The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Research Chair, Center of Social Sciences, Institute for Political Science,
Hungarian Academy of Sciences;
Founding Director, Cold War History Research
Center, Budapest;
Professor of History, Corvinus University of Budapest
Institute of International Studies

Associate editor

University of Szeged


Assistant editors




Izabel ÁCS, Chiara BERTUCCO, Noah BUYON, Megan DIBBLE, Marco GIACOMAZZI, Anusha GURUNG, Solveig HANSEN, Zsálya HAADI-NAGY, Konrad HYZY, Tomas KOLAR, Thomas KOLLMANN, Roman KOZIEL, Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Oleksandr MURASHEVYCH, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Roland PAPP, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Martin ROMAIN, François  ROPARS, Vjenceslav RUPCIC, Lili SIKLÓS, Marcello TOMASINA, Zita Bettina VASAS, Aniello VERDE, Dóra VERESS, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, András ZÁM

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016


The publication and the preceding research were sponsored by the Hungarian Cultural Fund


At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The third part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1968 to 1980. The years 1980–1991 will be available by the end of 2017.

The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


List of Sources


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016

ISBN 978-963-12-7940-5


Chronology 1970


January 1970


Soviet Union – January, 1970 (KCA)
The following governmental appointments are announced by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet throughout January: (a) Timofei Guzhenko as Minister of Merchant Marine; (b) Voldemar Lein as Minister of the Food Industry; (c) Vladimir Sitnin as chairman of the State Committee for Prices.

Soviet Union / West Germany – January, 1970 (KCA)
Egon Bahr, State Secretary in the Federal Chancellor's Office, arrives in Moscow at the end of January to head the West German delegation that is conducting the preparatory talks for the planned Soviet-West-German treaty. Andrei Gromyko, Soviet Foreign Minister, heads the Soviet delegation.

Hungary January 1, 1970 (HC)
A national census takes place in Hungary.

Hungary – January 1-15, 1970 (HC)
Twenty-eight representatives of European governments and labor parties meet in Moscow to issue a statement on the issues of collective security and peace.

Hungary – January 2, 1970 (HC)
Economic negotiations between Hungary and the countries of the Middle-American Common Market (Peru, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Uruguay) end.

Hungary / France – January 5, 1970 (HC)
József Bíró, the Minister of Foreign Trade, and Valéry Giscard d'Estaigne, the French Minister of Economy and of Finance sign a long-term Hungarian-French economic and trade agreement in Paris.  The terms of the agreement will be in place for five years.

Czechoslovakia – January 7, 1970 (KCA)
Rudé právoannounces that the Czechoslovak Communist Party has opened “proceedings” against three former leading supporters of Alexander Dubček, all of whom are predominantly associated with the liberalization policy. Those accused of (WHAT ARE THEY ACCUSED OF??) are General Josef Pavel, Professor Eduard Goldstücker, and Milan Hübl.

East Germany (GDR) / Congo (Brazzaville) – January 9, 1970 (KCA)
The People’s Republic of Congo and the German Democratic Republic establish diplomatic relations with each other at legation level. Congo (Brazzaville) is the first Black African country to establish diplomatic relations with East Germany.

Denmark / Finland / Norway / Sweden – January 12, 1970 (KCA)
Mauno Koivisto, Finnish prime minister, says that the Finnish Government is prepared to continue participation in negotiations over Nordek, bur reserved the right to withdraw if the other three countries begin talks with another European organization, while the talks for Nordek are continuing.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 12, 1970 (KCA)
Soviet Union rejected all the proposals for a Middle East settlement made by William Rogers, the US Secretary of State, on October 28, 1969.

Czechoslovakia – January 12 – 15, 1970 (KCA)
The police, according to the Ministry of Interior, “control” a total of 18,152 persons in Prague and throughout Bohemia and Moravia, search 2,052 premises, detain 1,470 persons, and make 118 arrests. The police action is designed to prevent popular demonstration on the first anniversary of the self-immolation of Jan Palach, who on January 17, 1969, lit himself on fire to protest the consequences of the Soviet invasion.

Hungary / Yugoslavia - January 12-17, 1970 (HC)
Mirko Tepavac, the Yugoslav Minister of Foreign Affairs, takes an official amicable visit to Hungary.

USSR – January 13, 1970 (LBC)
The head of the Soviet Foreign Ministry press section, Leonid Zamiatin, announces that his country accepts US participation at the prospective European security conference.

East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) – January 14, 1970 (KCA)
A declaration by Willy Brandt, West German Chancellor in his first report on the State of the Nation to the Bundestag defines the Federal Government’s attitude to normalize relations with the German Democratic Republic. 

Soviet Union January 14-25, 1970 (HC)
The delegations of 28 European communist and workers’ parties hold a conference in Moscow discussing European collective security and peace.

Hungary - January 15, 1970 (HC)
Hungary is re-elected for three years on the UN’s Economic and Social Council’s (UNECOSOC) committee concerning the international status of women. The Hungarian government renews the mandate of the previous Hungarian representative, Hanna Bokorné Szegő.

Soviet Union – January 15, 1970 (KCA)
A census takes place in the Soviet Union (see April 18, 1970 for the results)

Yugoslavia – January 15-16, 1970 (HR)
The 10th Meeting of the Central Committee of FR Croatia puts forward the demands for the distribution of capital, and the foreign currency system. The question of the future of the Yugoslav state is raised.

Hungary / Norway - January 17, 1970 (HC)
Hungarian-Norwegian long-term barter traffic agreement is signed in Budapest.

Soviet Union / France – January 19, 1970 (KCA)
A further technical co-operation protocol between the Soviet Foreign Trade Ministry and the Renault Company is signed, providing for new contracts worth 100 million Francs for the supply of equipment by Renault to the Soviet Motor industry.

Hungary / U.S - January 20, 1970 (HC)
Hungarian-American agreement is ratified concerning the settlement of pre-WWII trade debt.

Austria – 21, January 1970 (KCA)
The National Bank states that increasing Austria's bank rates is designed to reduce inflationary pressures on productive capacity, and also bring rates more in line with international interest levels.

Soviet Union – January 21, 1970 (KCA)
It is disclosed in Moscow that Svetlana Alliluyeva (Svetlana Stalin), Stalin’s daughter, has been deprived of Soviet citizenship by a decree issued by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (see December 19, 1969). Commenting on the Supreme Soviet’s action, she says: “I am very happy that they have taken this step and that I no longer belong to the Soviet State and the Soviet Society; as for Russian culture, literature, art and friends, no one can deprive me of them.”

Albania / Greece – January 21, 1970 (KCA)
The Albanian and Greek Chambers of Commerce agree on a trade agreement in Paris, allowing Greece to export industrial products and raw materials to Albania. In return Albania exports products and supplies oil to Greece. This results in the first official contact between the two governments after the Second World War in June 1970.
Yugoslavia – January 21, 1970 (HR)
The meeting of the Executive Bureau of the Central Committee of FR Serbia shows readiness to confront the “greaterserbian” nationalism.

Yugoslavia – January 22, 1970 (HR)
The Presidency of LCY accepts "The conclusions about the socio-economic and political questions of the SAP Kosovo” which demand further development and enlargement of the autonomy of the SAP Kosovo.


East Germany / West Germany – January 22, 1970 (KCA)
Willy Brandt writes a letter to Willi Stoph proposing to open talks between East and West Germany (see November 12, 1969, December 17 and December 18, 1969, January 14, 1970).

Austria – January 22, 1970 (KCA)
The Austrian bank rate increases from 4.75% to 5%. On January 21, The National Bank of Austria states that the move is designed to reduce inflationary pressures on productive capacity and also bring rates more into line with international interest levels.
Prior to the increase in the bank rate, it was reported in the press that Schiller, Minister of Economic Affairs, unsuccessfully urged the Cabinet to take further fiscal steps to restrain inflationary pressures in the economy, in addition to measures already proposed by him on 22 January.

Austria –  January (KCA)
The national budget for 1970 is published.

Yugoslavia / Africa – January 25-February 27, 1970 (JBT)
Josip Broz Tito visits 8 African countries: Tanzania (January 26-February 2), Zambia (February 2-9), Ethiopia (February 9-12), Kenya (February 12-20), Uganda (February 20), Sudan (February 20-23), Egypt (February 23-25), and Libya (February 25-27). The aim of these visits is to discuss with African leaders the issues of economic cooperation and the forthcoming conference of non-aligned countries

Poland / Warsaw Treaty Organization - January 26-27, 1970 (HC)
The Deputy Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the member states of the Warsaw Pact meet in Sofia.

Poland / West Germany (FRG) – January 27, 1970 (KCA)
Poland and West Germany begin the first high-level negotiations since WWII. Leaders reflected on the meeting as “frank, factual and useful.”

Czechoslovakia – January 27, 1970 (KCA)
A Berne announcement states that Ota Šik, author of the economic reform during the liberalization period and former Deputy Prime Minister, has asked for asylum for himself and his family in Switzerland, where he has been living since October 1968.

GDR / Hungary January 27, 1970 (HC)
First secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár and chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock travel to the German Democratic Republic for a 4-day visit.

Czechoslovakia – January 28, 1970 (KCA / HC)
A new cabinet is appointed and Dubček ceases to be a member of the Central Committee. Lubomír Štrougal is appointed as Prime Minister.

Czechoslovakia – January, 28-30, 1970 (PSCZ)
The Central Committee of the Communist Party begins a purge of 330,000 Party members.

Czechoslovakia – January 30, 1970 (KCA)
Gustáv Husák promises that the Communist Party will never again permit show trials against political opponents, or a return to the police terror of the Stalin era.

Romania – January 31, 1970 (HOR)
Romania ratifies the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Arms (signed on 1 July 1968 in London, Moscow, and Washington).

February 1970


Yugoslavia – February 1970 (KCA)
In preparation for the third Summit of the Non Aligned Countries, Yugoslav President Tito makes a preparatory trip to eight African nations (Tanzania, Zambia, Ethipia, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, UAR, Libya). Topics discussed revolve around economic cooperation.

Soviet Union / West Germany – February 1, 1970 (KCA)
Three Soviet-West German agreements are signed in Essen: (a) a long-term agreement on supply of Soviet natural gas to West Germany. The Soviet Union will supply West Germany with a 20-year supply of natural gas. Such a partnership was initially designed in 1962, but was thwarted by NATO. The embargo has been lifted and the USSR will supply West Germany with 500 million cubic meters of gas, starting in 1973; (b) a supply by West German Mannesmann group to the Soviet Union of 1.2 million tons of large diameter steel pipes and other equipment; (c) a grant by a consortium of 17 West German banks to the Soviet Foreign Trade Bank of a credit of DM 1,200 million.

Hungary / West Germany – February 1-4, 1990 (HC)
Hans-Jürgen Wischnewski, the national executive of the German Social Democratic Party and Eugen Selbmann, the foreign representative of the Social Democratic Party's parliamentary fraction makes a non-official visit to Budapest. The guests are welcomed by Zoltán Komócsin, the President of the Hungarian Parliament's Foreign Affairs Committee and János Péter, the Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Soviet Union / U.S. / U.K. / France – February 2, 1970 (KCA)
Personal messages on the Middle East situation from Kosygin, the Soviet Prime Minister, to President Nixon, Harold Wilson, British Prime Minister, and President Pompidou, are delivered.

Hungary – February 3, 1970 (HC)
György Lázár is now head of the Ministry of Labor.

Hungary / Romania – February 3-5, 1970 (HC)
Hungarian-Romanian negotiations about cooperation are held in Oradea / Nagyvárad, led by Antal Apró, the Deputy Prime Minister, and Iosif Banc, the Vice-President of the Socialist Republic of Romania's Cabinet.

Finland / Denmark / Norway / Sweden – February 4, 1970 (KCA)
A draft treaty on the establishment of a customs union and other measures of economic co-operation between Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden is signed by officials of the four countries in Stockholm.

Hungary – February 5, 1970 (HC)
The general assembly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences takes place. (The new constitutional structure is adopted. Chairman: Tibor Erdey-Grúz, secretary-general: Ferenc Erdei.)

Poland / West Germany – February 5-6, 1970 (KCA)
The first round talk for normalizing relations between Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany is held in Warsaw led by Wieniewicz, the Deputy Foreign Minister of Poland, and Duckwitz, the State Secretary in the Federal Foreign Ministry of West Germany.

Yugoslavia / EEC / France – February 6, 1970 (LBC)
Yugoslavia and the EEC sign a three-year non-preferential, non-discriminative commercial treaty. (This is the EEC’s first general trade treaty with an East European state). According to the treaty, the EEC reduces the duty on Yugoslavian beef by 25% and promises to speed up the Kennedy Round talks, which would make it possible to reduce duty on certain Yugoslavian export items. Earlier negotiations failed because France opposed the inclusion of Yugoslavian beef into the agreement. Up to this point Yugoslavia had a continual trade deficit with the EEC.


Finland / Denmark / Norway / Sweden – February 7-12, 1970 (KCA)
The 18th full assembly of the Nordic Council is held in Reykjavik, Iceland. The council approves the scheme of economic cooperation between the four countries., Also, the necessary institutional framework is planned to be set up with effect from January 1, 1971.

Hungary / U.K. - February 9-12, 1970 (HC)
A Hungarian-English trade joint-commission negotiates in London.

Soviet Union / U.S. – February 10, 1970 (KCA)
An agreement on the enlargement of US-Soviet cultural exchanges between 1970 – 1971 and joint studies of environmental problems is signed at the State Department in Washington. This is an extended agreement from a series that dates back to 1958.

Soviet Union / Palestine – February 10-20, 1970 (KCA)
Yassir Arafat, leader of the Al Fatah guerrilla organization, visits Moscow as the guest of the Soviet Afro-Asian Solidarity Committee. A statement issued at the end of his visit expresses the support of the Solidarity Committee and the Soviet people for the Arab cause, and denounces Israeli “aggression” and US “imperialism”.

East Germany / West Germany – February 12, 1970 (KCA)
Willi Stoph writes a letter to Willy Brandt accepting the proposal of talks between East and West Germany in East Berlin according to Brandt’s letter on January 22, 1970.

Hungary / Austria - February 13, 1970 (HC)
A Hungarian-Austrian trade protocol is signed in Vienna.

Yugoslavia – February 15, 1970 (HR)
The University in Priština (Kosovo) is founded, from an already existing branch of the University of Belgrade in Priština. On the 30th of October the Association of Writers of Kosovo is founded. The provincial Library in Priština becomes the National and University Library.

Hungary / Bulgaria - February 16-21, 1970 (HC)
János Péter, the Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs, takes an amicable visit to Bulgaria on the invitation of Ivan Basev, the Bulgarian Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Soviet Union / U.S. - Feb 17 – April, 1970 (KCA)
The Conference of the Committee Disarmament meets in Geneva, discussing a joint U.S.-Soviet draft treaty banning nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction from the sea bed.

East Germany/ West Germany – February 18, 1970 (KCA)
Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, writes to Stoph accepting his invitation to visit East Berlin for talks, but suggesting, in view of the Federal Government's commitments, that these should take place in the second or third week of March rather than on the dates in February proposed by Stoph.
On the same day, the Christian Democratic Opposition (CDU) announces, that it supports the Federal Government's decision to enter into talks with the GDR on all questions affecting the coexistence of Germans, including renunciation of force

US / Yugoslavia – February 18, 1970 (LBC)
President Nixon’s Congressional message on the foreign policy of the US, in which the President spoke about the “unnatural division of Europe”. The US “is not out to employ negotiations as a forum for cold-war invective and ideological debate”. He wants to deal with his communist “adversaries” as nations that follow what they perceive to be their interest. The talks must follow the quid pro quo principle. The US does not intend to “undermine the legitimate security interests of the Soviet Union” and “the time is certainly passed when any power would seek to exploit Eastern Europe to obtain strategic advantage against the Soviet Union”. The American government’s willingness to negotiate seeks to reduce this tension. Washington treats these states as sovereign countries and not as “parts of a monolith” and would not accept any doctrine that “abridges their right to seek reciprocal improvement of relations with us or others”. Nixon is ready to start talks with these countries looking toward “a gradual normalization of relations” and was willing to adjust “to whatever pace and extent of normalization these countries are willing to sustain”. – The World Bank announces a 40 million dollar loan to develop the Yugoslav telephone network.


Austria – February 22 and March 15, 1970 (KCA)
Landtag elections are held in Carinthia and Styria respectively. In both provinces the Socialist Party gains considerably more votes than the People’s Party.

Czechoslovakia – February 23, 1970 (KCA)
The campaign against former leading Communists associated with the liberalization policy carried out under Alexander Dubček prior to the Soviet and Warsaw Pact invasion of August 1968 continues. The Czechoslovak citizenship of the following were revoked: Jiří Pelikán, Ota Šik, Ivan Sviták, Otakar Rambousek. All leading liberals during the Dubček era are now living in exile.

USA– February 23, 1970 (CWIHP)
Henry Kissinger briefs President Nixon on his initial meeting with President Pompidou during his visit to the US. Pompidou told Kissinger that he wanted to discuss issues relating to the Soviets, Germany, and other defence matters. Financial issues and the establishment of a private channel of communication were other topics of interest.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – February 23-26, 1970 (KCA)
The Prime Minister of Yugoslavia visits the UK. The endurance of trade and cultural ties is mutually reassured via a joint communiqué.

USA/France– February 24, 1970 (CWIHP)
President Pompidou meets with President Nixon during his visit to the United States. At the meeting Nixon states that he wants good relations between the US and France because both countries share the same goals; furthermore they shoud find common ground for cooperation even though France wants to be independent from NATO.

Bulgaria - February 24-25, 1970 (HC)
The party leaders of the socialist countries consult in Sofia on ideological and political questions.

Soviet Union - February 24-25, 1970 (HC)
The Executive Committee of the Comecon holds its 45th session in Moscow.

Hungary / Belgium - February 24-28, 1970 (HC)
János Péter, the Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs, makes an amicable visit to Belgium on the invitation of Piene Harmel, the Belgian Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Poland / Bolivia– February 25, 1970 (KCA)
Poland and Bolivia resumes their diplomatic relations for the first time since the German invasion of Poland at the beginning of the Second World War.

Finland/Soviet Union – February 25, 1970 (RVO)
President Kekkonen meets Brezhnev in Zavidovo. Brezhnev thanks Kekkonen for agreeing to host the CSCE, but he also claims that there is an anti-Soviet atmosphere developing in Finland.

Soviet Union/Poland– February 27, 1970 (CWIHP)
A meeting is proposed for the international departments of the seven parties to meet and discuss issues related to China, including the political and economic situation in Shanghai, China’s international activities, and the ideology of its leadership.

March 1970

Soviet Union– March 1970 (CWIHP)
The CPSU issues a draft on the ‘China Problem’ following the ninth CCP Congress. The draft is primarily concerned with China’s actions and ideology, and the increasing tensions between China and the Soviet Bloc.

Romania – March, 1970 (KCA)
In further Cabinet changes, Mircea Malita succeeds Constantinescu as Education Minister; Trojan Ispas succeeds Dumitru Mosora as Minister for the Building Industry; and Teodor Vasiliu succeeded Adrian Dimitriu as Minister of Justice.

Austria – March 1, 1970 (KCA / HC)
General elections are held, resulting in the loss of its majority by the People’s Party Government of Klaus and a narrow majority for the Socialist Party led by Bruno Kreisky.

East Germany / West Germany – March 2-3 and 9-10, 1970 (KCA)
The initiation of preparatory discussions between the delegations of East and West Germany starts in Berlin, prior to the meeting between Brandt of West Germany and Stoph of East Germany. Five meetings are held between the two leaders and they share political letters. Disagreements arise over where to hold a further meeting, as East Germany does not recognize West Berlin as part of West Germany.

Yugoslavia / West Germany – March 3-5, 1970 (AY)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito receives West German Federal Minister of Economic Affairs Karl Schiller.

Yugoslavia – March 4, 1970 (KCA)
The Yugoslav writer Mihajlo Mihaljhov is released after 3 ½ years in prison for ‘hostile propaganda.’

East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) – March 5, 1970 (KCA)
Sahm and Schussler  meet again (see March 3, 1970) to discuss the disputed question of Brandt travelling via West Berlin on his way to or return from East Berlin. No agreement can be reached as the GDR does not agree to this, while Brandt refuses to accept any restrictions.

East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) – March 8-10, 1970 (KCA)
Brandt writes again to Stoph on March 8, the letter being handed by Sahm to Schussler on March 9. It is published in Bonn on March 10, the Federal Press Office explaining that the GDR Government previously published a statement which it sent to Brandt via Schussler and Sahm, and which made it clear that the GDR insisted on determining the route to be taken by the Federal Chancellor to East Berlin.

Hungary / Poland - March 9-12, 1970 (HC)
János Péter, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, takes an official amicable visit to Poland on the invitation of the Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs, Stefan Jędrychowski.

US / USSR – March 10, 1970 (LBC)
It is announced that the US will start deploying MIRV-ed missiles in June. The announcement is made when Soviet diplomats express their interest through informal channels to ban the testing and deployment of MIRVs. According to the Chief of Staff of the US Air Force, the USSR is deploying missiles at such a pace that it is evidently striving for strategic superiority.

Soviet Union / Botswana – March 11, 1970 (KCA)
The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Botswana at ambassadorial level is announced in Moscow and by the Botswana High Commission in London.

East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) – March 12, 1970 (KCA)
At a further meeting, Schussler roposes Erfurt for the first meeting (see March 3, 1970 and March 2-3, 1970).

Soviet Union / France – March 12, 1970 (KCA)
An agreement covering credit arrangements for Soviet imports of French goods in the period of the five-year Franco-Soviet trade pact (1970-1974) is concluded in Paris. The arrangements provide that 4.5 billion Francs of the expected 7 billion Francs worth of Soviet imports will be financed by long term credits.

Czechoslovakia – March 13, 1970 (KCA)
Josef Pavel, Minister of the Interior before the Soviet Invasion of 1968, is expelled from the Communist Party. In that capacity he dismantled the apparatus of police terror, curbed the power of the secret police, and dismissed “hardline” Stalinists from his Ministry.

Finland – March 16, 1970 (RVO)
Parliamentary elections result as a victory for Vennamo's SMP (Finnish Rural Party). The right-wing National Coalition Party gains 11 more seats. This result is seen as a protest against the overly leftist reforms, but also leading to a possible increase in mistrust among Soviet leadership. There are serious issues with forming a coalition government after the elections due to lack of common interests.

Hungary / Soviet Union – March 16-18, 1970 (HC)
Government delegation led by Prime Minister Jenő Fock is staying in Moscow on the invitation of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union. They discuss coordination of their respective 5-year plans.

Yugoslavia – March 16-18, 1970 (HR)
At the Meeting of the Executive Bureau of the Central Committee of the LCY criticism is voiced about the disintegrative tendencies in the LCY. Representatives from Serbia advocate the concept which enables the development of separate republics while adhering to the unity of Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia / South-East Asia – March 18-April 4, 1970 (GOD)
Yugoslav foreign minister Mirko Tepavac visits Burma (March 18-21), Singapore (March 21-26), Indonesia (March 26-29), and India (March 30- April 4). The main topic of talks is the forthcoming summit conference of non-aligned countries.

East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) – March 19, 1970 (KCA)
Willy Brandt, the German Federal Chancellor, and Willi Stoph, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the German Democratic Republic, meet in Erfurt, Eastern Germany, the first meeting between the Heads of Government of the two states since the Second World War. An estimated crowd of 2500 people gather, mostly young, shouting out affectionately “Willy, Willy, Willy Brandt.”  A joint agreement is published for discussions to continue in Kassel (West Germany) on May 21, 1970. (see November 12, 1969, December 17 and December 18, 1969, January 14 and January 22, as well as February 12, 1970).

Yugoslavia / European Economic Community (EEC) – March 19, 1970 (KCA)
A trade agreement is signed in Brussels between the EEC and Yugoslavia, coming into force on May 1. Under its terms Yugoslavaia and the EEC agree: (a) to grant each other most-favored-nation status in trade; (b) to introduce at a faster rate the import duty concessions envisaged in the Kennedy round; (c) to enforce special regulations for Yugoslav exports of veal to the EEC; (d) to set up a multi-national commission to carry out the agreement and to suggest solutions for problems which might arise.

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – March 20, 1970 (KCA)
Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union discuss a Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Assistance in Prague. Both states reiterate the desire to hold an all European Conference.

Soviet Union – March 20, 1970 (KCA)
It is announced that the Soviet Supreme Court has ruled that the person who fired on four cosmonauts who were being given a triumphal reception in Moscow on January 23, 1969, after the Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 space flights is found insane and not responsible for his actions.

Czechoslovakia – March 21, 1970 (KCA)
The suspension from party membership of Dubček, now Ambassador to Turkey, and the expulsion from the party of 10 leading personalities who were prominently associated with the liberalization policy, is announced by Rudé právo.

Soviet Union / West Germany – March 22, 1970 (KCA)
A communiqué is issued stating that from January 30 to February 18 and from March 3 to March 21 an exchange of views took place in Moscow between the two delegations “in connection with the aim of both sides to conclude an agreement on the renunciation of force” between the Soviet Union and the German Federal Republic. Also, the two countries agreed on the establishment of a Soviet consulate-general in Hamburg and a West German consulate-general in Leningrad.

Soviet Union / Hungary - March 23-30, 1970 (HC)
Hungarian cultural days take place in the Soviet Union. (The Hungarian delegation taking part is led by minister of public education Pál Ilku.)

Soviet Union / U.K. – March 25, 1970 (KCA)
Lord Chalfont tells the House of Lords that an approach to the Soviet Government for the release of Rudolf Hess made at the end of February by the British Ambassador in Moscow, is rejected.

Hungary - March 25, 1970 (HC) 
Law decree no. 7 of 1970 of the Presidential Council about the exercise of general amnesty on the 25th anniversary of the liberation of the country is adopted.

Finland – March 26, 1970 (UKP)
President Kekkonen rejects the Nordek plan. PM Koivisto asks Kekkonen to leave out the Nordek issue from his speech, but Kekkonen threatens him with resigning as President, and Koivisto gives up on his proposal.

Soviet Union / U.K. / Japan / France – March 28-April 13, 1970 (KCA)
Aeroflot and Japan Air Lines start Paris-Moscow-Tokyo services via Siberia on March 28; Air France inaugurates regular flights on the Paris-Moscow-Tokyo route via Siberia on April 10. On April 13, a supplementary protocol to the Anglo-Soviet Civil Aviation Agreement of 1957 is signed in London. The protocol gives BOAC flying rights on the London-Moscow-Tokyo route via Siberia, while Aeroflot is given the right to fly across the Atlantic via London. BOAC’s trans-Siberian flights are expected to start in June 1970.

Soviet Union / Argentina – March 29, 1970 (KCA)
An unsuccessful attempt is made by members of an extreme right-wing group to kidnap Yuri Pivovarov, Assistant Commercial Attaché at the Soviet Embassy in Buenos Aires. A note is issued on part of the Soviet Union, stating that the “campaign of threats and blackmail which is under way in Argentina against members of the Soviet Embassy” has “deprived them of the opportunity to discharge their functions normally.” Hope is expressed that the Argentine Government would create the necessary conditions to ensure the normal activity of the members of the Soviet Embassy.

Hungary / Romania - March 29-31, 1970 (HC)
Frigyes Puja, the first Deputy of the Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs, takes an amicable visit to the Socialist Republic of Romania.


April 1970


West Germany / U.S. - April 1970 (DKK)
Willy Brandt and Richard M. Nixon agree that the treaties with the East should only be ratified, when there is concrete progress in treaties concerning Berlin.

Bulgaria / Soviet Union – April 1970 (KCA)
The Soviet Union and Bulgaria announce in Sofia that they will start a natural gas pipeline project by late 1970 and this will be the second largest source of energy in Bulgaria. Starting at the Soviet frontier town and Danubian port of Izmail, it will link up with the Soviet pipeline network. The proposed new pipeline will run under the Danube by a subterranean duet, and then run 130 miles across the Romanian Dobruja, and enter Bulgarian territory near the frontier village of Yovkovo, continuing to Sofia.

Hungary - April 1, 1970 (HC)
The State and Kossuth Prizes are awarded during a great ceremony.

Hungary - April 2, 1970 (HC)
The section between Fehér Road and Deák Square of the first, East-West line of the Budapest underground is opened.

Czechoslovakia – April 3, 1970 (KCA)
Party officials known during the ‘Dubček era’ for their liberal views are excluded from leadership.

Hungary - April 3-5, 1970 (HC)
There are commemorations and ceremonies throughout the country on the 25th anniversary of the liberation of the country. The People’s Army performs a monumental parade on April 4.


Finland / EEC – April 6, 1970 (KCA)
President Kekkonen announces that Finland is interested in establishing trade agreements with the EEC provided that this could be done without compromising Finland’s policy of neutrality.

US / USSR – April 6, 1970 (LBC)
After preliminary talks in Helsinki, the SALT talks begin in Vienna. Nixon says that the American goal is to limit the ABM systems on a low level and to set an upper ceiling for ICBMs and SLBMs. According to the Secretary of Defense, in the past five years the USSR increased the megaton value of its warheads five fold, while the US reduced it by 40%. – According to figures given by the London Institute for Strategic Studies the US has 4235 and the USSR 1880 deliverable warheads. Nixon claims that the US has 1054 ICBMs and the Soviet Union has 1240. At the same time the US deployed 600 SLBMS as opposed to the 200 by the Soviet Union.

Hungary– April 7, 1970 (CWIHP)
At the meeting of the Political Committee, they discuss the political situation in China; border issues with the Soviet Union; relations with Albania, the GDR, Japan and Bulgaria; the political isolation of China; and the organisation of the political party in China.

Hungary / Sweden – April 7-12, 1970 (HC) 
János Péter, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, takes an official visit to Sweden.

East Germany (GDR) / Somalia – April 11, 1970 (KCA)
It is announced in a joint communiqué that Somalia and the German Democratic Republic have decided to establish diplomatic relations and exchange ambassadors, and to start early negotiations for co-operation in the political, economic, scientific, technical, and cultural spheres.

Hungary / France – April 12-18, 1970 (HC)
A French trade delegation visits Hungary.

Soviet Union / U.K. – April 13, 1970 (KCA) see March 28-April 13.
A supplementary protocol to the Anglo-Soviet Civil aviation agreement of 1957 is signed in London. The protocol gives BOAC flying rights on the London-Moscow-Tokyo route via Siberia, expected to start in June 1970.

Romania / Turkey – April 13-17, 1970 (PER)
The President of Turkey, Cevdet Sunay, visits Romania.

Non-Aligned Movement – April 13-17, 1970 (HN)
A preparatory meeting for the Third NAM Summit Conference takes place in Dar es Salaam. 59 leaderships attend the meeting (51 members and 8 observers). A decision is made to organize the forthcoming summit conference in Lusaka (Zambia) before the 25th General Assembly meeting, and to found a Preparatory Committee of 16 non-aligned countries responsible for organizing the conferences. The Committee meets three times before the Summit Conference – once in New Delhi (May 6-12), and two times in Lusaka (July 26-27, and September 6)

US / Hungary – April 14, 1970 (LBC)
According to a report by the New York Times, US-Hungarian relations are developing so rapidly that Washington may soon return the Holy Crown to Budapest.

Soviet Union / U.S. - April 16, 1970 (KCA)
The second round of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) between the United States and the Soviet Union take place in Vienna, Austria. The two delegations are led respectively by Gerard Smith, Director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and  Vladimir Semyonov, a Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister.

Soviet Union – April 18, 1970 (KCA)
The Soviet Union publishes the census results from January 15, 1970. It states that the USSR has a population of 241,748,000, an increase of 15.8 % from the last census in 1959.

East Germany (GDR) / Central African Republic – April 19, 1970 (KCA)
The Central African Republic and the German Democratic Republic agree on mutual diplomatic recognition and the opening of embassies in the two capitals in the near future.

Yugoslavia – April 20, 1970 (KCA)
Dragoljub Budimovski is appointed head of the Federal Secretary of Information.

Austria – April 20, 1970 (KCA)
The discussions between the Socialist Party and the People’s Party on the formation of a coalition government finally break down, after a last attempt at reaching a compromise between Bruno Kreisky and Witham. Upon these developments, President Jonas asks Kreisky to form a new government on a different basis. As a result, Kreisky presents a Cabinet list for an exclusively Socialist minority Government. After being sworn in, Kreisky announces that the Government will submit a large social reform programme.

Soviet Union – April 21-22, 1970 (KCA / HC)
The centenary of the birth of Lenin is celebrated in the Kremlin by a joint meeting of the Communist Party Central cCmmittee, the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, and the Russian Federation. The main speech is delivered by Brezhnev. Le Monde describes the speech as “striking for its severity, or rather its intransigent orthodoxy, as if emphasis had been deliberately placed on the most dogmatic aspects of the line followed by the Soviet leadership.
On the following day, a long editorial on the centenary appears in the three leading Chinese papers, The People’s Daily, Red Flag, and The Liberation Army Daily. The papersviolently attack the so-called “Brezhnev Doctrine”, which was used to justify the invasion of Czechoslovakia.

Finland / Soviet Union – April 22, 1970 (UKP)
President Kekkonen delivers a speech at the Lenin Centennial Ceremony, and he is awarded the Lenin medal.

Hungary - April 22, 1970 (HC)
Tiszaszederkény, pronounced a town in 1966, receives the name Leninváros [Lenintown].

Hungary - April 23, 1970 (HC)
The National Council of the People’s Patriotic Front holds a session. (István Bencsik is elected as Secretary-General.)

Hungary / Warsaw Treaty Organization – April 27-28, 1970 (HC)
The Military Council of the joint armed forces of the member states of the Warsaw Pact holds its upcoming meeting in Budapest.

Bulgaria – April 27-28, 1970 (KCA)
At a plenary session of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party held in Sofia. Todor Zhivkov Prime Minister and First Secretary of the party puts forward proposals for the reorganization of co-operative and state farms into larger units to be known as “agricultural-industrial complexes”. The proposed and approved reorganization is the third of such plans Bulgarian agriculture has undergone since the introduction of the Communist regime.

East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) – April 29, 1970 (KCA)
The path towards normalization of ties between East and West Germany continues. They agree on postal payments and telecommunications between East and West Germany. The number of telephone lines between the two ‘states’ will increase from 34 to 74.

Soviet Union / Israel / UAR – April 29, 1970 (KCA)
The Israeli Government issues a statement announcing that Soviet pilots are flying operational missions in Egypt. Speaking in Jerusalem the same day, Golda Meir, the Prime Minister of Israel, described the presence of the Russian pilots in Egypt as “a grave step that greatly changes the situation in the area.” In Washington, it is stated that President Nixon ordered an “immediate and full evaluation” of the reports.

US – April 29, 1970 (LBC)
The US lifted the export ban on 222 commodities to communist states with the exception of China, Cuba, North Korea and North Vietnam. The items include textiles; chemicals; iron and steel products; office machines; telephone and telegraph equipment; agricultural machinery; and certain television, radio and machine tool parts.

Hungary / Norway – April 29-May 5, 1970 (HC)
Bernt Ingvaldsen, the President of the Norwegian Parliament, makes an official visit to Hungary.

Hungary / United Arab Republic / Syria - April 29. – May 11, 1970 (HC)
A Hungarian military delegation led by general and defense minister Lajos Czinege visits the United Arab Republic and Syria.

East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) – April 30, 1970 (KCA)
The Federal Government decides to take the following measures to reduce the large West German surplus in trade with Eastern Germany: (a) with effect from July 1, sales to Eastern Germany are made less profitable by the imposition of a value added tax of 6 %; (b) with effect from May 1, purchases of industrial goods from Eastern Germany are made cheaper by raising tax preferences from 5% to 11%.


May 1970

Yugoslavia – May, 1970 (HR)
Yugoslavia hosts the FIBA World Championship. Yugoslav national team wins the first place.

Romania – May-June, 1970 (HOR)
Catastrophic floods cause great material damage and loss of life in the country.

Soviet Union – late May, 1970 (KCA)
It is announced that Boris Bugayev is appointed Minister of Civil Aviation.

Soviet Union / Israel / UAR – May 1, 1970 (KCA)
President Nasser describes the Israeli allegations that Russian pilots were flying operational missions in Egypt (see April 29, 1970) as “Israeli propaganda.” However, he did not deny the reports.

Romania / Hungary - May 1, 1970 (HC)
The Sándor Petőfi Community Center is opened in Bucharest. (Its library has 30 000 books in the Hungarian and Romanian languages.)

Soviet Union / U.K. / France / U.S. – May 3, 1970 (KCA)
The United States, Soviet, the United Kingdom, and French representatives at the UN instructs their deputies to prepare a memorandum on the progress of the talks to date.

Hungary / U.S. – May 5, 1970 (HC)
The government of the People's Republic of Hungary issues a statement condemning the new South East Asian policy of the United States.

Hungary - May 5, 1970 (HC)
Law decree no. 9 of 1970 of the Presidential Council about the re-regulation of academic degrees is adopted.

Hungary/ USA / Indochinese Region - May 6, 1970 (HC)
A government communiqué is released which condemns the aggression and intervention of the United States in Indochina.

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – May 6, 1970 (KCA / VVR)
The 20-Year Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance is signed between Czechoslovakia and Soviet Union. Husák thanks the Soviet Union on behalf of the ‘majority’ of people for its “truly fraternal assistance to Czechoslovakia.” While in Prague, the Soviet delegation attends the celebration of the 25th anniversary of Czechoslovakia’s liberation from German occupation.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – May 6-9, 1970 (HC)
A Hungarian party and state delegation led by Pál Losonczi, the President of the Presidential Council of the People’s Republic of Hungary, attends commemorations held in Prague for the 25th anniversary of Czechoslovakia's liberation.

Yugoslavia/Zambia – May 6-12, 1970 (JBT)
Zambian president Kenneth Kaunda visits Yugoslavia, and talks with President Tito about the forthcoming conference of non-aligned countries in Lusaka as well as about the bilateral economic cooperation. K. Kaunda and J.B. Tito attend the military parade in Belgrade and visit the headquarters of Energoprojekt, Yugoslav construction company involved in building the Kafue Hydroelectric power plant in Zambia.

East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) – May 7 and 15, 1970 (KCA)
The Act of 1966 granting safe-conduct in the Federal Republic to certain representatives of the East German Socialist Unity Party is formally abolished by the Bundestag and (Bundesrat on May 15). These Socialist Unity Party representatives might have prevented Germans from leaving the GDR to the West.

Soviet Union / West Germany – May 11, 1970 (KCA)
Egon Bahr, the State Secretary in the Federal Chancellor’s Office of the German Federal Republic, visits Moscow for a third round of talks with Andrei Gromyko on the treaty for the renunciation of force. He says to journalists that all problems in connection with the talks are settled, and both sides are in a position to start formal negotiations.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary - May 11, 1970 (HC)
The great assembly of the Czechoslovak Hungarian Workers' Cultural Association
takes place in Bratislava. (Secretary-general: Béla Varga.)

Hungary - May 11-12, 1970 (HC)
An academic session takes place in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences on the occasion of the 100th birth anniversary of V. I. Lenin (April 22).

Soviet Union / Comecon – May 12-14, 1970 (KCA)
The 24th Session of Comecon is held in Warsaw, and all member Prime Ministers attend. It is proposed that Comecon should set up an investment bank that will supplement the growth of global socialist states. The bank would be held in Moscow; however, all member states would be represented on the board of the bank, all having an equal vote. Decisions would be settled by a majority three quarter vote. The Romanian government oppses the proposed project.

Finland – May 14, 1970 (VTV)
The Social Democratic Koivisto government steps down, and the caretaker government led by Teuvo Aura starts its two-month term with governmental gridlock being solved.

US / USSR, May 14, 1970 (LBC)
The president of Ford Motor Co. announces that it will not satisfy a Soviet request to build a truck factory in the USSR. It is assumed that the company cancelled the deal because of US governmental pressure

Hungary - May 14-16, 1970 (HC)
A national conference on adult education takes place in Budapest.

East Germany (GDR) / Soviet Union – May 16-17, 1970 (KCA)
Shortly before the Kassel meeting (see May 21, 1970) Walter Ulbricht, the East German leader, accompanied by Willi Stoph, visit Moscow for talks with Soviet leaders. It is understood that the forthcoming talks between the GDR and the FRG are among the subjects discussed, as well as the question of the FRG’s Ostpolitik in the light of the negotiations opened by the Federal Republic with the Soviet Union and Poland.

Romania / Soviet Union – May 18-19, 1970 (PER)
Nicolae Ceauşescu holds discussions with Brezhnev in Moscow.

East Germany (GDR) / Algeria – May 19, 1970 (KCA)
At the end of a visit by the East German Foreign Minister, Otto Winzer, it is announced in Algiers that both Governments have agreed to establish diplomatic relations and exchange ambassadors at an early date. Both sides also agree to intensify their economic, scientific, technical and cultural relations, and sign an agreement on economic co-operation.

East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) – May 21, 1970 (KCA)
Following their meeting on March 19 at Erfurt (see above) in the GDR a second meeting takes place at Kassel, in the FRG, between Brandt, the German Federal Chancellor, and Stoph, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the GDR. The Kassel meeting, like that at Erfurt, ends without any agreement on the political issues dividing the two German states and no communiqué is issued.

Bulgaria / Warsaw Treaty Organization – May 21-22, 1970 (HC)
The Ministers of Defense of the member states of the Warsaw Pact consult in Sofia.

Soviet Union / West Germany- May 22, 1970 (KCA)
On leaving the Soviet capital, Bahr tells journalists that all remaining problems in connection with the preparatory talks are settled; that both sides are in a position to start formal negotiations; and, that he will be making a “positive report” in Bonn on the progress of his discussions in Moscow.

East Germany (GDR) / Maldives – May 23, 1970 (KCA)
It is announced in East Berlin that a representative of the GDR Government and the Government of the Maldives have signed an agreement for the immediate establishment  of diplomatic relations.

Soviet Union / China / Vietnam – May 26, 1970 (HC)
A Sino-Soviet agreement is made concerning economic and military aid provided to North Vietnam.

Czechoslovakia – May 27, 1970 (KCA)
The Federal Assembly approves the dismissal of the President of the Supreme Court,. Otomar Boček, and of six judges of the Supreme Court for “anti-socialist” and “anti-Soviet” opinions. The Assembly also expels two of its members for the same reason.

Romania / Soviet Union – May 29, 1970 (PER)
Ion Gheorghe Maurer meets with Aleksei Kosigin.


June 1970


Finland / Sweden / U.S. – June 1970 (PRF)
The U.S. allows Finland to purchase Sidewinder missiles for the Swedish Draken aircraft system. They are deployed in the Finnish Lapland in recognition of the increasing strategic significance of the northern region.

Soviet Union – June 1, 1970 (KCA)
Soviets launch Soyuz 9 to make an orbital record of 19 days.

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – June 1, 1970 (KCA)
The 20-Year Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance between the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia is ratified in Moscow by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and in Prague by President Svoboda after being signed on May 6.

Albania / Greece – June 2, 1970 (KCA)
Albania and Greece conclude their first trade agreement after the Second World War in Athens. As Albania and Greece are still officially in a state of war, the agreement was concluded at a non-governmental level. 

Yugoslavia / Hungary June 2, 1970 (HC)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock travels to Yugoslavia for a four-day visit.

Soviet Union/ West Germany – June 7, 1970 (KCA)
Guidelines for negotiating the renunciation-of-force agreements with the Soviet Union and  with other East European countries are approved by the German Federal Cabinet at a special session.

Soviet Union – June 14, 1970 (KCA)
Elections take place for the two Chambers of the Supreme Soviet – the Soviet of the Union (767 deputies) and the Soviet of Nationalities (750 deputies) – the four-year term of the previous Chambers having expired. The turnout is 99.96%. It is announced that 99.74% of the electorate voted for the candidates for the Soviet of the Union and 99.79% voted for the candidates for the Soviet of Nationalities.

Hungary / Austria – June 15-19, 1990 (HC)
Franz Jonas, the President of the Republic of Austria, makes an official visit to Hungary.

Yugoslavia / Sudan – June 15-19, 1970 (GOD)
Prime Minister of Sudan J. M. el Nimeiry visits Yugoslavia.

Soviet Union / Hungary - May 16-18, 1970 (HC)
An academic conference of the delegations of 33 communist and workers’ parties takes place in Moscow. (Topic: The increasing role of communist and workers’ parties in the revolutionary phase of the building of socialism and communism.)

Hungary / Japan – June 16-20, 1970 (HC)
A delegation of the Japanese Parliament makes a visit to Hungary.

Romania / France – June 19, 1970 (LBC)
Romanian party leader Ceauşescu concludes his five day visit to France where he spoke with President Georges Pompidou. The two countries agree in doubling their trade of 250 million dollars in the next five years, and increased industrial cooperation, including the assembly of Reanult motorcars and Alouette type helicopters in Romania.


Soviet Union – June 19, 1970 (KCA)
Soyuz 9 of Soviet Union (see June 1) lands on earth safely in the predetermined area, 45 miles west of Karaganda, Kazakhstan.

Hungary / Warsaw Treaty Organization – June 21-22, 1970 (HC)
The Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the member states of the Warsaw Pact consult in Budapest about the actual issues of the European Security Council.

East Germany (GDR) / Ceylon – June 22, 1970 (KCA)
Following an exchange of letters between Sirimavo Bandaranaike, the Ceylonese Prime Minister, and Stoph, Chairman of the GDR Council of Ministers, the Government of Ceylon extends full diplomatic recognition to the German Democratic Republic with effect from June 16.

Soviet Bloc – June 22, 1970 (LBC)
The Budapest conference of the foreign ministers of the Warsaw Pact urges a all-European security conference as soon as possible with US and Canadian participation

Hungary / Sudan - June 22-25, 1970 (HC)
Gafaar Mohamed Nimeiri, the President of the revolutionary council of the Democratic Republic of Sudan, makes an official amicable visit to Hungary.

Romania / Federal Republic of Germany – June 22-26, 1970 (PER)
Ion Gheorghe Maurer visits the Federal Republic of Germany to discuss with Chancellor Willy Brandt.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – June 24-30, 1970 (GOD)       
President of the Federal Executive Council of SFRY Mitja Ribičić visits the USSR.

Austria – June 25, 1970 (KCA)
The Austrian Supreme Administrative Court rules the results of the parliamentary elections of March 1 in three of the seven Viennese constituencies to be invalid. The Court’s decision means that nine Socialist and seven People’s Party deputies lose their parliamentary mandates with immediate effect.

Czechoslovakia / Denmark – June 23, 1970 (KCA)
The Czechoslovakia Ambassador in Copenhagen, Anton Vašek? asks for political asylum in Denmark for himself and his family. His request is granted by the Danish Government on July 2, 1970.

Czechoslovakia – June 26, 1970 (KCA)
It is announced in Prague that Alexander Dubček is expelled by the CKP Central Committee from the party and he is also deprived of his mandate as a member of the Federal Assembly (the Czechoslovak Parliament).

Romania / Iran – June 26- July 1, 1970 (PER)
The Shah of Iran, Mohamed Reza Pahlavi Aryamehr and his wife, Farah, visit Romania.

Romania / US – June 28, 1970 (LBC)
Romanian foreign minister Corneliu Mănescu’s speaks with Secretary of State, William Rogers, in San Francisco. On the 29 of June,  Mănescu meets Nixon.

Romania / China – June 28, 1970 (PER)
The People’s Republic of China grants financial support to Romania.

Czechoslovakia – June 29, 1970 (KCA)
Rudé právo, the Czechoslovak Communist Party’s newspaper, lists a number of offences for which Alexander Dubček was expelled from the Communist Party. He is accused by Husák, his successor, of having led Czechoslovakia to the verge of “disintegration”.

Czechoslovakia - June 29-30, 1970 (HC)
Ministers of public education of the socialist countries hold a conference in Karlovy Vary.

Soviet Union / United Arab Republic – June 29-July 17, 1970 (KCA)
President Nasser of the United Arab Republic visits Moscow. Views on the Middle East are shared and  both states mutually condemn Israel for aggressive behavior.

USA / France– June 30, 1970 (CWIHP)
Gerard Smith advises Kissinger against assisting the French weapons program. He warns that this assistance might jeopardize SALT negotiations and also hurt US negotiations with Germany.

July 1970


Soviet Union / Central African Republic – early July, 1970 (KCA)
During a visit to Moscow, President Bokassa signs a co-operative agreement with the Soviet Union under which Soviet experts are to be sent to the Central African Republic to study the possible construction of a hydro-electric power station, and the improvement of the cotton industry.

Bulgaria – July 1970 (KCA)
Although the average size of a production complex was planned to be from 20,000 to 30,000 hectares, it is reported that one occupying 113,000 hectares and employing over 100,000 people will be set up with the town of Plovdiv as its centre.

East Germany / Soviet Union / West Germany – July, 1970 (BES)
Leonid Brezhnev tells Erich Honecker the guidelines of German politics: stabilized and civilized reassessment of the GDR, with contractual adjustment with the FRG, but at the same time, simultaneous proportionality in order to save the GDR from negative results of the new eastern politics of the FRG.

Hungary - July 1-9, 1970 (HC)
The Warsaw Treaty’s joint forces perform staff exercise in Hungarian territory.

Finland / Hungary - July 3-9, 1970 (HC)
A Finnish-Hungarian friendship week takes place in Helsinki and Budapest.

Czechoslovakia – July 6, 1970 (KCA)
It is  reported from Prague, though not officially announced, that Cernik has been suspended from Communist Party membership.

Romania / Soviet Union – July 6-8, 1970 (KCA / PER)
Aleksei Kosigin travels to Bucharest to sign a 20-year Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance. It replaces the Soviet-Romanian treaty concluded in 1948. The new treaty
includes the term: respecting national sovereignty.

Czechoslovakia – July 8, 1970 (KCA)
The Federal Assembly unanimously deprives Černík and four other deputies of their parliamentary mandates.

Soviet Union – July 9, 1970 (KCA)
At a press conference in Moscow in which the Soyuz 9 cosmonauts and Soviet space scientists take part, it is stated that Colonel Nikolayev and Sevastyanov found it difficult to stand upright upon returning to Earth and would have preferred to lie down. Changing over from one position to another had “negative effects on their general well-being and notably increased their heartbeats”, and they also lost weight after their 18 days in space.

Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / Poland / Hungary / Mongolia / GDR /Soviet Union - July 10, 1970 (HC)
The representatives of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Mongolia, the German Democratic Republic, and the Soviet Union sign an agreement in Moscow about the establishment of the International Investment Bank.

Romania / Central African Republic – July 11-16, 1970 (PER)
The President of the Central African Republic, Jean Bedel Bokassa, visits Romania.

Czechoslovakia – July 14, 1970 (KCA)
Rudé právo, the Czechoslovak Communist Party’s newspaper, reports that over 12,000 members of municipal and local councils in the country has been purged or has resigned since January in a campaign to remove “rightist opportunists” from local government.

Soviet Union / Mauritius – July 14, 1970 (KCA)
The Government of Mauritius announces that it has granted harbor facilities to Soviet trawlers at the rate of 15 vessels a year, and also landing rights to Soviet aircrafts used for exchanging trawler crews. The decision follows the signing of an agreement on technical assistance, under which Mauritius is to receive from the Soviet Union trawlers at a reduced cost for its own fishing industry.

Czechoslovakia – July 16, 1970 (KCA)
Rudé právo, the Czechoslovak Communist Party’s newspaper, publishes a 6,000-word denunciation of Dubček, aiming to destroy what is called the “Dubček legend.” The paper states that the legend, “still lives in our country” and “penetrates deeply into the consciousness of our people, including Communists”.

Soviet Union / West Germany – July 16, 1970 (KCA)
The preparatory talks for the renunciation of force is concluded and there is released an announcement from Bonn stating that both Soviet Union and German Federal Republic’s governments agrees to open formal negotiations in Moscow on July 27, 1970.

Soviet Union / Finland – July 17 - 20, 1970 (KCA) see July 20
The Soviet Union and Finland announce a Twenty-Year Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Assistance. The joint communiqué reiterates the mutual desire to maintain the peaceful stability of Europe.

Hungary -- July 19, 1970 (HC)
The press publishes the guidelines of the 4th Five-Year Plan. (It schedules a 30-32% growth of the national income.)

Finland / Soviet Union – July 20, 1970 (PRF/SKS) See July 17—20
President Kekkonen visits the Soviet Union, where discussions about Finnish neutrality get tougher. Peaceful neutrality is no longer accepted by the Soviets, and the FCMA-treaty (YYA) is to be continued for another 20 years.

Albania / Switzerland – July 20, 1970 (KCA)
Swiss and Albanian governments establish diplomatic relations. The Swiss ambassador to Yugoslavia is accredited to Albania, although continuing to reside in Belgrade.

Soviet Union – July 22, 1969 (KCA)
The chief Soviet delegate says, during the Conference of the Committee Disarmament in Geneva, that his government wishes to “make it abundantly clear that the prohibition of biological weapons only, without a simultaneous ban on chemical means of warfare, would be erroneous”.

Hungary / China – July 25, 1970 (HC)
A Hungarian-Chinese barter traffic and payment agreement is signed in Beijing.

Finland / U.S. – July 22-28, 1970 (SKS)
President Kekkonen visits the U.S. to meet President Nixon. He speaks about the CSCE, emphasizing the advantages of Finnish neutrality in its organization.

Soviet Union / West Germany – July 28, 1970 (KCA)
The discussion between the Soviet Union and the German Federal Republic on the renunciation of force is opened (see July 16). The delegations of both countries continue their negotiations on the treaty for 10 days.

Soviet Union / U.S. – July 30, 1970 (KCA)
At a press conference, President Richard Nixon stresses that the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) do not involve the disarmament of either side, but the limitation and eventually the mutual reduction of strategic arms. The U.S. Government hopes to reach an agreement on either a comprehensive or selective basis as a first step towards the limitation of the development and deployment of “more instrument of destruction when both have enough to destroy each other many times over”.

Soviet Union/U.S. – July 31, 1970 (KCA)
The New York Times reports that on July 24, 1970, the U.S. delegation submitted a comprehensive proposal for a freeze or reduction in the size of offensive and defensive missile system during the second round of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) with the Soviet Union.

August 1970


East Germany (GDR) / India – August 3, 1970 (KCA)
The Indian External Affairs Minister, Swaran Singh, announces that India and the German Democratic republic have decided to establish relations at consular level and to set up Consulates-General in New Delhi and East Berlin.

East Germany / U.S / France – August 3, 1970 (CWIHP).
American foreign policy expert, Sonnenfeldt, summarizes various recent types of military cooperation between the United States and France in a France-American Military Relations Memorandum. These types of military cooperation include working together on contingency plans for dealing with Germany and US nuclear assistance to France.

Soviet Union / Iraq – August 4-12, 1970 (KCA)
An Iraq party and governmental delegation headed by Sadam Hussein Takriti, vice-chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council and Assistant General Secretary of the Bath Party, visits Moscow for talks with a Soviet delegation headed by Kiril Mazurov, First Vice-Chairman of the Soviet Council of Ministers and member of the Political Bureau of the CPSU Central Committee. A communiqué is issued at the end of the visit. It is commented by The Guardian that the communiqué is “unique among Arab-Soviet communiqués” in that it did “not even mention the Arab-Israeli conflict.”

Soviet Union / West Germany – August 7, 1970 (KCA)
The final agreement on the treaty of renunciation of force between the Soviet Union and the German Federal Republic is reached.

Soviet Union – August 7, 1970 (KCA)
Intercosmos 3, the third in the series Intercosmos satellites, is launched.

Soviet Union/ West Germany – August 9, 1970 (KCA)
It is announced in Bonn that Willy Brandt has accepted a Soviet invitation to visit Moscow for the formal signing of a treaty.

Soviet Union/West Germany – August 11, 1970 (KCA)
Brandt, the West German Chancellor, arrives in Moscow. It is the first visit of a West German Chancellor to the Soviet capital since Adenauer in 1955.

USSR / FRG – August 12, 1970 (LBC)
The Soviet Union and the FRG sign a treaty that renounces the use of force in settling disputes between the two states. The treaty recognizes the Oder-Neisse line as the German-Polish border.

Soviet Union / U.S. – August 14, 1970 (KCA)
A joint communiqué between the Soviet Union and the United States announces that the two delegations from both countries agree to resume negotiations in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) in Helsinki, on November 2, 1970. It also concludes that the Vienna talks are useful for both sides and have “made it possible to increase the degree of mutual understanding on a number of aspects of matters discussed”.

Yugoslavia / Vatican – August 14, 1970 (KCA)
It is announced in both Rome and Belgrade that the Vatican and Yugoslavia have agreed to resume full diplomatic relations at ambassadorial level after an interval of nearly 18 years. Diplomatic relations between the two states were broken off by Yugoslavia in December 1952 after the late Archbishop Stepinac had been raised to the rank of Cardinal by Pope Pius XII, and were only partially resumed in 1966.

Soviet Union / Hungary - August 16-23, 1970 (HC)
The 13th Congress of Historians takes place in Moscow.

Soviet Union – August 17, 1970 (KCA)
Soviet Union launches Venus 7, the seventh and largest automatic interplanetary station in the “Venus shots” series. The station's mission is to explore Venus.

Yugoslavia / China – August 17, 1970 (KCA)
Sino-Yugoslav relations, which have been at chargés d’affairs level since 1958 owing to ideological differences, are restored to ambassadorial level with the arrival in Belgrade of Tseng Tao.

Hungary - August 18, 1970 (HC)
The presidential post of the National Technological Development Committee is taken over by vice-chairman of the Council of Ministers Miklós Ajtai.

Hungary - August 19, 1970 (HC)
A festive meeting takes place in Székesfehérvár on the occasion of the 1000th birth anniversary of (Saint) King Stephen I. (August 20.) (The ceremonial speech is delivered by chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi. August 26. A memorial meeting is held at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.)

Soviet Union / West Germany (FRG) / Warsaw Treaty Organization – August 20, 1970 (KCA / HC)
A one-day summit meeting of the leaders of the Warsaw Treaty member-countries is held in Moscow. The communiqué issued at its conclusion describes the treaty signed on August 12 between the Soviet Union and West Germany (see above) as “a major step on the road towards relaxation.”

Hungary / Sudan / Tunisia / United Arab Republic - August 21. – September 1, 1970 (HC)
Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi makes a tour in Africa. (The stations of his trip are: Sudan, Tunisia and the United Arab Republic.)

Italy / Hungary - August 21, 1970  – September 2, 1970 (HC)
The world conference of Ministers of Culture takes place in Italy.

Yugoslavia / West Germany – August 21-September 6, 1970 (AY)
An official delegation of the Social Democratic Party of Germany led by Herber Wehner visits Yugoslavia. They are received by Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito on September 2nd.

Yugoslavia / DR Congo – August 29-31, 1970 (GOD)
President of DR Congo Joseph-Desiré Mobutu visits Yugoslavia.

September 1970


Soviet Union – September 1, 1970 (KCA)
The central committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union issue a statement, in the form of a resolution adopted by both bodies, announcing the decision to re-establish a Union-Republican Ministry of Justice as part of an increasing drive against crime, particularly the embezzlement of state property.

Yugoslavia / Sudan – September 6, 1970 (AY)
Josip Broz Tito visits Sudan on his way to Lusaka.

Yugoslavia / Non-Aligned Countries – September 7, 1970 (KCA)
The summit of the Non-Aligned Countries is attended by representatives from 52 states, including Yugoslavia. The draft resolutions are approved expressing alarm at rising conflict in Asia, and the request of all non-aligned states to consider measures to exclude South Africa from all U.N. specialized agencies.

Yugoslavia / Sudan – September 6, 1970 (AY)
Josip Broz Tito visits Sudan on his way to Lusaka.

Yugoslavia / Non-Aligned Movement – September 8-10 (AY, HN)
The Third Conference of Non-Aligned countries takes place in Lusaka, Zambia. It is attended by 62 delegations (53 members and 9 observers). 17 documents are accepted at the conference, including the declaration On Peace, Independence, Economic Development, Cooperation, and the Democratization of International Relations. This declaration emphasizes the main political aims of the NAM: ensuring peace, peaceful coexistence, strengthening of the role of the UN, settling disputes by peaceful means, struggle for economic independence and cooperation between states, cessation of the arms race, and struggle against colonialism, neocolonialism, and racism. In special resolutions the conference condemns the U.S. foreign policy in Indochina and the actions of Israel in the Middle East, thus demanding the withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam, and liberation of the Arab territories from Israel. In his speech to the conference on September 9th President Josip Broz Tito addresses several main issues: overcoming the gap between the developed and underdeveloped countries, economic cooperation between the non-aligned countries, adherence to principles in internal and international affairs, the right of each state to political, economic, and cultural sovereignty. He also condemns colonialism, neo-colonialism, domination, exploitation, and racism, and advocates peace, freedom, and independence of each nation and state.

Soviet Union / France – September 8-11, 1970 (KCA) see Sept. 11
The fifth session of the Franco-Soviet Joint Permanent Session (the “big commission”) is held in Paris. The heads of respective delegation are Valéry Giscard d’Estaing and V. A. Kirillin. A new co-operation protocol is signed between the Soviet Foreign Trade Minister and the Renault motor company, awarding contracts to Renault worth up to 700 million Francs for the supply of equipment and technological studies.

Hungary / West Germany – September 8-16, 1970 (HC)
As a result of Hungarian-West German economic negotiations the two countries' representatives reach a long-term barter traffic and economic-technical cooperation agreement in Bonn.

East Germany (GDR) / Guinea – September 9, 1970 (KCA)
A communiqué signed by President Sekou Touré and Paul Verner, a member of the SED’s Politburo, issued simultaneously in Conakry and East Berlin, announces that it has been decided, with immediate effect, to raise the status of the consulates-general existing in the two countries to that of embassies. On the following day, the West German Foreign Ministry states that the West German Government deplores this step as “prejudicial to friendly relations.”

USSR / France – September 11, 1970 (LBC) see Sept. 8—11.
A Soviet-French agreement is signed according to which Renault will help build a Soviet truck factory.

Yugoslavia / Uganda – September 12, 1970 (AY)
Josip Broz Tito visits Uganda on his way back from Lusaka.

Romania / Canada / Iceland / United States / U.N. – September 12-27, 1970 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Canada, Iceland, and the U. S. Nicolae Ceauşescu receives the United Nations jubilee medal from U Thant.

East Germany (GDR) / Somalia – September 13, 1970 (KCA)
At the end of a visit to Eastern Germany (September 4-13) by a delegation led by General Mohammad Ainanshe Guled, vice-chairman of Somalia’s Supreme Revolutionary Council, a long-term trade agreement between the two countries is signed for the years 1971-1975.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – September 13-19, 1970 (HC)
Jan Marko, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Socialist Republic of Czechoslovakia, takes an official visit to Budapest.

Soviet Union / Hungary - September 14-15, 1970 (HC)
Economic negotiations take place in Moscow between Hungary and the Soviet Union. (The harmonization of the plans for 1971-1975)

Soviet Union / Spain – September 15, 1970 (KCA)
It is announced that the Soviet news agency TASS and the Spanish national news agency EFE are to exchange correspondents, involving the opening of a TASS bureau in Madrid – for the first time since the Spanish Civil War – and of an EFE bureau in Moscow.

U.N. – September 15, 1970 (KCA)
The celebration of the 25th anniversary of the U.N. is held along with a Commemorative session and anniversary declarations.

Soviet Union – September 16, 1970 (KCA)
Soviet Union launches Luna 16, a Soviet probe, into a circular orbit round the moon. It makes a soft landing on the lunar surface, just north of the lunar equator and about 200 miles north-east from where the American Apollo 11 made the first landing on the moon in July 1969. It collects samples of moon-dust and moon-rock before returning to earth safely in the predetermined area of Soviet Central Asia on September 24, in the Karaganda province of Kazakhstan.

Hungary / FRG - September 16, 1970 (HC)
Hungary and the Federal Republic of Germany sign a long-term barter trade and economic agreement in Budapest.

Soviet Union / U.N. – September 19, 1970 (KCA)
The Soviet Union and eight other communist countries presents to the U.N. General Assembly a draft convention on the prohibition of the development, production, and stockpiling of chemical and bacteriological (biological) weapons, and on their destruction.

Romania / Soviet Union – September 20, 1970 (KCA)
The Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance, signed in Bucharest on July 7, 1970 (see above) is ratified by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and the Romanian State Council.

Yugoslavia – September 21, 1970 (HR)
Josip Broz Tito announces the founding of a collective head of state in the forthcoming constitutional changes. Work on the change of constitution begins.

Romania / Austria – September 21-25, 1970 (PER)
Nicolae Ceauşescu and Elena Ceauşescu visit Austria to discuss with the Austrian President, Franz Jonas.

Hungary / Vietnam – September 22, 1970 (HC)
A Hungarian delegation of the Foreign office led by András Gyenes, the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, visits Hanoi and Pyongyang.

Soviet Union- September 24, 1970 (KCA)
The airtight capsule from Luna 16 containing the lunar material detaches itself from its rocket when it is about 30,000 miles from Earth and makes a soft landing on Sept. 24 in the Karaganda province of Kazakhstan, in the general area of the Baikonur cosmodrome from which Luna 16 was launched.

Romania / United States – September 26, 1970 (PER)
Nicolae Ceauşescu holds discussions with Richard Nixon in the White House. Ceauşescu relays the Chinese and Vietnamese message to put an end to the Vietnam War.

Hungary - September 28-30, 1970 (HC)
The representatives of 45 communist and workers’ parties hold a meeting in Budapest. (Topic: Some current questions on the fight against imperialism.)

Soviet Union / United Arab Republic – September 29-October 3, 1970 (KCA)
During his visit to Cairo to attend the funeral of late President Nasse, the Soviet Prime Minister, Kosygin, has extensive talks with Anwar Sadat – the acting President – and other Egyptian leaders. At the end of the talks a communiqué is issued, stating both sides’ determination to strengthen diplomatic ties and to continue their efforts towards a settlement of the Middle East conflict.

Hungary - September 30. – October 3, 1970 (HC)
The Parliament adopts act no. II of 1970 about the five-year plan and act no. III of 1970 about the amendment of act no. II of 1966 about the election of the representatives and council members.
Yugoslavia / U.S. – September 30-October 2, 1970 (AY)
The U.S. President Richard Nixon, accompanied by Secretary of State William Rogers and National Security advisor Henry Kissinger, visits Yugoslavia. Firstly, the two delegations address the bilateral issues: economic, financial, agricultural, academic, and scientific cooperation. The emphasis during the talks is on the international matters, especially the Middle and Far East crises, as well as on the results of the Lusaka Conference.


October 1970


Soviet Union / U.S. – October-November 1970 (KCA)
Important talks are held between Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko and President Nixon in Washington. The issues under discussion include US-Soviet relations, general issues of European Security, and the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) – between the USA, USSR, the Middle East and Indo-China.

Finland – October 1, 1970 (SKS)
The Parliamentary Defense Committee is established. Its function is to come up with new ways of defending Finland with its armed forces, as the Prague Spring in 1968 brought fears of a possible Soviet invasion.

Austria – October 4, 1970 (KCA)
Fresh elections take place in three Viennese constituencies (see June 25, 1970 and March 1, 1970). It is announced on October 8 that nine Socialist, six People’s Party candidates, as well as six Freedom Party members were elected.

Hungary / India – October 4-7, 1970 (HC)
Varahagiri Venkata Giri, the President of the Republic of India, makes an official visit to Hungary.

Austria – October 5, 1970 (KCA)
It is announced that Klaus resigns from his seat in the Nationalrat because of the set-back suffered by his party in the latest Viennese elections (see October 4, 1970), with the aim of enabling a younger man to join the Parliament.

Yugoslavia – October 5, 1970 (RYA)
Nationalistic riots take place in Split, developing out of demonstrations sparked off by football fans.

Poland / Hungary - October 6-8, 1970 (HC)
Hungary and Poland negotiate in Warsaw about planning bureaus for the harmonization of People’s Economic Plans for 1971-1975.

Soviet Union / France – October 6-13, 1970 (KCA)
President Pompidou, accompanied by Claude Pompidou and French Foreign Minister, Maurice Schuman, pay an eight-day visit to the Soviet Union. At the end of the visit President Pompidou and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny of the Soviet Union sign a protocol designed to broaden and strengthen political consultation between the two countries.

Yugoslavia / Western Europe – October 6-23, 1970 (AY)
In October 1970 Josip Broz Tito makes two trips to Western Europe and visits Belgium (October 6-9), Luxemburg (October 9-11), Federal Republic of Germany (October 11), Netherlands (October 20-23), and France (October 23). The aim of this “European tour” is to discuss bilateral economic cooperation, international matters, to foster cooperation between Yugoslavia and the European Economic Community, and to represent Yugoslavia as an independent, non-block, yet European country. In Belgium the Yugoslav delegation meets with king Baudouin of Belgium and a Government delegation headed by Prime Minister Gaston Eyskens. In a three-day long visit to Luxembourg Yugoslav delegation meets with the Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Prime Minister Pierre Werner, and politician and diplomat Gaston Thorn. In West Germany President Tito talks with Prime Minister Willy Brandt about the Middle East crisis, the European security, the East-West relations, as well as about the Yugoslav-German mutual entering the Third World markets. In Netherlands Yugoslav delegation attends a ceremonial meeting with the Queen of Netherlands Julijana and her daughter and successor Beatrix, and arranges political talks with a Government delegation. During the short stay in France meetings are organized with the French delegation headed by Georges Pompidou about the political situation in Europe, on the Mediterranean, the Middle East and in Indochina. During each visit Josip Broz Tito tries to convince the participants in the talks that Yugoslavia is a European country, and that its non-bloc position is not an obstacle for cooperation, but a political orientation which contributes to peace, cooperation in various fields, and to overcoming bloc divisions.

Soviet Union / U.S. – October 7, 1969 (KCA)
Leonard and Roshchin, the U.S. and Soviet Delegates, present a joint draft treaty prohibiting the placement of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction on the sea bed.

Soviet Union / Egypt – October 8, 1970 (KCA)
Kosygin and Egyptian leadership meet to improve and strengthen diplomatic relations.

Soviet Union / France – October 8, 1970 (KCA)
French President Pompidou flies to the Baikonur cosmodrome with Brezhnev where they watch the launching of a Cosmos satellite. President Pompidou is the only Western leader to see the cosmodrome other than General Charles de Gaulle in 1966.

Soviet Union/U.S. – October 12, 1970 (KCA)
A NASA statement says that several meetings, both in Moscow and in Washington, will probably be necessary before any firm agreement on standardized spacecraft docking apparatus can be reached.

US / Soviet Union – October 12, 1970 (LBC)
Five NASA engineers take part in a conference in Moscow to discuss how a Soviet and an American spacecraft could be linked up in outer space. July 17 1975.

Hungary - October 12-13, 1970 (HC)
A national homeland knowledge conference takes place in Budapest.

France / USSR – October 13, 1970 (LBC) see October 6—13 and October 8.
French President Georges Pompidou and Nikolai Podgorny sign a political and economic agreement in Moscow. According to the political agreement the foreign ministers of the two states meet twice annually, particularly at times of political crises in order to strengthen their political consultations and embrace international problems of mutual interest. A separate economic document envisions the doubling of Franco-Soviet trade until 1974 and contains a preliminary agreement on French participation in exploiting Russian mineral reserves. Pompidou is seen off by Brezhnev, a gesture that transcends usual protocol requirements. Pompidou visited Baikonur.

Soviet Union – October 14, 1970 (KCA)
Intercosmos 4, the fourth in the series Intercosmos satellites, is launched to the earth’s orbit.

Hungary – October 15, 1970 (HC)
János Péter, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, delivers a speech during the Jubilee Session of the UN.

Albania / China – October 16, 1970 (KCA)
Following the visit of an Albanian Government delegation, a number of economic agreements between Albania and Communist China are signed in Beijing. The agreements cover: (a) the arrangement of a long-term interest-free loan by China to Albania; (b) commercial exchanges and payments between the two countries during the years 1971-75. The leaders of the two delegations are respectively Li Hsien-nien, Vice Premier of the Chinese State Council, and Abdyl Kellezi, head of the Albanian Government economic delegation and President of the Albanian State Planning Commission.

Warsaw Pact –  October 20, 1970 (CWIHP)
During the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe negotiations on the changing positions and roles of the socialist states in Europe are assessed positively, and it is stated that “unity” and “solidarity” amongst the countries of the Eastern Bloc is necessary to effectively achieve security and progress in the face of capitalist,-imperialist aims and forward the international class struggle.

Soviet Union – October 20, 1970 (KCA)
Zone 8, an automatic space station, is launched towards the moon. It takes photos of the lunar surface and carries out “research into physical properties along the flight path and in near-lunar space”.

Soviet Union – October 20-21, 1970 (HC)
Twenty-seven European countries' representatives consult in Moscow about the planned European Security Conference.

Hungary - October 20-22, 1970 (HC)
The leaders of the miner trade unions of the European socialist countries hold a conference in Budapest. (Topic: the industrial revolution, vocational training and the tasks of trade unions in connection with these.)

Soviet Union / U.S. / Turkey – October 21, 1970 (KCA)
Three U.S. officers, including two generals, and a Turkish officer are detained in Leninakan (Armenia) after their aircraft, a twin-engine Beechcraft, inadvertently crossed into Soviet territory and landed at Leninakan instead of the Turkish town of Kars, its intended destination. 

Hungary / Vietnam / France – October 23, 1970 (HC)
Huan Thuy, the Minister of State and the leader of the North Vietnamese delegation negotiating in Paris, takes an official amicable visit to Hungary.

Soviet Union / U.S. – October 26-27, 1970 (KCA)
A two-day meeting between top American and Soviet space engineers is held in Moscow. The talks are of a preliminary character to discuss “problems of the compatibility of the approach and docking systems of manned spaceship and station”.

Soviet Union / UK – October 26-29, 1970 (KCA)
Talks between Gromyko, Edward Heath (PM) and Sir Alec Douglas Home (Foreign minister) occure and result in a joint communiqué outlining the following: Disarmament – both sides urge all states to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons at the 25th session of the UN General Assembly; SALT talks – Sir Home expresses approval of USSR-USA Arms Limitation talks; European Security – exchange of views on a proposal to establish a multilateral All-European Conference in which the USA and Canada could participate; Middle East – both actors seek to defuse tension in the region in accordance with UN resolution 242; and Vietnam – issues concerning Vietnam were expressed.

Hungary / West Germany – October 27, 1970 (HC)
Péter Veress, the Minister of Finance of Hungary, and Karl Schiller, the Minister of Economy of the Federal Republic of Germany, sign a long-term barter traffic, economic and technical agreement between the two countries in Budapest.

Bulgaria / Warsaw Treaty Organization – October 27, 1970 (HC)
The commanders of the joined armed forces of the armies of the Warsaw Pact meet in Varna, Bulgaria.

Poland / West Germany (FRG) – October 28, 1970 (KCA)
The appointment of Brandt as Chancellor of the German Federal Republic following the West German general elections in 1969 is followed by a West German initiative for the normalization of relations between the FRG and Poland.

Hungary - October 30, 1970 (HC)
Government order no. 43 of 1970 about the meter-based registering of lands is adopted.

Poland / Pakistan – October 29-November 1, 1970 (KCA)
Marian Spychalski, Chairman of the State Council of Poland is in Pakistan for a state visit and conducts talks with President Yahya Khan. A communiqué is issued in Islamabad on November 1 in which both heads of state agree to support the strengthening of the United Nations. The communiqué also states that the two countries seek greater cooperation in the fields of culture, science and technology. During the visit the Polish Deputy Foreign Minister Zygfryd Wolniak is killed along with three Pakistani officials, during an incident in Karachi Airport on November 1st. Spychalsky narrowly escapes unharmed and cuts his visit short and returns to Poland on November 2nd. The Pakistani government expresses regret concerning the incident and creates a special inquiry commission to investigate the incident. The driver of the baggage truck identified as Mohammad Firoz Abdullah, a member of the ultra-right wing Jamiat-i-Islam party. He supposedly shouted anti-communist slogans during the incident.  Abdullah is subsequently charged with murder and was remanded in custody.

Hungary / West Germany – October 29- November 3, 1970 (HC)
Gerhard Schröder, the president of the Federal Assembly's Foreign Affairs Committee of the Federal Republic of Germany, makes a non-official visit to Hungary.

Soviet Union – October 30, 1970 (KCA)
Cosmos 376, the latest in the series of Cosmos satellites is launched and orbited around the earth.


November 1970


USSR / US – November 2, 1970 (LBC)
According to SIPRI’s report, the USSR caught up with the US in the field of ICBMs. The institute reported that in 1970 there were 50 thousand tons of nuclear explosives in the world.

Soviet Union / U.S. – November 2-December 28 1970 (KCA)
The third round of SALT talks is held in Helsinki. The delegations are led by  Gerard Smith, the Director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and  Vladimir Semyonov, the Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister. Following the talks, a joint communiqué is issued. 

US / Poland – November 6, 1970 (LBC)
The Nixon administration rejects the sale to Poland of high technology oil equipment.

Hungary / Spain – November 10, 1970 (HC)
As a result of the negotiations in Budapest the first long term economic agreement between Hungary and Spain is signed. In addition, they decide to mutually establish the official consular and trade missions.

Soviet Union / U.S. – November 10, 1970 (KCA)
The three American officers detained after their aircraft crossed into Soviet territory are released.  The Soviet government issues a statement calling for a “thorough investigation” of the plane incident.

Poland / Romania – November 10-13, 1970 (PER)
A Polish delegation led by Władisław Gomułka (the leader of the Polish United Workers’ Party), visits Romania to sign a friendship and collaboration pact between the two countries.
It replaces the treaty concluded in 1950.

Hungary / Austria – November 12-18, 1970 (HC)
The Hungarian-Austrian economic council holds its first session in Vienna.

Albania / Belgium – November 13, 1970 (KCA)
It is announced in Brussels that the Belgian and the Albanian Governments have agreed to establish diplomatic relations at ambassadorial level.

Romania / North Vietnam  – November 14-20, 1970 (PER)
The Romanian Vice-Prime Minister, Gogu Rădulescu, visits the Democratic Republic of Vietnam to sign several agreements.

Soviet Bloc - November 16, 1970 (HC)
The International Investment Bank (→ July 10.) holds its first meeting in Moscow.

Hungary / Spain - November 17, 1970 (HC)
Hungary and Spain sign a long-term economic agreement in Budapest.

Hungary / Turkey – November 17, 1970 (HC)
Ibsan Sabri Caglayangil, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Turkey, makes an official visit to Hungary.

Albania / Netherlands – November 18, 1970 (KCA)
It is announced in The Hague that the Dutch and the Albanian Governments have agreed to establish diplomatic relations at ambassadorial level.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Bulgaria / East Germany - November 18, 1970 (HC)
Hungary joins the agricultural agreement already signed by the Soviet Union, the German Democratic Republic , and Bulgaria.

Poland / West Germany– November 18 and 20, 1970 (KCA)
Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany sign a treaty normalizing relations between the two countries on November 18 and publish the treaty on November 20 after seven rounds of talks over 10 months.

Bulgaria / Romania – November 18-21, 1970 (PER)
Nicolae Ceauşescu visits Bulgaria.

Romania / China – November 20-26, 1970 (PER)
A Romanian delegation led by Gogu Rădulescu visits the People’s Republic of China. China offers Romania a long-term credit loan, without any interest.


Hungary - November 23-29, 1970 (HC)
The 10th congress of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party takes place in Budapest. (First secretary of the Central Committee: János Kádár; secretaries: György Aczél, Béla Biszku, Zoltán Komócsin, Rezső Nyers, Miklós Óvári and Árpád Pullai; members of the political committee: György Aczél, Antal Apró, Valéria Benke, Béla Biszku, Lajos Fehér, Jenő Fock, Sándor Gáspár, János Kádár, Gyula Kállai, Zoltán Komócsin, Dezső Nemes, Károly Németh, Rezső Nyers.)

Yugoslavia / West Germany – November 25-27, 1970 (HRN)
West German Foreign Minister Walter Scheel visits Yugoslavia. An agreement on extradition is signed.

Germany / Yugoslavia– November 26, 1970 (KCA)
West Germany and Yugoslavia sign an extradition treaty of Bilandžić.

Poland / France – November 27, 1970 (PSM)
Poland and France sign a Declaration of Friendship and Polish-French Cooperation providing for regular consultations between the two countries, especially on European issues.


December 1970


East Germany / West Germany – December 1970-March 1971 (KCA)
In four separate incidents, civilian access on the routes between West Germany and West Berlin are blocked by East German authorities in protest against meetings in the city of West German leaders and parliamentarians. In January 1971, Allied military traffic is temporarily disrupted for the first time since 1969. On February 4,1971  the East German Prime Minister announces in a meeting with Danelius - Chairman of the West Berlin Socialist Unity Party -  that East Germany is willing to conclude an agreement with the West Berlin Senate guaranteeing access routes on the condition that the Federal Republic’s political presence is expelled in the city. On March 6, 1971, talks between East German State Secretary Kohrt and Müller, Head of the Chancellory of the West Berlin Senate, open and continue on March 12 and March 27. However, the East German government refuses to allow West Berliners to visit relatives during Easter.

Hungary / Austria – December 1, 1970 (HC)
János Péter and Rudolf Kirschläger, the Hungarian and Austrian Ministers of Foreign Affairs, meet unofficially in Eisenstadt (Kismarton) and Sopron.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary - December 1, 1970 (HC)
According to the census, the number of Hungarian people living in Czechoslovakia is 572 568 (533 934 live in Slovakia out of the total); the number of native speakers of Hungarian is 621 588 strong.

Hungary - December 2, 1970 (HC)
An academic memorial meeting takes place in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences on the occasion of the 150th birth anniversary of Friedrich Engels.

Hungary / U.S. – December 2, 1970 (HC)
Within the framework of the Hungarian-American scientific cooperation, an agreement is signed in Washington about the development of relations between the two countries' Academies of Sciences.


East Germany / Warsaw Treaty Organization – December 2, 1970 (HC) 
The Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Pact consults in Berlin about European security and the situations in the Middle-East and Indo-China.

Poland / West Germany – December 6-8, 1970 (HC)
Willy Brandt, West-German Chancellor, makes an official visit to Warsaw. During his stay a Polish-West German agreement is signed about the recognition of the Odera-Neisse border by the Federal Republic of Germany. The two states also renounce the use of force in the settlement of disputes.

Poland – December 8, 1970 (HPB)
According to the census, there are 32,642,000 citizens of Poland. 52.3% of society lives in the urban areas.

Yugoslavia / Italy – December 8, 1970 (JBT)
Josip Broz Tito receives a trade union delegation from Italy.

Czechoslovakia – December, 10-11,1970 (PSCZ)
The Central Committee of the Communist Party issues the document “Lesson from the Crises Development in the Party and Society After the XIII. Congress of the Communist Party”.

Poland – December 12, 1970 (HPB)
The government announces a rise in the price of meat (17.6%) and other food stuffs (13.38%). Compensation is granted, but does not cover the difference between prices.

Poland – December 14, 1970 (HPB / .KCA / PSM)
In reaction to the announcement of price increases, riots break out in Baltic ports, beginning in Gdańsk and spreading in later days to Gdynia, Sopot and Elbląg.On December 15 demonstrating workers crush a police blockade and march into the city, setting fire to the local building of the Central Committee of the Communist Party.  On December 15 Władysław Gomułka decides to let the police use firearms against the demonstrators. Allowing the army into the city makes the situation more tense; strikes take place in almost all workplaces in Gdańsk and Gdynia. There are several dead and injured as police decide to use firearms. A similar scene takes place in Szczecin, while shorter strikes on a smaller scale also take place in Warsaw, Cracow, and other cities. On December 18 the battles between police and demonstrators come to an end with 44 people killed and 346 injured. Following the riots, the government announces a wage increase and a price freeze.

Hungary / Romania - December 14, 1970 (HC)
Cultural negotiations start between Hungary and Romania in Bucharest. (December 19: the plan of the cultural and scientific cooperation is adopted.)

Hungary / Soviet Union - December 14, 1970 (HC)
Hungary and the Soviet Union sign a five-year trade and payment agreement in Budapest.

Yugoslavia – December 14, 1970 (HR)
Based on the initiative of Josip Broz Tito in the Federal Assembly the process of the change of the Constitution starts. The Commission for the constitutional matters is headed by Edvard Kardelj. The task of the Commission is to create the preliminary versions for the constitutional amendments.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia - December 14-16, 1970 (HC)
Hungary and Czechoslovakia start talks in Budapest. (The harmonization of the people’s economic plans takes place.)

Hungary - December 16-17, 1970 (HC)
An academic conference takes place at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. (Topic: “The Lenin peace policy of today.”)

Poland – December 19, 1970 (HPB) see December 20—23.
Władysław Gomułka is replaced by Edward Gierek as the First Secretary of the Polish United Workers’ Party. Several changes in the Central Committee are announced and a special commission to investigate the events in December 1970 is established.

Hungary / Romania – December 19, 1970 (CEC)
Romania and Hungary sign an agreement regarding cultural and technical collaboration.

Poland – December 20-23, 1970 (KCA) see December 19.
Following the riots in port cities on December 14-16 (see above),  Gomułka resigns as First Secretary of the PUWP on December 20, 1970, and  Gierek replaces him. President Spychalski resigns on December 23, 1970 and  Cyrankiewicz becomes President, his successor as Prime Minister is P. Jaroszewicz.) In response, a joint communiqué is issued after Polish and Soviet leaders meet on January 5, 1971, expressing Soviet support for the competence of the PUWP to solve the crisis.  On December 22, an article in The People’s Daily was published in China that expressed Beijing’s support for the strikers and rioters against the “revisionist” Polish authorities and “Soviet imperialism.”

Poland – December 23, 1970 (HPB)
Piotr Jaroszewicz is appointed the Prime Minister; Jozef Cyrankiewicz becomes the chairman of the National Council.

Yugoslavia – December 28, 1970 (KCA)
Changes are announced in Belgrade for the Federal Executive Council. Jakov Sirotkovich is appointed a Vice-President of the FEC with the approval of all chambers of the Yugoslav parliament.

Poland / Soviet Union – December 29, 1970 (PSM)
Poland and the Soviet Union sign a trade agreement for the years 1971-1975. It aims to increase the trade exchange between two countries by 75% on the previous period.

Hungary - During the year, 1970 (HC)
According to the data of the Central Statistical Office the population of Hungary is 10 314 152 strong.

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016