The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Research Chair, Center of Social Sciences, Institute for Political Science,
Hungarian Academy of Sciences;
Founding Director, Cold War History Research
Center, Budapest;
Professor of History, Corvinus University of Budapest
Institute of International Studies

Associate editor

University of Szeged


Assistant editors




Izabel ÁCS, Chiara BERTUCCO, Noah BUYON, Megan DIBBLE, Marco GIACOMAZZI, Anusha GURUNG, Solveig HANSEN, Zsálya HAADI-NAGY, Konrad HYZY, Tomas KOLAR, Thomas KOLLMANN, Roman KOZIEL, Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Oleksandr MURASHEVYCH, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Roland PAPP, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Martin ROMAIN, François  ROPARS, Vjenceslav RUPCIC, Lili SIKLÓS, Marcello TOMASINA, Zita Bettina VASAS, Aniello VERDE, Dóra VERESS, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, András ZÁM

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016


The publication and the preceding research were sponsored by the Hungarian Cultural Fund


At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The third part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1968 to 1980. The years 1980–1991 will be available by the end of 2017.

The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


List of Sources


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016

ISBN 978-963-12-7940-5


Chronology 1973


Soviet Union – 1973 (KCA)
During 1973, 34,750 Soviet Jews were allowed to migrate to Israel, compared to 31,478 in 1972, approximately 15,000 in 1971, and 10,330 in the years between 1961 and 1970. Jews from the Soviet Union comprised the majority of immigrants entering Israel in 1972.


January 1973


Romania – January 1973 (CER)
A Romanian writer, Paul Goma is purged from the Romanian Communist Party.

Hungary - January 1, 1973 (HC)
Postal codes are introduced in Hungary.

Hungary - January 4, 1973 (HC)
The Order of the Government about the Protection of the Cleanness of Air (1/1973) is adopted.

East Germany / Uganda – January 5, 1973 (KCA)
German Democratic Republic enters into diplomatic relations with Uganda.

East Germany / Luxemburg / Nederlands – January 5, 1973 (KCA)
Luxemburg and the Netherlands recognize the German Democratic Republic and establish diplomatic relations.


Hungary - January 8, 1973 (HC)
The prices of milk and dairy products increase by 28% on average. Compensations are paid to pensioners and those with children.

Romania / Pakistan – January 8-12, 1973 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Pakistan to meet with President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.

East Germany / Costa Rica – January 9, 1973 (KCA)
German Democratic Republic enters diplomatic relations with Costa Rica.

Hungary - January 10, 1973 (HC)
The first Hungarian national park, the Hortobágy National Park is established (52 000 hectares).

East Germany / Spain – January 11, 1973 (KCA)
German Democratic Republic enters into diplomatic relations with Spain.

Soviet Union / France – January 11-12, 1973 (KCA)
French President Pompidou pays a two-day unofficial visit to the Soviet Union on an invitation from Brezhnev. They note the progress in the relationship between France and the Soviet Union and express their dedication to the upcoming Helsinki conference and European security.

Yugoslavia / Egypt – January 11-12, 1973 (JBT)
Egyptian President Anwar el Sadat visits Yugoslavia, and meets with President Josip Broz Tito on the island of Brioni. Beside bilateral issues they discuss the international situation, and, especially, the Middle East crisis.


Soviet Union / U.S. – January 12, 1973 (BUS)
The U.S. General Electric Company signs a wide range research and technology
exchange program with the Soviet Union. The GE Vice-President says that the contract has no special monetary value but might be a beginning that could lead to a turnover of
several hundred million dollars.

East Germany / Denmark / Iceland – January 12, 1973 (KCA)
Denmark and Iceland recognize the German Democratic Republic and establish diplomatic relations.

Yugoslavia – January 13, 1973 (KCA)
26 professors and assistants are dismissed from the University of Zagreb for political reasons.

Soviet Union / India – January 14, 1973 (KCA)
A protocol providing for an increase in co-operation between India and the Soviet Union regarding oil prospecting and production is signed by Barooah and V. D. Shashin, the Soviet Minister of the oil.

Soviet Union / Hungary - January 15-16, 1973 (HC)
The foreign ministers of the socialist countries hold a meeting in Moscow.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 16, 1973 (BUS)
According to figures published by the American Embassy in Moscow in the first eleven
months of 1972, U.S. exports to the USSR increased from 134 million dollars to 449 million compared to the same period in 1971.In addition, Soviet exports to the U.S. are up from 54 million dollars to 83 million (in the same time period).

East Germany / Norway – January 17, 1973 (KCA)
Norway recognizes the German Democratic Republic and establishes diplomatic relations with this country.

East Germany / Afghanistan – January 17, 1973 (KCA)
Afghanistan enters into diplomatic relations with the German Democratic Republic.

East Germany / Italy – January 18, 1973 (KCA)
Italy recognizes the German Democratic Republic and establishes diplomatic relations.

Egypt /  Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – January 18, 1973 (CWIHP)
Josip Broz Tito writes a letter to Brezhnev about his meeting with President Sadat and their discussion on the Middle East. Tito expresses solidarity with the victims of Israeli affression.

Hungary - January 18, 1973 (HC)
The standpoint of Hungary supports the idea of preparatory consultation on the reduction of the European forces and arms.

Poland / India – January 18, 1973 (PSM)
Poland and India sign a declaration of friendship and cooperation. It provides for
regular consultations between the two countries.

Bulgaria – January 19, 1973 (KCA)
Ivan Iliev is appointed a Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers and Chairman of the State Planning Committee in succession to Sava Dulbokov, who is appointed to Iliev's former post as Head of the Planning and Economic Department of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party.

East Germany / Mauritania – January 22, 1973 (KCA)
Mauritania enters into diplomatic relations with German Democratic Republic.

Soviet Union – January 22, 1973 (BUS)
The USSR presents a four-point draft for the agenda of the CSCE conference: security
relations of the European states; economic and cultural cooperation; the establishment
of a consultative body to monitor the execution of the treaty.

North Vietnam / U.S. – January 23, 1973 (BUS)
Nixon announces that the U.S. is signing a peace agreement with North Vietnam. President Nixon said at his inaugural address on January 20, 1969: “The time is gone when America will make every other nation’s conflict our own or make every other nation’s future our responsibility, or presume to tell the people of other nations how to manage their affairs…Let us continue to bring down the walls of hostility which have divided the world and to build in their place bridges of understanding…”

Soviet Union / Hungary - January 23-26, 1973 (HC)
The session of the Executive Committee of the Comecon takes place in Moscow in order to harmonize the plans for the years 1976-1980.

Vietnam / USA / France - January 24, 1973 (HC)
It is announced in Hanoi and Washington that the ceasefire for the Vietnam War was initialed in Paris on January 23rd. (The signing takes place on January 27th.) Hungary is named member of the International Commission of Control and Supervision.

GDR / Hungary - January 24, 1973 (HC)
The House of Hungarian Culture is opened in East-Berlin.

Hungary / Vietnam  - January 26, 1973 (HC)
The first group of the Hungarian section of the International Commission of Control and Supervision travels to Vietnam.

Hungary - January 26, 1973 (HC)
A government order is adopted about the modifications of the financial and credit conditions of certain housing forms, on the basis of which workers of the state industry receive bigger state assistance.

East Germany / Gambia – January 26, 1973 (KCA)
Gambia enters into diplomatic relations with German Democratic Republic.

Hungary / Sweden - January 27, 1973 (HC)
A Hungarian-Swedish economic cooperation agreement is signed. (It is operative until December 31, 1977)

Yugoslavia – January 27, 1973 (JBT)
President Josip Broz Tito receives David Rockefeller, chairmen of Chase Manhattan Bank

Soviet Union – January 30, 1973 (KCA)
Leonid Plyutsch, mathematician, is detained indefinitely in a mental hospital. Shikhanovich, Roald Mkhamedyarov, and other political dissidents are also ordered to mental hospitals despite claims from friends and family that they possess no signs of mental instability. The practice of confining Soviet dissidents in mental hospitals is part of a heightened campaign against "dissident elements" in 1972-1973.

East Germany / Ethiopia – January 31, 1973 (KCA)
Ethiopia enters into diplomatic relations with German Democratic Republic.

Austria  -- January 31, 1973 (HC)
The conference on the reduction of the European arms starts in Vienna. Nineteen countries’ representatives are present.

Hungary/ Romania -- January 31, 1973 (HC)
A Hungarian-Romanian writers’ association agreement about the exchange of writers is signed.

Yugoslavia / Norway – January 31, 1973 (JBT)
Norwegian Foreign Minister Dagfinn Vorvik with his spouse visits Yugoslavia, and meets with President Josip Broz Tito.

NATO / Warsaw Treaty Organization – January 31-June 28, 1973 (KCA)
Preparatory talks for the conference on Mutual Reduction of Forces and Armaments and Associated Measures between NATO and the Warsaw Pact in Central Europe take place.


February 1973

Yugoslavia – February, 1973 (KCA)
The penal and judicial procedural codes of Yugoslavia are modified, establishing harsher penalties for existing crimes—such as terrorism and hostile propaganda— and introducing new possible offenses, including offenses against the unity of the Yugoslav market, illicit representation in foreign trade, and contravention of the labor legislation. The modified code for judicial procedure now allows for "extraordinary circumstances" in which counsel for the defense is barred from examining his client's dossier.

Soviet Union – February 2, 1973 (KCA)
Lazar Lyubarsky, a Soviet Jewish engineer, is sentenced to a labor camp on charges of disseminating rumors and state secrets.  He originally applied to emmigrate to Israel.

Soviet Union – February 3, 1973 (KCA)
Dmitry Polyansky is appointed Minister of Agriculture, replacing Vladimir Matskevich who was removed from the post.

France / UK / Soviet Union / US – February 3, 1973 (CWIHP)
Helmut Sonnenfeldt sends a memorandum to Henry A.Kissinger regarding „Missile Assistance to France” and information on nuclear effects simulator types and ABM intelligence.

East Germany / Malta – February 6, 1973 (KCA)
Malta enters into diplomatic relations with the Germany Democratic Republic.

Poland / Warsaw Pact – February 6 – 8  1973 (MMS/ HC)
The Warsaw Pact’s Committee of Ministers of Defense assembles in Warsaw.

Romania / Argentina – February 8, 1973 (PER)
The Ex-President of Argentina, Juan Domingo Perón and his wife, Isabel Perón, visit Romania.

East Germany / France / United Kingdom – February 9, 1973 (KCA)
The United Kingdom and France each announce that following talks with East German officials in London and Paris,they have established diplomatic relations with the German Democratic Republic.

East Germany / Nigeria – February 10, 1973 (KCA)
Nigeria enters into diplomatic relations with the German Democratic Republic.

Soviet Union – February 14, 1973 (KCA)
The UN publishes its annual Demographic Yearbook in which it lists Moscow as the fifth most populous city with a population of 7,050,000. The Soviet Union is listed as the third most populous country after China and India, with a population of 245,066,000.

Soviet Union / U.N. – February 14, 1973 (KCA)
The Soviet Foreign Minister, A. Gromyko, informs R. Maheu, the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) that the Universal Copyright Convention of 1952 will become effective for the Soviet Union from May 27 1973. Under the convention, the Soviet Union is required to give foreign works the same protection as is given to works of Soviet nationals.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary - February 14-16, 1973 (HC)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock pays an official visit to Czechoslovakia.

Soviet Union / Hungary - February 16, 1973 (HC)
A Hungarian-Soviet friendly rally takes place in the Tungsram Works/Factory for the 25th anniversary of the signing of the Friendship Agreement(February 18, 1948.) (Presenter: Secretary-General of the National Council of Trade Unions Sándor Gáspár.)

Yugoslavia / Angola – February 18-22, 1973 (JBT)
Delegation of the Popular Movement for Liberation of Angola (MPLA) headed by Agostinho Neto visits Yugoslavia, and meets with Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito on February 21st.

Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – February 20-24, 1973 (KCA)
Yugoslav delegation pays a visit to Bulgaria to discuss the Macedonian question, an ongoing issue between the two countries because both contest the identity of the Macedonian population and Yugoslavia’s territorial claims over the region.

Czechoslovakia – February 22, 1973 (KCA)
On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the establishment of a Communist Government in Czechoslovakia, President Svoboda announces the granting of a partial amnesty applying to persons who were sentenced to prison terms of up to five years; sent to correctional training; handed fines; and also to those who left the country illegaly, provided that they return by 31st December 1973.

Hungary / Yemen - February 25. – March 1, 1973 (HC)
Prime Minister of the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen Ali Nasser Mohamed visits Hungary.

USA / Hungary - February 25. – March 7, 1973 (HC)
Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Péter Vályi visits the United States. He is the government representative of the highest rank to visit the US in more than two decades (see June 8-25, 1946).

France / Vietnam / Hungary - February 26. – March 2, 1973 (HC)
An international Vietnam conference takes place in Paris.

Soviet Union – February 26, 1973 (KCA)
Peter Reddaway of the London School of Economics publishes a report in Brussels for the International Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in the Soviet Union. The report estimates that in the Soviet Union, there are 1,000,000 prisoners, including 10,000 political prisoners, in 1,000 labor camps. 0.5% of the Soviet population is incarcerated, compared to 0.2% of the U.S. population and 0.07% of the British population. Reddaway reports that many of the camps are in remote areas of Kazakhstan and Mordovia, where the conditions and climate are very harsh. The report is based on unofficial sources, some secret publications and testimony from former prisoners.

China / Japan / Soviet Union / US – February 27-28, 1973 (CWIHP)
Changes in Chinese foreign policy lead to difficult relations with the Soviets.  Other aspects of Chinese policy, such as China’s attitude and actions towards the US and Japan, are also a part of the Sino-Soviet conflict.

Czechoslovakia / Poland – February 28, 1973 (KCA)
Czechoslovak Minister of the Interior Radko Kaska and Polish Minister of the Interior Wiesław Ociepka are killed when their Polish Air Force plane crashes. All 13 other passengers and crew members are killed, including Michal Kudzej, head of the Administration Department of the Central committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, and officials of the Interior ministries of both Poland and Czechoslovakia.

Soviet Union – February – March, 1973 (KCA)
Five leading figures of the Ukrainian civil rights movement are sentenced to long-term imprisonment after secret trials in Lvov and Kiev. They are accused of anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda because of their purported involvement with the underground publication The Ukrainian Herald. Prisoners include Vyacheslav Chornovil, journalist and author of the Chornovil Papers, literary critic Ivan Svitlychny, and his sister Nadiya Svitlychna, Ivan Dzyuba, and Yevgen Sverstyuk, author of a study on Russification of Ukraine. Actions taken against these Ukrainian civil rights leaders are part of a heightened campaign against "dissident elements" in 1972-1973.

Yugoslavia – February – June, 1973 (KCA)
As a part of the purges to achieve greater party discipline, many members of the LCY resign or are expelled. Dušan Makavejev is expelled from the LCY for his film Mysteries of the Organism, which is accused of denigrating the war of liberation and anti-Nazi Yugoslav partisans. Chairman Predrag Ajtić, Vice-Chairman Sveta Popović, and Secretary Miloslav Prelić of the Socialist Alliance of the Republic of Serbia, resign following criticism of their activities and accusations that they failed to implement directives from President Tito. Camuran Tahir, who already resigned as Chairman of the League of Communists of Skopje, was expelled from the LCY.


March 1973

Czechoslovakia / Romania – March, 1973 (KCA)
President of the State Council Ceauşescu of Romania visits Prague.

Eastern Bloc / Soviet Union – March 1973 (KCA)
The U.N. Secretary General issues a report on capital punishment among member states. The report states that of the 132 member states, only nine had abolished capital punishment completely, 15 only inflicted capital punishment for severe crimes, three abolished capital punishment by custom, and three countries were divided on the issue. The USSR and the other Communist countries are all listed as "retentionist," in that they "retain the death penalty for ordinary crimes."

Hungary - March 1, 1973 (HC)
Workers of the state industry and construction receive a 10-12% wage-increase.

Hungary / U.S. – March 6, 1973 (KCA)
Péter Vályi, Hungarian Deputy Premier, signs a settlement with the United States regarding claims for war-damaged and nationalized American property in Hungary. In the settlement, Hungary agrees to pay $189 milion to the U.S. and relinquish claims of $3.3 million on vested Hungarian assets in the U.S. In exchange, the U.S. agrees to unfreeze Hungarian accounts in the U.S. The American State Department heralds this event as "the most important step to normalization of relations between the two countries."

Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – March 8, 1973 (JBT)
Josip Broz Tito receives Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia Bohuslav Chnoupek.

Hungary - March 14, 1973 (HC)
A seasonal exhibition opens in the Hungarian National Museum commemorating the 125th anniversary of the 1848 revolution.

Poland / Hungary - March 14-15, 1973 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár and Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock visit Poland.

Hungary - March 15, 1973 (HC)
41 persons are arrested because of a “nationalist demonstration” which takes place in and around Váci Street..

Romania – March 15, 1973 (KCA)
Emil Bobu, formerly First Party Secretary for Moldavia, is appointed Minister of Internal Affairs of Romania, replacing Ion Stanescu in the Cabinet. This change follows other Cabinet appointments in December 1972.

Soviet Union / Panama – March 15-21, 1973 (KCA)
At a U.N. Security Council meeting in Panama (requested by Panama), Jacob Malik, the Soviet representative to the U.N. expresses full support for Panama's claim to the Canal Zone and expresses support for Panama and other Latin American countries against 'international imperialist monopolies.'

Soviet Union / Australia – March 16, 1973 (KCA)
Australian-Soviet trade agreement is signed in Canberra. The agreement provides for the setting up of a joint commission, comprising government and business representatives, to explore ways of increasing trade between the two countries, with particular reference to technological exchanges and joint ventures in the mineral and industrial field.

Yugoslavia / Australia – March 17, 1973 (KCA)
Three Australian citizens of Croatian descent  involved in terrorist clashes with Yugoslav security forces are executed following a death sentence by the military tribunal of the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Australian government protests the execution of their nationals.

Hungary / Romania - March 18-28, 1973 (HC)
The Hungarian State Theatre of Sepsiszentgyörgy / Sfântu Gheorghe (Romania) makes a guest performance in Hungary.

Romania / Mexico – March 19, 1973 (KCA)
Romania establishes diplomatic relations with Mexico.

Soviet Union / U. S. – March 19, 1973 (KCA)
A tax on emigrants with higher education is suspended.  Although the suspension of this tax was previously debated, a visit by U.S. Treasury Secretary Shultz to Moscow to meet with General Secretary Brezhnev persuaded Soviet interests to eliminate the tax.

Soviet Union / U.S. – March 20, 1973 (BUS)
The U.S. opens a commercial office in Moscow.

Yugoslavia – March 20 – 22, 1973 (KCA)
Yugoslav President of the Federal Executive Council Džemal Bijedić visits Australia. This is the first time a Yugoslavstate leader visits Australia.

Hungary - March 21, 1973 (HC)
András Szennay is inaugurated into the office of Chief Abbot of the Benedictine order.

Hungary - March 21-23, 1973 (HC)
The Parliament is in session. It adopts act no. 1 of 1973 about criminal procedure.

Czechoslovakia – March 22, 1973 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Federal Assembly unanimously reelects General Ludvík Svoboda for a second five-year term as President of Czechoslovakia. On the proposal of the Communist Party Presidium the Central Committee endorses his nomination as the only candidate.

Poland – March 23, 1973 (KCA)
Stanisław Kowalczyk is appointed Polish Interior Minister following the death of his predecessor, Wiesław Ociepka, in a plane crash on February 28, 1973 along with the Czechoslovak Minister of Interior.

Yugoslavia – March 24, 1973 (KCA)
Director-General Glmuch of Borba, the publishing house and newspaper of the Socialist Alliance of Yugoslavia, resigns from his post following criticism of his activities with

Romania – March 28-29, 1973 (KCA)
The Grand National Assembly approves three Bills establishing a Supreme Council of Economic and Social Development, a Council for Economic and Social Organisation and a Higher Financial Control Court.

Hungary / Austria - March 28-30, 1973 (HC)
Chancellor of Austria Bruno Kreisky visits Budapest.

Yugoslavia – March 29, 1973 (KCA)
President Tito, adressing factory workers in Belgrade where he announces that the Federal Executive Bureau of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia unanimously passed a resolution calling for a 'notable' hardening of the penal legislation in respect of 'economic offences', such as embezzlement, corruption, and the squandering of public funds.

Czechoslovakia – March 30, 1973 (KCA)
Jaromír Obzina is appointed Czechoslovak Interior Minister following the death of his predecessor Radko Kaska in a plane crash on February 28, 1973.

Hungary - March 30, 1973 (HC)
The Presidential Council’s law decree no. 9 of 1973 about the establishment of the State Office of Physical Education and Sport is adopted.

Romania – March 31, 1973 (KCA)
Legislation that is approved in December 1972, comes into effect and reorganizes
Romanian national defense. Changes include the introduction of compulsory military
service for Romanians.

Yugoslavia – March – June, 1973 (KCA)
In efforts to increase party discipline within the League of Communists of Yugoslavia
(LCY), alleged nationalists and counter-revolutionaries are tried and sentenced for a
number of crimes. The Supreme Court of Croatia extends the prison terms of Zlatko
Tomičić, former editor of the banned literary review Hrvatski Književni List, from two to five years, and Bruno Tandari's sentence is extended from one to two years.


April 1973

Yugoslavia / Zambia – April, 1973 (JBT)
An official delegation from Zambia led by President Kenneth Kaunda visits Yugoslavia, and meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito on April 5th. They discuss the most salient issues concerning the African continent.

Yugoslavia / Poland – April, 1973 (JBT)
President Josip Broz Tito receives Foreign Minister of Poland Stefen Olszowski.

Yugoslavia  / Australia – April 1, 1973 (KCA)
Following Yugoslav President of the Federal Executive Council Džemal Bijedić's visit to Australia, Australian Senator Murphy makes claims that Croatian terrorists are operating in Australia, and on April 1, multiple Croats are arrested in Sydney and Wollongong.

Hungary - April 1, 1973 (HC)
Museum’s admission is waived for students from now on.

Hungary / Soviet Union - April 2, 1973 (HC)
An agreement is signed establishing the House of Soviet Science and Culture in Budapest.

Romania / U.S. – April 4, 1973 (BUS/HOR)
An American company signs an agreement in Bucharest for the establishment of a joint
Romanian-American company specializing in the production of computer equipment.
Speech by Deputy Secretary of State Kenneth Rush at the Annapolis Naval Academy:
The U.S. “would like to see more American businessmen begin to pursue profitable
business deals…in confidence that doing business in Eastern Europe is fully consonant
with the U.S. national interest.”

Czechoslovakia/Soviet Union – April 4, 1973 (CWIHP)
The CSSR and the USSR sign a protocol allowing workers from each government to spend short amounts of time in each other’s country for research and business purposes.

Japan / Hungary - April 5, 1973 (HC)
Foreign minister János Péter pays a 6-day visit to Japan. (A cultural agreement is signed.)

Czechoslovakia – April 5, 1973 (KCA)
Le Monde publishes figures saying that, since 1969, more than 1,000 Czechoslovak journalists lost their positions, 380 were dismissed, and 184 emigrated.

Bulgaria – April 7, 1973 (KCA)
Colonel-General Angel Tsanev is relieved of his duties as Minister of the Interior and is appointed Deputy Chairman of the State Committee for Defense. Dimiter Stoyanov replaces Tsanev as Minister of the Interior. In addition, the Tourism Committee of the Council of Ministers is transformed into the Recreation and Tourism Committee; Ivan Vrachev is appointed Chairman of the Committee with the rank of Minister.

Hungary - April 8-15, 1973 (HC)
A European poet meeting takes place in Budapest. 

FRG / Hungary - April 9-16, 1973 (HC)
A Hungarian cultural week takes place in the Federal Republic of Germany.

Soviet Union / European Communities – April 9, 1973 (KCA)
The Agricultural Commission of the European Communities authorizes the sale of 200,000 tons of surplus butter to the Soviet Union.

Romania / Netherlands – April 10 – 13, 1973 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits the Netherlands to meet with Queen Juliana and Prime minister, Barend Willem Biesheuvel.

Soviet Union – April 11, 1973 (KCA)
Isaak Shkolnik is sentenced to ten years of prison on charges of espionage. He originally applied to emigrate to Israel.

Soviet Union / U.S. – April 12, 1973 (KCA / LBC)
Soviet Deputy Minister of Foreign Trade Nikolai Komarov signs the largest commercial agreement in the history of Soviet-American trade relations with the Occidental Petroleum Company. The agreement stipulates a 20-year joint project to build a large mineral fertilizer complex at Kuibyshev. The reciprocal delivery of resources is estimated to be worth $8 billion. This is the first time the American administration approved a private contract with the USSR.


Soviet Union / Mexico – April 12 – 19, 1973 (KCA)
President Luis Echeverria visits the Soviet Union; he is the first Mexican Head of State to do so. During the talks a trade agreement is signed by the two sides. The agreement also states that both sides will discuss concluding other agreements in fields of mutual interest, and to set up a mixed Soviet-Mexican commision to prepare a programme for cultural, scientific, and technical co-operation during 1973-1974.

Soviet Union / U.S. – April 13, 1973 (BUS)
The Soviet government agrees to grant multiple entry visas to American businessmen.

Hungary - April 15, 1973 (HC)
Council elections take place in Hungary.

Yugoslavia / West Germany – April 15-19, 1973 (JBT)
West German Chancellor Willy Brandt makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. He meets with President of the Federal Executive Council of Yugoslavia Džemal Bijedic on April 16th and 17th in Belgrade. Willy Brandt and his spouse Ruth Brandt spend the following two days on the Brioni island where they meet with President Josip Broz Tito. This visit is of particular importance, since the two statesmen definitely agree to solve the question of indemnification of victims of Nazi persecutions in Yugoslavia in an indirect way, i.e. West Germany agrees to pay around 1 Billion DM in form of credits and aid in capital.

Yugoslavia / Colombia – April 17, 1973 (JBT)
President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito receives the former President of Colombia Carlos Lleras Restrepo.

Warsaw Pact – April 17 – 18, 1973 (KCA)
The Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Pact Organization meets in Warsaw, and is attended by the Communist Parties’ General Secretaries, Heads of Governments and Foreign Ministers of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union / Great Britain – April 18, 1973 (BUS)
A Soviet-British protocol is signed in Moscow on the development of scientific and
industrial cooperation. The protocol ends two years of hostility between the two states
after 105 Soviet diplomats are expelled from Great Britain in 1971.

Hungary - April 18, 1973 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. The following topics are on the agenda: the international situation, domestic political issues, and the economic situation.

Soviet Union / Hungary - April 19, 1973 (HC)
Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Péter Vályi negotiates in Moscow about Hungary’s economic relations.

Soviet Union / Hungary / Bulgaria / GDR - April 19, 1973 (HC)
Bulgaria, the German Democratic Republic, the Soviet Union, and Hungary sign a cooperation agreement about the chemisation of their agricultures.

Soviet Union / U.S. – April 23, 1973 (BUS)
Brezhnev tells U.S. Senators that the USSR would like to significantly increase its trade with the U.S. and will not allow the question of Jewish emigration to interfere.

Yugoslavia – April 23, 1973 (KCA)
The first "General Assembly of the Federation" is held in Belgrade. Representatives include: deputies of the Federal Assembly; members of the Collective Presidency; the Cabinet; the Presidium of the LCY; the leading bodies of the Socialist Alliance; the Trade Union Confederation of the Youth League; the Student League; the Women's Conference of Yugoslavia; and the War Veterans' Association. President Tito delivers a speech on Yugoslavia’s domestic and foreign policy, the troubled state of the LCY and his new drafts of the Yugoslav Constitution.

Warsaw Pact / Soviet Union – April 24, 1973 (MMS)
In Moscow the the WP Deputy Foreign Ministers reach an agreement on the WP United Armed Forces chief of staff.

Czechoslovakia – April 25, 1973 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Federal Assembly approves of penal code amendments administering harsher penalties for certain crimes.

Soviet Union – April 26 – 27, 1973 (KCA)
 A plenary session of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party is held, resulting in leadership changes. Pyotr Shelest and Gennady Voronov are officially relieved of their duties and are dropped from the Politburo. Yury Andropov is promoted from candidate to full membership, Andrei Gromyko and Andrei Grechko are elected as full members, and Grigory Romanov is elected as a candidate member.  Gromyko is the first Foreign Minister to be a full Politburo member since 1956, and Andropov is the first KGB head to be made a full Politburo member since 1953.

Hungary - April 26-27, 1973 (HC)
A scientific meeting takes place in the Academy about the questions of the fight against bourgeois ideologies.

Hungary - April 27, 1973 (HC)
The paper factory at Lábatlan is opened.

Yugoslavia – April 28, 1973 (KCA)
A Belgrade court sentences Vojin Lukić, former Federal Secretary for Internal Affairs and former Serbian Minister of the Interior, to 18 months in prison on charges of spreading propaganda hostile to the government.


May 1973


Soviet Union / Norway / U.K. – May 1973 (KCA)
Nikolai Lunkov, former Ambassador to Norway and head of the Soviet Foreign Ministry's Second European Department, is appointed ambassador to the United Kingdom. Lunkov succeeds Mikhail Smirnovsky as ambassador.

Hungary / Finland - May 3-10, 1973 (HC)
A Finnish cultural week takes place in Hungary.

Yugoslavia / Poland – May 4-8, 1973 (JBT)
First Secretary of the Polish United Worker’s Party Edward Gierek and his spouse visit Yugoslavia. They meet with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito on three occasions, and discuss bilateral and international issues, including solidarity with the liberation struggles in the Third World, the Middle East crisis, and European security and defense policy.

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 6-9, 1973 (BUS)
U.S. National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger visits Moscow and negotiates with Brezhnev. In a joint declaration they express satisfaction on the general constructive nature of the talks but fail to designate a date for Brezhnev’s proposed visit
to Washington.

Yugoslavia – May 10-11, 1973 (KCA)
A conference of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia is held in Belgrade. The activity of the conference is directed at implementing the program of action adopted by the LCY in January, 1972 and the letter from President Tito and the Federal Executive Bureau of September of last year. The conference outlines tasks to be carried out by the LCY in the following year, including implementation of economic stabilization, suppression of elements undermining the working class, "growth of equality and strengthening of the brotherhood and unity of our peoples and minority nationalities," and a strengthening of the countries' defense.

Poland / Soviet Union – May 11-12, 1973 (KCA)
Leonid Brezhnev visits Poland.  Brezhnev holds talks with Edward Gierek, First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party, Polish Prime Minister Piotr Jaroszewicz and Polish Foreign Minister Stefan Olszewski.

East Germany / Soviet Union – May 12-13, 1973 (KCA)
Leonid Brezhnevvisits East Germany. He meets with Erich Honecker, First Secretary of the East German Socialist Unity Party.

Warsaw Treaty Organization / NATO— May 14, 1973 (BUS)
Formal preparatory talks begin in Vienna between NATO and the Warsaw Pact on troop reduction in Central Europe.

East Germany / Japan – May 15, 1973 (KCA)
Japan establishes diplomatic relations with German Democratic Republic by signing the agreement in Moscow.

Hungary May - 16, 1973 (HC)
The barrage Tisza II is opened in Kisköre.

Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / East Germany / Hungary / Poland / Romania / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia / Finland – May 16, 1973 (KCA)
Comecon signs an agreement with Finland after two years of talks. This is the first agreement between Comecon and a country with a free-market economy. The agreement provides for the establishment of a Joint Commission with representatives from Finland and the Comecon countries, with a Yugoslavian representative as an associate member. The Commission will study the potential areas for economic, scientific, and technological cooperation. Both parties agree to elaborate on details of the cooperation agreement after they ratify the agreement.

Romania – May 16, 1973 (KCA)
The Supreme Council of Social and Economic Development is established in accordance with policies passed in March, 1973.  Ceauşescu is elected Chairman of the Supreme Council, and Maurer as the vice-chairman.

Bulgaria / Cuba – May 17 – 26, 1973 (KCA)
Fidel Castro of Cuba visits Bulgaria on his wider Eastern European and African tour.

Hungary - May 17, 1973 (HC)
The order of the Minister of Education regarding the reduction of secondary school syllabi is adopted.

Hungary - May 18, 1973 (HC)
The Budapest International Fare is opened for the first time in two places.: in Városliget and Kőbánya.

East Germany / Poland / West Germany / Soviet Union – May 18-22, 1973 (KCA)
Following an invitation by Chancellor Brandt of the FRG, General Secretary Brezhnev visits West Germany, accompanied by Foreign Minister Gromyko, Minister of Foreign Trade Nikolai Patolichev, Minister of Civil Aviation Boris Bugayev and Minister of Culture Yekaterina Furtseva. Massive security precautions are taken by West German authorities.  On May 19 leaders from the USSR and the FRG sign a 10-year agreement on the development of economic, industrial, technological, and cultural cooperation. Brezhnev also pays a visit to Poland, where he meets with Edward Gierek, First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party. During Brezhnev’s visit to the German Democratic Republic, he meets with Erich Honecker, First Secretary of the East German Socialist Unity Party and with others from the Politburo.

Romania – May 19, 1973 (KCA)
Gheorghe Rădulescu, a Deputy Premier, is appointed chairman of the Higher Financial Control Court, a body established under legislation enacted at the same time as laws the that provided for the creation of the Supreme Council of Social and Economic Development.

Romania / Italy / Republic of San Marino / Vatican – May 21 – 26, 1973 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Italy, Republic of San Marino, and the Vatican. They are received by the Pope Paul VI. They also hold discussions with the President of Italy,
Giovanni Leone and with Italian Prime Minister, Giulio Andreotti.

Romania / United States – May 24, 1973 (PER)
Elena Ceauşescu becomes a member of the New York Academy of Sciences.

Hungary - May 25, 1973 (HC)
The Gagarin power station is opened in Visonta.

Soviet Union – May 27, 1973 (KCA)
The Universal Copyright Convention of 1952 becomes effective for the Soviet Union. Under the Convention, the Soviet Union must grant foreign works the same protection as the work of Soviet nationals. Previously, Soviet law excluded foreign work from copyright protection, except for specific agreements with certain countries.

Soviet Union – May 27, 1973 (KCA)
Boris Stukalin, Chairman of the Soviet Committee for Publishing Houses, announces that following the Soviet Union's joining of the Universal Copyright Convention, restrictions will be placed on the publication of Soviet manuscripts abroad, forcing all manuscripts to be published through official Soviet channels. Actions taken against foreign publication are part of a heightened campaign against "dissident elements" in 1972-1973.

Soviet Union – May 29, 1973 (KCA)
Soviet police end their investigation of an alleged illegal organization, a probe that involved questioning over 100 Jews about Zionist propaganda.  It is believed that the choice to suspend the investigation is related to Brezhnev’s future visit to the United States.

Poland / Hungary - May 29-31, 1973 (HC)
A meeting of the Ministers of Education of socialist countries takes place in Warsaw.

East Germany / Greece – May 30, 1973 (KCA)
Greece establishes diplomatic relations with the German Democratic Republic

Soviet Union – May 31, 1973 (LBC)
The Export Import Bank approves a 180 million dollar credit at an interest rate of 6% for
the Soviet Union to buy 400-500 million dollars worth of equipment and engineering
services for an artificial fertilizer factory and a pipe complex to be built by Occidental
Petroleum Co.
NBC and the Soviet government sign a contract on the exchange of news-and entertainment programs.

Poland / Hungary - May 31, 1973 (HC)
An ideological cooperation treaty is signed in Warsaw between the Polish United Workers’ Party and the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party.

June 1973

Soviet Union – June 1973 (KCA)
Well-known Soviet Jewish scientists begin a campaign protesting the Soviet Government’s refusal to let them emigrate.

Yugoslavia – June, 1973 (KCA)
General Ivan Misković, head of the Military Counter-Espionage Service and Secretary of the National State Security Council of the Collective Presidency, retires with no explanation.

Romania / Iran – June 2 – 5, 1973 (PER)
The Iranian Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Aryamehr, visits Romania to sign an
economical, scientific and technical cooperation agreement.

Soviet Union / France – June 3, 1973 (KCA)
A Soviet TU-144 plane, rival to the French Concorde, crashes into the small French town Goussainville, while on a demonstration flight during the Paris Air Show. All six crew members and seven civilians are killed. A commission is established to investigate the disaster, the first investigation into a supersonic airliner. Moscow agrees to compensate for damages caused in France by the plane crash.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary - June 5-8, 1973 (HC)
The 27th session of the Comecon takes place in Prague. Topic: harmonizing long-term plans.

Yugoslavia – June 6, 1973 (KCA)
Three farmers from the Autonomous Province of Kosovo are sentenced to one to three years in prison for belonging to the Serbian cultural club Sveti Sava in Zurich.

Yugoslavia – June 7, 1973 (KCA)
Two members of the Ustasha, a right-wing Croatian nationalist organization, are sentenced to ten and twelve years in prison on charges of attempts to separate Croatia from Yugoslavia.

Eastern Block / Soviet Union – June 7, 1973 (KCA)
The multilateral, 34-nation talks that began in November 1972 in Helsinki in preparation for the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) end.  Representatives of the 34 states adopted an agenda for the CSCE and agree to a three stage conference in Finland and Switzerland.

Soviet Union / Japan / U.S. – June 8-July 25, 1973 (KCA)
After a provisional agreement is signed in Moscow for the participation by U.S. firms in developing the natural gas deposits of Yakutia in northern Siberia, the Japanese enter into the agreement, creating a tripartite deal to develop the natural gas deposits. The agreement was signed by Soviet Deputy Minister of Foreign Trade Nikolai Ossipov, Chairman Hammer of Occidental Petroleum of the U.S., and Hiroshi Anzai, President of the Tokyo Gas Company.

US / USSR – June 8, 1973 (LBC)
A preliminary agreement between the US and the USSR is signed for a 10 billion dollar, 25 year investment project that would transport Siberian natural gas to the Western coast of the US. One of the signatories is the president of Occidental Petroleum Co., Armand Hammer. – According to a report by the Congress Foreign Relations Committee, Soviet-American trade yields only slight economic advantage, but may result in important political advantages. If as a result of growing trade Moscow rearranges its priorities and allows Western businessmen to influence its decisions, the Soviet threat on American national security may diminish and move the USSR to become part of the Western international system, says the report.

Yugoslavia – June 9, 1973 (KCA) See July 9
The collective Presidency of Yugoslavia elects Mitja Ribičič of Slovenia as Vice President of the collective for one year, effective August 1, 1973.

Yugoslavia / Cambodia, June 9-18, 1973 (HN)
Cambodian king in exile Norodom Sihanouk makes an unofficial visit to Yugoslavia.

Hungary - June 11, 1973 (HC)
Workers’ rallies take place in Csepel, Diósgyőr and Győr on the 25th anniversary of the unification of the Hungarian Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party.

Yugoslavia – June 14, 1973 (KCA)
Film director Lazar Stojanović is sentenced to two years in prison for his film Plastic Jesus, which allegedly contains insults against Tito and the Yugoslav partisans of WWII.

Hungary - June 14-15, 1973 (HC)
The Parliament is in session. On the agenda: the implementation of the 1972 budget.

Soviet Union / NATO – June 14 – 15, 1973 (KCA)
NATO meets for its Spring Ministerial Meeting in Copenhagen, where its members discuss the size and capabilities of the Warsaw Pact forces, which they characterize as "in excess of those needed for purely defensive purposes." NATO ministers also note the growing Soviet land and air forces facing NATO and the need to counter the Soviet military.

Yugoslavia / India, June 15-17, 1973 (JBT)
Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi visits Yugoslavia, and meets with President Josip Broz Tito to discuss bilateral and international issues, and the forthcoming Conference of Non-Aligned countries in Algeria.

Yugoslavia – June 17, 1973 (KCA)
Boško Vidaković, former Assistant Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, is sentenced to a 14-month prison term on charges of anti-state propaganda by describing Yugoslav foreign policy as "too pro-Western."

Soviet Union / U.S. – June 17-25, 1973 (KCA)
Leonid Brezhnev visits the United States, accompanied by Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko, Minister of Foreign Trade Nikolai Patolichev, and Minister of Civil Aviation Boris Bugayev. On June 19, multiple agreements are signed concerning agriculture, transportation, oceanography, cultural and scientific exchanges, and other topics. Talks also continue on arms limitation and nuclear energy. On June 21, Brezhnev and Nixon sign agreements on "Basic Principles of Negotiations on the Further Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms," and on scientific and technical cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. On June 22 Brezhnev and Nixon sign the U.S.-Soviet Agreement on the Prevention of Nuclear War.  Patolichev signs protocols establishing a Soviet trade mission in Washington, a U.S. commercial bureau in Moscow, an American-Soviet chamber of commerce, and cooperation in air traffic. On June 24,  Brezhnev makes a televised speech to the American people in which he expresses the Soviet desire to move away from the "rigid armor of the Cold War" and his satisfaction with the progress of American-Soviet relations. A Soviet consulate-general opens in San Francisco during Brezhnev's visit.

Yugoslavia / Belgium – June 18-23, 1973 (JBT)
King Boduen and Queen Fabiola of Belgium visit Yugoslavia.

Romania – June 18-19, 1973 (KCA/CEC/ADC)
A Central Committee plenary meeting approves many position changes, including the appointment of Iosif Banc and Ion Dincă as first party secretaries of Mureş and Argeş, and the election of Elena Ceauşescu and Lina Ciobanu to the Executive Committee.

Czechoslovakia / West Germany – June 20, 1973 (KCA)
A treaty normalizing relations with West Germany is initialed by Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Bohuslav Chňouopek and West German Vice Chancellor and Minister of Foreign Affairs Walter Scheel. The treaty contains a provision that voids the 1938 Munich Agreement that ceded the Sudetenland to Germany. This is the first visit to the FRG by a Czechoslovak Foreign Minister.

Poland / German Democratic Republic – June 20, 1973 (PSM)
Poland and the German Democratic Republic sign a declaration of friendship and

Soviet Union / U.S. – June 20, 1973 (BUS)
Nixon and Brezhnev sign a declaration of principle on the acceleration of the SALT

Yugoslavia / Cuba – June 21-27, 1973 (JBT)
An official Yugoslav delegation led by Stane Dolanc visits Cuba.

East Germany / U.N. / West Germany – June 22, 1973 (KCA)
The United Nations Security Council unanimously approves applications by the two German States for membership of the United Nations.

Soviet Union / Hungary - June 22, 1973 (HC)
The four-year work plan of a Hungarian-Soviet cultural cooperation is signed in Moscow.

USA / USSR – June 22, 1973 (LBC)
A Soviet-American agreement is signed to avoid nuclear war between the two super powers, as well as between the two states and a third power. The contract prescribes “urgent consultations” in case there is threat of a nuclear war.

Soviet Union / U.S. – June 23, 1973 (BUS)
A protocol is signed on the expansion of Soviet-American civil aviation. PanAm will be
able to fly to Leningrad in addition to Moscow; and Aeroflot to New York in addition to
Washington. According to a joint communique, trade between the two states may reach
2-3 billion dollars, but no mention is made on the most favored nation clause.

Yugoslavia – June 23, 1973 (KCA)
Danilo Udovički of Belgrade, son of Secretary of the Foreign Affairs Council to the Collective Presidency Lazar Udovički, is sentenced to two years in prison for hostile acts to Yugoslavia, including having relations with the Fourth International.
In a report submitted by the Belgrade public prosecutors to the Federal Parliament, the number of citizens prosecuted for political offenses in Yugoslavia grew from 1,071 in 1971 to 2,839 in 1972.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – June 26, 1973 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito receives John Gollan, leader of the Communist Party of Great Britain.

Yugoslavia / European Economic Community – June 26, 1973 (KCA)
In Brussels, the European Economic Community and Yugoslavia sign a new five-year non-preferential trade agreement which provides for the maintenance between the two sides of most-favoured-nation status in trade and also more liberal tariff arrangements in certain fields.

Soviet Union / France / U.S – June 26 – 27, 1973 (KCA/BUS)
En route from his summit meeting in the U.S. with President Nixon, Brezhnev visits France for meetings with President Pompidou and members of the French government at Rambouillet. During Brezhnev’s visit in Paris, he negotiates with French President Pompidou and assures him that Soviet-US détente has no negative bearing on European security or the independence of other states. Pompidou expresses satisfaction that the rapprochement of the U.S. and the USSR is a step towards détente and peace but adds that it will not mean a reduction of the French military force. Pompidou emphasizes the importance of an independent French deterrent and continues to oppose troop reduction in Central Europe.

Albania – June 26 – 28, 1973 (KCA)
Congress of the Albanian Party of Labor takes place. The First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Party, Enver Hoxha, begins a campaign against diverging from Marxist and Leninist thought in the Party.  Also, statistics published in April 1973 demonstrate that during the previous 30 years the Albanian police did away with 550 “armed gangs”, killed or arrested 4,000 “revisionists,” and “repulsed no fewer than 3,000 frontier incursions.”

Romania / West Germany – June 26 – 30, 1973 (KCA)
President of the State Council Ceauşescu pays an official visit to West Germany. In the couse of his visit he has talks with Brandt, the Federal Chancellor, Walter Scheel, the Vice-Chancellor and Foreign Minister, and President Heinemann. On June 29 Brandt, Ceauşescu, Scheel and George Macovescu (Romanian Minister of Foreign Affairs) sign “joint solemn declaration” which includes intensifying and developing relations of friendship between the two countries and developing economic relations.

Hungary - June 27, 1973 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. It suggests that a State Plan Committee be established as a governmental organization.

Hungary – June 28, 1973 (KCA) see June 29
At the proposal of the Presidium of the National Council of Patriotic People's Front and of the Central Committee of the Socialist Workers' Party, the Presidential Council appoints György Lázár as Chairman of the State Planning Office in place of Imre Pardi. Lázár relinquishes his post as Minister of Labor and is replaced by László Karakas. Miklós Nagy is appointed Minster of Education after the death of former Education Minister Pál Ilku on July 13.

Yugoslavia / Morocco – June 28, 1973 (JBT)
President Josip Broz Tito receives Ali Yata, leader of the Moroccan Party of Liberation and Socialism.

Romania / North Vietnam – July 28- August 1, 1973 (PER)
The Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Pham Van Dong, visits Romania to discuss why Romania does not give support for the reconstruction of Vietnam.

Hungary - June 29, 1973 (HC) See June 28 (repeat)
Personal changes take place: László Maróthi is the First Secretary of the Young Communist League; György Lázár is Deputy Chairman of the Council of Minister; László Karakas is Minister of Labour. The State Plan Committee is established. The Chairman of the National Planning Bureau is György Lázár. Chairman of the Central Statistical Office is József Bálint.


July 1973

Soviet Union / China – July, 1973 (KCA)
The border negotiations that began in October 1969 end, following China’s rejection of the Soviets’ two requests for agreements of non-aggression.

Soviet Union – July 2, 1973 (KCA)
Throughout the second half of 1973 there are a number of purges of leading positions in the Government of the Soviet Republic of Georgia and its Communist Party. Zarya Vostoka reports that two ministers are dismissed from their posts, and four more are arrested.  Later on September 11, the Local Industries Minister is transferred to another position, and two party leaders are expelled on October 30. Reasons for the purges include corruption, abusing power, crime, and bribery.

East Germany/West Germany – July 3, 1973 (CWIHP)
A document is written about the conversation between the GDR and FRG foreign minister on Inter-German relations and the CSCE negotiations.

CSCE – July 3-7, 1973 (KCA / LBC)
The CSCE conference is officially opened at the level of foreign ministers in Helsinki. and is attended by 33 European countries as well as the USA and Canada. According to the previous-made decisions, all countries taking part in the Conference have to do so as sovereign and independent States. The conference takes place 'outside the military alliances'. The questions to be discussed: the general areas of security, human relations, economic and scientific affairs.


Soviet Union / U.S. – July 7, 1973 (KCA)
A U.S. consulate-general opens in Leningrad; it is the first official American representation since 1917.

East Germany/West Germany/Finland – July 7, 1973 (CWIHP)
A document is written about the conversation between GDR and FRG foreign ministers discussing their first meeting in Finland and future relations between the GDR and FRG.

Hungary / People's Republic of Congo - July 8-10, 1973 (HC)
President of the People’s Republic of the Congo Ngouabi visits Budapest.

Czechoslovakia / U.S. – July 9, 1973 (BUS)
The U.S. Secretary of StateWilliam Rogers signs a consular agreement in Prague that is meant to install regular trade and travel between the two states. Rogers meets Party First
Secretary Gustáv Huáak and asks him to moderate anti-American propaganda and to
allow 31 Czechoslovak citizens to join their relatives in the U.S.

Yugoslavia – July 9, 1973 (KCA) See June 9
The collective Presidency elects Mitja Ribičič, a Slovenian representative on that body, as its annual Vice-President in succession to Rato Dugonjić.

France / Soviet Union – July 10, 1973 (KCA)
As a result of a meeting between President Pompidou and Brezhnev, the first of two 10-years programmes for co-operation is signed in Moscow by Soviet Minister of Foreign Trade Nikolai Patolichev, and French Minister of Economy and Finance Valéry Giscard d'Estaing.  The programme foreshadows an increase of 25-30 per cent in Franco-Soviet exchanges during 1973, and the doubling of such exchanges between 1970 and 1980.

Yugoslavia / Hungary - July 10-13, 1973 (HC)
First secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár stays in Yugoslavia. Both bilateral and international issues are addressed during the talks on the Brioni Island in Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia – July 11, 1973 (KCA)
The Yugoslav dinar is allowed to float; although no change occurred  in the par value.

Yugoslavia – July 12, 1973 (KCA)
The Chamber of Nationalities and the Economic Chamber of the Federal Assembly approves President of the Federal Executive Council Džemal Bijedić's proposal to relieve Muhamed Hadžić as Federal Secretary for Foreign Trade and replace him with Emil Ludviger. In addition, the two chambers decide to relieve Geza Tikvicki of his duties as a member of the Federal Executive Council since he "no longer enjoyed the confidence necessary for the execution of his duties as a member of Government."

Hungary - July 13, 1973 (HC)
Pál Ilku, minister of education dies.

Yugoslavia / Romania – July 15-16, 1973 (JBT)
President of the State Council and General Secretary of the Communist Party of Romania Nicolae Ceausescu makes an unofficial visit to Yugoslavia.


Hungary / Vietnam - July 16-23, 1973 (HC)
Prime Minister of the democratic Republic of Vietnam, Pham Van Dong, is in Budapest.

Soviet Union – July 16, 1973 (KCA)
Andrei Amalrik, author of Will the Soviet Union survive until 1984? is re-arrested on new charges of "slandering the Soviet state” after his three year prison term expired, and is sentenced to three more years in a labor camp.

Bulgaria / Hungary / France – July 18 – 21, 1973 (BUS/ HC)
French Prime Minister Pierre Messmer visits Hungary and Bulgaria.

East Germany – July 23, 1973 (CWIHP)
East Germany prepares an analysis on the first phase of the CSCE conference.

Germany / East Germany / West Germany / Soviet Union / CSCE / EEC – July 23, 1973 (CWIHP)
Because of their determined policy, the Soviet Union and the other Warsaw Treaty states are able to successfully go ahead with the first stage of the European Security Conference.

Hungary - July 25, 1973 (HC)
A government order (1027/1973) regulating the size of houses and holiday homes that can be built by citizens is adopted.

GDR / Hungary - July 26, 1973 (HC)
A 700-member Hungarian delegation led by first secretary of the Hungarian Young Communist League László Maróthy travels to Berlin to the 10th Global Youth Meeting.

Yugoslavia / Bangladesh – July 26-30, 1973 (JBT)
Prime Minister of Bangladesh Sheikh Mujibur Rahman makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. During talks with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito the two statesmen address various issues regarding bilateral cooperation, international crises, and the forthcoming Conference of Non-Aligned Countries.

Soviet Union / France – July 27, 1973 (KCA)
The second of two 10-year French-Soviet programs is signed in Moscow by Vladimir Kirillin, Vice-Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers and Chairman of the State Committee for Science and Technology, and Michel Jobert, the French Foreign Minister. It provides for co-operation in the exploration of space for peaceful purposes, peaceful uses of atomic energy, environmental protection, medicine, health services and color television, as well as in chemistry, electrical engineering, heavy and power engineering, and the light, food, oil and gas industries.

Hungary / UN - July 28-31, 1973 (HC)
UN General-Secretary Kurt Waldheim stays in Budapest.

Soviet Union / Hungary - July 28. – August 1, 1973 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár travels to the Crimea for a short holiday. (July 30-31. A meeting of eight socialist party leaders takes place in the Crimea. János Kádár meets with General-Secretary of the CPSU L. I. Brezhnev privately as well.)

Romania / North Vietnam – July 28 – August 1, 1973 (PER)
The Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Pham Van Dong, visits
Romania to discuss why Romania does not give support for the reconstruction of

Hungary / GATT - July 30, 1973 (HC)
Hungary joins the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

Soviet Union – July 30-31, 1973 (MMS)
Crimea, Summit ("Crimea Meeting")


Yugoslavia / Netherlands – July 30-August 1, 1973 (JBT)
Queen Juliana of Netherlands and Prince Bernard make a private visit to Yugoslavia and stay on the Brioni island as personal guests of President Josip Broz Tito.

Yugoslavia / Algeria – July 31, 1973 (JBT)
President Josip Broz Tito receives the Minister of Higher Education of Algeria Mohammed Seddik Benyahia who conveys a personal letter from Algerian President Houari Boumediene.

August 1973


Soviet Union – August, 1973 (KCA)
The Central Statistical board of the USSR Council of minters announces that the population of the Soviet Union has reached 250 million. Other details of the report include that 121,000,000 Soviet citizens were born after WWII, and that the urban population rose from 18% in 1913 to 59% in 1973.


East Germany – August 1, 1973 (KCA)
Walter Ulbricht, the former East German Communist leader but holding the post of the Chairman of the Council of State since 1960 dies at the age of 80 after suffering a stroke on July 19.

Hungary - August 2, 1973 (HC)
A government order is adopted allowing skilled workers without a secondary-school final examination to enroll to the designated technical institutions of higher education following a 10-month preparatory course.

Hungary - August 3, 1973 (HC)
Miklós Nagy is the new Minister of Education. (→ July 13.)

Romania / U.N. – August 5-7, 1973 (PER)
The Secretary General of the United Nations, Kurt Waldheim, visits Romania.

Soviet Union – August 7, 1973 (KCA)
Zhores Medvedev, geneticist and author of books critical of the Soviet Union, has his Soviet citizenship revoked at the Soviet embassy in London after being granted permission to conduct research in the UK for a year. Actions taken against Medvedev are part of a heightened campaign against "dissident elements" in 1972-1973.

Poland / Hungary - August 9-11, 1973 (HC)   
Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock negotiates in Poland.

Hungary / West Germany – August 13-16, 1973 (KCA)
A West German and Hungarian delegation, are headed van Well and by János Nagy, Hungarian Deputy Foreign Minister, hold discussions in Bonn. The talks have positive results, and it is announced that preparations for establishing diplomatic relations are substantially completed.

Cambodia / China / Soviet Union / Vietnam – August 16, 1973 (CWIHP)
Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong discuss their concerns regarding US negotiations in Cambodia.

Soviet Union / Hungary - August 16-17, 1973 (HC)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock and Deputy Chairmen György Lázár and Péter Vályi are in Moscow. (Negotiations are carried on about cooperation during the years 1976-1980)

Czechoslovakia – August 21, 1973 (KCA)
Authorities forbid the placing of flowers on the grave of Jan Palach, the student who burned himself alive in January, 1969.

Hungary - August 21, 1973 (HC)
A new academic block of the Medical School of the University of Debrecen is opened.

USA - August 22, 1973 (HC)
Henry Kissinger is appointed as Secretary of State (Foreign Minister) of the United States.

Yugoslavia / North Korea – August 23, 1973 (JBT)
President Josip Broz Tito receives the North Korean Workers’ Party delegation.


PRC - August 24-28, 1973 (HC)
The 10th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party takes place. It designates “social-imperialism” as the main danger.

Hungary - August 29, 1973 (HC)
The permanent steel foundry in Ózd is opened.

Soviet Union – August 29, 1973 (KCA)
A campaign against Andrei Sakharov, founder of the Committee for Human Rights and a prominent nuclear physicist, is launched by the Soviet press, accusing him of slandering the state and continuing the Cold War. The KGB summoned Sakharov earlier in the year and warned him that his work on the Committee for Human Rights, and his involvement in political demonstrations and publications were considered unacceptable. Sakharov published petitions appealing for amnesty for political prisoners after the arrest of many civil rights leaders in 1972. In addition, Sakharov's Thoughts on Progress, Peaceful Coexistence and Intellectual Freedom was publicly attacked by Alexander Chakovsky, editor of Literaturbaya Gazeta. Sakharov granted foreign press interviews in which he openly attacked the Soviet system, despite further warnings from Soviet officials. International leaders publicly condemn the Soviet anti-Sakharov campaign, including Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky, Swedish Foreign Minister Kriser Wickman, West German Chancellor Willy Brandt, U.S. Congressman Wilbur Mills, and General Secretary of the Italian Communist Party, Enrico Berlinguer. British M.P.s Phillip Goodhart and Greville Janner also condemn the press campaign, and announce their plans to nominate Sakharov for the Nobel Peace Prize. Actions taken against  Sakharov are part of a heightened campaign against "dissident elements" in 1972-1973.

France / Soviet Union / US  – August 31, 1973 (CWIHP)
Rober Galley and Jean Blancard discuss secretly with Henry Kissinger, John Foster and Hulmut Sonnenfeldt. Kissinger gives a strategic assessment of France and notes that the Soviets are expanding rapidly and there is a need for a warning system. The US will assist the French in this.

Romania / Columbia / Costa Rica / Cuba / Ecuador / Morocco / Peru / Senegal / Venezuela – August-September, 1973 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Costa Rica, Columbia, Cuba, Ecuador, Morocco, Senegal, Peru and Venezuela.

Soviet Union – August-September, 1973 (KCA) See September 1
The campaign against “dissident elements” launched by the Soviet authorities in 1972 reaches a climax. Two former leaders of the civil rights movement, P. Yakir and V. Krasin, are sentenced to terms of imprisonment and exile after a trial after they plead guilty to subversive activities.


September 1973

Soviet Union / Afganistan – September, 1973 (KCA)
The Afgahanistan Republican regime enters close relations with Soviet Union. A visit to Kabul by a Soviet military delegation lead by Marshal Semanovich is followed by increased supplies, including some 30 armoured cars, for the Soviet-equipped Afghan Army.

Soviet Union – September 1, 1973 (KCA) see August—Sept., 1973
Historian Pyotr Yakir and economist Viktor Krasin are sentenced to three years in prison on charges of propaganda, slandering the Soviet state, the social system, and the printing and circulation of anti-Soviet material in The Chronicle of Current Events. After both defendants plead guilty, the Action Group for the Defense of Civil Rights protests their confessions as forced by the KGB. Actions taken against Yakir and Krasin are part of a heightened campaign against "dissident elements" in 1972-1973.

Hungary - September 1, 1973 (HC)
The mean grades of mid-term and end-of-term school achievements are abolished in elementary and secondary schools. (Instead, the categories “did not meet the requirements”, “met the requirements”, “excellently met the requirements” are introduced.)

Hungary - September 2, 1973 (HC)
The bauxite mine ”Halimba” no. 3 is opened in Veszprém.

Yugoslavia / Non-Aligned Movement – September 2-10, 1973 (AY)
The Fourth Summit Conference of Non-Aligned countries takes place in Algeria. Representatives of 84 countries attend the conference (75 members, 9 observers, and 3 guests). Economic cooperation is listed as one of the highest priorities of the NAM. Policies for a North-South dialogue are developed. The political declaration adopted by the conference addresses problems such as relaxation of international tensions, disarmament, struggle for peace in Indochina, and the situation in South Africa. The Final Act includes founding of the Coordinating Bureau, and of a special fund for economic aid. President Tito gives a speech to the conference on September 6th.

Poland / Hungary September 5-7, 1973 (HC)
Foreign minister János Péter has talks in Warsaw.

Hungary - September 6-8, 1973 (HC)
A national conference of historians takes place in Sopron.

Warsaw Treaty Organization / NATO – September 6, 1973 (BUS)
According to the London Institute for Strategic Studies the Warsaw Pact has 871
thousand troops, 14,800 tanks and 2770 tactical aircraft in Central Europe. The figures
for NATO: 719 thousand troops, 6430 tanks, and 1720 tactical aircraft.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary / Poland / Romania / Yugoslavia / Cuba – September 9, 1973 (KCA)
Hungary becomes a full contracting party of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) after signing the accession agreement on August 20. Hungary's accession to the GATT brings the number of Communist contracting parties in the GATT to six, including Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Romania, and Poland.

Soviet Union – September 10, 1973 (BUS)
For the first time in ten years the Soviet Union ceases to jam Voice of America and other Western stations.

Hungary / USA - September 10, 1973 (HC)
The new ambassador of the United States Richard Pedersen hands over his credentials.

Chile - September 11, 1973 (HC)
A mutiny overthrows the peculiar socialist system of Salvador Allende in Chile. (The leader of the military junta is General Augusto Pinochet.) (→ August 24, 1988)

Czechoslovakia / East Germany / Hungary / Poland / Philippines– September 11, 1973 (KCA)
As the result of negotiations conducted at the United Nations by General Carlos P. Romulo, The Philippine Foreign Minister decides to establish diplomatic relations with Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, and Poland.

East Germany / Poland / Soviet Union / Denmark / Finland / Sweden / West Germany – September 13, 1973 (KCA)
Representatives from the seven countries bordering the Baltic Sea (Denmark, East Germany, Finland, Poland, the Soviet Union, Sweden, and West Germany) meet in Gdańsk, Poland for a Conservation Convention. Representatives sign an agreement to establish an international commission for fishing in the Baltic with its headquarters in Warsaw. This convention is the first of its kind aimed at regulating the protection of Baltic resources.

Hungary / Chile - September 15, 1973 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party expresses its solidarity with the Chilean people in a communiqué.

Yugoslavia / South Vietnam – September 17-21, 1973 (JBT)
Chairman of Consultative Council of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam Nguyen Huu Tho makes an official visit to Yugoslavia, and meets with President Josip Broz Tito.

Hungary / Soviet Union - September 17-22, 1973 (HC)
Hungarian-Soviet army exercises under the name Vértes ’73 take place in Hungary.

Bulgaria – September 17-23, 1973 (KCA)
Ivan Iliev replaces Sava Dulbokov as Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers and Chairman of the State Planning Committee. In addition, Nencho Stanev is appointed Minister of Education, replacing Stefan Vassilev.

Hungary - September 18, 1973 (HC)
Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Péter Vályi dies. (On September 15, he had an accident at the Metallurgical Works in Diósgyőr.)

Yugoslavia / U.K. – September 18, 1973 (JBT)
President Josip Broz Tito receives British Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth affairs Julian Amery, MP and President of British Yugoslav Society Sir Fitzroy Maclean, and Winston Churchill MP.

Hungary - September 20-21, 1973 (HC)
The 8th Hungarian Peace Convention takes place. (The Chairman of the National Peace Council is Ende Sík; the Secretary-General is Mrs. Nándorné Sebestyén.)

Soviet Union – September 20, 1973 (KCA)
A copyright agency is established after the accession of the USSR to the Universal Copyright Convention.

Hungary - September 21, 1973 (HC)
The István Széchenyi Memorial Museum is opened in Nagycenk.

East Germany / Soviet Union / Chile – September 21, 1973 (KCA)
Soviet Union breaks off its relations with Chile due to the overthrow of Allende's left-wing government by the Military Junta..The German Democratic Republic also breaks off its relations with Chile on the same day.

Bulgaria / Chile – September 22, 1973 (KCA)
Bulgaria breaks off its relations with Chile due to the overthrow of Allende's Left-wing Government by Military Junta in this country.

Yugoslavia / Panama – September 23-25, 1973 (JBT)
Maximum Leader of the Panamanian Revolution general Omar Torrijos Herrera makes a private visit to Yugoslavia.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – September 24, 1973 (KCA)
Kosygin, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR makes an official visit to Yugoslavia after being invited by Yugoslav President of the Federal Executive Council Džemal Bijedić.

Czechoslovakia / Romania / Chile – September 24, 1973 (KCA)
Czechoslovakia and Romania break off diplomatic relations with Chile due to the overthrow of Allende's left-wing government by the Military Junta.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – September 24-October 1, 1973 (JBT)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union Alexei Kosygin makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. He meets with President Josip Broz Tito on September 28th to discuss political, economic, and cultural cooperation between two countries.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – September 25, 1973 (KCA)
Kosygin announces that the Soviet Union will grant a credit worth $45 million to parts of the Yugoslav metals industry to complete projects.  Both Kosygin and Tito reach an agreement concerning the use of credits in the machine-building industry.

Yugoslavia – September 25, 1973 (KCA)
The Earth Science Foundation is created to link the national research programs of 16 countries, including Yugoslavia. The stated objectives of the program include increasing the mobility of researchers and assisting exchanges of information. The Foundation is slated to begin functioning in 1975.

Finland / Hungary - September 25-28, 1973 (HC)
First secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár visits Finland.

Soviet Union – September 26, 1973 (KCA)
It is announced that the Soviet Union has ratified the International Covenants on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and on Civil and Political Rights that were first approved in 1966 by the U.N. General Assembly.  However the USSR does not ratify the Optional Protocol to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

Yugoslavia / Chile – September 27, 1973 (KCA)
Yugoslavia breaks off its relations with Chile due to overthrow of Allende's left-wing government by the Military Junta.

Hungary / Chile / Soviet Union - September 27, 1973 (HC)
A government communiqué about the suspension of the diplomatic relations with Chile is released. (The Soviet Union ceased its diplomatic relations with Chile on September 21st.) (→ January 11, 1990)

East Germany/West Germany – September 27, 1973 (CWIHP)
A proposal in regards to the inviolability of the frontier between the two countries is prepared.


Hungary - September 27-28, 1973 (HC)
An international conference of historians takes place in Budapest about the historiography of World War II in East-Central Europe.

Austria / Czechoslovakia / Israel – September 28, 1973 (KCA)
Three Soviet Jews travelling from Moscow to Vienna by train, and an Austrian customs officer get captured by two Arab guerillas at Marchegg on the Austrian-Czech border. They are held as hostages in Vienna's Schwechat airport until the next morning when, in exchange, the Austrian Government agrees to withdraw transit facilities in Austria for Soviet Jews emigrating to Israel. The decision of the Austrian Government to accede to the guerillas' demand is strongly condemned by Israel.

Austria – September 29, 1973 (KCA)
In a statement Kreisky says that his Government's decision to withdraw transit facilities for Jews from the Soviet Union would only affect “organised groups” and not individuals. He also recalls that Austria had, over the years, given assistance to Jews from Poland, Romania, and other Communist countries, and says it was time that other countries “took this assistance in hand”.

Soviet Union / Ireland – September 29, 1973 (KCA)
Irish Foreign Minister Fitzgerald and Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko announce in New York the establishment of diplomatic relations and plans to exchange diplomatic missions at the "earliest possible time."


October 1973

East Germany/Syria/Israel – October 1973 (CWIHP)
Syrian President Hafez al-Assad sends an undated letter to GDR State Council Chairman Willi Stoph requesting support in conflict with Israel.

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union / West Germany – October 1, 1973 (KCA)
The first supplies of Soviet natural gas via a pipeline through Czechoslovakia reach West Germany as per agreements made in February 1970. This gap shipment of 500,000 cubic meters is the first of a planned 120,000 million cubic meter shipment over 20 years between the Soviet Union and West Germany.

Soviet Union / U.S. – October 3, 1973 (BUS)
According to U.S. Secretary of Finance George P. Schultz, Soviet-American trade
reaches 900 million dollars at the end of July. This is higher than the 1971-1972 figure put together. U.S. exports to Warsaw Pact states triples in the first half of 1974
and exceeds one billion dollars. Until August, imports grew to 228 million dollars as
compared to 140 million in the same period the year before.

Romania / India – October 3 – 6, 1973 (PER)
The President of India, Varahagiri Venkata Giri, visits Romania.

Albania / Australia – October 4, 1973 (KCA)
The Argentine Government establishes diplomatic relations with Albania becoming the fifth Communist country, after Cuba, East Germany, North Korea and North Vietnam, with which Argentina enters into such relations since May 1973.

Israel / Egypt / Syria - October 6, 1973 (HC)
The fourth Arab-Israeli war breaks out. (It ends on October 24.)

Poland / Chile – October 6, 1973 (PSM)
Poland suspends diplomatic relations with Chile under the rule of Augusto Pinochet.

Yugoslavia – October 6, 1973 (KCA)
In Belgrade, Vojin Lukić is sentenced to 2.5 years imprisonment for “spreading hostile propaganda” about Yugoslavia’s economic and political system.

East Germany/Syria – October 6-10, 1973 (CWIHP)
Israel’s aggression against Syria is condemned by a draft letter from Willi Stoph to Syrian President Hafez al-Assad.

Japan / Soviet Union – October 7 – 10, 1973 (KCA)
Japanese Prime Minister, Kakuei Tanaka pays a visit to Moscow where he meets with Brezhnev, Gromyko, and Kosygin. The main issue in these talks is the Japanese demand for the return of the four southernmost Kurile Islands – Kunashiri, Etorofu, Shikotan and Habomai. These islands have been ocupied by Soviet Union since the end of World War II. Both sides, however, agree on the need to increase mutual economic co-operation.

Hungary / Israel - October 8, 1973 (HC)
The Hungarian government condemns Israel in a communiqué.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia / U.S. – October 10, 1973 (KCA)
The U.S. State Department announces that the Soviet Union has started a large airlift of military supplies to Egypt and Syria during the Israeli-Arab war that broke out on October. Hungary and Yugoslavia aid the Soviet airlift by granting permission for Soviet planes to fly over their airspace. In response to the Soviet military support of the Arab states, the U.S. announces its own airlift of military supplies to Israel to offset Soviet support.

Hungary - October 12, 1973 (HC)
The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Szeged confers the degree of honorary doctor on Albert Szent-Györgyi.

Yugoslavia / Egypt – October 13, 1973 (JBT)
President Josip Broz Tito receives the special deputy of Egypt Ashraf Marwan who conveys a private letter from President Anwar el-Sadat.

Soviet Union / Gabon – October 15, 1973 (KCA)
Gabon and the Soviet Union announce their decision to enter into diplomatic relations.

Yugoslavia / Algeria – October 15, 1973 (JBT)
Algerian leader Houari Boumediene visits Yugoslavia. During talks between H.Boumediene and J.B.Tito political, military, and economic aspects of the Middle East crisis are addressed.

Soviet Union / U.N. – October 16, 1973 (KCA)
Belorussia is elected to the Security Council for a two-year term, along with Cameroon, Costa Rica, Iraq, and Mauritania.

Soviet Union / Egypt – October 16 – 19, 1973 (KCA)
Kosygin visits Cairo for talks with President Sadat. It is a secret meeting and not statement is issued.The visit is a result of the Arab-Israeli war.

OAPEC - October 17, 1973 (HC)
Oil exporting countries announce that they will reduce the oil transports.

Soviet Union – October 20 – 21, 1973 (KCA)
In response to the Arab-Israeli war and the respective Soviet and American military support, U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger visits Moscow and meets with Soviet leader Brezhnev and Foreign Minister Gromyko.

Soviet Union / U.N. / U.S. – October 22, 1973 (KCA)
Following their talks on the Israeli-Arab war, the Soviet Union and the U.S. order a special meeting of the U.N. Security Council. At the meeting, the Soviet Union and the U.S. jointly present a resolution calling for a cease-fire in the Middle East. When fighting continues, the U.S. and Soviet Union jointly present a second Security Council resolution calling for a cease fire.

Hungary / Soviet Union - October 22-25, 1973 (HC)
The meeting of the Hungarian-Soviet intergovernmental committee takes place in Budapest.

Yugoslavia / Czechoslovakia – October 23-26, 1973 (JBT)
General Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia Gustav Husak visits Yugoslavia. In talks with Josip Broz Tito various bilateral and international issues are addressed, with special emphasis on economic cooperation.

Bulgaria – October 24, 1973 (KCA)
Poniatov is appointed Minister of the Chemical Industry. This Ministery was separated from that of the Power Supply Industry, which was entrusted to Peter Danailov.

Bulgaria – October 24, 1973 (KCA)
Gancho Krustov is appointed Minister of Agriculture and the Food Industry.

Soviet Union / Hungary - October 25-31, 1973 (HC)
The meeting of the World Peace Congress takes place in Moscow.

Hungary / Romania - October 26-27, 1973 (HC)
The Fourth Congress of the Democratic Alliance of Romanians in Hungary takes place.

Soviet Union – October 26, 1973 (KCA)
Brezhnev speaks in Moscow at a World Congress of Peace Forces in response to allegations that the Soviet Union would send troops into the Middle East to support the Arab states in the war against Israel. There he confirms the presence of Soviet peacekeeping forces in the Middle East is to ensure that the U.N.-ordered cease fire is respected. Brezhnev also criticizes Israel's actions, but expresses a willingness to cooperate with "all interested countries" for peace.

Warsaw Treaty Organization / NATO– October 30 – 31, 1973 (KCA)
The conference for the Mutual Reduction of Forces and Armaments and Associated Measures between NATO and the Warsaw Pact in Central Europe takes place in Vienna. The discussions reveal a number of differences between NATO and Warsaw Pact objectives:  while NATO focuses on U.S. and Soviet reductions, the Warsaw Pact emphasizes reductions on national and foreign troops; NATO aims to reduce only ground forces, but the Warsaw Pact aims to reduce both ground and air forces; NATO wants to concentrate on limiting conventional weapons, while the Warsaw  Pact intends to limit nuclear armaments; NATO pressures the Warsaw Pact into making the greatest reductions because of its military and manpower superiority, but the Warsaw Pact challenges the claim.

Yugoslavia / Ethiopia – October 30-31, 1973 (JBT)
Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie makes an official visit to Yugoslavia, and meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito.


November 1973

Hungary - November 1, 1973 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. (First secretary of the Hungarian Young Communist League László Maróthy is admitted as member of the CC; Mihály Kornidesz becomes the leader of the Scientific, Public Educational and Cultural Department of the CC.)

Hungary - November 2, 1973 (HC)
István Huszár is appointed as Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers.

Hungary / Soviet Union - November 2, 1973 (HC)
The pipeline Barátság II. and the new oil refinery are opened in Százhalombatta.

Soviet Union / China – November 3, 1973 (KCA)
In a congratulatory telegram to the Soviet Union on the anniversary of the October Revolution, the Chinese Government suggests to the Soviet Union that border disputes can be resolved peacefully.

East Germany/Syria/Israel – November 3, 1973 (CWIHP)
Erich Honecker sends a letter to Syrian President Hafez al-Assad expressing the GDR’s opposition to the Israeli occupation of Arab territories since the Six-Day War in 1967. Honecker also enumerates the military equipment which was delivered to Syria from the GDR.

Romania / Israel – November 4-6, 1973 (KCA)
The Foreign Minister of Israel, Abba Eban, pays a visit to Bucharest during which he has meetings with President of the State Council Ceauşescu, Chairman of the Council of Ministers Maurer, and Foreign Minister Macovescu.

Hungary - November 5, 1973 (HC)
It is announced in the Ministry of Public Education that school-leaving exams in history are not compulsory.

Hungary - November 8-9, 1973 (HC)
The fourth congress of the Democratic Alliance of Germans in Hungary takes place.

Hungary / Soviet Union - November 9, 1973 (HC)
The House of Soviet Culture and Science is opened in Budapest (→ April 2.)

Hungary / Nigeria / Ghana / Sierra Leone - November 11-23, 1973 (HC)
Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi visit Africa. (Stops : Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone. Tunisia was also to be visited, but was not in the end).

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – November 12, 1973 (KCA)
President Tito makes a visit to the Soviet Union and meets Brezhnev in Kiev. After the discussions, a joint communiqué is issued, stressing the need for cooperation between the USSR and Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union, November 12-15, 1973 (JBT)
President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito visits the Soviet Union, and meets with Leonid Brezhnev. They discuss economic cooperation, and other bilateral issues, as well as the situation in the Middle East, Algeria, Israel, the policy of the United States, European security, world peace, etc. The two statesmen have almost the same views on most of the above mentioned issues.

Hungary - November 16, 1973 (HC)
Memorial ceremonies about Csokonai start in Debrecen on the 200th birth anniversary of the poet.

Hungary - November 17, 1973 (HC)
The central ceremony of Budapest’s centenary takes place. (Pest, Buda and Óbuda officially united on November 17, 1873)

Hungary - November 18, 1973 (HC)
An order of the Council of Ministers (1040/1973) about the tasks of population policy is adopted. (It provides the increased financial assistance of families with children and the health and safety of pregnant women and their unborn children).

Yugoslavia / Libya – November 18-23, 1973 (JBT)
Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution of Libya Muammar Gaddafi makes an official visit to Yugoslavia, and meets with President Josip Broz Tito. Two statesmen address various issues, with special emphasis on Middle East crisis and Summit Conference in Algeria.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia - November 21-22, 1973 (HC)
The Fifth Congress of the Democratic Alliance of Slovaks in Hungary takes place.

Poland – November 22, 1973 (KCA/HDP)
The Sejm confirms changes in the Polish Cabinet: Kazimierz Olszewski is named Minister of Shipping, and Tadeusz Skwirzyński is named Minister of Forestry and of the Timber Industry. Under the administration reform, 49 small provinces are created in place of the previous 17.

Yugoslavia / France – November 22, 1973 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito receives the members of the French Socialist Party delegation headed by its leader Francois Mitterrand.

Soviet Union / Mauritius – November 24, 1973 (KCA)
Under an agreement signed in Port Louis, the Soviet airline Aeroflot and Air Mauritius an airlink is established between Moscow and Mauritius.

Soviet Union / China – November 25, 1973 (KCA)
The Soviet Government issues a reply to China in response to China’s November 3 note to the USSR, again suggesting a pact of nonaggression.

Soviet Union / India – November 26-30, 1973 (KCA)
General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party, Leonid Brezhnev, visits New Delhi.  There he meets with Indian Prime Minister Gandhi; the president of the Congress Party, D. S. Sharma; and leaders of the Indian Communist Party.  He also gives speeches at a mass meeting and at a joint session of the Indian Parliament.  On November 29, India and the Soviet Union sign an economic and trade agreement outlining cooperation between the Indian Planning Commission and the Soviet State Planning Committee, and providing for a consular convention.

Romania – November 27, 1973 (KCA)
The Grand National Assembly approves government appointments, including Constantinescu as Vice President of the Council of State and other new members of the Council of State.

Hungary - November 28, 1973 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. (It discusses the situation of cadre and personnel work.)

Soviet Union / India – November 29, 1973 (KCA)
The following agreements are signed between the Soviet Union and India: an economic
and trade agreement, cooperation between the Indian Planning Commission and the
Soviet State Planning Committee, and providing for a consular convention.


December 1973

Hungary - December 1, 1973 (HC)
An order of the Health Ministry (4/1973) is adopted about the judgment of the application regarding abortion.
Soviet Union / United Kingdom – December 2-5, 1973 (KCA)
British Foreign Secretary Sir Alec Douglas-Home visits Moscow for talks with Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko. They discuss the following topics: the European Security Conference, reductions of military forces in Central Europe, the Middle-East, Indo-China, and the relationship between both the Soviet Union and United Kingdom.

Bulgaria / Hungary – December 3-7, 1973 (KCA/ HC)
Chairman of the State Council Zhivkov of Bulgaria visits Hungary. At the conclusion of his visit a communiqué is released where it is clear that the two countries wish to establish diplomatic relations with the Federal Republic.

Hungary – December 3, 1973 (HC)
Chairman of the Hungarian Writers’ Associaton József Darvas dies.

Romania / U. S. – December 4-7, 1973 (KCA/PER/HOR)
Romanian President of the State Council Ceauşescu visits the United States and attends bilateral talks in Washington with U.S. President Nixon. On December 5, Ceauşescu and Nixon sign a statement on bilateral relations between the two countries. They also emphasize cooperation between the two countries, mutual support for the United Nations, and respect between the two countries. Also signed is a joint declaration on economic, industrial, and technical cooperation. Three other bilateral agreements are signed: one on avoiding double taxation, another on civil air transport, and the last on fishing in the Middle Atlantic.

Hungary / Sweden - December 5, 1973 (HC)
Hungary signs a long-range trade agreement with Sweden.

Soviet Union / U.S. – December 6, 1973 (KCA)
President Nixon announces the appointment of Walter Stoessel as United States Ambassador to the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union / France – December 7, 1973 (BUS)
According to a French-Soviet agreement, France raises a loan to the USSR from 4.5 billion francs to 6 billion. The Soviet Union buys 100 million dollars’ worth of French equipment, technology and building expertise for a petrochemical factory.

Soviet Union / Warsaw Treaty Organization / NATO – December 7, 1973 (KCA)
Meeting of the NATO’s Defense Planning Committee takes place. The communiqué published after the meeting indicates that members discussed much of the situation between NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and that future NATO actions must respond to the growing military power of the Soviet Union.

USA - December 7, 1973 (HC)
The new Vice-President of the United States Gerald Ford is inaugurated.
(Theodore Agnew resigned on October 10th.)

Hungary / Southern Vietnam - December 10-14, 1973 (HC)
A Southern-Vietnamese delegation stays in Hungary. (It is led by President of the Southern-Vietnamese National Liberation Front Nguyen Huu Tho.)

NATO – December 10-11, 1973 (KCA)
A NATO winter Ministerial Meeting takes place in Brussels. The following are subjects included in the communique publicized at the end of the meeting: satisfactory
developments on the ties between the two sides of Germany and those of Berlin would
help stabilize Europe; a proposal for the reduction of both American and Soviet ground

Czechoslovakia / West Germany – December 11, 1973 (KCA)
A treaty to normalize relations between Czechoslovakia and West Germany is signed in Prague during a visit by Federal Chancellor Brandt, the Vice-Chancellor, and Foreign Minister Walter Scheel.

Yugoslavia / U.N. – December 11, 1973 (KCA)
Yugoslavia co-sponsors a UN resolution in the 27th General Assembly titled "Measures to prevent international terrorism which endangers or takes innocent human lives or jeopardizes fundamental freedoms and study the underlying causes of those forms of terrorism and acts of violence which lie in misery, frustration, grievance and despair, and which cause some people to sacrifice human lives, including their own, in an attempt to effect radical change." This resolution was submitted by Algeria and co-sponsored by other African and Asian countries, which upheld the Arab and African point of view of international terrorism. The resolution won the support of all of the Arab countries and most African and Asian countries. This resolution also won the support of the Communist countries, including the USSR, despite their strong condemnation earlier in the Assembly.

Bulgara / Arab contries – December 11, 1973 (CWIHP)
The Minister of Defense Dobri Djurov reports on the 1973 war; he discusses the weaknesses in Arab military strategy in terms of lack of coordination, serious commitment, and resources.

Hungary - December 13-14, 1973 (HC)
An academic session about the history of the 1848-1849 revolution and fight for freedom takes place. (Presenters: György Spira, István Diószegi, György Szabad, János Varga, László Katus.)

Czechoslovakia – December 14, 1973 (KCA)
Changes in the Czechoslovak Federal Cabinet include the appointment of two additional Deputy Premiers: Rudolf Rohlíček and Vlastimil Ehrenberger. The new Minister of Finance is Leopold Lér.

Hungary – December 14, 1973 (KCA/HC)
Frigyes Puja is appointed  Minister of Foreign Affairs (János Péter becomes Deputy Speaker of the Parliament on December 19.)

Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / East Germany / Hungary / Poland / Romania / Soviet Union / Cuba / Mongolia – December 18-19, 1973 (KCA/ HC)
Officials of nine Communist Parties meet for a conference in Moscow. The conference is attended by the Central Committee Secretaries from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.  Subjects of the conference include the spread of socialism, peace, and reduction of anti-communism.

Czechoslovakia – December 21, 1973 (KCA)
Czechoslovak authorities put 11 political prisoners on parole who were originally tried in July and August of 1972.

Bulgaria / Hungary / West Germany – December 21, 1973 (HC / KCA)
According to a communiqué, Bulgaria and Hungary establish full diplomatic relations with West Germany.

Soviet Union / Syria / U. S. – December 21, 1973 (KCA)
The Middle East Peace Conference opens in Geneva, and is sponsored by both the United States and the Soviet Union. The invited countries are Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Israel; however, Syria is the only one to reject the invitation. Both the U.S. Secretary of State Kissinger and Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko are present at the conference.

Hungary - December 29, 1973 (HC)
Transport is reopened in Budapest on the rebuilt and lengthened metro line one, which was originally built in 1896.

Hungary - December, 1973 (HC)
The periodical Kritika publishes a compilation about the trans-border Hungarian culture.


1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


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