The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Research Chair, Center of Social Sciences, Institute for Political Science,
Hungarian Academy of Sciences;
Founding Director, Cold War History Research
Center, Budapest;
Professor of History, Corvinus University of Budapest
Institute of International Studies

Associate editor

University of Szeged


Assistant editors




Izabel ÁCS, Chiara BERTUCCO, Noah BUYON, Megan DIBBLE, Marco GIACOMAZZI, Anusha GURUNG, Solveig HANSEN, Zsálya HAADI-NAGY, Konrad HYZY, Tomas KOLAR, Thomas KOLLMANN, Roman KOZIEL, Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Oleksandr MURASHEVYCH, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Roland PAPP, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Martin ROMAIN, François  ROPARS, Vjenceslav RUPCIC, Lili SIKLÓS, Marcello TOMASINA, Zita Bettina VASAS, Aniello VERDE, Dóra VERESS, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, András ZÁM

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016


The publication and the preceding research were sponsored by the Hungarian Cultural Fund


At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The third part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1968 to 1980. The years 1980–1991 will be available by the end of 2017.

The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


List of Sources


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016

ISBN 978-963-12-7940-5


Chronology 1972


Soviet Union / Canada / U.S. – 1972 (KCA)
The pattern of world trade in wheat and other cereals is substantially altered during 1972 as a result of large Soviet purchases of foreign wheat from the United States, Canada and other countries. The USSR does this in order to meet the targets set by agricultural policy and to counteract the effects of an unexpectedly poor harvest. The Soviet purchases and others by China caused sharp increases in world cereal prices and trade and a fall in wheat stock.

Soviet Union – 1972 (KCA)see January 1972
The most intensive campaign against dissident elements in the Soviet Union since the death of Stalin is launched in January 1972. Vladimir Bukovsky, who had actively opposed the practice of confining dissidents in psychiatric hospitals, is sentenced to seven years of imprisonment and five years exile. Hundreds of house searches and arrests take place in the course of the year in Moscow, Leningrad, Ukraine, and elsewhere. Pyotr Yakir, the most prominent leader of the civil rights movement, is arrested on June 21.


January 1972


Soviet Union / U.S. – January 1972 (KCA)
A number of important agreements are signed between the US and the USSR;
(1) Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems; (2) Interim Agreement on Certain Measures with respect to the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms; (3) US-Soviet agreement for co-operation in the field of environmental protection; (4) US-Soviet agreement on co-operation in the fields of medical research and public health; (5) US-USSR agreement on co-operation in the exploration of outer-space; (6) An agreement on scientific and technical cooperation; (7) US-USSR agreement on the prevention of incidents on the high seas and airspace above them; (8) Setting up a US-Soviet Trade Commission (9) Joint US-Soviet Declaration; and (10) A joint communiqué is published.

Yugoslavia – January, 1972 (KCA)
The Croatian crisis is a major issue at the conference of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia – January, 1972 (KCA)
The trials of Mgr. Kostić  the Orthodox bishop of Zica - who is accused of chauvinism and nationalism, and Slobodan Milošević who, among other things, is suspected of leading an extreme Serbian nationalist underground group, begin.

Soviet Union – January 1972 (KCA)
The most virulent campaign against dissidents since the death of Stalin is launched. Hundreds of house searches and arrests take place in Moscow, Leningrad, the Ukraine, and elsewhere. January 5, 1972:  Vladimir Bukovsky, who actively opposes the practice of confining dissidents in psychiatric hospitals, is sentenced to seven years imprisonment and five years exile. June 21, 1972:  Pyotr Yakir, the foremost leader of the Civil Rights Movement, is arrested. Many of the charges given are for “anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda.”

Hungary January, 1972 (HC)
The periodical Szociológia [Sociology] is first published.

Hungary – January 1, 1972 (HC)
Passports to the socialist countries are introduced. They are valid for 5 years, an exit visa is necessary for all outward journeys, and there is a special “window” to the USSR and Yugoslavia.

Poland / East Germany – January 1, 1972 (PSM)
An agreement on crossing the borders between Poland and the German Democratic Republic comes into power. From now on, the citizens of both countries can cross the border just with their IDs. A similar solution is implemented in relations between Poland and Czechoslovakia the following year.

Hungary / U.N. – January 5, 1972 (HC)
Ambassador Károly Szarka, the Hungarian permanent representative in the UN, is elected as the president of the UN's Economic and Social Council for 1972.

Yugoslavia – January 5, 1972 (KCA)
The Tanjug news agency announces changes to the Croatian Constitution. Several incidents raise the prominence of the nationalism question in Serbia, Kosovo and Macedonia. A paper messenger is killed in the Zagreb office of a Belgrade newspaper by a bomb.

Hungary – January 11, 1972 (HC)
A government statement is released; it demands the cease of the ruthless American bombings against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

Yugoslavia – January 11, 1972 (HR)
Eleven prominent members of Matica Hrvatska are arrested under the charge of Croatian nationalism. Until the end of January 357 members of the League of Communists of Croatia are expelled, 255 party representatives give their resignations, and 143 are dismissed.

USSR / US January 12, 1972 (BUS)                                                                
Soviet Minister of Culture Ekaterina A. Furtseva opens a Soviet art exhibition in Washington. The next day she meets President Nixon’s wife in the White House.

Hungary – January 14, 1972 (HC)
The enlarged and modernized aluminous earth factory is opened at Almásfüzitő.

USSR / US January 14, 1972 (BUS)                                                                Republican congressman James H. Scheuer is expelled from the USSR. The government newspaper Izvestia accuses Scheuer of carrying a document that openly advocates the establishment of an anti-Soviet subversive organization in the US. Izvestia accuses Republican representatives Alphonzo Bell and Richard Blades of encouraging Soviet Zionists to take part at the Zionist World Conference in Jerusalem. Izvestia also claims that Republican representative Earl Landgrebe intentionally disseminated religious literature in public places. Landgrebe claims that he was assured by the State Department that the material was acceptable in the USSR and he wanted to leave it in a church, but “could not find one.”

China / Poland / Soviet Union – January 16, 1972 (CWIHP)
A Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs delegation visits the USSR in order to discuss the issue of „anti-Soviet and anti-unity course of the policy conducted by the Chinese leadership”. The Soviets underline that they attach a great importance in developing political, economic, cultural, and other relations with Poland.

China / Poland / Soviet Union – January 22, 1972 (CWIHP)
The Soviets send a telegram to „Polish Comrades” with a warning about Zhou Enlai's anti-Sovietism and his advance in the Chinese government and address the border issues between China and the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union / Japan – January 23-28, 1972 (KCA)
Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko makes a six-day visit to Japan. A communiqué is issued stressing the principal points of the Gromyko-Fukuda talks: namely to seek meetings later in the year to conclude a peace treaty between the two states and to hold regular consultations between the two Governments, at least once a year at the level of Foreign Ministries. Views were also exchanged on a number of pertinent international issues including arms reduction and the SALT talks between the U.S. and USSR.

Hungary – January 24-25, 1972 (MMS)
In Budapest, a meeting of the leaders of the Warsaw Pact states’ military organizations is held.

Czechoslovakia / Warsaw Pact / USA / Indochina January 25-26, 1972 (HC)
The session of the Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Treaty takes place in Prague. A statement is made about security and the American aggression against Indochina.

Yugoslavia – January 25-27, 1972 (KCA)
In Belgrade, a conference of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia is held and adopts a program of action that indicates a reaffirmation of the unity of the party.

USSR / US January 26, 1972 (BUS)  
One employee dies and 13 are injured in an attempt against the headquarters of Sol Hurok Enterprises, which arranges American tours of Soviet artists. An unknown person announces that the attempt was carried out in protest against “the deaths and imprisonment of Soviet Jews” for which “Soviet culture is responsible.” The person finished the message with the slogan of the so-called Jewish Defense League.

Yugoslavia – January 26-27, 1972 (KCA)
The most serious terrorist attack occurs when a Yugoslav Airlines DC-9 crashes in Czechoslovakia, after an explosion onboard. 28 people are killed.  

Hungary – January 27, 1972 (HC)
Hungary recognizes The People’s Republic of Bangladesh. (The USSR does this on January 25.)

Soviet Union / Chile – January 27, 1972 (KCA
A credit worth $50 million from the Soviet Union is announced by Clodomiro Almeyda, Chilean Foreign Minister.

Yugoslavia – January 27, 1972 (KCA)
Recent attacks are attributed to Croatian nationalists after an anonymous caller telephones the office of the Kvaellsposten newspaper in Sweden who claims to be from a Croat nationalist group (not directly related to the Ustasha group) and takes responsibility for the explosion.

Hungary – January 31– February 11, 1972 (HC)
A party and government delegation led by Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock negotiates in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. An agreement about new credits and the military support to be given during the year of 1972 is concluded.

February 1972

Czechoslovakia – February 1972 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak government approves a decree whereby the list of matters considered as State secrets are considerably extended.

Hungary / Pakistan – February 1, 1972 (HC)
Pakistan ends its diplomatic relations with Hungary because of Hungarian recognition of Bangladesh on January 27.

Hungary – February 2-3, 1972 (HC)
A German Democratic Republic delegation led by First Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany Erich Honecker negotiates in Budapest.

Soviet Union / Egypt (UAR) – February 2-4, 1972 (KCA)
At the end of a visit to Moscow, a communiqué is issued which – as in the many previous Soviet-Egyptian communiqués – denounced Israel for pursuing an “aggressive” and “expansionist” policy “with the support of the United States.” The communiqué calls for the full implementation of the Security Council’s resolution of November 22, 1967.


Yugoslavia / Egypt – February 4-5, 1972 (GOD)
Anwar el-Sadat visits Yugoslavia, and meets with President Josip Broz Tito as a part of his trip to the USSR, Yugoslavia, Syria and Libya. They discuss the ways to solve the Middle East crisis.

Soviet Union / U.S. February 9, 1972 (BUS)
According to President Nixon’s state of the world message, the US-Soviet relationship will be marked by competition for a long time to come and the US will be confronted by “ambiguous and contradictory trends in Soviet foreign policy.” The President presents a list of tasks ahead: an arms limitation treaty, the discussion of all aspects of European security and the identification of common objectives, which could serve as the basis for the normalization of East-West relations.

East Germany / Warsaw Treaty Organization – February 9-10, 1972 (MMS / CAC / HC)
The Council of the Ministers of Defense of the Warsaw Pact's member states meets for a session in Berlin. Warsaw Pact Chief of Staff Sergei M. Shtemenko says that despite “some détente,” NATO remains a threat; the Romanians balk at the idea of joint air defense measures.

Hungary – February 10, 1972 (HC)
The session of the Budapest Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party takes place. A sharp criticism appears questioning why the wages of the workers’ are less than that of the employees working in the factories doing paid work in the co-operatives. The problems of the housing situation are also raised. (Speakers: János Kádár, first secretary of the HSWP: as problems emerge, anti-marxist, pseudo-revolutionary, dogmatic, revisionist views appear. The petty bourgeois view is the most harmful factor. Károly Németh, first secretary of the Budapest Committee of the HSWP: the workers of the large-scale plants make critical remarks because of the decreasing shares of profit and the lack of timed work organization. Wrong and hostile views also appear and these have an influence on smaller and bigger circles. The pessimistic evaluation of the state and future of society and the people’s economy as well as the view irrationally suggesting the increase of the standard of living and equalization are frequent phenomena).

Czechoslovakia / Europe / Soviet Bloc / Soviet Union – February 10, 1972 (CWIHP)
The Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior and Soviet KGB agree to coordinate security efforts and bilaterally exchange information regarding politics, military business, agriculture, technology and science.

Romania – February 10-11, 1972 (KCA)
The RCP’s Central Committee orders improvements in trade union activity in order to expand “working class democracy, ensuring the participation of the working class and all employees in the conduct of enterprises and institutions of socialist society” and ”enhancing the role of trade unions in solving the social problems of the working people as well as in the socialist education of the masses.” Crucially, the Central Committee calls for a “democratization of organizational structure and guidance of trade union activity,” stressing that trade unions no longer suit the maturity of the state and are no longer merely needed as a “conveyor belt” of transmission between the government and the masses.

Hungary – February 11-14, 1972 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár pays an unofficial, friendly visit to the USSR. (The topics of the meeting are the Hungarian economic situation and cooperation).

Albania - February 15, 1972 (KCA)
Albania and Luxembourg establish diplomatic relations.

Soviet Union / U.S. February 15, 1972 (BUS)  
US Secretary of Defense Laird announces in Congress that he will ask for an increase of the defense budget next year. He signals that the Nixon administration is ready to raise the number of nuclear missiles, which remained unchanged since 1967. According to the secretary, Moscow has 50% more ground based nuclear missiles than the US and in 1973 could have more SLBMs as well. At the same time he admits that in terms of bombs and warheads, the US has an advantage of 7500 to 2700.

Hungary – February 16, 1972 (HC)
György Aczél, secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party visits the Iron and Metalworks in Csepel.

Soviet Union / Chile – February 16, 1972 (KCA)
An agreement on Soviet-Chilean commercial and industrial co-operation and technical aid is signed in Santiago.

Hungary / Romania – February 18, 1972 (HC)
A Hungarian-Romanian cultural cooperative committee is formed.

Poland / Australia – February 20, 1972 (KCA)
A joint communiqué from the Australian and Polish Governments issued in Canberra announces that the two countries are entering into full diplomatic relations with each other at ambassadorial level, and that the Polish Embassy is soon to be established in Canberra while a non-resident Australian ambassador will be sent to Warsaw.

Hungary – February 20-21, 1972 (HC)
Act no. 2 of 1972 about health care is adopted.

China / US – February 21-28, 1972 (HC / CAC)
President of the United States Richard Nixon pays an historical visit to China.

Yugoslavia – February 22, 1972 (HC)
The Novi Sad Court (Yugoslavia) sentences university student Sándor Rózsa to three years of prison because of his writing appearing in Új Symposion [New Symposium]. (Reason: hostile propaganda, instigation of national and racial hatred.)

Czechoslovakia / USSR – February 22–24, 1972 (CAC)
Brezhnev, during a speech in Prague, calls for military détente through the reduction of forces and armaments in Europe, or at least a part of Europe.

Hungary – February 24, 1972 (HC)
The government is in session. An order (6/1972) is adopted about the expansion of the health insurance to the craftsmen, sole traders, individual smallholders and the members of the simpler agricultural co-operatives. An order is adopted about transferring the Budapest International Fare from Városliget to Kőbánya.

Romania / Hungary – February 24-26, 1972 (KCA / HC / PER /CEC)
Hungarian Socialist Worker’s Party and Government delegation make an official visit to Romania. The primary aim of this visit is to resolve polemics created by Ceauşescu’s visit to China. On February 24, a new Romanian-Hungary Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance (originally valid for a 20-year period) is signed.

Hungary – February 25, 1972 (HC)
The newly appointed leaders of the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary take their oath in front of the Presidential Council. (Árpád Fábián titular Bishop and Apostolic Governor of Szombathely; László Lékai titular Bishop and Apostolic Governor of Veszprém; László Kádár Assistant Bishop of Veszprém; Mihály Endrey Assistant Bishop of Pécs).


March 1972


Soviet Union / Bangladesh – March 1-5, 1972 (KCA)
Sheikh Mujib of Bangladesh visits Moscow, Leningrad, and Tashkent. While in Moscow he speaks with Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny, Kosygin and Brezhnev. Sheikh Mujib signs two agreements on Soviet economic aid to Bangladesh.

Hungary – March 6, 1972 (HC)
Károly Csatorday, the Hungarian Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and Sigvard Eklund, the Chief Executive Officer of the International Atomic Energy Agency sign an agreement in Vienna based on the treaty regarding the prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

Yugoslavia / Algeria and Tunisia – March 6-11, 1972 (GOD)
Yugoslav Foreign Minister Mirko Tepavac visits Algeria (March 6-9) and Tunisia (March 9-11)


Romania / Algeria / Central Africa / Egypt / People’s Republic of the Congo / Sudan / Tanzania / Zaire / Zambia – March 11- April 6, 1972 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Algeria, Central Africa, Egypt, the People’s Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia.

Hungary – March 15, 1972 (HC)
The notice of the Petőfi Memorial Committee is released. (March 15 shall be celebrated in the socialist way.) The meeting of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party takes place. Topics are the international situation, the amendment of the constitution.

Soviet Union / Pakistan – March 16-18, 1972 (KCA)
President Bhutto of Pakistan visits Moscow. It is his first time to visit a country which has established diplomatic relations with Bangladesh. At a luncheon in his honor Kosygin calls for talks between Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh to replace confrontation with co-operation.

Poland – March 19, 1972 (KCA)
General elections to the Sejm (the Polish Parliament) are held. As in previous elections, a single list of candidates is put forward by the National Unity Front, which has adopted the resolution of the Sixth Congress of the Polish United Workers’ Party (PUWP) as its election program. The method of selecting a candidate is modified.

Yugoslavia / US March 23, 1972 (BUS)
A Yugoslav-American joint company is established. The agreement was made between a Yugoslav copper mine and an American marketing company. The profit is divided 50-50.

Hungary / Pakistan – March 23, 1972 (HC)
Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Hungary are restored. (March 16-17. Pakistani President Ali Bhutto negotiates in Moscow.)

Hungary – March 23, 1972 (HC)
The Hungarian National Committee for Public Education is established.

Hungary – March 24, 1972 (HC)
The committee preparing the amendment of the constitution holds a session and publishes the draft of the amended constitution.

Hungary – March 24, 1972 (HC)
Zoltán Komócsin, member of the Political Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party visits the the Iron and Metalworks in Csepel.

Yugoslavia / PLO – March 25-30, 1972 (GOD)
The leader of the PLO Yasser Arafat visits Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – March 26-April 1, 1972 (GOD)
Soviet Defense Minister Andrei Grechko visits Yugoslavia.

Hungary / USSR – March 27-28, 1972 (HC)
A Hungarian government delegation negotiates in Moscow. Topic: Soviet long-term raw material transports to Hungary. (Members of the delegation: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock; Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Péter Vályi; minister of heavy industry Gyula Szekér; president of the National Planning Bureau Imre Párdi.)

Hungary – March 27, 1972 (HC)
Janus Pannonius memorial ceremonies start on the occasion of the 500th anniversary of the poet's death.

Hungary March 29-31, 1972 (HC)
The 2nd Congress of the Agricultural Co-Operatives takes place. (The Chairman of the National Council of the Co-Operatives is István Szabó.)

Poland – March 28, 1972 (KCA)
The Sejm re-elects Piotr Jaroszewicz as Prime Minister and approves his Cabinet list the following day. A number of Ministries are reorganized as follows: (1) the Ministry of Education and Higher Education is divided; (2) the Ministry of Home Trade and the Committee of Small-Scale Industry are united as the Ministry of Trade and Services; (3) the Ministry of Municipal Economy and the Central Office of Water Economy are united as the Ministry of Local Economy and Environment; (4) the Committee of Labor and Wages is replaced by the Ministry of Labor, Wages, and Social Welfare.

Soviet Union / Bolivia – March 29, 1972 (KCA)
The Bolivian Government issues an order for the expulsion within one week of 119 members of the Soviet Embassy in La Paz. Two weeks earlier the Government had expressed concern that an unspecified embassy in La Paz was aiding left-wing guerillas.

Soviet Union / India – March 31-April 5, 1972 (KCA)
The Indian External Affairs Minister, Swaran Singh, pays an unscheduled visit to Moscow. A joint statement, issued on April 6, states that the two sides believe that the “normalization of the situation in the subcontinent which genuinely takes into account the political realities of today would meet the vital interests of the people of the area and serve to strengthen lasting peace.”

April 1972

Soviet Union – April, 1972 (KCA)
A new campaign against Alexander Solzhenitsyn is launched in connection with the publication abroad of his novel August 1914. As Solzhenitsyn was prevented from receiving his Nobel Prize in Stockholm, he arranged for them to be presented to him by the Secretary of the Swedish Academy, Karl Ragnar Gierow, at a private ceremony in Moscow on April 9. On April 4, however, the Soviet Embassy in Stockholm refuses to grant Gierow a visa.
Yugoslavia – April 1972 (KCA)
Krste Crvenkovski and Lazar Koliševski, two of the three Macedonian representatives on the collective Presidency, resign from the Presidium of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia.
Soviet Union / Iraq – April 6-10, 1972 (KCA)
Soviet Chairman of the Council of Ministers Kosygin pays an official visit to Iraq. During the visit, a Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation between the Soviet Union and Iraq is signed.

Hungary / Romania – April 7, 1972 (HC)
A Hungarian-Romanian Writers’ Association meeting is held in Budapest.

Hungary – April 7, 1972 (HC)
Order no. 1007 of 1972 about the socialist work competition is adopted.

Austria / Hungary – April 9, 1972 (HC)
Resolution no. 6 of 1972 of the Presidential Council of the People’s Republic about establishing relations of the level of embassy between Hungary and Austria is adopted.

UK / Soviet Union / USA April 10, 1972 (HC)
In London, Moscow, and Washington, the representatives of 70 states sign the agreement about the prohibition of bacterial weapons.

East Bloc / Romania – April 11-12 (HC/ MMS)
The Military Council of the Warsaw Treaty holds a session in Bucharest.

Soviet Union / Turkey – April 11-17, 1972 (KCA)
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny visits Turkey, holding talks with Turkish President Sunay and Prime Minister Nihat Erim. A communiqué is issued as well as a joint “Declaration of the Principles of Good-Neighborly Relations between the USSR and Turkey.”

Romania / East Germany – April 15, 1972
Romania and East Germany sign two treaties for cooperation in scientific and technical research, as well as a consultation plan in the field of management and planning in Berlin.

Romania – April 18-20, 1972 (KCA)
President of the State Council Ceauşescu approves a number of changes in the leadership of the Romanian Communist Party at the conclusion of the plenary meeting proceedings. During the session two Bills are approved: (a) introducing a constitutional amendment whereby the mandate of the Grand National Assembly and of the people’s councils is prolonged from four to five years; and (b) prolonging the current legislature until March 1975 (i.e. and extension of two years). On April 20, Chairman of the Council of Ministers Maurer approves a number of cabinet changes after a meeting of the Grand National Assembly.

Yugoslavia / Egypt – April 18-21, 1972 (GOD)
Yugoslav Foreign Minister Mirko Tepavac visits Egypt.

Hungary – April 19-20, 1972 (HC)
The Parliament is in session. Act no. 1 of 1972 about the amendment of act no. 20 of 1949 (the Constitution) and the unified text of the Constitution of the Hungarian People’s Republic: 2. § (1) The Hungarian People’s Republic is a socialist country. 3. § The leading force of the society is the Marxist-Leninist party of the working class.

Hungary – April 21, 1972 (HC)
A government resolution (n. 1012/1972) about the national long-term academic research plan for the years 1971 to 1986 is adopted.

Romania / East Germany – April 22, 1972
Romania and East Germany sign a protocol concerning economic, scientific, and technical cooperation in Bucharest.

Czechoslovakia – April 22, 1972 (KCA)
The first congress of the newly re-formed Czechoslovak Journalist Union is held in Prague.

Yugoslavia – April 22-29, 1972 (KCA)
Yugoslavia experiences a number of major political crises stemming from the growth of nationalist sentiment in the Republic of Croatia, and culminating in the resignation of several prominent leaders of the Croatian League of Communists. These resignations follow a strike by Croatian University students that began on November 23, 1971, and criticism of the Croatian leadership made by President Tito.

Soviet Union / U.S. April 25, 1972 (BUS)  
The White House announces that National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger went on a secret mission to Moscow between April 20-24. Kissinger negotiated with Brezhnev.

Hungary – April 26-28, 1972 (HC)
The 5th Congress of the People’s Patriotic Front takes place. (President: Gyula Kállai, secretary-general: István Bencsik.)

Soviet Union / Egypt (UAR) – April 27-29, 1972 (KCA)
The communiqué issued at the end of a visit to Moscow by President Anwar Sadat reiterates the earlier denunciations (see February 2-4, 1972) of Israel and says that an agreement was reached “on the further strengthening of military co-operation” between Egypt and the Soviet Union.

Romania / France – April 30, 1972 (PER)
A delegation from the French Socialist Party led by François Mitterrand pays a visit to Romania.

May 1972

Soviet Union / U.S. May 1, 1972 (BUS)
The White House announces that as a result of confidential exchanges between Soviet and American leaders, the chances for the SALT treaty improved. The leader of the US SALT delegation will receive new instructions.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – May 3-4, 1972 (HC)
Under the leadership of József Marjai, the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, negotiations start in Prague with the leaders of the Czechoslovak Foreign Ministry about the issue of bilateral cooperation.

Yugoslavia / Central African Republic – May 3-8, 1972 (JBT)
Jean-Bedel Bokassa, head of state of the Central African Republic, visits Yugoslavia and meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito.

Romania / Israel – May 4-7, 1972 (KCA)
Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel, visits Bucharest for talks with Ion Gheorghe Maurer, the Romanian Prime Minister, at the latter’s invitation. Meir also meets Ceauşescu in Bucharest. A communiqué is signed.

Yugoslavia – May 8, 1972 (KCA)
The Central Committee of the League of Communists of Croatia unanimously approve expelling former prominent members who resigned from their posts in December 1971, including Savka Dabčević Kučar, Mika Tripalo, Pero Pirker, Marko Koprtla, and Dragutin Haramija, former Prime Minister of Croatia.

Romania / East Germany – May 11-12, 1972 (KCA, PER)
First Secretary of the East German Socialist Unity Party Erich Honecker and the East German Chairman of the Council of Ministers Willi Stoph pay a state visit to Romania. On May 12, the two parties sign the East German-Romanian Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, valid for a period of 20 years, originally initialed on October 1, 1970.

East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) – May 12 and 26, 1972 (KCA)
Talks on the facilitation of transit traffic are successfully concluded and a treaty is initialed in Bonn (May 12) and signed in East Berlin (May 26).

Hungary – May 14-15, 1979 (MMS)
The Committee of Foreign Ministers of the Warsaw Pact meets in Budapest.

Romania / Great Britain May 15, 1972 (BUS)  
A two year commercial and a five year technological and industrial treaty of cooperation is signed between Romania and Great Britain.


Yugoslavia – May 16, 1972 (HR)
The hydro energetic system Djerdap I begins operations. It is in the top five of such systems worldwide and was built as a joint Yugoslav-Romanian project.


Romania / Yugoslavia – May 16, 1972 (KCA)
The Iron Gates hydro-electric and navigation project on the Danube, planned by Romania and Yugoslavia in 1963 and built jointly by both countries, is formally inaugurated by President Ceauşescu and Tito, marking the successful conclusion of seven years’ work. One of the five largest hydro-electric schemes in the world, the project cost about $450 million, and represented the biggest joint project yet undertaken by two socialist states.

Bulgaria / Eastern Bloc – May 16-17, 1972 (CAC)
A meeting of the Military Council in Sofia discusses NATO’s “Reforger-4” exercise as a demonstration of the growing U.S. ability to swiftly intervene in the European theater. Soviet Gen. Shtemenko emphasizes the need to counter NATO’s increased emphasis on electronic warfare, while Marshal Iakubovskii sees the current situation as not permitting reductions in Warsaw Pact armed forces.

Poland / Soviet Union / West Germany – May 17, 1972 (HC)
After fierce debate in parliament, the German Federal Republic accepts the Soviet-West German Treaty of Moscow on 12 August 1970, and the Polish-West German Treaty of Warsaw on 7 December 1970.

Bulgaria / Cuba – May 17-26, 1972 (KCA)
Fidel Castro of Cuba visits Bulgaria on his wider Eastern European and African tour.

Soviet Union / Lithuania – May 18-19, 1972 (KCA)
Unrest in the Baltic Republics - Serious riots occur in Kaunas, the second largest city in Lithuania, and are believed to reflect popular dissent at the Soviet Government’s policy of forcible Russification and at restrictions imposed on the practice of their religion by Roman Catholics.

Soviet Union – May 19-25, 1972 (KCA) see May 21; see also May 25

A decree is issued, on May 19, by the Supreme Soviet appointing Pyotr Shelest, First Secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party, as the Deputy Premier of the Soviet Government. On May 25, Shelest is replaced as First Secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party by Vladimir Shcherbitsky, Premier of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic.

Romania / Turkey – May 20-23, 1983 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Turkey to discuss with the Turkish President, Kenan Evren. The Technical University of Ankara gives Elena Ceauşescu the title of Doctor Honoris Causa. 

Soviet Union / Austria – May 21, 1972 (KCA)
En route to Moscow, President Nixon meets with Austrian Chancellor, Kreisky in Salzburg.

Soviet Union – May 21, 1972 (KCA) see May 19—25; see also May 25
A decree is issued by the Supreme Soviet appointing Pyotr Shelest, First Secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party, to Deputy Premier of the Soviet Government.

East Bloc – May 21–22, 1972 (CAC)
A Moscow meeting of Deputy Foreign Ministers agrees to speed up the
CSCE process now that the final stage of the preparatory conference has been reached. They further agree not to allow the inviolability of borders to be linked with other issues, to reject the demand for advance notice of troop movements, and to consider human rights issues only if this is in the interests of the socialist states.

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 22-30, 1972 (KCA)
President Nixon pays an official state visit to the USSR. During and at the end of President Nixon’s visit to the Soviet Union, a number of mportant treaties are signed between the United States and the Soviet Union: (1) Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems; (2) Interim Agreement on Certain Measures with respect to the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms; (3) U.S.-Soviet agreement for cooperation in the field of environmental protection; (4) U.S.-Soviet agreement on cooperation in the fields of medical research and public health (5) U.S.-USSR agreement on cooperation in the exploration of outer-space; (6) An agreement on scientific and technical cooperation; (7) U.S.-USSR agreement on the prevention of incidents on the high seas and airspace above them; (8) Setting up a US-Soviet Trade Commission; (9) Joint U.S.-Soviet Declaration; and (10) A joint communiqué.

West Union / Soviet Union – May 23, 1972 (KCA)
The treaty between West Germany and the USSR on the renunciation of the use of force is ratified by the West German Government.

Poland / West Germany – May, 23 1972 (KCA)
The treaty between West Germany and Poland signed on December 7, 1970, is completed with the signature of President Heinemann.

Hungary / Soviet Union – May 24, 1972 (HC)
Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Péter Vályi negotiates in Moscow about Hungarian-Soviet economic and technological cooperation.

Soviet Union – May 25, 1972 (KCA) see May 21; see also May 19—25.
Shelest is replaced as First Secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party by Vladimir Shcherbitsky, Premier of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic.

Hungary – May 25, 1972 (HC)
János Kádár’s 60th birthday is celebrated (May 26, 1912).

Hungary – May 26-27, 1972 (HC)
The 4th Congress of the Leaders of the Socialist Brigades takes place.

East Germany / West Germany – May 26, 1972 (KCA / HC)
The traffic treaty between the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany is signed in Berlin. This is the first international bilateral treaty signed by the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany as two sovereign states.

Soviet Union / US May 26, 1972 (BUS)  see May 22—29 and May 22—30 too.
US President Nixon and Soviet Party First Secretary Brezhnev sign the SALT treaty in the Kremlin. It is made up of two parts. One limits the ABM systems. According to the ABM agreement both sides can deploy two ABM systems each. One may protect the capital city while the other is a part of the offensive weapon systems. Each system may be comprised of 100 interceptor missiles. The treaty is monitored by spy satellites and the parties may not interfere with the others’ satellites and may not take measures that impede verification. (The ABM treaty is based on the principle of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD). Since it limits the defense systems, it assures that the counter-value strike of both sides may reach their targets. Thus each side holds the population of the other hostage. Hence the principle of MAD: since in the case of a nuclear attack the aggressor’s population will be wiped out, it is not worth launching the attack. Therefore, the nuclear threat need not be realized, which increases security and stability.

Romania / Cuba – May 26-30, 1972 (KCA / PER)
Fidel Castro, Prime Minister of Cuba, visits Romania as part of his larger Eastern European and African tour.

Hungary / Soviet Union – May 29 – June 5, 1972 (HC)
A party delegation led by member of the Political Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party Rezső Nyers stays in the USSR. The delegation studies the management system of the Soviet people’s economy.

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 30, 1972 (KCA)
Following his visit to the USSR, President Nixon visits Tehran.

NATO – May 30-31, 1972 (KCA)
In Bonn, the Spring Ministerial Meeting of the North Atlantic Council is held and attended by Foreign Ministers from 15 member countries, a joint communiqué is issued.

Hungary / Slovenia – May 30 - June 2, 1972 (HC)
Slovenian government leader Stane Kavčič visits Hungary.

Hungary / Cuba – May 30-June 6, 1972 (KCA/ HC)
Fidel Castro, Prime Minister of Cuba, visits Hungary as part of his larger Eastern European and African tour.

Soviet Union – May 31, 1972 (KCA) see May 31—June 1
Following the conclusion of his visit to the USSR, President Nixon visits Warsaw.

Czechoslovakia – May 31, 1972 (KCA)
The first congress of the Czech Writers’ Union and the second congress of the Slovak Writers’ Union open simultaneously in Prague and Bratislava.

Poland / Soviet Union / U.S. – May 31-June 1, 1972 (KCA / BUS / HDP) see May 31
Back from his visit to the USSR and a short day trip to Iran, President Nixon visits Warsaw where he discusses the development of trade and economic relations with the Polish party First Secretary, Edward Gierek


June 1972

Bulgaria / Chile – June, 1972 (KCA)
Two credits equivalent to U.S. $20 million (for an onion dehydrating plant) and U.S. $3 million (for the purchase of consumer and capital goods) are granted to Chile by Bulgaria.

Soviet Union – June, 1972 (KCA)
A petition signed by 20,000 Crimean Tartars, is send to Brezhnev in June 1972. It asks for the organized return of the Tartars to their homeland in the Crimea; resettlement on their traditional land; the creation of the conditions for the national development of the Tartar people; and re-establishment of the autonomy granted to the Tartar people by Lenin.


Hungary / Soviet Union – June 1, 1972 (HC)
Béla Köpeczi is appointed by the government as the Secretary-General of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. A Hungarian-Soviet middle-term academic agreement is signed.

East Germany / West Germany – June 3, 1972 (KCA)
The Four-Power agreement comes into force with the signature of the final protocol by Foreign Ministers of the Four Powers.

Poland / Soviet Union / West Germany (FRG) – June 3, 1972 (KCA)
Treaties on the renunciation of the use of force (Four-Power Treaty), ratified in Moscow on May 31 (Soviet-German) and in Warsaw on May 26 (Polish-German), come into force with the exchange of the instruments of ratification in Bonn.

Yugoslavia /Soviet Union – June 5-10, 1972 (KCA)
President Tito attends an official visit to the USSR at the invitation of the CPSU and the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet.  In addition to conducting official talks with Brezhnev and other top Soviet leaders, President Tito is awarded the Order of Lenin, the highest Soviet decoration, by Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny. A joint communiqué is issued at the conclusion of the visit

Soviet Union – June 6, 1972 (KCA)
The Central Committee of the CPSU adopts a campaign to combat alcoholism in the USSR, deeming it to be “incompatible with socialist morality.” (see June 16, 1972)

Poland / Cuba – June 6-13, 1972 (KSA)
Fidel Castro, Prime Minister of Cuba, visits Poland as part of his larger Eastern European and African tour.

Soviet Union / Liberia – June 10, 1972 (KCA)
The Soviet Union and Liberia announce that they have agreed on the mutual establishment of embassies after July 23, 1972.

Romania / U.K. – June 11-12, 1972 (PER)
The leader of the UK Labor Party, Harold Wilson, visits Romania.

Hungary – June 14-17, 1972 (HC)
An international round-table conference about European security and economic cooperation takes place in Budapest.

Soviet Union – June 15-18, 1972 (KCA)
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny visits Hanoi, North Vietnam. American bombing of the city is suspended for the duration of his visit. The USSR expresses its continued support of the Vietnamese against 'imperialist aggression.'

Soviet Union – June 16, 1972 (KCA)
A decree listing a number of measures to be taken against excessive drinking is issued by the Soviet Council of Ministers, following the recent adoption of a resolution by the central committee of the CPSU on “measures to combat heavy drinking and alcoholism.” Among the measures announced under the Soviet Government’s decree are a reduction during 1972-1975 in the production of vodka and other strong alcoholic drinks; rigid enforcement of sales restrictions; and an increase in the production of soft drinks and of beer and wine.

Hungary – June 17, 1972 (HC)
Order no. 14 of 1972 of the ministry of internal trade about the regulation of alcohol is adopted. (It is forbidden to drink alcohol in public domain, and alcohol cannot be sold on factory premises).

Poland / Vatican / East Germany – June 18, 1972 (KCA)              see June 28

Yugoslavia / Poland – June 19-23, 1972 (AY)
Yugoslav delegation led by Josip Broz Tito visits Poland to discuss various bilateral and international issues, including the “German question” and compensation for victims of Nazi persecutions. In unofficial talks Josip Broz Tito and Edward Gierek, allegedly, discuss and condemn Soviet policy in Eastern Europe.

Hungary / India – June 20-23, 1972 (HC)
Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi negotiates in Budapest.

Soviet Union – June 21, 1972 (KCA)
Pyotr Yakir, the foremost leader of the Civil Rights Movement, is arrested. Many of the charges given are for “‘anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda.”

Hungary – June 21, 1972 (HC)
The joint meeting of the government and the National Council of Trade Unions takes place. Topic: workers’ wages are lower at certain enterprises of the state industry as in the same scope of duties at certain co-operatives; the movement of workforce is high.
Member of the Political Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’s Party Rezső Nyers is at the Iron and Metalworks in Csepel.

Czechoslovakia / Cuba – June 21 - 26, 1972 (KCA)
Fidel Castro, Prime Minister of Cuba, visits Czechoslovakia as part of his larger Eastern European and African tour. On June 23, Jozef Lenárt, the First Secretary of the Slovak Communist Party, states that Cuba has adopted the 'correct position' at the time of the 'international aid given to Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact countries.'

Hungary – June 22-23, 1972 (HC)
The Parliament introduces a law about courts (act no. 4 of 1972) and about public prosecutors (act no. 5 of 1972).

Hungary – June 25, 1972 (HC)
A ceremony is held in Cegléd on the occasion of the 500th birth anniversary of György Dózsa.

Yugoslavia / Ethiopia – June 25-30, 1972 (HN)
Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie visits Yugoslavia and meets with President Josip Broz Tito to discuss international issues.

Soviet Union / Cuba – June 26-July 6, 1972 (KCA)
Fidel Castro, Prime Minister of Cuba, visits the Soviet Union as part of his larger Eastern European and African tour. On June 27, Brezhnev reaffirms the Soviet policy of assuring 'protection' to Cuba. Castro is also invested with the Order of Lenin by Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny. On July 4, Defense Minister Grechko declares that the USSR was 'always ready to come to the aid of Cuba.” On July 6, a joint communiqué is issued reaffirming the close relations between the two countries, and condemning 'any division among the anti-imperialist forces.' The two countries also condemn the United States' blockade of Cuba, and express support for the Chilean Government of Popular Unity. Following this visit, Cuba is admitted as a full member to the Comecon.

Yugoslavia – June 27-July 21, 1972 (KCA)
Serbian nationalists are tried and sentenced from one to two and a half years for various crimes, including printing and distributing literature aimed at undermining 'the unity and fraternity of the peoples of Yugoslavia,' 'maliciously depicting the octal situation' in alleging discrimination against Serbs, attempting to revive the Trotskyist International, joining terrorist groups, and glorifying Serbian kings. The defendants include Slobodan Subotich, president of the Serbian chambers of lawyers, retired university professor Jovan Zubovich, Orthodox priest Father Zivojin Todorovich, Radoslav Micich, Mihajlo Djurich, Orthodox Bishop of Zica Vasilije Kostich, and three students.

Poland – June 28, 1972 (KCA) see June 18
The Vatican announces the establishment of four new dioceses in the former German territories of Western Poland, and the Polish President welcomes the decision. However, the West German government official states that his government has been notified ahead of the decision and that the Vatican recognizes that the final settlement of the borders is an issue for the Four Powers to decide upon.

Yugoslavia – June 28, 1972 (KCA) see December 18
Mirko Čanadanović, former Chairman of the League of Communists of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Miloš Radojčin, former Chairman of the Regional Party Committee, and Vukasin Keselj, former Chairman of the Socialist Alliance of the Autonomous Region, are expelled from the LCY. The Belgrade newspaper Politika reports that during the last quarter of 1972, 101 Serbian municipal party officials resign, and 1,994 members of League of Communists of Serbia are expelled.

Hungary / Soviet Union – June 28-July 1, 1972 (HC)
Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party György Aczél and Miklós Óvári travel to Moscow. (They study present ideological, academic and cultural political questions.)

July 1972

Czechoslovakia – July-August, 1972 (KCA / PSCZ)
Nine trials take place in Prague and Brno. 46 people receive sentences for charges relating primarily to subversive activity. Many of the accused were noted supporters of the “Dubček era” policies. It is officially denied that the trials have a political nature; despite this, criticism is widely expressed in Western Europe including the French and Italian Communist Parties and the International Commissions of Jurists.

Czechoslovakia - July-August, 1972 (PSCZ)
Political trials of nine representatives of the opposition are held in Prague and Brno. Domestic opposition activities are suppressed for next few years

Hungary – July 1, 1972 (HC)
One-man operated public transportation is introduced in the capital.

Romania / Yugoslavia – July 1-8, 1972 (KCA)
The Iron Gates hydro-electric and navigation project on the Danube planned and built by both Romania and Yugoslavia is officially inaugurated by President of the State Council Ceauşescu and President Tito. It is one of the fifth largest hydro-electric schemes in the world and took seven years to complete.

Yugoslavia – July 2, 1972 (KCA)
Yugoslav security forces successfully attack Ustashi, a group of Croatian separatist terrorists, who entered Yugoslavia from Austria, after training there and in Australia. These Croats were already under investigation by Australian authorities.

Finland / Switzerland – July 3, 1972 (CAC) 
The CSCE opens in Helsinki to discuss aspects of security, human relations, and economic and scientific affairs. Talks continue in Geneva over the next two years.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – July 3-4, 1972 (HC)
Foreign minister of Czechoslovakia Bohuslav Chňoupek is in Budapest.

Bulgaria – July 4, 1972 (KCA)
Venelin Kotsev is appointed a Deputy Chairman of the Bulgarian Council of Ministers, while on the same day Georgi Belichki is appointed Minister of Building and Building Materials.

Hungary / UN – July 4, 1972 (HC)
The science policy specialists of the European members states of the UNESCO start a 4-day conference in Budapest.

Hungary / Italy – July 4-6, 1972 (HC)
A Hungarian-Italian forum between members of parliament takes place in Rome.

Yugoslavia / India – July 4-9, 1972 (HN)
Indian President Varahagiri Venkata Giri visits Yugoslavia. During conversations with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito mainly international topics are addressed.


Soviet Union / Chile – July 4, 1972 (KCA)
Senor Alfonso Inostroza, president of the Chilean Central Bank, announces that among the credits which he has secured is one by the Soviet Union of $260 million for machinery and other capital equipment.

Romania / U.S. July 5-7, 1972 (BUS, PER)
US Secretary of State William Rogers arrives in Bucharest where he signs a consular agreement to promote normal travel and commercial relations. Rogers negotiates with party General Secretary Ceauşescu.

East Germany – July 6, 1972 (KCA) see September 23—30.
A report of the Politburo of the East German Socialist Unity Party is submitted to the Central Committee and published in Neues Deutschland on the following day. It announces that the complete nationalization of the economy is essentially finished.

Hungary / US July 6-7, 1972 (BUS/ HC)
In the course of his visit in Budapest, Rogers speaks with János Kádár. This is the first time that the first secretary of the HSWP conducts talks with a member of the US cabinet. Rogers invites Foreign Minister János Péter for a visit in Washington.

Romania – July 6, 1972 (KCA)
The Communist Party Executive Committee endorses a 17-point program submitted by Ceauşescu to end “shortcomings and deficiencies” that exist in the Party and the State’s politico-ideological and cultural-educational spheres, while denying reports in the West that Romania was embarking on a “mini-cultural revolution.”

Soviet Union / Canada – July 6, 1972 (KCA)
A program of cultural and scientific exchange between Canada and the Soviet Union is announced in Ottawa. Negotiated in Moscow during June by the Joint Commission established under the Canadian-Soviet agreement of October 1971, the program covers exchanges during 1972-1973 in the fields of sport, the universities, and the arts, and increased co-operation in Arctic development.

Romania / United States – July 6-7, 1972 (PER)
The Secretary of the U. S. Department of State, William Rogers, visits Romania.

Europe / West Germany / Soviet Union / US –  July 7, 1972 (CWIHP)
Willy Brandt writes a letter to President Nixon on economic affairs. Brandt explains why common currency would work for Europe and why the cooperation of the US is necessary.

France / Soviet Union / US – July 7, 1972 (CWIHP)
Henry Kissinger and French Minister of Defense Debré discuss US-French nuclear cooperation and the recent US technical assistance to the French ballistic missile program. Debré requests information about Soviet missile defenses.

Soviet Union / Latvia – July 7, 1972 (KCA)
The Daily Telegraph reports that anti-Russian disturbances have occurred in Latvia by students of the Tallinn Polytechnic University (see May 18-19, 1972). Furthermore, an open letter from 17 veteran Latvian Communists reaches Western Communists and calls for these parties to persuade the CPSU to abandon the Russification policy.  

Yugoslavia / U.S. – July 7-9, 1972 (GOD)
The U.S. Secretary of State William Rogers visits Yugoslavia.

Soviet Union / U.S. – July 8, 1972 (KCA)
President Nixon announces a three-year agreement between the U.S. and the USSR. Under the agreement, the USSR will purchase a minimum of $750,000,000 worth of US-grown food grains during this period – the biggest grain agreement between any two states. Details of the agreement are released on a fact sheet by the U.S. Secretaries of Agriculture and of Commerce, Butz and Peterson respectively.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – July 8-9, 1972 (HC)
First secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár pays a short unofficial visit to Bratislava

COMECON / Soviet Union – July 10-12, 1972 (KCA / HC / MMS)
The 26th session of Comecon is held I Moscow. The leaders of delegations are Kosygin (Soviet Union), Stanko Todorov (Bulgaria), Lubomír Štrougal (Czechoslovakia), Willi Stoph (East Germany), Jenő Fock (Hungary), Piotr Jaroszewicz (Poland), Ion Gheorge Maurer (Romania), and D. Maidar (Mongolia). The Yugoslav delegation is led by Džemal Bijedić. It is the first time that Yugoslavia is represented by a Federal Premier at a Comecon session.

Czechoslovakia – July 12, 1972 (KCA)
The eighth congress of the Central Council of the Czechoslovak Revolutionary Trade Union Movement opens in Prague. The congress annuls all the documents and resolutions adopted by the previous congress (held in March 1969 shortly before the fall of Alexander Dubček), including the right of workers to strike.

Hungary – July 13, 1972 (HC)
Government order no. 1023 of 1972 about the weekly 44-hour working time of all labourers working in the industry and the construction industry is adopted.

Bulgaria – July 13-14, 1972 (KCA)
At a plenary session of the Central Committee, Kotsev is relieved of his duties as Secretary of the Central Committee, and in his stead Alexander Lilov is appointed. On the same day, Ivan Abadjiev replaces Kotsev in his post as Chairman of the Ideological Commission of the Central Committee. Venelin Kotsev is appointed as a Deputy Chairman of the Bulgarian Council of Ministers. Georgi Belichki is appointed Minister of Building and Building Materials.

Hungary / Burma – July 13-19, 1972 (HC)
The Head of State and Government of Burma, U Ne Win, stays in Budapest.

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Bloc /  Soviet Union – July 14, 1972 (CWIHP).
The KGB and head representative of operative technical services for the Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior agree to a plan to continue the exchange of scientific-technical information and to continue meetings of specialists on these topics.

Yugoslavia / Cambodia – July 14-19, 1972 (JBT)
Norodom Sihanouk, Cambodian king and Head of Government in exile, visits Yugoslavia, and meets with President Josip Broz Tito.

Poland / Guyana – July 16, 1972 (KCA)
In a joint communiqué released simultaneously in Georgetown and Warsaw it is announced that Guyana and Poland have decided to establish diplomatic relations with each other.

Soviet Union / Latvia – July 17, 1972 (KCA)
It is announced that Vladimir Sei, the Latvian Minister of Internal Affairs has been relieved of his duties, no official explanation is given (see May 18-19, 1972 and July 7, 1972).

Yugoslavia – July 17, 1972 (HR)
The court in Belgrade sentences Professor Mihailo Đurić to two years in prison, due to his criticism of the new constitutional changes. Professor Đurić assessed that they changed the nature of the SFRY, that they created independent and conflicted national states, and that they were contrary to the interests of the Serbian people.

Soviet Union / Egypt – July 18, 1972 (KCA)
President Sadat addresses the Central Committee of the Arab Socialist Union and makes the following decisions: The removal of all Soviet military advisers and experts in the country and their replacement with Egyptian officials (around 20,000); all equipment and military installations in Egyptian territory since the Arab-Israeli war of June 1967 are to become the exclusive property of Egypt and placed under the command of the Egyptian Army; and he calls for an Egyptian-Soviet meeting, within the framework of the Soviet-Egyptian Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation. This meeting occurs despite an apparently successful diplomatic meeting between the states on July 13-14, 1972. Western commentators suspect the surprise move arose as a result of Egyptian dissatisfaction with the Soviet refusal to supply Egypt with enough weapons to conduct another war against Israel.  

Romania – July 19-21, 1972 (KCA)
A National Conference of the Romanian Communist Party, the first to take place since that of December 1967, is held in Bucharest. In addition to the party leadership, the members and alternate members of the central committee and the members of the Central Auditing Commission, is attended by 2,220 delegates and 500 invited guests. The National Conference unanimously approves Ceauşescu’s report, and in addition to adopting various other documents elects Ceauşescu as head of the newly-formed Supreme Council of Economic and Social Development, the creation of which was recommended by Ceauşescu’s report. The Conference also endorses Ceauşescu’s proposal for an enlargement of the Central Committee. As a result, Elena Ceauşescu, among others, is given full-membership.

Soviet Union / Iraq – July 20, 1972 (KCA)
The Soviet-Iraqi Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation, signed in Baghdad on April 9, 1972, comes into force after ratification.

Soviet Union / U.S. July 20, 1972 (BUS)
Soviet-American talks start in Moscow about a general commercial treaty. The main obstacle is that the Soviet land-lease debt is unsettled. Without settling the debt originating from World War II the USSR cannot count on long-term credit or favorable customs policy.
Soviet Union – July 22-29, 1972 (KCA)
A program of cultural and scientific exchanges between Canada and the Soviet Union is announced in Ottawa.

France / Vietnam – July 27, 1972 (HC)
The meeting of the European communist and workers’ parties takes place in Paris about the question of solidarity with Vietnam. (The Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is represented by member of the Political Committee of the Party Rezső Nyers.)

Soviet Union / France – July 28, 1972 (KCA)
The French government agrees to purchase 2,500 million cubic meters of gas from the Soviet Union starting in 1976. This agreement includes Italy, whose gas pipelines from the USSR are needed to transport gas from the USSR to France.

East Bloc / Soviet Union – July 30-31, 1972 (CAC / HC / MMS)
At a Crimea meeting of Warsaw Pact leaders, Brezhnev gives an upbeat assessment of Soviet global ascendancy in view of a perceived U.S. retreat, and a lasting, rather than temporary, American interest in détente. He is confident of the West’s acceptance of the CSCE on Soviet terms, and anticipates mutual force reductions, starting in Central Europe.

August 1972


Hungary / Romania – August 3, 1972 (HC / CER / CEC)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock – who is on Holiday in Romania – is received by Secretary-General of the Romanian Communist Party Nicolae Ceauşescu.

Yugoslavia – August 8-12, 1972 (KCA)
Representatives from Yugoslavia attend a conference of Foreign Ministers for the Non-Aligned Movement in Guyana.

Yugoslavia – August 9, 1972-January 17, 1973 (KCA):
Nationalists in Bosnia-Herzegovina are tried and sentenced to prison terms from one to five years for crimes including 'anti-constitutional activity,'  distributing literature that undermined 'brotherhood and unity,' 'subversive activity,' and attempting to overthrow the Socialist system. The defendants include former university lecturer Miodrag Vullin, two Roman Catholic priests, and a teacher.

Hungary – August 10, 1972 (HC)                                                                                    A government meeting takes place, where measures taken in order to keep the investment balance (cutting back on and delaying investments, the savings of state organizations, increased severity of credit conditions) is discussed.

Soviet Union – August 14, 1972 (KCA)
A new tax on persons with higher education who wish to emigrate comes into force. It was approved by the Soviet Government on August 3. Although the tax applies to all Soviet citizens, Jews are particularly affected because the number of intending emigrants is far greater among Jews than among any other section of the population. The effect of the tax was to greatly reduce the proportion of graduates among Jewish emigrants.

Hungary – August 19, 1972 (HC)                                                                                   A A Ceremony of Commemoration takes place in Székesfehérvár on the occasion of the 1000th anniversary of the founding of the city.

Soviet Union – August 20, 1972 (KCA)
The Israeli Cabinet condemns the tax imposed by the Soviet government on emigration  as “‘impermissible blackmail”’ and the Israeli ambassador to the UN, Tekoah issued a letter to the Secretary-General the following day contending that it essentially deprives Soviet Jews of their fundamental right to emigrate.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – August 21, 1972 (HC)
A Hungarian Parliament delegation travels to Czechoslovakia for a week. (The leader of the delegation is president of the Parliament Antal Apró.)

Hungary – August 21-30, 1972 (HC)
The first international wine contest in the Soviet Bloc is organized in Budapest.

Soviet Union – August 21-September 11, 1972 (KCA)
The USSR competes in the Munich Olympics, where its athletes win the most gold and total medals: 50 gold, and 101 total medals. The USSR overtook the United States in medal count.

Yugoslavia – August 25, 1972 (KCA)
Petar Sale, a student at Zagreb University, is sentenced to two and a half years of imprisonment prison for attempting to organize a student strike.

West Germany / Soviet Union / Israel – August 26-September 11, 1972 (HC)
The 20th Summer Olympic Games take place in Munich. (The Hungarian sportsmen win 6 gold, 13 silver and 6 bronze medals.) On September 5, a Palestinian terrorist organization ”Black September” attacks the Israeli athletes in the Olympic Village.  In the end, 11 Israeli athletes, 1 policeman, and 5 terrorists die.)

Hungary – August 28-September 2, 1972 (HC)
The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions holds its conference in Budapest.

Romania / Spain – August 28, 1972 (PER)
A delegation of the Spanish Communist Party led by Dolores Ibarruri and Santiago Carillo visits Romania.

Poland – August 29-31, 1972 (MMS)
The Representatives of Foreign Ministries gather in Warsaw for a meeting.

September 1972

Soviet Union / Bulgaria / Romania – early September, 1972 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Telegraph Agency reports that a power transmission line joining Bulgaria and the Soviet Union via Romania has gone into operation, thereby linking the power grids of the Soviet Union and Romania.

Soviet Union – September, 1972 (KCA)
It is announced that the USSR Supreme Soviet has created a new ministry – the Ministry for the Construction of Enterprises of the Oil and Gas Industry. Alexei Kortunov is appointed head of the new ministry.

Yugoslavia – September 1972 (KCA)
An issue of “Filosofija”, the quarterly journal of the Serbian Philosophical Society, is banned for its critical remarks on the trials of student and university teachers that might 'alarm citizens and endanger law and order.'

Yugoslavia / U.N. – September 1-3, 1972 (JBT)
UN Secretary General Kurt Waldheim pays an official visit to Yugoslavia, and meets with President Josip Broz Tito. The purpose of his visit is to get informed about the NAM’s stance towards salient international issues such as the Arab-Israeli conflict.

Hungary - August 28. – September 2. 1972 (HC)
The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions holds its conference in Budapest.

Hungary / Iraq September - 2, 1972 (HC)
Hungarian-Iraqi economic agreements are signed in Budapest.


Hungary / Indochina - September 2-9, 1972 (HC)
An Indochinese solidarity week takes place in Hungary.

Hungary - September 3, 1972 (HC)
An Árpád-commemorative ceremony takes place in Pusztaszer at the Millennium Memorial. (Speaker: Foreign Minister János Péter.)

Poland / Soviet Union – September 4–11, 1972 (CAC)
The “Shield-72” exercise starts with a Western attack through Poland in direction of Lvov, Ukraine. The plan envisions nuclear weapons being used by the West, a nuclear counterattack by Warsaw Pact forces through West Germany, but at a slower rate of advance than the plans from the 1960s.

Yugoslavia – September 4, 1972 (KCA)
President Tito delivers a speech at a shipyard at Rijeka on the Croatian nationalists, and calls for further efforts to end the unequal amassing of wealth and to rid the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (LCY) of non-aligned people, even by force if necessary.

East Germany (GDR) / Finland – September 6, 1972 (KCA / HDP)
Following negotiations, East Germany and Finland agree to establish diplomatic relations at ambassadorial level and in a communiqué publish an agreement on the future development of relations between the two states.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary / Poland / GDR / Soviet Union - September 12-15, 1972 (HC)
Army exercises Pajzs ’72 take place in Czechoslovakia. (Participants: the Czechoslovak, Hungarian, Polish, East-German and Soviet armies.)
An academic session takes place in Budapest about the history of the East-Central European peasant movements of the 16th-17th century.

Poland – September 13-14, 1972 (KCA/ HDP)
Poland and West Germany establish full diplomatic relations. A joint communiqué is published after Polish Foreign Minister Stefan Olszowski paid an official state visit to West Germany, the first visit to West Germany by a Polish Foreign Minister.

 Yugoslavia / Austria – September 13-15, 1972 (JBT)
Austrian Prime Minister Franz Jonas visits Yugoslavia.

Soviet Union / Iraq – September 14, 1972 (KCA)
President Bakr arrives in Moscow on an official visit. This is Bakr’s first foreign visit since taking power, and the first time an Iraqi Head of State has made to the Soviet Union. A joint communiqué is issued.

Bulgaria / Romania / Soviet Union – September 16-23, 1972 (KCA)
The Bulgarian Telegraph Agency reports that a power transition line joining Bulgaria and the Soviet Union via Romania is now operable – linking the grids of the USSR and Bulgaria. It gives the Bulgarian economy access to over 3,000 million kWh of energy per year.

Yugoslavia – September 18, 1972 (KCA)
The Federal Executive Bureau of Yugoslavia decides to intensify party discipline and to expel members who do not implement the party's policies in order to increase the solitary of the party on the basis of "democratic centralism."

Soviet Union / India – September 19, 1972 (KCA)
In Moscow, an agreement is signed between India and the Soviet Union to establish an Intergovernmental Commission on Economic, Scientific and Technical Co-operation.

United Nations – September 19, 1972 (KCA)
In New York, the 27th session of the UN General Assembly is held and elects the Polish Deputy Foreign Minister, Stanislaw Trepczynski, as its Chairman for the session.

Yugoslavia / Netherlands – September 20-23, 1972 (AY)
Queen of the Netherlands Juliana visits Yugoslavia with her spouse.


Soviet Union / U.S. – September 21, 1972 (KCA)
An agreement on cooperation between the US and USSR on 30 joint environmental projects is reached in Moscow.

Bulgaria / Albania / China / Romania / Yugoslavia / Vietnam – September 22, 1972 (CWIHP)
BCP CC Politburo approves the request of the Minister of Internal Affairs, Angel Tzanev, for an increase in the intelligence staff as a result of the need of intelligence operations in China, Albania, Romania, Yugoslavia and Vietnam, in coordination with the KGB.

Hungary – September 23, 1972 (HC)
A centenary memorial is inaugurated on the Margaret Island on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the unification of Pest, Buda, and Óbuda.

East Germany – September 23-30, 1972 (KCA) see July 6.
A report of the Politburo of the East German Socialist Unity Party is submitted to the Central Committee and published in Neues Deutschland the following day. It announces that the complete nationalization of the economy is essentially finished.

Soviet Union / U.N. -- September 26, 1972 (KCA)
Gromyko speaks at the 27th General Assembly of the UN. While he expresses support for the Arab people in their struggle for rights and self-determination, he strongly condemns terrorist activities, namely the Palestinian murder of Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics, and condemns any acts of violence which 'serve no positive ends and cause loss of human life.'

Hungary – September 26-28, 1972 (HC)
A meeting of the leaders of the European capitals takes place in Budapest. The exhibition “A glance at the capitals of Europe” is opened.

Soviet Union – September 30, 1972 (KCA)
A change in the Georgian Communist Party Leadership, occurs when First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party Vasil Mzhavanadze, resigns and replaced by Eduard Shevardnadze.

Hungary – September 30, 1972 (HC)
A ceremony takes place in the national Planning Bureau on the 25th anniversary of the people’s economic planning. (Speaker: First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár. He speaks highly of the economic results and the reform of the economic management.)


October 1972


Poland / France – October 2-7, 1972 (KCA)
First Secretary of the PUWP Gierek attends an official state visit to France for talks with French leadership, the first by a Polish leader since the Second World War. The talks culminate in the signature of an economic cooperation agreement and a declaration of friendship and cooperation (see October 6, 1972).

Soviet Union / U.S. – October 3, 1972 (KCA)
After U.S. Secretary of State William Rogers and Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko exchange the instruments of ratification the U.S.-Soviet Treaty on Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems (ABM Treaty) comes into force. 
Czechoslovakia – October 3, 1972 (KCA)
František Janouch writes an open letter to Jozef Havlin and accuses him of illegally banning the publication of scientific papers written by persons expelled from the Communist Party.
Hungary – October 3-5, 1972 (HC / MMS)
The meeting of the Ministers of Justice of the socialist countries takes place in Hungary.

Yugoslavia – October 5, 1972 (KCA)
Four former prominent Croatian student leaders -- Ante Paradžik, Goran Dodig,  Dražen Budiša, and Ivan Zvonimir Čičak -- are all tried as alleged nationalists, and are all sentenced to prison. Their charges include membership in 'terrorist organizations,' counterrevolutionary actions, and attempting to detach Croatia from the Yugoslav Federation. Seven other Zagreb University students are sentenced to more forgiving prison terms on charges such as attempting to overthrow the social order, and abusing freedoms of the press.

Yugoslavia – October 5 – November 27, 1972 (KCA)
Alleged Croatian nationalists (unconnected with the student movement or Matica Hrvatska) are tried. The defendants include Zlatko Tomičić, the former Chairman of the Independent Writers' Union. Tomičić is charged with attempting to overthrow the social system and collaborating with émigré groups and enemies of Yugoslavia. Two Roman Catholic priests are charged with distributing hostile propaganda against the State, and seven Croats are charged with forming a 'terrorist group' in contact with Ustashi groups abroad.
East Germany – October 6, 1972 (KCA)
On the 23rd anniversary of the GDR, the Council of State grants an amnesty for political prisoners and other offenders on the proposal of the SED central committee and of the Council of Minister. 25,000 prisoners are expected to be released due to this amnesty.

Poland / France October 6, 1972 (BUS / PSM)
France and Poland sign a ten-year friendship and cooperation treaty during the visit in Paris of Edward Gierek. Gierek sounds his dissatisfaction for the French not having granted most favored nation status to Poland.

East Germany / Finland – October 7-14, 1972 (KCA)
Following negotiations, East Germany and Finland agree to establish diplomatic relations at ambassadorial level.

East Germany (GDR) / India – October 8, 1972 (KCA)
The Indian Government accords full diplomatic recognition to Eastern Germany. The two countries simultaneously raise the status of the diplomatic representations to ambassadorial level.

Poland / China / Japan / Soviet Union – October 10, 1972 (CWIHP)
Kowalczyk meets Mihail Kapitsa, the director of MID’s Far Eastern Department and discuss Sino-Soviet and Soviet-Japaneese relations.

Yugoslavia – October 9-12, 1972 (KCA)
A conference of Serbian Communist Party and State leaders is held. At the conclusion of the conference, President Tito delivers a speech accusing Serbian leaders of being too liberal, promoting Serbia above the other republics, and weakening the ideological and revolutionary struggle.

Hungary / U.N. – October 11, 1972 (HC)
Foreign minister János Péter speaks in the General Assembly of the UN about peaceful co-existence.

Romania – October 11-18, 1972 (KCA)
After a meeting of the Communist Party Executive Committee, the Council of State approves multiple government appointments, including Gheorghe Mocovescu, former Romanian Deputy Foreign Minister, as Foreign Minister.

Yugoslavia – October 11-November 24, 1972 (KCA)
Leaders of Matica Hrvatska, a Croatian cultural and language center and press, are tried and sentenced after their arrest in December 1971. They are accused of crimes including foreign intelligence gathering, propagating separatists and nationalists ideas, maintaining contacts with émigrés, aggressive opposition, general strikes, making false claims of Croatian exploitation, etc. They are sentenced with up to seven years imprisonment, and banned from making public appearances and activity for up to four years. The leaders put on trial are Dragutin  Šćukanac, Ante Bruno Bušić, Vlado Gotovac, Marko Veselica, Joa Ivcevich-Bakulich, and Zvonimir Komarica.

Soviet Union / U.S. – October 12, 1972 (KCA)
It is announced in both Washington and Moscow that President Nixon will visit Moscow in May 1972 for talks with the Soviet leadership, following his visit to Beijing.

Soviet Union / U.S. – October 12-16, 1972 (KCA)
The U.S.-Soviet Joint Commercial Commission (established in Moscow) holds its second session in Washington. At its conclusion it is announced that a comprehensive series of agreements has been reached between the two countries “covering trade matters, reciprocal trade credits, expanded business facilities, and the settlement of outstanding Lend-Lease obligations.”

Hungary / U.S. October 13, 1972 (BUS)
A preliminary agreement is signed on the payment by Hungary to the US of $20 million to compensate damage to US property during World War II and to settle claims deriving from American property seized by the Hungarian government.

Soviet Union – October 13, 1972 (KCA)
The world’s worst aviation disaster to date occurs when an Aeroflot Ilyushin-62 airliner crashes while preparing to land in Sheremetovo Airport, Moscow. The official death toll is at least 170 and may be as high as 176.

East Germany – October 16, 1972 (KCA)
The Volskammer approves a Cabinet change: Heusinger is appointed Minister of Justice, replacing Seiber. It also passes a “Bill on the Council of Ministers of the GDR”, which redefines the functions and status of that body.

Soviet Union / Egypt – October 16-18, 1972 (KCA)
The Egyptian Prime Minister, Aziz Sidky, visits Moscow at the invitation of the Soviet Government. Sidky’s visit to Moscow is the first by an Egyptian leader since the recall of the Soviet military experts and advisers from Egypt in July, 1972 at the demand of the Egyptian Government.

Hungary – October 17-19, 1972 (HC)
The Royal Shakespeare Company’s guest performance takes place in Budapest.

Soviet Union – October 17-20, 1972 (MMS)
A council of the Warsaw Pact military staffs takes place in Minsk. Gen. Shtemenko announces that the annual Shield exercise for 1973 has been cancelled without giving reasons.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – October 17-21, 1972 (KCA)
A State visit to Yugoslavia, the first to a Communist country by a British sovereign, is paid by Queen Elizabeth II., who is accompanied by the Duke of Edinburgh and Princess Anne.

CSCE / Soviet Union / US / Sweden – October 18, 1972 (CWIHP)
Pre-CSCE agenda negotiations are updated surrounding the discussion about the agenda of the security conference regarding the subjects proposed by the Warsaw Pact member states in the Prague Declaration. US Secretary of State William Rogers, Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme, and Chancellor Brandt argue in favour of an agreement about basic principles for relations between states with differing social systems.

Soviet Union – October 18, 1972 (KCA)
Vasil Mzhavanadze’s name does not appear on a list of members of the USSR’s Politburo, suggesting that he has also been declined membership, albeit having been a member since 1957.

Soviet Union / U.S. – October 18, 1972 (KCA)
A trade agreement is signed between Soviet Union and United States. Western commentators suggest that in order to secure it a number of Jewish intellectuals are permitted to leave Soviet Union without paying the tax condemned by Jewish world leaders and by President Nixon’s administration.

Yugoslavia – October 18, 1972 (KCA)
President Tito signs a public letter it insisting to the LCY that a purge of its membership is necessary, outlines the ideology necessary for LCY membership, and the steps to enact the purge.

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 19-20 (HC)
Hungarian-Soviet economic negotiations about post-1975 cooperation take place in Moscow. (The leader of the Hungarian delegation is Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Péter Vályi.)

Hungary / Spain – October 19, 1972 (HC)
Hungarian Economic Days start in Spain.

Soviet Union / U.S. October 20, 1972 (BUS)
The USSR orders $68 million worth of tractors and pipe laying machines from a US company. The machines will be used to lay pipes carrying Soviet natural gas to Western Europe.

Romania – October 20-22, 1972  
The fifth Five-Year Plan for 1971-1975 is approved by the Grand National Assembly.

Hungary / Austria – October 21, 1972 (HC)
An informal friendly meeting takes place in Sopron and Eisenstadt between the Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi, and Federal President of the Austrian Republic, Franz Jonas.

Soviet Union / Japan – October 21-24, 1972 (KCA)
The Soviet and Japanese Foreign Ministers, Andrei Gromyko and Masayoshi Ohira, have talks in Moscow aimed at concluding a peace treaty between the two countries. The talks end inconclusively, however, a brief statement saying that the two sides have exchanged opinions and they have agreed to hold further talks in Moscow in 1972 “at a time convenient for both sides.” The specific question preventing the conclusion of a peace treaty is that of the sovereignty over four islands north-east of Hokkaido.

Romania / Belgium – October 24-26, 1972 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Belgium to meet with King Baudouin I, and with Prime Minister, Gaston Eyskens. They sign their first political-diplomatic declaration.

East Bloc / Soviet Union – October 24-26, 1972 (HC)
The 60th session of the Executive Committee of the Comecon about long-term economic development takes place in Moscow.

Soviet Union / Italy – October 24-29, 1972 (KCA)
Giulio Andreotti, the Italian Prime Minister, pays an official visit to the Soviet Union.  Andreotti and Kosygin sign a protocol on permanent political consultation between the two countries. The two parties also sign a navigation treaty that allows free access of ships between the two countries.  Andreotti visits Leningrad, Kiev, and a Fiat factory at Togliattigrad. Following the visit, the two countries issue a joint communiqué that stresses both countries' dedication to the proposed European Security Conference and the need for better international relations and consolidating "the foundations of security of Europe by respecting the principles of the inviolability of frontiers, non-interference in internal affairs, equality, dependence, and the renunciation of force." The communiqué also expresses a joint hope for nuclear disarmament, and further economic, cultural and scientific relations.

Yugoslavia - October 25-November 11, 1972 (KCA)
Following President Tito's call for increased party discipline and impending purges, several former leaders of the League of Communists of Serbia resign from the Central Committee, including Marko Nikezić, Latinka Perović, Orhan Nevatzi, and Kadri Refui.

Yugoslavia – October 27, 1972 (KCA)
Slako Miloslavlevski, Secretary of the Executive Committee of the League of Communists of Macedonia, resigns following criticism of his work.

Romania / Luxemburg – October 27-28, 1972 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Luxemburg to meet with Grand Duke Jean de Luxemburg and Prime Minister Pierre Werner.

Hungary – October 28, 1972 (HC)
The Hungarian government condemns the Vietnam War in a communiqué.

Yugoslavia – October 28, 1972 (KCA)
Following President Tito's call for increased party discipline and criticism of his activities, Bora Pavlović, resigns from the Secretariat of the Belgrade Municipal Committee of the League of Communists.

Yugoslavia – October 29, 1972 (KCA)
Stane Kavčič, Prime Minister of Slovenia, resigns following criticism and accusations of accused of 'technocratism' and 'reform.' He is succeeded by Andrej Marinc.

Yugoslavia – October 30-November 6, 1972 (KCA)
Following President Tito's call for increased party discipline and criticism of the Belgrade media's "harmfulness," many media leaders resign from their posts, including Alexander Nenadovich” Editor in Chief of Politika;, and Dragoljub Ilić, Director of Belgrade television;, and Vzroslava Tadić, Editor in Chief of Belgrade television news programs.


November 1972

Hungary / Poland – November 1 - 4, 1972 (HC)
Polish head of state Henryk Jabłoński visits Hungary.

Yugoslavia – November 1, 1972 (KCA)
Mirko Tepavac resigns from his post as Federal Secretary for Foreign Affairs of Yugoslavia. The foreign press speculates that Tepavac's resignation is connected to his close relationship to Nikezić, who resigned earlier that year. Tepavac is replaced ad interim by Jaksa Petrić, and permanently by Miloš Minić.

Hungary – November 2, 1972 (HC)
An academic conference dealing with the Indochinese war takes place in the Academy.

Hungary – November 2, 1972 (HC)
The government regulates the vehicle usage of private individuals in an order (37/1971). A private individual can only own motorcycles, cars and trailers.
Orders about expanding the retirement age among workers are adopted.

Yugoslavia – November 3, 1972 (KCA)
Koča Popović, one of the three Serbian representatives on the collective Presidency, resigns. His resignation is due to his relationships with other Serbian Communist leaders who have resigned. His successor, Dobrivoje Vidić, is unanimously elected by the Serbian Parliament on December 27, 1972.

U.S. – November 7, 1972 (HC)
Richard Nixon is re-elected as president of the United States.

East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) – November 8, 1972 (KCA)
The terms of a basic treaty (“Grundvertrag”) between East Germany and West Germany are agreed upon and the treaty is initialed.

Soviet Union / Saudi Arabia – November 9, 1972 (KCA)
Dmitri Kolsenik speaks at the Assembly's Legal Committee at the UN's 27th General Assembly on international terrorism. He agrees with the American delegate that a convention on the prevention of terrorism is necessary, and criticizes the Saudi Arabian delegate for comparing terrorists to "modern day Robin Hoods," as terrorists' weapons are much deadlier..

Albania / Italy – November 10, 1972 (KCA)
The Italian Under-Secretary for Foreign Trade Giulio Orlando and the Albanian Vice-Minister for Foreign Trade Kati sign an agreement to further develop trade between Albania and Italy, valid until 1974.

Hungary / Austria – November 11, 1972 (HC)
A long-term Hungarian-Austrian economic cooperative agreement is signed in Budapest.

East Germany – November 11-18, 1972 (KCA)
India affords full diplomatic recognition to Eastern Germany and both governments simultaneously raise their diplomatic relations to ambassadorial level.

Hungary – November 14-15, 1972 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. The following topics are on the agenda: questions about the to-dos and implementation of the resolutions of the 10th Congress (November 23-29, 1970); the people’s economic plan of the year 1973, and the state budget. It suggests measures to increase the wages of the workers and to strengthen the worker nature of the party. The New Economic Mechanism is put to an end after the session.

East Bloc / Soviet Union – November 15, 1972 (CAC / MMS)
At a Moscow meeting of Deputy Foreign Ministers, in advance of the
Helsinki preparatory talks on the CSCE, agreement is reached to resist Western attempts to go beyond the framework of these talks by raising political issues, particularly the free movement of people, ideas, and information. These issues would later be part of Basket III in the final agreement at Helsinki.

East Germany (GDR) / Pakistan – November 15, 1972 (KCA)
Pakistan and East Germany agree to establish full diplomatic relations at ambassadorial level.

Hungary / Poland / Canada / Indonesia / U.S. – November 15, 1972 (KSA)
Hungary and Poland agree to become members of the International Commission of Control and Supervision, along with Indonesia and Canada, to monitor and manage Vietnam after the Paris Peace Treaty. The United States had requested a group of two members favorable to each bloc for post-war supervision.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 15-17, 1972 (HC)
A joint committee meeting of Hungarian-Soviet historians takes place. Topics: numismatics, ancient history, the structural changes that took place in Hungary between 1900 and 1945.)

Soviet Union – November 15, 1971-February 4, 1972 (KCA)
The sixth round of SALT talks between the U.S. and Soviet Union take place in Vienna. On February 4, a joint communiqué is issued stating that progress was made on a number of issues and both delegations express their continued support for further talks in the near future.

Poland / West Germany – November 16, 1972 (KCA)
An agreement is signed by representatives of the Polish and West German government on reparations to be paid to victims of Nazi pseudo-scientific experiments during WWII at the headquarters of the International Committee of the Red Cross in Geneva. The German Government agrees to pay up to DM 40 million.

USSR November 16, 1972 (BUS)
An agreement is signed on the production and sale of Pepsi Cola in the USSR. According to the agreement a subsidiary of Pepsico will be the sole distributor of Soviet wine, champagne, and brandy in the USSR.

Soviet Union / Greece – November 17, 1972 (KCA)
An agreement, initialized in Moscow, grants the USSR a contract for the construction of a large power station in eastern Macedonia (see November 19, 1972).

Hungary – November 17, 1972 (HC)
The government is in session. Topic: the people’s economic plans of the year 1973.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 18, 1972 (HC)
The program for the years 1972-1975 of the Komsomol and the Hungarian Young Communist League is singed in Moscow. (Secretary-general of the YCL István Horváth signs it from the Hungarian side.)

Soviet Union – November 18-25, 1972 (KCA)
The pattern of world trade in wheat and other cereals is substantially altered due to the large purchases of wheat by the USSR from the USA, Canada and other states in order to meet targets set by agricultural policy and deter the effects of an unexpectedly poor harvest. Both Soviet and Chinese purchases caused sharp increases in prices.

Soviet Union / Greece – November 19, 1972 (KCA)
In Athens, it is announced that an agreement initialized in Moscow on November 17, 1972, grants the Soviet Union a contract for the construction of a large power station in eastern Macedonia.

Hungary – November 20, 1972 (HC)
The cement-works in Beremend start to operate.

Switzerland November 21, 1972 (BUS)
The SALT talks are resumed in Geneva.

Soviet Union / U.S. – November 21-December 21, 1972 (KCA)
The first round of the second phase of SALT negotiations takes place in Geneva between the United States and the Soviet Union, following the end of the final round of the first phase of talks, which culminated in May 1972 with the signing of the U.S.-Soviet Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems and the Interim Agreement on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. Gerard Smith of the U.S., and Vladimir Semyonov, a Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister, agree to begin a second round of talks in Geneva on February 27, 1973.

Finland / East Germany / West Germany / Soviet Union / US / CSCE – November 22, 1972 (CWIHP)
East German officials and the Soviet ambassador in Finland discuss participation in the upcoming CSCE conference. Foreign Minister Karjalainen agrees upon the difficulties about  the designation of the states. The FRG insists on "Germany" being the key word for its own designation.

Finland – November 22, 1972 (HC / CAC)
The Consultative Council -- which prepares the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe -- is opened in Helsinki.

Hungary – November 25-26, 1972 (HC)
The conference of the International Federation of Resistance Fighters takes place in Budapest. (Topic: the fight against the awakening of fascism.)

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 27-December 1, 1972 (KCA/ HC)
Brezhnev pays his first foreign visit since October 1971 to Hungary to meet with János Kádár. Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko and Hungarian Foreign Minister János Péter also meet. At the end of the talks, the two parties issue a joint statement which says that 'a complete mutual understanding' has been reached. On November 30 at a meeting at the Csepel steelworks in Budapest, Kádár denies any political or ideological disparities with the Soviet Union, and states that any earlier differences over economic policies and aid have been smoothed over.

Yugoslavia – November 27, 1972 (KCA)
 Stane Kavčič who resigned earlier (see October 29.) is succeeded by Andrej Marinc who is elected as Prime Minister of Slovenia by Parliament.

Soviet Union / U.N.  – November 29, 1972 (KCA)
Soviet-sponsored UN resolution 2936, calling for the renunciation of the threat of force and the prohibition of nuclear weapons, passes in the UN by 73 votes to 4. China votes against it, denouncing the resolution as a 'social imperialist fraud' designed to continue the superpowers’ nuclear domination.


December 1972

Romania – December 1972 (ABR)
An All-horizons Defense Law is passed. Ceauşescu calls for tighter discipline in the nation’s labor force.

Soviet Union – December 2-9, 1972 (KCA)
Jewish emigration from the USSR reaches unprecedented levels.

Yugoslavia / East Germany – December 4-9, 1972 (HRN)
Official East German delegation visits Yugoslavia, and meets with President Josip Broz Tito on December 5th 1972.

Yugoslavia – December 6-8, 1972 (KCA)
The League of Communists of Yugoslavia holds a conference to address the problem of the position of youth in Yugoslav society, who are seen as too influenced by bourgeois and nationalist forces. The conference adopts a resolution entitled "The struggle of the League of Communists for the socialist orientation and sctive participation of the younger generation in the development of a socialist society based on self-management."

Romania – December 7, 1972 (HOR / PER / CER)
Romania adheres to the accords of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD).

Soviet Union / NATO – December 7-8, 1972 (KCA)
NATO ministers publicly express the need to maintain the defensive capability of NATO, especially in the face of strengthening Warsaw Pact military forces. The Defense Planning and Nuclear Defense Affairs Committees of NATO express fear and concern at the Soviet Union's growing military and naval capabilities.

Hungary – December 8, 1972 (HC)
An exhibition is opened in the Műcsarnok on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the USSR. (It is opened by chairman of the Hungarian-Soviet Friendly Society Antal Apró.)

Soviet Union / Afghanistan – December 12, 1972 (KCA)
Afghanistan appoints a new Prime Minister, former Foreign Minister Musa Shariq, who expresses the desire for continued cooperation with its neighbor, the Soviet Union.

Hungary – December 12-14, 1972 (HC)
The Parliament is in session. Act no. 6 of 1972 about the budget of the year 1973 and act no. 7 about the people’s economic planning are introduced. The budget gives orders to increase the wages of the industry workers by 10-12% on average from March 1, 1973.

Soviet Union – December 13, 1972 (KCA)
Valery Chalidze, physicist and founder of the Human Rights Committee, has his Soviet citizenship revoked at the Soviet embassy in New York after being granted permission to deliver lectures in the United States. Actions taken against Chalidze are part of a heightened campaign against "dissident elements" in 1972-1973.

Hungary – December 14, 1972 (HC)
A memorial meeting is held in the Academy on the occasion of the 90th anniversary of Zoltán Kodály’s birth.

Hungary / Soviet Union – December 15, 1972 (HC)
A ceremonial academic meeting is held in the Academy on the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the USSR. (Presenters: member of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party Dezső Nemes; member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Tibor Erdey-Grúz; Soviet academician Y. V. Bromlei.)

Romania – December 15, 1972 (KCA)
Romania becomes a member of both the IMF and the World Bank. Romania is the only full Comecon member-country to have applied for membership of the IMF and the World Bank, since Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Cuba were originally members but withdrew from these two organizations.

Poland / China / Soviet Union – December 15, 1972 (CWIHP)
Władysław Napieraj, director in the Foreign Ministry, discusses with Mikhail Kapitsa the new role of China in the 1970s.

Yugoslavia – December 18, 1972 (KCA) see June 28
Mirko Čanadanović, chairman of the League of Communists of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, and Miloš Radojčin, Secretary of the Regional Party Committee, resign from their posts.

Hungary / Soviet Union – December 18-24, 1972 (HC)
A party and state delegation led by First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár travels to Moscow for the celebrations organized in honour of the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the USSR. (A member of the Hungarian delegation is the Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi.) First Secretary of the HSWP János Kádár has separate talks with General Secretary of the Communist Party of the USSR L. I. Brezhnev on December 23.

Hungary – December 22, 1972 (HC)
The section between Deák tér and Déli pályaudvar of the Eastern-Western metro line of Budapest is opened (On April 2, 1970: The first section between Örs vezér tér and Deák tér is opened.).

Soviet Union / Cuba – December 23, 1972 (KCA)
Fidel Castro, Prime Minister of Cuba, returns to Moscow and signs economic cooperation agreements as a new member of Comecon.

Poland / Austria / Soviet Union / West Germany – December 23-31, 1972 (KCA)
Trials continue in West Germany, Austria, Soviet, and Polish courts of Germans and others charged with complicity in the extermination of European Jews and other citizens of Germany and German-occupied territories in WWII. A notable trial is that of Franz Novak, a former aide of Adolf Eichmann.

Hungary – December 29, 1972 (HC)
A gala performance is given in the Erkel Theatre to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of Soviet Union. (Speakers: Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi, poet Gyula Illyés, and member of the Political Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party György Aczél.)
Hungary – December 31, 1972 (HC)
The tram line on Rákóczi road in downtown Budapest is closed down.

Hungary - During the year, 1972 (HC)
According to the data of the Central Statistical Office the population of Hungary is 10 415 000 strong.

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016