czechoslovak expulsion of U.S. diplomats, the State Department declares that two Czechoslovak diplomats are no longer welcome in the U.S.

Hungary  / Yugoslavia  – October 31, 1949 (WBA)
The Hungarian Government renounces the agreement on the work of mixed commissions for the investigation and ascertainment of frontier incidents between the FPRY and the People’s Republic of Hungary signed on August 3, in Subotica.



November 1949



Yugoslavia / U.S. – November 1949 (CUY)
Edvard Kardelj, the Yugoslav Foreign Minister, visits the United States.

Yugoslavia / Greece / U.N. – November 1949 (SGY)
During the U.N. General Assembly, an important secret meeting takes place in New York between Sava Kosanović and Sophocles Venizelos, the Greek Deputy Prime Minister.

Yugoslavia / Indonesia – November 1, 1949 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs a trade agreement with Indonesia.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – November 2, 1949 (PVC)
Tito receives British Ambassador Charles Peake and states that he excludes the possibility of an immediate Soviet attack against Yugoslavia. During the conversation, Peake raises that the question might be taken to the UN Security Council.

Yugoslavia / Albania – November 2, 1949 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note of protest to Albania, the only Eastern European country which had not abrogated its treaty of friendship and collaboration with Yugoslavia, listing several acts committed by Albania, warning that such acts constituted a violation of their treaty.

Soviet Union – November 3, 1949 (KCA)
Soviet Weekly announces that the Kuzntesk iron and steel mills in Western Siberia, one of the largest industrial enterprises in the Soviet Union, has completed within four years the iron and steel production targets that were originally scheduled to be completed in 1950.

Soviet Bloc / U.S. – November 4, 1949 (PLC)
The United States further restricts the exportation of strategic equipment to Eastern Europe.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – November 4, 1949 (KCA)
The Foreign Office in London confirms that the U.S. and British Governments have agreed in principle to the sale of civil aircraft, aircraft space parts, and aviation fuel to Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – November 4, 1949 (WBA)
In its note No. 420006, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the FPRY informs the Soviet Embassy in Belgrade that it considers it impossible for Ivan Iosifovic Zenkovic, Soviet Assistant Military Attaché in Belgrade, to remain in Yugoslavia, because he has been engaged in espionage and subversive activities against Yugoslavia.

Romania – November 6, 1949 (PIR)
The law for the editing and spreading of books is published.

Soviet Union – November 6, 1949 (KCA, PLC)
Georgi Malenkov, Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers and member of the Politburo, speaks on international and foreign policy of the Soviet Union in an address to the Moscow City Soviet on the occasion of the 32nd anniversary of the Russian Revolution. He claims that a third world war is possible, establishing communist power all over the world.

Austria – November 7, 1949 (KCA)
After the recent general elections, a new Cabinet is formed in Vienna.  It remains a coalition of the People’s Party and the Socialists, with Leopold Figl of the People’s Party retaining the Chancellorship.

Hungary – November 7, 1949 (HC)
The rebuilt library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences opens.

Poland / Soviet Union – November 7, 1949 (KCA)
Warsaw and Moscow simultaneously announce that at the request of President Bierut, the Soviet Government has placed Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky at the disposal of the Polish Government for service with the Polish Army where he will serve as the Minister of National Defense.

GDR – November 9, 1949 (KCA)
The Lower House of the East German Parliament approves two Bills restoring full civil rights to former Nazis and ex-officers of the Wehrmacht, with the exception of those imprisoned for more than one year for war crimes, and granting amnesty to prisoners serving terms of fewer than six months.

Hungary – November 10, 1949 (HC)
The Hungarian Workers’ Party releases a proposal about the extension of the party recruitment.

Romania – November 10, 1949 (PIR)
The CC Secretariat discusses the law regarding the practice of the legal profession and the law for the organization of state notaries.

Yugoslavia / Israel – November 11, 1949 (OEH)
Yugoslavia signs a trade agreement with Israel.

Poland – November 11-13, 1949 [PSN]
At a plenary meeting of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers party, Rokossovsky is elected a member of the CC, while Gomulka, Kliszko, and Spychalski are removed. Bierut states that Gomulka, Kliszko,and Spychalski were responsible for assigning important tasks to prewar moles in the party. The November issue of Nove Drogi accuses Gomulka of lacking confidence in the Soviet Union.

Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / Hungary / Romania / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – November 11-17, 1949 (KCA)
The Danube Commission, set up under the Convention signed in Belgrade on August 18, 1949, meets for the first time in order to elect officers, draft rules and procedures and discuss the organization of its Secretariat. Representatives from the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia are present. The Yugoslav representative Yovanovic and those from Cominform countries have clashes from the beginning of the meeting.

Yugoslavia / Albania – November 13, 1949 (PVC)
The Yugoslav press publishes the Yugoslav note that denounces the Yugoslav-Albanian treaty of friendship concluded on July 9, 1946.

Soviet Union / U.S. – November 14, 1949 (CWC)
The United States rejects the Soviet peace treaty proposal in the Security Council, citing the Soviet Union's past record of violating peace treaties.

Soviet Union / U.S. – November 14, 1949 (LBC)
In September the Soviet Union exports to the U.S. value 7.1 million dollar, while imports from the U.S. value only 100,000 dollar.

Poland – November 15, 1949 (KCA)
The Polish Government informs the International Red Cross delegation, which has been carrying out relief work in Poland, that it must bring its activities to an end and close its offices.

Belgrade Convention / France / U.K. / U.S. – November 15, 1949 (KCA)
The U.S., British and French Governments present notes to the Governments represented on the Danube Commission reaffirming their refusal to recognize the validity of the Belgrade Convention.

Cominform – November 15-16, 1949 (JVJ)
The third (and last) meeting of the Cominform takes place at Galyatető in Hungary. The members of Cominform agree to fight Titoïsm with all non-military means possible.

Soviet Union  / Yugoslavia – November 16, (WBA)
The Soviet Government sends a note requesting the Yugoslav Chargé d’affaires in Moscow, Laza Latinović, to leave the country.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – November 17, 1949 (LBY)
Regarding their policy to Yugoslavia, the U.S. National Security Council adopts a rapport proposing economic assistance and the strengthening of Yugoslav resistance to a possible military attack.

Czechoslovakia – November 18, 1949 (KCA)
The Prague State Court imposes prison sentences ranging from one year to life imprisonment on 35 persons that had been found guilty of espionage.

Romania / Soviet Union – November 20, 1949 (KCA)
The Romanian Government announces its decision to dissolve the Romanian Danube Steamship Company and to transfer its fleet and other assets to the joint Soviet-Romanian (Sovrom) transport undertaking.

Austria – November 21, 1949 (KCA)
Austrian Chancellor Figl announces that the schilling will be devalued, constituting the fourth currency reform since the end of the war.

Soviet Union / Pakistan – November 21, 1949 (KCA)
Ivan Nikolaevic Bakulin is appointed as Soviet Ambassador to Pakistan.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – November 21, 1949 (WBA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note of protest against the groundless expulsion of the Yugoslav Chargé d’affaires from the Soviet Union.

Czechoslovakia – November 22, 1949 (KCA)
It is announced in Prague that under a decree issued by the Ministry of Information and Enlightenment the government has frozen the sale of all second-hand books, including music scores, in an effort to purge the last remaining sources of Western literature and music in the country. Booksellers have been given two weeks to report the titles, numbers, and prices of all books in stock.

Soviet Bloc / U.N. – November 22, 1949 (HC)
The UN General Assembly rejects again the application of Hungary, Romania, Albania, Bulgaria and Mongolia.

Romania – November 25, 1949 (KCA)
The Ministry of Economy is reorganized.

Romania / Soviet Union – November 25, 1949 (PIR)
The treaty on the regime of Soviet-Romanian frontiers is concluded in Moscow.

Czechoslovakia – November 26, 1949 (KCA)
A further announcement from Prague states that another group of alleged spies has been tried for espionage and treason, that two persons have been sentenced to death, four to life imprisonment, and the others to imprisonment ranging from two to twenty-five years.

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – November 27, 1949 (KCA)
Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia Zapotocky admits that Czechoslovak uranium deposits are made available to the Soviet Union.

Poland – November 27-29, 1949 (HDP)
The Polish Peasants’ Party merges with the small pro-Communist Lublin Peasants’ Party to form the United Peasant Party. It is used by the dominant Polish Workers’ Party to support Communist agrarian programs.

Romania – November 27, 1949 (PIR)
The Military Tribunal condemns the 11 partisans from the colonel Ion Uţă group, which had fought against the communist regime in the Banat Mountains.

Czechoslovakia – November 28, 1949 (KCA)
Meryn is released from prison and ordered to leave Czechoslovakia within three days.

Bulgaria – November 29, 1949 (KCA)
The indictment against Traicho Kostov, the former Deputy Premier and Secretary of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party, and against ten other defendants is published in Sofia. All of the accused are charged with high treason, espionage and conspiracy to overthrow the existing régime.

Hungary – November 29, 1949 (HC)
The General Assembly of the reestablished Hungarian Academy of Sciences takes place. Its chairman is István Rusznyák, its General Secretary is György Alexits.

Yugoslavia  / Hungary – November 29, 1949 (HC)
The Radio of Novi Sad (Újvidék)  begins its Hungarian language broadcasting.



December 1949



Yugoslavia / Greece / France – December 1949 (SGY)
The Greek Ambassador in Paris requests the French Government to use its influence to promote a general rapprochement between Athens and Belgrade.

Soviet Union / U.N. – December 1, 1949 (CWC)
The UNGeneral Assembly rejects the Soviet Union's September 23 proposal that the five permanent members of the Security Council members sign a peace treaty.

Yugoslavia – December 1-6, 1949 (KCA)
Ten former Belorussian residents in Yugoslavia, who had received Soviet citizenship at the end of the war, are tried by the District Court in Sarajevo on charges of collaborating with the enemy during the war, spying for the Soviet Union against Tito’s régime since the end of the war, and plotting against Yugoslavia.

Romania / Bulgaria – December 2, 1949 (PIR)
The Romanian press covers in detail the Traicho Kostov trial.

Romania – December 3, 1949 (PIR)
The Romanian House of Foreign Trade is founded.

Romania – December 5, 1949 (KCA)
A law is passed forcing all men aged 18-45 to work on road repairs for 2-20 days per year, based on income. Foreign residents without diplomatic status must do so for six months.

Romania – December 6, 1949 (PIR)
In the Pitesti penitentiary, re-education begins. The process is initiated and put into practice by Eugen Ţurcanu with the collaboration of communist authorities, and lasts until August 1952.

GDR – December 7, 1949 (KCA)
The provisional Volkskammer of the German Democratic Republic unanimously passes a law setting up a Supreme Court.

Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – December 7-14, 1949 (KCA)
The trial of former Deputy Premier and Secretary of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party Traicho Kostov takes place. Nine additional former members of the Bulgarian Communist Party and a former Yugoslav Embassy Counselor are tried alongside Kostov. All are accused of planning an armed coup with Yugoslav military support, plotting to murder the former Prime Minister Dimitrov, spying on behalf of the heads of the British and U.S. military missions in Bulgaria, sabotage of the State planning, and of economic relations with the Soviet Union and other Cominform countries.

Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – December 7, 1949 (KCA)
The Director of Information in Yugoslavia issues an official statement protesting the trial of Kostov and the other defendants, declaring that the trial had been organized to justify past and present Soviet pressure against Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia / GDR – December 8, 1949 (KCA)
The East German Ministry of Interior informs the Yugoslav Military Mission in Berlin that its members will soon be banned from the territory of the GDR.

Yugoslavia – December 9, 1949 (KCA)
All ten previously accused individuals are found guilty of working for the Soviet secret service, while six are found guilty of further charges. The men receive sentences ranging from 3 to 20 years’ hard labor.

Hungary – December 10, 1949 (HC)
Parliament approves the first five year plan, dating January 1, 1950 to December 31, 1954

Hungary – December 10, 1949 (REV)
The Council of Ministers reorganizes local government. The number of counties is reduced from 25 to 19.

Czechoslovakia – December 12, 1949 (KCA)
It is announced in Prague that legislation will soon be introduced to ban private ownership of buildings.

Yugoslavia / GDR / Soviet Union – December 12, 1949 (WBA)
Acting chief of the Yugoslav military mission, Lieutenant Colonel Sibinović sends a letter of protest to General of the Army V. I. Tchuikov, President of the Soviet Control Commission in Germany, in response to the Soviet letter of December 8, 1949. The letter is left unanswered. After being expelled from the Soviet sector, the Yugoslav Military Mission sets up headquarters in the British sector of Berlin.

Hungary – December 13, 1949 (HC)
The Hungarian Scientific Council is eliminated. The highest scientific body from now on is the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

Romania – December 13, 1949 (PIR)
The Constitutive conference of the International Union of Transportation Workers takes place.

Romania / Soviet Union – December 13, 1949 (PIR)
A delegation led by Gh. Gheorghiu-Dej and Ana Pauker visits the USSR on the occasion of Stalin’s 70th anniversary.

Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – December 14, 1949 (KCA/PLC)
The Bulgarian Supreme Court reaches verdict in the Kostov case. Kostov is sentenced to death for nationalism, conspiracy against the state and Titoism. After being arrested on June 25, the trial started December 8, and he was executed December 17. After his death, in 1956, Kostov was rehabilitated. Other defendants in the case are sentenced to prison terms reaching from 8 years to life.

Romania – December 14, 1949 (PIR)
The Political Bureau approves the organization, annex to regional party committees, of the evening universities of Marxism-Leninism, which would be attended by the Russian and Ukrainian population in Romania.

Yugoslavia / Romania – December 14, 1949 (WBA)
The Yugoslav Government sends a note proposing to the Romanian Government the formation of mixed Yugoslav-Romanian commissions for the investigation and ascertainment of frontier incidents.

Albania / UK – December 15, 1949 (KCA)
The International Court of Justice awards the United Kingdom 843,947 British pounds, the full amount it had requested to receive from Albania as compensation for the damage and loss of life caused in October 1946 in the Korfu channel incident.

Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – December 15, 1949 (KCA)           
The Presidium of the National Assembly rejects Kostov’s appeal for clemency.

Romania / Soviet Union – December 15, 1949 (PIR)
The Anniversary Month of Iosif Visarionovic Stalin is organized by the RPR Academy.

Hungary / Yugoslavia  – December 16, 1949 (WBA)
The Hungarian Government accuses the Yugoslavs of breaking the agreement on goods exchange and the related payments agreement.

Czechoslovakia / Yugoslavia – December 17, 1949 (WBA)
By arresting its leadership and searching its property, the Czechoslovak police makes impossible the work of the People’s Front of Yugoslavs in Czechoslovakia, until the organization is officially banned on April 7, 1950.

Bulgaria – December 18, 1949 (PLC)
Elections in Bulgaria take place. The People’s Front wins with 97.7% of the votes.

Czechoslovakia – December 19, 1949 (KCA)
The Communist Party organ Rude Pravo states that its editor, Vilem Novy, has been removed from his post for “gross lapses from Bolshevik vigilance”.  Vladimir Koucky is appointed acting editor in his place.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – December 19, 1949 (PVC)
The US National Security Council considers it highly unlikely that a Soviet military attack would take place against Yugoslavia in the near future. Still, on Yugoslav initiative, they are ready to bring the case to the UN Security Council after consultations with the British and the French Governments.

Hungary – December 20, 1949 (REV)
A Council of Ministers order effective on January 1, 1950 merges several adjacent towns and villages into Greater Budapest, raising the number of districts to 22.

Hungary / U.S. – December 20, 1949 (LBC)
The U.S. bans its citizens from traveling to Hungary and demands the release of the arrested American businessman, Robert Vogeler.

Hungary – December 21, 1949 (REV)
Trolleybus traffic starts with the use of the 26 trolleybuses purchased from the Soviet Union.

Hungary /Soviet Union – December 21, 1949 (HC) (REV)
Stalin’s 70th birthday is a national holiday in Hungary. Andrássy út, a main thoroughfare, is renamed Sztálin út.

Soviet Union – December 21, 1949 (CWC)
Molotov gives a speech accusing the United States of fermenting another world war to cope with its internal economic crisis.

Soviet Union – December 21, 1949 (KRI)
Stalin celebrates his seventieth birthday.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – December 22, 1949 (PVC)
U.S. President Harry Truman announces in a press conference that he appoints a new ambassador to Yugoslavia by the name of Assistant Secretary of State George V. Allen. In connection with his appointment, President Truman condemns aggression against any state.

Hungary / U.K. – December 23, 1949 (LBC)
The British government breaks off trade talks with Hungary due to the arrest of a British citizen, Edgar Sanders.

Yugoslavia / US – December 24, 1949 (KCA)
The U.S. and Yugoslavia sign a reciprocal civil aviation agreement whereby the Yugoslav Government grants permission to U.S. civil air transport planes to use Yugoslav airfields and to fly across Yugoslav territory, while Yugoslavia is accorded similar facilities in the American zones of Austria and Germany.

Soviet Union – December 25, 1949 (KCA)
The trial of 12 former Japanese army officers, accused of having used bacteria in war acts against China and plotting to do so against the Soviet Union, begins before a special military court at Khabarovsk in East Siberia. 

Yugoslavia / U.K. – December 26, 1949 (LBC)
A British-Yugoslav commercial agreement worth $616 million is signed. In the framework of the treaty, Yugoslavia obtains a 22 million dollar credit for five years. Belgrade is to deliver lumber, maize, coloured metals for British wool, textile, chemicals, rubber goods, industrial equipment and two steam ships. This is Yugoslavia’s largest commercial treaty with a Western state since the war.

Yugoslavia – December 27, 1949 (PVC)
Aleksandar Ranković delivers a speech at the National Asembly on the internal situation in Yugoslavia.

Czechoslovakia – December 28, 1949 (KCA)
Hjelm is tried with eight Czechoslovak nationals on charges of economic sabotage. All of the defendants are found guilty. Hjelm is sentenced to three years of hard labor, a fine, and imprisonment afterwards.

Hungary – December 28, 1949 (HC)
The Presidential Council nationalizes all factories that employ more than 10 people and factories of foreign ownership.

Hungary – December 28, 1949 (REV)
The State Protection Authority (ÁVH) of the Interior Ministry and the Army Border Guard are amalgamated into a supreme authority, still under the command of Lieutenant General Gábor Péter, responsible formally to the Council of Ministers and Interior Minister János Kádár, but in fact run directly by Mátyás Rákosi.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union / NATO – December 28, 1949 (RYN)
Edvard Kardelj addresses the Eighth Session of the National Assembly on the foreign policy of Yugoslavia disclaiming any intention of entering into “secret agreements” or “gentlemen's agreements”. His words are intended for the Kremlin in order to try to persuade the Soviet Union that Yugoslavia is not contemplating membership in NATO.

Romania – December 29, 1949 (PIR)
MAN adopts the Law regarding the state plan for 1950. The First State Award is instituted.

Hungary – December 30, 1949 (HC)
On the József Attila Square of Budapest, the first cultural centre of the city is opened, and is named after Mátyás Rákosi.

Soviet Union – December 30, 1949 (KCA)
All of the accused Japanese men are found guilty and receive sentences ranging from two to twenty-five years in a labor camp.

Romania – December 31, 1949 (PIR)
56 collective agricultural households (composed of 4,085 peasant households and a surface of 14,692 ha, of which 3,302 ha coming from the landed fund of state property) are created.




© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2012