The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Research Chair, Center of Social Sciences, Institute for Political Science,
Hungarian Academy of Sciences;
Founding Director, Cold War History Research
Center, Budapest;
Professor of History, Corvinus University of Budapest
Institute of International Studies

Associate editor

University of Szeged


Assistant editors




Izabel ÁCS, Chiara BERTUCCO, Noah BUYON, Megan DIBBLE, Marco GIACOMAZZI, Anusha GURUNG, Solveig HANSEN, Zsálya HAADI-NAGY, Konrad HYZY, Tomas KOLAR, Thomas KOLLMANN, Roman KOZIEL, Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Oleksandr MURASHEVYCH, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Roland PAPP, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Martin ROMAIN, François  ROPARS, Vjenceslav RUPCIC, Lili SIKLÓS, Marcello TOMASINA, Zita Bettina VASAS, Aniello VERDE, Dóra VERESS, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, András ZÁM

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016


The publication and the preceding research were sponsored by the Hungarian Cultural Fund


At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The third part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1968 to 1980. The years 1980–1991 will be available by the end of 2017.

The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


List of Sources


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016

ISBN 978-963-12-7940-5


Chronology 1971


East Germany / West Germany – December 1970-March 1971 (KCA)
In four separate incidents, civilian access on the access routes between West Germany and West Berlin are blocked by East German authorities in protest against meetings in the city of West German leaders and parliamentarians. In January 1971, Allied military traffic is temporarily disrupted for the first time since 1969. On February 4, 1971 the East German Prime Minister announces in a meeting with Danelius - Chairman of the West Berlin Socialist Unity Party - that East Germany is willing to conclude an agreement with the West Berlin Senate guaranteeing access routes on the condition that the Federal Republic’s political presence is expelled in the city. On March 6, 1971, talks between the East German State Secretary Kohrt and Müller, head of the Chancellery of the West Berlin Senate, open and continue on March 12 and March 27. However, the East German government refuses to allow West Berliners to visit relatives during Easter.

Soviet Union / Israel – 1971 (KCA)
Over 4,000 Jews are permitted to emigrate to Israel in the first half of 1971, compared with 1,010 in 1970, about 2,000 in 1969. The total number of Jewish immigrants to Israel is 10,330 between 1961-1970. The rising numbers are seen as a reaction to the criticism in connection with the Leningrad hijacking trial of December 1970.


January 1971

Yugoslavia – January, 1971 (RYA)
Matica hrvatska and Matica srpska, two cultural organizations, agree to continue the joint publication of the Serbo-Croatian dictionary, but a few days later Matica hrvatska withdraws and announces its intention to publish its own Croatian dictionary. Matica srpska also announces its intention to publish separately, but it will continue to publish a Serbo-Croatian dictionary.

Poland – January-February, 1971 (KCA)
Strikes of shipyard workers in the Baltic ports and of textile workers in Łódź compelled the Polish Government to make a number of major concessions to the strikers’ demands in January and February, including the cancellation of the price increases announced in December and of the unpopular new bonus incentive scheme.
The industrial unrest among shipyard and transport workers in Gdańsk and Szczecin, where some of the most serious rioting occurred in December, continue until January 25, when it is announced that the bonus incentive scheme will not be introduced in its original form. The Gdańsk shipyard workers, who have struck several times since January 6, resume work on January 18, but tramway workers in the city stop work for some hours on January 19 and 20 to hold meetings at which they formulate their demands. Edward Gierek, the First Secretary of the PUWP, and Piotr Jaroszewicz, the Prime Minister, received a joint delegation representing the management and workers of the Gdańsk, Gdynia and Szczecin shipyards on January 19.

West Germany / Hungary – January 1971 (KCA)
The West German Government agrees to pay compensation to Hungarian victims of Nazi medical experiments, totaling a sum of DM 6,250,000 to be paid in three installments

Poland – January, 1971 (KCA) see January 18
New First Secretary of the PUWP Gierek receives a joint delegation representing the management and workers of the Gdańsk, Gdynia, and Szczecin shipyards. In response to the strikes in Gdańsk and Szczecin after the price-increase riots in December 14, 1970, the PUWP makes concessions to the workers’ demands, including the cancellation of price increases, the new unpopular bonus incentive scheme, and taking steps to ferment relations with the Catholic Church.

Hungary – January 1, 1971 (HC)
The altered economic regulatory system enters into force. Instead of the number of the employed, it is the wages of those already employed which has to be increased.

Czechoslovakia – January 3, 1971 (KCA)
An extensive governmental reorganization is carried out in Czechoslovakia, involving not only the Federal Government but also the membership and power of the Czech and Slovak Cabinets. The changes, exclusively of economic nature, involve: (1) eight new appointments to the Federal Cabinet, including two new Deputy Premiers; (2) the transformation of two Federal Commissions (Prices and Technology) into Ministries; (3) the splitting of a third Federal Commission (Industry) into two separate Ministries (Fuel and Energy; Metallurgy and Engineering); (4) the suppression of four “national” ministries in the Czech and Slovak Cabinets (Transport, Telecommunications). The general effect of the reorganization is to increase the power of the Federal Cabinet vis-à-vis those of the Czech and Slovak national Cabinets.

Poland – January 4-8, 1971 (PSM)
Polish delegations visit the GDR, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary.  Trade agreements are signed with the GDR and Romania.

Hungary – January 5, 1971 (HC)
The country’s first agro-industrial factory working as an independent organization is established at Tokaj-Hegyalja.

Hungary / Soviet Union – January 6, 1971 (HC)
István Horváth, the first secretary of the Hungarian Young Communist League consults with Komsomol-leaders in Moscow about the problems of the communist education of the youth.

Hungary / Libya / United Arab Republic / Jemen / Somalia / Syria – January 6-
February 14, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian goodwill delegation led by Frigyes Puja, the First Deputy of the Minister of
Foreign Affairs, visits the Libyan Arab Republic, the United Arab Republic, the People's
Democratic Republic of Jemen, the Democratic Republic of Somalia, and the Syrian Arab Republic.

Poland – January 6, 1971 (KCA)
The Gdańsk shipyard workers begin a series of stoppages demanding the release of fellow-workers arrested during the previous disturbances, a visit to Gdańsk of Gierek to discuss their problems, and the removal of Ignacy Loga-Sowiński.

Soviet Union / EEC – January 6, 1971 (KCA)
Soviet opposition to any form of membership of the EEC by Austria, Sweden or Switzerland is expressed by Andrei Kuznetsov, political commentator of the Soviet Communist Party newspaper Pravda. Entry into the Common Market by these three neutral countries, he says, would have an adverse effect on the political climate in Europe through the establishment of close political ties.

Hungary / East Germany (GDR) – January 7, 1971 (HC)
Representatives of Hungary and the German Democratic Republic sign a long-term
barter traffic agreement in Budapest.

Hungary / Vietnam – January 8-13, 1971 (HC)
A government delegation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam led by Le Thang Nghi, the Deputy Prime Minister, travels to Hungary to conduct negotiations. An agreement is made concerning the loan and grant given to Vietnam in 1971.

Soviet Union – January 9-16, 1971 (KCA)
Soviet foreign minister Gromyko visits the United States, Great Britain, West Germany and Italy.

Poland – January 11, 1971 (KCA)
A section of the Szczecin shipyard workers attempt to organize a strike but fail to convince the other workers. Antoni Walaszek, the PUWP first secretary for the Szczecin region, is removed from his post.

Hungary / Poland – January 12, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian-Polish barter traffic and a payment protocol is signed in Budapest.

Soviet Union / United Arab Republic – January 13-15, 1971 (HC)
N. V. Podgornil, the president of the Supreme Council of the Soviet Union, visits Egypt. (During his stay he envisages/promises further support.)

East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) – January 15, 1971 (HC)
The FRG-GDR negotiations concerning bilateral relations are renewed.

Poland – January 15, 1971 (KCA)
Ignacy Loga-Sowiński resigns from his chairmanship of the Central Council of Trade Unions, and is succeeded by Władysław Hruczek.

Poland – January 18, 1971 (KCA) see January, 1971
New First Secretary of the PUWP Gierek receives a joint delegation representing the management and workers of the Gdańsk, Gdynia and Szczecin shipyards. In response to the strikes in Gdańsk and Szczecin after the price-increase riots in December 14, 1970, the PUWP makes concessions to the workers’ demands, including the cancellation of price increases, the new unpopular bonus incentive scheme and taking steps to ferment relations with the Catholic Church.

Hungary / Finland – January 18-22, 1971 (HC)
A government delegation pays a visit to Finland led by Prime Minister Jenő Fock. The most important topics of the official discussion are the European Security Conference and the relations of the two countries.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 21, 1971 (KCA)
An agreement whereby the United States and the Soviet Union agree to exchange samples of moon rock as part of a wide-ranging accord on space co-operation between the two countries is signed in Moscow.

Poland / Soviet Union / China – January 21-22, 1971 (KCA)
The Soviet Press avoids to comment on the situation in Poland (See January 6, 1971, January 11, 1971, January 15, 1971). The first Soviet comment comes in a message sent to Gierek by Brezhnev, General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party. It describes Gierek as a “sincere friend of the Soviet Union” and expresses confidence that the PUWP will “be able to overcome successfully the difficulties which have taken place in the life of the country recently.”
The following day, the Beijing People’s Daily extends “warm congratulations” to the Polish working class for their “revolutionary struggle against revisionist rule.”

Hungary / West Germany (FRG) – January 22, 1971 (KCA) 
Under agreements signed in Bonn, the West German Government undertakes to pay Hungarian victims of the pseudo-medical experiments conducted by Nazi medical practitioners the sum of DM 6.25 million and a further amount of DM 100 million, payable in three annual instalments between 1972-74 .

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – January 23, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian-Czechoslovak long-term trade agreement is signed in Budapest.

Hungary / North Korea – January 26, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian-North Korean barter traffic and payment agreement is signed in Pyongyang.

Yugoslavia – January 26, 1971 (KCA)
A man is critically injured by a bomb in the centre of Belgrade.

Hungary – January 27, 1971 (HC)
The orders of the Council of Ministers about the allocation, building,, and renting of flats are adopted (enter into force on July 1st). Allocation is the task of the council, while co-renting and the increase of rent as well as house usage fees are ceased. Flat maintenance and flat building co-ops are established.

Hungary / U.S. / Israel – January 28, 1971 (HC)
The session of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party takes place. It condemns the aggression of the US in Vietnam and of Israel in the Middle East. It decides to hold parliamentary elections in the spring.

Hungary – January 29, 1971 (HC)
The order of the Minister of the Interior and the Minister of Transportation and Post Office about the rules of the transport is adopted. The heavily altered rules enter into force on February 1st.

West Germany – January 30, 1971 (KCA)
Chancellor Brandt defends his government’s Ostpolitik policy from criticism during his visit to West Berlin and discussions with Schütz, declaring that the Federal Government regarded a stable Berlin settlement as “an essential, even decisive, element for effective détente in Europe.”

West Germany / East Germany – January 31, 1971 (KCA)
Telephone links between East and West Berlin are restored for the first time since May 1952.


February 1971


Soviet Union / Finland – February, 1971 (DIE)
Kosygin and Kekkonen meet in Moscow.

Hungary / Romania – February 1-3, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian-Romanian long-term coordination project protocol is signed in Bucharest.

Soviet Union / Syria – February 1-3, 1971 (KCA)
General Assad visits Moscow. Although General Assad strongly criticized past Soviet interference in Syrian affairs, his assumption of power was welcomed by the Soviet Union.

Hungary / UN - February 2, 1971 (HC)
The law decree no. 1 of 1971 of the Presidential Council of the People’s Republic announces the international agreements adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations Organization (UN) on November 26th 1968 in New York, according to which war crimes and crimes against humanity do not lapse.

Hungary – February 3, 1971 (HC)
A memorial committee is established led by Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi in order to commemorate the 150th birth anniversary of Sándor Petőfi (January 1, 1973).

Hungary / Yugoslavia – February 3-6, 1971 (HC)
Zoltán Komócsin, the Secretary of the MSZMP's Central Committee, visits Yugoslavia.
President Tito welcomes him.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – February 4, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian-Yugoslavian long-term barter traffic agreement is signed in Budapest.

Albania / Yugoslavia – February 5, 1971 (KCA)
Yugoslavia and Albania have both agreed to raise their respective diplomatic relations in Belgrade and Tirana to higher level.

Hungary / Soviet Union – February 5, 1971 (HC)
Mátyás Rákosi (the ex-General Secretary of the Hungarian Working People’s Party) dies in the Soviet Union.

Hungary / Greece – February 5, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian-Greek interstate trade protocol is signed in Budapest.

Poland – February 6-7, 1971 (KCA)
Gomułka, former first secretary of the Polish United Workers’ Party is suspended from the PUWP Central Committee following heavy criticism of his policies including the price increases that led to the December 14, 1970 riots.

European Economic Community – February 8-9, 1971 (KCA)
The details concerning the first of a three-stage strategy for complete economic and monetary union within the Community by December 1980 is agreed upon at a meeting of the Foreign and Finance Ministers of the Six in Brussels.

Hungary – February 10, 1971 (HC)
The last session of the 1967-1971 term of the Parliament of the Hungarian People’s Republic takes place. It adopts the new Council Act. („Councils are the representational, local governmental and state administrational institutions of the socialist state realizing the power of the people based on democratic centralism.”) The law sets out the increase of effectiveness, enlargement of the independency, authority, and economic opportunities of the local councils. At the same time the law strengthens the efficiency of central governance.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – February 10, 1971 (JBT)
Josip Broz Tito meets with Soviet Minister of Foreign Trade Nikolai Patolichev in Yugoslavia.

Romania – February 10-11, 1971 (KCA)
The Communist Party’s Central Committee orders improvements in trade union activity, with a view to “expanding working class democracy, ensuring the participation of the working class and all employees in the conduct of enterprises and institutions and socialist society as a whole. Furthermore, the enhancement of the role of trade unions in solving social problems of the working people as well as in the socialist education of the masses is demanded. President of the State Council Ceauşescu emphasizes that the present organization of the unions no longer suits the stage which has been reached in the country’s development.

A report on the implementation for the Fourth Five Year Plan (1966-1970), issued by the Communist Party’s Central Committee after its meeting, shows that the revised targets laid down in 1966 have been met or, in many cases, exceeded in most major industrial sectors.

Soviet Union / Romania / U.K. / U.S. – February 11, 1971 (KCA / PER)
The joint U.S.-Soviet Draft Treaty on the prohibition of the placement of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction on the seabed and ocean floor is signed in London by Great Britain, the USSR, the U.S., and 64 other nations.

Hungary / Italy – February 13, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian-Italian barter traffic protocol is signed in Budapest.

Soviet Union – February 13-20, 1971 (KCA)
The Leningrad Hijacking Trial concerning 16 people, mostly Jews that had been refused permission to emigrate to Israel were arrested in Leningrad on June 15, 1970 on charges of plotting to hijack an aircraft. Following international protest, two death sentences given on December 24 are commuted to imprisonment. On January 5, 1971, Lieutenant Zalmanson is given a five-year sentence for desertion and the trial of nine other Jews is postponed and is not resumed.

Hungary – February 14, 1971 (HC)
Gyula Illyés’ letter to György Lukács is published concerning Lukaács’ book: “Hungarian literature – Hungarian culture”.

Poland – February 14, 1971 (UNW)
The authorities announce the withdrawal from the idea of increases in prices. The decision follows a wave of strikes in Łódź.

Soviet Union – February 14, 1971 (KCA)
The draft directives for the Ninth Five-Year Plan, covering the years 1971-75, are published in the Soviet Press. The plan is remarkable as it is the first which provides for a faster rate of increase in the production of consumer goods than in the growth of heavy industry. Other notable features of the plan include the fact that in many branches of the economy it envisaged a slower rate of growth than the previous plan, and the emphasis laid on more efficient methods of management. Contrary to the practice followed in every previous plan, details of the allocation of capital investment between the various branches of the economy are not given. Foreign commentators suggest that this omission and the postponement of the Party Congress are the result of disagreement inside the leadership over the allocation of investment between the heavy and defense industries and consumer industries.

Yugoslavia / Egypt – February 14-20, 1971 (AY)
Josip Broz Tito visits Egypt, and meets with Egyptian President Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat. The main focus in discussions is on international relations, the Middle East crisis, and the U.S. foreign policy.

Albania – February 15, 1971 (KCA)
Albania and Luxembourg establish diplomatic relations.

Hungary – February 16, 1971 (HC)
Mátyás Rákosi is buried in Budapest (Passed away on February 5)

Hungary – February 18, 1971 (HC)
The meeting of the National Council of the People’s Patriotic Front takes place. It supports the initiative of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party about declaring the parliamentary and council elections.

Romania / Warsaw Pact Countries – February 18-19, 1971 (PER)
An assembly of Ministers of Foreign Affairs representing members of the Warsaw Pact meet in Bucharest.

Romania / China - February 18, 1971 (KCA) see April, 1971
Representatives from Romania and China sign a Sino-Romanian Trade and Payments Agreement for 1971 and an agreement on Commodity Exchanges in 1972-75 in Bucharest. Both of these agreements expand trade between the two states.

Romania / Warsaw Pact - February 18-19, 1971 (HC)
The Foreign Ministers of the member states of the Warsaw Treaty consult in Bucharest about the preparations for the Pan-European security conference.

Hungary / U.K. – February 19, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian-British barter traffic protocol is signed in Budapest.

Romania – February 21, 1971 (KCA)
After a year in which only about 7,000 Romanian Germans were allowed to depart for West Germany, President of the State Council Ceauşescu, in a speech at the plenary meeting of the Council of Working People of German Nationality of Romania, takes what is generally regarded as an uncompromising stand on the matter of the German-speaking minority in Romania (see May 17-20, 1971). Speaking of the achievements of the recently concluded Five-Year-Plan, he stresses the fact that these achievements are the result of the joint efforts of all nationalities in Romania, reasserting that the homeland of the Germans who have lived in Romania for hundreds of years is the Socialist Republic of Romania.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – February 22 - 24, 1971 (HC)
Czechoslovak Prime Minister Lubomír Štrougal pays a visit to Hungary.

Soviet Union – February 23-25, 1971 (KCA)
The “World Conference of Jewish Communities on Soviet Jewry” is held in Brussels and attended by over 800 delegates from 40 countries. Despite protests from the Soviet Government on February 22, 1971, the Brussels Government releases a statement confirming that they will not intervene to stop the conference.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – February 23-27, 1970 (GOD)
Yugoslav Foreign Minister Mirko Tepavac visits the USSR.

GDR– February 24, 1971 (CWIHP)
East German representatives report that the Interkit meeting held in Sofia was dominated by the China problem, as the foreign and domestic policies of Mao’s PRC continue to be in opposition with the Soviet Union.

Poland / Soviet Union - February 25, 1971 (PSM)
Poland and the Soviet Union sign an agreement on providing the Soviet Union with 25 ships.

U.S. / Romania / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia / U.S. February 25, 1971 (BUS)           
Nixon states to the world, “An assessment of U.S.-Soviet relations at this point in my Administration has to be mixed.” Nixon calls the SALT talks, the seabed treaty, the ratification of the non-proliferation treaty, and the Berlin talks hopeful developments. The President claims that the USSR significantly increased its strategic capabilities in the past year. While the U.S. did not raise the number of its ICBMs, Moscow increased its own from 1109 to 1440, and its SLBMs from 240 to 350. According to Nixon one of the main differences between the two powers is in the definition of offensive strategic weapons. How the Soviets define strategic offensive weapons is that each one is capable of reaching the territory of the other, but this definition excludes their own theater nuclear forces of medium or intermediate range missiles. The U.S. wants to link the agreement on defensive and offensive weapons, while the USSR wants to agree on defensive systems. The President pledges to maintain and develop US forces in Europe. On détente the President asserts that it meant “negotiating the concrete conditions of mutual security that will allow for expanded intra-European contact and cooperation without jeopardizing the security of any country. Soviet policies and doctrine, however, too often interpret détente in terms of Western ratification of the status-quo and the acknowledgment of continuing Soviet hegemony in Eastern Europe.” Nixon promises to ask for a Congressional guarantee of American private investment in Romania and Yugoslavia.


March 1971


Romania / Hungary – March 1971 (KCA) See March 10
Hungary and Romania signed a five-year trade agreement for 1971-1975, increasing inter-country trade by 90%.

Soviet Union – March 1, 1971 (KCA)
The prices of a wide range of consumer goods, such as television sets, washing machines, motor cycles, and electric razors are reduced. In some cases by as much as 30%. Le Monde suggests that the reductions, which it is officially claimed will save consumers 800 million roubles a year, are intended to create a favorable atmosphere for the opening of the Party Congress, and are also the result of recent developments in Poland, which have shown “the mistakes to be avoided and their dangers.”

Hungary / Warsaw Treaty Organization – March 2-4, 1971 (CAC / HC / MMS / PER)
The Committee of Ministersof Defense, of Warsaw Pact members, sits in Budapest. Soviet Marshal Grechko said that the international situation has deteriorated and called for strengthening the alliance’s offensive capacity. Topic: to strengthen the armies of the member states of the Warsaw Treaty and supply them with modern arms and technical equipment.

Hungary / India – March 3, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian-Indian long-term trade and payment agreement is signed in Budapest.

Hungary / Romania – March 10, 1971 (HC) See March
A Hungarian-Romanian long-term barter traffic and payment agreement is signed in

Soviet Union / France March 15, 1971 (BUS)  
France and the Soviet Union sign a seven million dollar uranium agreement where the Soviet Union undertakes enriching French uranium. The agreement breaks the monopoly of the US Atomic Energy Commission to enrich uranium for the Western states and obliges the Soviet Union to produce enriched uranium for an atomic power station to be built in France.

Hungary / Warsaw Treaty Organization – March 15-19, 1971 (MMS)
Meeting of WP Chiefs of the General Staff in Budapest.

Hungary – March 16, 1971 (HC)
Resolution no. 1006/1971 of the Council of Ministers about the guidelines of regional development is adopted. (The effective utilization of the resources of the people’s economy and certain areas has to be secured. By converging the employment and productivity standards of the regions and the supply standard of the towns the differences in the material and cultural standards of the population of the towns have to be mitigated.)

Hungary / Iraq – March 16-April 2, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Lévárdi, the Minister for Heavy Industries, visits
Iraq to negotiate oil and industrial cooperation between the two countries.

Soviet Union / Mexico – March 18, 1971 (KCA)
The Mexican Government declares five members of the Soviet Embassy in Mexico to be personae non gratae and recalls Carlos Zapata, Mexico’s Ambassador in Moscow, for consultations. These events occur as consequence of an earlier bank robbery in the center of Mexico City. One of the arrested suspects is a member of the Movimiento de Accion Revolutionaria (MAR), a movement formed at the Patrice Lumumba University in Moscow, and whose members received military training in North Korea.

Hungary / Soviet Union – March 19, 1971 (HC)
A new Hungarian-Soviet consular agreement is signed in Budapest.

Yugoslavia / Sweden – March 19, 1971 (KCA)
Two Yugoslav émigrés are each sentenced to 3 ½ years’ imprisonment in Gothenburg for having temporarily occupied the Yugoslav consulate in that city on February 10 and threatened to kill three staff members held as hostages unless the Yugoslav authorities released Miljenko Hrkac from prison in Belgrade.

Soviet Union / U.S. – March 20, 1971 (KCA)
The U.S. and Soviet governments issue a joint statement that they have agreed on an agenda for the forthcoming SALT talks.

Soviet Union / China – March 23, 1971 (KCA)
It is officially stated in Moscow that trade between China and the Soviet Union in 1971 will total between 120 and 130 million roubles. Sino-Soviet trade, which reached its peak in 1959, has steadily declined after the split between the two Communist parties in the following year.

Yugoslavia – March 23, 1971 (HR)
At the Meeting of the Executive Bureau of the Central Committee of the LCY delegates are informed that a secret commission headed by Stane Dolanc is formed. Its task is to verify the rumors about the contacts between the Croatian LCY leadership and the ‘ustaša’ emigres. The Croatian Leadership has accused the Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs for inspiring the rumors.  

Hungary / Soviet Union – March 24, 1971 (HC)
V. J. Pavlov, the Soviet Union’s new Hungarian ambassador presents his credentials.

Hungary – March 24-27, 1971 (HC)
An international musicological conference takes place in Budapest on the occasion of the 90th birth anniversary of Béla Bartók.

Yugoslavia / Italy – March 25-29, 1971 (KCA)
President Tito visits Italy. On March 29, President Tito visits Vatican City. This is the first official visit from a Yugoslav head of state, following an earlier official visit from Mika Špiljak, President of the Yugoslav Federal Executive Council.

Soviet Union / Albania / China – March 27 and 29, 1971 (KCA)
In response to critical articles in the Chinese (March 18) and Albanian (March 25) Press, Pravda reprints a series of articles from the Polish, East German, Czechoslovak, Hungarian and Bulgarian Press defending Soviet policy. The most important of these is a long article by Edward Gierek, who accuses the Chinese party of seeking to undermine the unity of the Soviet Union and its allies, and thereby increasing China’s isolation.

Yugoslavia / Vatican – March 29, 1971 (AY)
Official Yugoslav delegation headed by Josip Broz Tito visits Vatican and meets with Pope Paul VI. The importance of the visit lies in the fact that it marks a normalization in relations between the Holy See and a communist country. Among the main topics discussed between Pope Paul VI and Josip Broz Tito are conditions of the Catholic Church in Yugoslavia and the international issues.

Hungary / Romania – March 29-31, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian-Romanian Economic Cooperative Joint Committee sits in Bucharest. (The Hungarian delegation is led by vice-chairman of the Council of Ministers, Antal Apró.)

Bulgaria – March 30, 1971 (KCA)
The draft text of the new Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria is issued for “nation-wide discussion,” prior to submission for a referendum. The draft is worked on by the National Assembly (Sobranje) and overseen by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, Todor Zhivkov. The National Council of the Fatherland Front urges the Bulgarian people to participate en masse.

Hungary – March 30, 1971 (HC)
The order of the Minister of Cultural Affairs about the new rules of secondary school graduation exams is adopted: the number of graduation subjects is decreased; in the clause of the graduation certificate it is indicated what scope of activities the degree qualifies the graduate for; and, the degree shows that its owner can work as a skilled worker in his or her qualifying field.

Soviet Union - March 30, 1971 (KCA / CAC / HC)
The 24th congress of the Soviet Communist Party opens in Moscow. It is attended by 4,949 delegates and by 102 delegations from Communist and left-wing Socialist parties and nationalist organizations from 91 countries. Notable exceptions include Albania and the People’s Republic of China. Leonid Brezhnev, presents the Central Committee’s report, the general tone of which is conciliatory and non-controversial in its reference to both international and internal affairs.

Yugoslavia – March 31, 1971 (KCA)

Census results indicate that the Yugoslav population is 20,504,516, including all 6 republics aggregated populations, revealing an average population increase of 1% over 10 years.

Soviet Union - Spring and Summer, 1971 (KCA)
The Soviet Government’s policy towards the Zionist element of the Jewish community produces a number of contradictory measures. Firstly, a greater number of Jewish peoples are permitted to emigrate to Israel than at any other previous time (4000 in the first half of 1971, compared with 1010 in the first half of 1970), however, 22 members of the Zionist groups in Leningrad, Riga, and Kishinev are connected with the group alleged to have hijacked an aircraft on June 5, 1970 and are brought to trial in May and June of 1971 and sentenced to imprisonment.


April 1971

Yugoslavia / France – April, 1971 (JBT)
French Prime Minister Jacques Chaban-Delmas visits Yugoslavia and meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito on April 23rd. He asks about Tito’s opinion on Soviet policy towards European cooperation and security, and on Arab-Israeli conflict. Another issue discussed during these talks is economic cooperation between Yugoslavia and the European Economic Community.

Soviet Union / Finland – April, 1971 (DIE)
Alexei Kosygin and Ahti Karjalainen (PM) meet in Moscow.

Romania / China – April, 1971 (KCA) see February 18
Representatives from Romania and China sign a Sino-Romanian Trade and Payments Agreement for 1971 and an agreement on Commodity Exchanges 1972-75 in Bucharest. Both of these agreements expand trade between the two states.

Romania – April, 1971 (KCA) see April 17--24
Romania, having declined to join the International Investment Bank created by COMECON in May 1970, is unanimously admitted to membership of the Bank by the original 7 member countries.

Hungary – April 2, 1971 (HC)
The Hungarian Academy of Sciences’ Biological Research Center at Szeged is opened. (The director general is academician Brunó Straub F.)

Soviet Union / Finland – April 2, 1971 (JHN)
The government significantly extended Finland's eastern trade by making an agreement with the Soviet Union on the import of natural gas.

Soviet Union / Pakistan – April 3, 1971 (KCA)
 Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny sends a message to the President of Pakistan, General Yahya Khan, appealing on behalf of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet for “the adoption of the most urgent measures to stop the bloodshed and repression against the population in East Pakistan and for the adoption of peaceful methods of settlement.”

Hungary – April 4, 1971 (HC)
A youth rally takes place in Heroes’ Square, Budapest.

Soviet Union / India / Pakistan – April 5, 1971 (KCA)
President Yahya Khan of Pakistan responds to Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny’s message concerning the East Pakistan Civil War. President Khan reiterates Pakistan’s commitment to not allowing any country to interfere in its internal affairs, stating that the Pakistani government has full mastery of the situation and that any claims to the contrary are politically motivated fabrications of the ‘Indian media’. President Khan also calls for the USSR to utilize political influence with India to deter the Indian state from interfering in Pakistan’s domestic affairs.

East Germany / Chile – April 6, 1971 (KCA)
It is announced in Berlin and Santiago that Chile and the GDR established diplomatic relations according to an agreement signed on March 16, 1971 and will cooperate in the fields of economic, scientific, technological and cultural affairs. The West German’s Press and Information Office expresses “regret” over the decision and expresses concern over the future of Chilean and West German relations and West German aid to Chile.

Soviet Union – April 6, 1971 (KCA)
After Brezhnev’s report (see March 30, 1971) was unanimously approved, the Chairman of the Council of Minister, Alexei Kosygin, presents a report on the directives for the ninth Five-Year-Plan, which, he states, must be finalized by August 1.

Hungary – April 7, 1971 (HC)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock announces at an electoral rally in Tatabánya that pedagogues of elementary, secondary schools and kindergartens, doctors and chemists will receive a 20% increase in their wages and other workers in health care as well as professional soldiers will receive an increase of 10% from June 1st.

Yugoslavia / Sweden – April 7, 1971 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Ambassador to Sweden, Vladimir Rolović, is attacked in the Stockholm Embassy by two members of the Croatian Ustashaseparatist movement, receiving gunshot wounds from which he dies on April 15.

Soviet Union – April 8, 1971 (KCA)
The congress (see March 30, 1971) elects a new Central Committee, which elects its Political Bureau and Secretariat. The Central Committee is enlarged from 195 full and 165 candidate members in 1966 to 241 full and 155 candidate members.

Hungary – April 9, 1971 (HC)
An extensive exhibition about Soviet space research is opened at the Museum of Applied Arts.

Soviet Union – April 9, 1971 (KCA)
At the closing session of the congress (see March 30, 1971) Brezhnev announces the names of the new Politburo and Secretariat. The absence of any change in the leadership is unprecedented in the party’s history, and appeared to reflect the desire for stability which was the keynote of the congress.

Hungary – April 13, 1971 (HC)
The Házgyár [House Factory] in Debrecen is opened.

Romania – April 14, 1971 (KCA)
Romania agreed to serve as an intermediary between the United States and China in establishing diplomatic relations.

Hungary / Italy – April 14-17, 1971 (HC)
The visit of Foreign Minister János Péter takes place in Italy. Pope Paul VI receives him at a private hearing (April 16.)

Hungary – April 15, 1971 (HC)
The government order no. 14/1971 about the concept and protection of state and official secrets is adopted.

Soviet Union / Netherlands – April 15, 1971 (KCA)
A bomb explodes outside of the Soviet Trade Embassy in Amsterdam. Several people are injured and the U.S. consulate is damaged. A sign fixed to the gate of the building states, “Never again, let our people go” - slogans attributed to the Jewish Defense League (see May 13, 1971).


Soviet Union – April 16, 1971 (KCA)
The Soviet Statistical Board issues detailed figures of the census taken in January 1970. They show that the population of the Soviet Union in January 15, 1970 stood at 241,720,134. The census returns show that illiteracy has been eradicated throughout the Soviet Union, whereas before the Russian Revolution nearly 75% of the population were illiterate.

Romania / COMECON – April 17-24, 1971 (KCA) see April, 1971
Romania, having declined to join the International Investment Bank created by COMECON in May 1970, is unanimously admitted to membership of the Bank by the original 7 member countries.

Soviet Union - April 19, 1971 (KCA)
The USSR’s unmanned spacecraft, the Salyut, is successfully launched. According to a TASS report, the mission aims to aid the design of space vehicles and to conduct scientific experiments in space.

Soviet Union / Finland – April 19-23, 1971 (KCA)
Ahti Karjalainen, the Finnish Prime Minister, pays an official visit to the Soviet Union and on April 20, he and Kosygin, sign a new Soviet-Finnish Treaty on the development of economic, technical, and industrial cooperation along with three agreements concerning specific projects in Moscow.

Hungary - April 20, 1971 (HC)
An electoral rally in Kőbánya (presenter: János Kádár).

Bulgaria – April 20-25, 1971 (KCA)
The 10th Congress of the Communist Party of Bulgaria (BCP) is held in Sofia. The Congress lays out the principles of Todov Zhivkov, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bulgaria and First Secretary of the Central Committee of the BCP, for Bulgaria’s foreign policy and a sixth five-year plan.

Hungary – April 21-24, 1971 (HC)
János Kádár, first secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party travels to Bulgaria for the 10th Congress of the Bulgarian Communist Party (see April 20-25, 1971)

Soviet Union – April 24, 1971 (KCA)
Another manned spacecraft, Soyuz 10, with three cosmonauts aboard (Colonel Vladimir Shatalov, Alexei Yeliseyev and Nikolai Rukavishnikov) successfully conducts a docking operation with the Salyut.

Hungary – April 25, 1971 (KCA/HC)
The first parliamentary and local elections are held in accordance with the electoral reforms approved in October 1970. The Communist-dominated People’s Patriotic Front organization receives 98.9% of the vote.

Hungary – April 27, 1971 (HC)
An international archeological conference starts in Szeged about the questions of 8-10th century settlements in The Carpathian Basin.

COMECON – April 28, 1971 (KCA)
Comecon member states agree to establish seven new scientific centers in Moscow.

Hungary – April 29, 1971 (HC)
The meeting of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party takes place. Secretary of the Central Committee Rezső Nyers gives an account of the current questions of the economic work. An educational policy committee consisting of 27 members is established under the leadership of György Aczél. András Gyenes is appointed as the head of the Foreign Office of the Central Committee.

Yugoslavia – April 29, 1971 (RYA)
Yugoslav press publishes the first census results which show that the total Yugoslav population in 1971 is 20, 504,516. An analysis of the distribution of the increase in population in the Yugoslav republics shows that the highest increase has occurred in Kosovo (29%) and Macedonia (17%), and the lowest in AP Vojvodina (5%) and Croatia (6%).


May 1971

Finland – May, 1971 (TFD)
The Socialist International meets in Helsinki.

Bulgaria / Hungary / Poland / Peru – May, 1971 (KCA)
Peru establishes diplomatic relations at embassy level with Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland.

Soviet Union – May 1971 (KCA)
Two Soviet spacecraft, Mars 2 and Mars 3, are launched into space and orbit planet Mars.

East Germany (GDR) – May 3, 1971 (KCA)
It is announced in East Berlin that Walter Ulbricht has resigned as First Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party (SED) in favor of Erich Honecker. However, Ulbricht retains the post of Chairman of the Council of State [i.e. Head of State] and is made chairman of the SED.

East Germany (GDR) – May 4, 1971 (KCA)
Reporting to a plenary session of the SED Central Committee on the 24th Soviet Party Congress, Honecker (see May 3, 1971) affirms the intention of the SED to keep the German Democratic Republic completely apart from the “imperialist Federal Republic.”

Hungary / Romania – May 4-8, 1971 (HC)
The 22nd Congress of the Hungarian trade unions takes place. The Chairman of the National Council of Trade Unions is Aladár Földvári. The Secretary-General is Sándor Gáspár. Members of the Political Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party György Aczél and Zoltán Komócsin travel to Romania.

Yugoslavia – May 5, 1971 (RYA)
 The second Congress of Self-Managing Enterprises gets under way in Sarajevo.

Poland / Pakistan – May 10, 1971 (KCA)
A special military court in Karachi sentences Mohammed Firoz Abdullah to death on charges of having killed four people, including the Polish Deputy Foreign Ministers, Zygfryd Wolniak, at Karachi Airport on November 1, 1970.

Hungary – May 11, 1971 (HC)
The Secretary-General of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Ferenc Erdei, dies.

Hungary – May 12, 1971 (HC)
The inaugural meeting of the Parliament takes place. The executives of the Presidential Council, the Government and the Parliament are elected. Chairman of the Presidential Council is Pál Losonczi, Chairman of the Council of Ministers is Jenő Fock and president of Parliament is Antal Apró. The new government is formed. The chairman of the Hungarian Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government is Jenő Fock, the deputy chairmen of the Council of Ministers are Miklós Ajtai, Lajos Fehér, Mátyás Tímár, Péter Vályi. The ministers are the following: domestic trade: István Szurdi, domestic affairs: András Benkei, healthcare: Zoltán Szabó, construction and urban development: József Bondor, defense: Lajos Czinege, justice: Mihály Korom, furnace and engineering industry: Gyula Horgos, light industry: Jánosné Keserű, transportation and post: György Csanádi, international trade: József Bíró, foreign affairs: János Péter, agriculture and catering: Imre, Dimény, labor: György Lázár, education: Pál Ilku, heavy industry: Gyula Szekér, financial affairs: Lajos Faluvégi. Chairman of the National Planning Bureau: Imre Párdi.

East Germany / Warsaw Treaty Organization – May 12-15, 1971 (CAC / MMS)
At a meeting of the WP Military Council in Berlin, Marshal Iakubovskii describes the situation as extremely tense and calls for the introduction of a common alert system.

Soviet Union – May 13, 1971 (KCA)
The Soviet Embassy in London experiences a riot when around 50 members of the Universities Committee for Soviet Jewry apply for visas to attend the trials of Jews in Leningrad and Riga.

Hungary – May 13-16, 1971 (HC)
The General Assembly of the World Peace Council takes place in Budapest.

East Germany (GDR) – May 14, 1971 (KCA)
It is announced in East Berlin that Horst Sindermann has been appointed to the post of First-Deputy Chairman of the Council of Minister.

Soviet Union / U.S. May 14, 1971 (BUS)  
Brezhnev calls on the Western states to start talks on troop reduction in Central Europe.

Yugoslavia – May 15, 1971 (RYA)
Mika Tripalo, the Croatian League of Communists leader, declares that in case of Croatia the concept of "class" is just as important as the concept of "nationality", and that neither component should have priority.

Hungary / Poland – May 15-16, 1971 (HC)
First secretary of the Polish United Workers’ Party, Edward Gierek, and Polish Prime Minister, Piotr Jaroszewicz, pay a visit to Hungary.

Hungary / Vietnam / South Korea – May 16, 1971 (HC)
A youth peace rally takes place in Budapest supporting the freedom of Vietnam. (Lady Nguyen Thi Binh, foreign minister of the South Korean Interim Government is present.)

Soviet Union / U.S. May 16, 1971 (BUS)
U.S. Secretary of State, William Rogers, states that the US is ready to conduct talks with the USSR on troop reduction in Central Europe. (The Soviet proposal comes when Democratic Party Senator, Mike Mansfield, recommended a 50% troop reduction in Europe. Mansfield’s proposal is voted down with 61 to 36 votes in the Senate).

Bulgaria – May 16 and 18, 1971 (KCA)
The new Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria is promulgated on May 18 following its approval on May 16 in a national referendum, the results of which are announced as follows: the turnout was at 99.7 % of which 99.66 % were in favor of the new constitution.

West Germany / Romania – May 17-20 1971 (KCA / PER)
President Gustav Heinemann of West Germany accompanied by Foreign Minister Walter Scheel pay a state visit to Romania for talks with President of the State Council Ceauşescu. As the first visit of a West German president to a European Communist country, this is hailed as an improvement of relations between the two states. During his stay in Romania, President Heinemann visits Braşov, where a large number of Romania’s German-speaking minority live. The event is considered to be of significance in view of the problem constituted by this groups (see February 21, 1971).

Soviet Union / Canada – May 17-29, 1971 (KCA)
Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau makes an official visit to the Soviet Union. Following talks between the Canadian and Soviet delegations, Trudeau and Alexei Kosygin sign a protocol on consultations between the two countries.

Hungary – May 19-20, 1971 (HC)
A theoretical conference takes place in Balatonaliga about the questions of socialist state and socialist democracy.

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 20, 1971 (KCA / BUS)
The U.S. and Soviet Governments issue a joint statement that they have agreed on an agenda during the SALT talks. The U.S. and the Soviet Union announce that the SALT I talks will focus on the reduction of ABM systems. According to Nixon this is a significant development that could give new impetus to the talks that were in a deadlock for a year.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary - May 24-29, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian party delegation led by János Kádár travels to Prague to the 14th  Congress of the Czechoslovak Communist Party (May 25-29.).

Soviet Union United Arab Republic / Israel – May 25-28, 1971 (KCA)
 Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny, along with Foreign Minister Gromyko, Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Ponomaryov, and General Pavlovsky, Soviet Deputy Minister of Defense, make an “unofficial friendly visit” to Cairo. Talks conclude with the publication of a communiqué, reaffirming the USSR’s support for the UAR against Israel.

Czechoslovakia – May 25-29, 1971 (KCA)
The 14th Congress of the Czechoslovak Communist Party is held in Prague. Brezhnev (Soviet Union); János Kádár (Hungary); Edward Gierek (Poland); Todor Zhivkov (Bulgaria); Erich Honecker (East Germany) attend. In his three-hour-long opening speech, Gustav Husák thanks the Soviet Union and the other Warsaw Pact members for having intervened militarily in Czechoslovakia in 1968. The Congress ends with the re-election of Husák but instead of First Secretary he becomes General Secretary of the Czechoslovak Communist Party.

Albania / Norway – May 28, 1971 (KCA)
Norway and Albania have agreed to establish diplomatic relations at ambassadorial level.

Soviet Union / Chile – May 28, 1971 (KCA)
An economic agreement is concluded in Moscow between Chile and the Soviet Union. Under the agreement, the USSR will provide assistance to Chile by (a) building an industrial oil factory and a house-building combine, (b) increasing and prolonging Soviet credit previously granted to Chile, (c) setting up a Soviet trade mission in Santiago and a Chilean mission in Moscow (d) creating a combined Soviet-Chilean trade mission that will supervise the development of trade between the countries.

June 1971

Hungary – June 1, 1971 (HC)
Ten forint coins are issued [instead of previous bank notes].

Poland – June 1, 1971 (HPB)
An economic plan of development for the years 1971-1975 is accepted. It provides for the increase in investments, growth in agriculture, increase in salaries, and creating new workplaces.

Romania / China – June 1-9, 1971 (ABR / ADC / CER / KCA)
President of the State Council Ceauşescu pays a nine day visit to the People’s Republic of China. He is accompanied by a party and governmental delegation. While in China, he meets Party Chairman Mao, has talks with Chou En-lai, the Prime Minister, and other Chinese leaders. He also travels to Nanking and Shanghai. The visit ends with the publication of a joint communiqué.

Soviet Union – June 2, 1971 (KCA)
Metropolitan Pimen of Krutitsky and Kolomna is elected as the new Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia by the Council of the Russian Orthodox Church in succession to Patriarch Alexis, who passed away on April 17, 1970.

Soviet Union – June 2-9, 1971 (KCA)
The President of Cyprus, Archbishop Makarios, along with his Foreign Minister Kyprianou, visit the USSR at the invitation of the Soviet Government. A joint communiqué is issued in which the Soviet authorities express satisfaction with the independence of Cyprus (the Republic of Cyprus declared independence a decade before) and that the USSR opposes any external coercive interference directed at Cyprus.

Hungary - June 3, 1971 (HC)
The government adopts an order about the development of the bank system. The crediting of basic stocks and working assets of the enterprises are taken over by the Hungarian National Bank. The Bank of Investment gets liquidated, the State Bank of Development is established for the financing of the central investments.

Hungary - June 3, 1971 (HC)
The State Church Office and the great churches sign a protocol according to which no preliminary approval of the state is necessary for smaller church posts and the obligation of registration ends. (Signatories: Imre Miklós, President of the State Church Office; Archbishop of Kalocsa József Ijjas, President of the Hungarian Catholic Episcopal Department; Bishop Tibor Bartha, President of the Synod Council of the Hungarian Calvinist Church; Bishop Zoltán Káldy, representative of the National Session of the Hungarian Lutheran Church; Chief Rabbi Géza Seifert, Rresident of the National Representation of the Hungarian Israelites.)

NATO – June 3-4, 1971 (KCA)
In Lisbon, the Spring Ministerial Meeting of the North Atlantic Council is attended by Foreign Ministers. A communiqué considering the results of the meeting was later issued.

Hungary – June 4, 1971 (HC)
György Lukács dies.

Soviet Union / U.S. June 4, 1971 (BUS)
In a communiqué issued after the Lisbon meeting of NATO, Foreign Ministers accept Brezhnev’s offer on troop reduction talks. The communiqué says that the talks may commence irrespectively of the security conference. Secretary of State William Rogers states that the U.S. administration can resist congressional pressure for the reduction of U.S. forces in Europe if NATO uses every opportunity to achieve force reduction with the Warsaw Pact.

Yugoslavia / China – June 8-15, 1971 (GOD)
Yugoslav Foreign Minister Mirko Tepavac visits China. During the visit he meets Norodom Sihanouk (June 10), the Cambodian king in exile

Hungary – June 9, 1971 (HC)
The nuclear reactor of the Budapest University of Technology is opened.

Romania / North Korea / North Vietnam / Mongolia – June 9-24, 1971 (ADC / CER / KCA)
President of the State Council Ceauşescu visits North Korea (June 9-15); North Vietnam (June 15-19); and Mongolia (June 21-24).

Hungary / GDR – June 14-20, 1971 (HC)
János Kádár, First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party travels with a delegation to the German Democratic Republic to the 8th Congress of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (June 15-19.)

Hungary – June 15, 1971 (HC)
The Soviet Zhiguli cars begin to be sold in Hungary.

East Germany (GDR) – June 15-19, 1971 (KCA)
The eighth congress of the Socialist Unity Party (SED) is held in East Berlin. It is the first congress since the appointment of Erich Honecker as First Secretary. A new Central Committee of the party is elected.

Hungary – June 17, 1971 (HC)
A government order is adopted about the development of the institutional system of the further education of leaders. (Leaders should participate in courses and classes of further education at least every five years.)

Soviet Union / U.S.   June 17, 1971 (BUS)  
A U.S. company, Mark Trucks Inc. makes a preliminary agreement to sell machine tools worth 750 million dollars and 100 trucks valued at 22 million dollars to the Soviet Union public. The accord requires finalization and Presidential approval. However, on September 15, the treaty lapses when the US government failed to meet the deadline for approval.

Soviet Union / PRC – June 19-26, 1971 (KCA)
Soviet Union and People’s Republic of China border negotiations are continuing into mid-1971 according to unofficial reports.

Soviet Union / U.K. – June 20, 1971 (KCA)
The Foreign Office and Home Office of the United Kingdom announce that Anatol Fedoseyev, a Soviet scientist who disappeared from Paris in May 1971, was in Britain and has been given permission to stay. On June 22, 1971, two Soviet diplomats, L. N. Shertsnev and Valery Chousovitin, are asked to leave the U.K. after the Foreign Office accuses them of conducting “active intelligence operations.” Simultaneously, two British diplomats are asked to leave Moscow. The Soviet Foreign Ministry accuses Nicholson and Jackson of conduct ‘incompatible with their diplomatic status and charges that British authorities were complicit in the defection of Fedoseyev, which London strongly denies.

Romania / Mongolia – June 21-24, 1971 (KCA)
President of the State Council Ceauşescu visits Mongolia.

Hungary – June 23-24, 1971 (HC)
The Parliament assembles. Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock proposes the program of the government. A committee is formed for the preparations of the amendment of the constitution.

Soviet Union / Hungary - June 23-26, 1971 (HC)
Béla Biszku and Rezső Nyers, members of the Political Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party are at a meeting in Moscow.

Hungary – June 24, 1971 (HC)
A ministry order about the assistance of workers’ building houses is adopted.

East Germany (GDR) – June 24, 1971 (KCA)
The Volkskammer appoints Erich Honecker as Chairman of the National Defence Council in place of Walter Ulbricht. The body acts as an emergency cabinet in case of the event of war.

Hungary – June 24-26, 1971 (HC)
A national historian regional meeting takes place in Keszthely about up-to-date historical education.

Romania– June 25, 1971 (CWIHP)
RCP CC Executive Committee meeting focuses on the delegations’ trip led by Nicolae Ceauşescu to China, North Korea, Vietnam, Mongolia, and Moscow in June 1971. The meeting was spent describing the bilateral relations with those countries and what the delegation observed.


Austria / Hungary - June 26. - July 2, 1971 (HC)
Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi travels to Austria following the invitation of the federal president of the Austrian Republic Franz Jonas.
Bulgaria – June 27, 1971 (KCA)
Elections for the National Assembly (Sobranje) are held, the results being officially announced as follows: the turnout is at 99.85 % of which 99.9 % vote for the candidates of the Fatherland Front.

Hungary / Chile – June 29, 1971 (KCA)
A new trade agreement is signed between Hungary and Chile. Chile is granted $5 million by the Hungarian National Bank and $15 million by the Hungarian Government.

Romania / Finland – June 29-July 3, 1971 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Finland to meet President, Urho Kekkonen.

Soviet Union / Kazakhstan – June 30, 1971 (KCA)
The three cosmonauts aboard the record-breaking Soviet spaceship the Soyuz 11 (which stayed in space for 24 days, breaking the record for a manned crew flight), are found dead in their seats from seemingly unexplained causes, having performed a seemingly perfect landing in Kazakhstan.

Yugoslavia – June 30, 1971 (KCA)
After several months of intense and often embittered controversy, the Yugoslav Federal Assembly adopts a series of amendments to the Constitution which limits the powers of the Federal Government to defence, foreign affairs, foreign trade, and the unity of the economic and social system. All other matters fall within the authority of the six Republics composing the Federation. The amendments also establish a Presidency of 22 members in which all the Republics are equally represented.

July 1971


Bulgaria – July, 1971 (KCA) See July 14
The newly elected State Council approves the formation of six auxiliary councils at its first meeting held under the chairmanship of Todor Zhivkov.

Romania – July 6, 1971 (KCA / CEC / CER)
At the plenum of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, Nicolae Ceauşescu announces a cultural revolution.  A new campaign to “improve ideological and politico-educational activity” throughout Romanian society, including action to eliminate “cosmopolitanism” and “bourgeois influences”, especially in the cultural field, is launched.

Romania – July 7, 1971 (ABR)
Executive Committee unanimously endorses Ceauşescu proposals to combat foreign influence, cosmopolitanism, and parasitism in Romanian life.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – July 7-10, 1971 (HC)
President of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Ludvík Svoboda, pays a visit to Hungary.

Soviet Union – July 8-September 24, 1971 (KCA)
The fifth round of SALT talks are held between the United States and the USSR in Helsinki. On September 24, an official communiqué is issued.  

Bulgaria – July 14, 1971 (KCA) See July, 1971
The newly elected State Council approves at its first meeting under the Chairmanship of Todor Zhivkov the formation of six auxiliary councils: (1) Council for the Management of Social Relations; (2) Council for the Protection and Restoration of the Natural environment; (3) Council on the Reproduction of Material resources; (4) Council on the Reproduction of Labor resources; (5) Foreign relations Council; (6) Council for the Development of the Spiritual Values of Society.

Hungary – July 22, 1971 (HC)
The order of the minister of labor is adopted about secondary jobs and part-time jobs. (From this time on, these have to be registered in the employee’s record book.)

Soviet Union / West Germany (FRG) – July 22, 1971 (KCA)
In an exchange of notes in Bonn, the Soviet Union and the Federal Republic of Germany formally agree on arrangements for the establishment of a Soviet Consulate-General in Hamburg and of a West German Consulate-General in Leningrad. Agreement on the establishment of consulates-general in these two cities have been reached during negotiations preceding the signing in August 1970 of the treaty between the Soviet Union and West Germany.

Soviet Union – July 23, 1971 (KCA)
A TASS press agency statement announces that Gennadi Voronov, a member of the Soviet Politburo, has been relieved of his duties as Premier of the Russian Federation and is instead appointed Chairman of the People’s Control Committee, succeeding Pavel V. Kovanov. Although no official reason is given for the transfer, Western commentators believe this is a demotion.

COMECON - July 27-29, 1971 (KCA / PER)
The 25th session of COMECON is held in Bucharest. The most crucial outcome is the endorsement of a communiqué highlighting a “complex program” aimed at the attainment of greater economic cooperation and integration among the Comecon countries in the next 15 to 20 years.

Hungary - July 27-29, 1971 (HC)
An European youth seminar takes place in Budapest. (The main idea of the conference: fight for the rights to education, for the future, and for the future society of a peaceful Europe).

Soviet Union – July 28, 1971 (KCA)
Mikhail Solomentsev is appointed Premier of the Russian Federation.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – July 28-29, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian-Czechoslovak conference is held on the regional development of the border areas.

Yugoslavia – July 29-30, 1971 (KCA)
The Federal Assembly elects a new Federal Executive Council headed by Džemal Bijedić, replacing Mitja Ribičič. Furthermore, President Tito (79) is re-elected President of Yugoslavia for another Five-Year term.

Hungary / Soviet Union – July 31-August 3, 1971 (HC)
János Kádár, first secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party, travels to Moscow for vacation following the invitation of the Central Committee of the Socialist Party of the Soviet Union. (He meets with General Secretary Brezhnev and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council, Nikolai Podgorny.)

Romania / China / U.S. – July 31-August 7, 1971 (KCA)
President of the State Council Ceauşescu visits the People’s Republic of China, and publishes a joint communiqué. President Nixon describes Ceauşescu’s government as occupying a unique position, with relatively positive relations with the United States, Russia, and China.


August 1971


Soviet Union / Sudan – August 1-5, 1971 (KCA)
The Sudanese Government recalls Abdul el Hassan, the Sudanese Ambassador in Moscow. The reasons given include the “continuing tendentious campaign” in the media about the Soviet Union and new protests against the “persecution of Sudanese Communists,” expressed by Soviet and Eastern European Communist Party leaders during a meeting in Crimea. Mikhail Orlov, counsellor at the Soviet Embassy in Khartoum is also expelled. General al Nimeiry repeats on August 5 that Communism has “no place in the Sudan” and adds: “We will not accept the Soviets as colonizers.”

Soviet Union / Warsaw Treaty Organization – August 2, 1971 (CAC / HC / MMS)
At the first of his annual meetings with Warsaw Pact leaders in the Crimea, Brezhnev gives an optimistic assessment of the international situation, but Bulgarian leader Todor Zhivkov warns against a Beijing–Bucharest–Tirana–Belgrade axis threat against the alliance. The leaders are the following: Zhivkov from Bulgaria, Kádár from Hungary, Honecker from East Germany, Cedenbal from Mongolia, Gierek from Poland, Husák from Czechoslovakia, and Brezhnev and Podgorny from the Soviet Union.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary / Soviet Union – August 2-5, 1971 (HC)
Army exercises are carried out under the name ”Opal’71” on Hungarian and Czechoslovak territory with the participation of Hungarian, Czechoslovak, and Soviet troops.

Hungary – August 4, 1971 (HC / CWIHP)
A joint meeting of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party and the Council of Ministers take place. They approve the Complex Program (July 27-29) and analyze the fulfillment of the People’s Economic Plan of 1971.
 They discuss foreign policy issues related to China, Hungary, the Soviet Union, and Romania.

Soviet Union / India – August 8-12, 1971 (KCA)
Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko visits New Delhi. After talks with the Indian Prime Minister,Indira Gandhi, the two states sign a Treaty of Peace on August 9, 1971. The treaty contains crucial clauses, requiring immediate consultation vis-à-vis one another in the case that either state is threatened by a third party. The clause also prevents either state from entering an alliance directed against the other.

Hungary – August 10-20, 1971 (HC)
The European regional conference of the International Geographical Union takes place in Budapest.

Hungary / Soviet Union – August 13, 1971 (HC)
The exhibition, “The treasures of the Hungarian Art’s 1000 Years” is opened in Moscow.

Romania / Yugoslavia / Soviet Union / Poland / Hungary / Czechoslovakia – August 18-20, 1971 (KCA)
In response to the Romanian government’s role in facilitating President Nixon’s proposed visit to China, and the gradual improvement in Yugoslavia’s relations with China, on August 18, the Soviet Union publishes a demarche against the two countries. In addition, Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia lead propaganda campaigns in the media against Romania and Yugoslavia. On August 20, President of the State Council Ceauşescu reaffirms Romania’s commitment to pursue friendly relations with all socialist countries and an independent foreign policy.

Soviet Union / India – August 18, 1971 (KCA)
The 20-Year Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Co-operation is concluded between India and the Soviet Union (see August 8-12, 1971) during Gromyko’s recent visit to New Delhi.

Romania / China – August 22-31, 1971 (KCA)
A Chinese military delegation visits Romania to express solidarity, and subsequently Soviet pressure on Yugoslavia and Romania is relaxed.

Hungary / Finland – August 23-26, 1971 (HC)
Pál Losonczi, Chairman of the Presidential Council travels to Finland following the invitation of President Urho Kekkonen.

Poland / U.S. August 24, 1971 (BUS)   
The U.S. government permits the sale of oil refining equipment to Poland previously denied a year earlier. The announcement of the deal reflected the idea that U.S.-Polish relations were improving.

Hungary – August 27-September 23, 1971 (HC)
An International Hunting Exhibition is opened in Budapest. (41 countries participate with national exhibitions.)

Hungary / Denmark – August 28, 1971 (HC)
A MALÉV IL-18 plane crashes into the sea near Copenhagen, carrying 31 victims.


September 1971


Warsaw Treaty Organization – September 1, 1971 (CAC)
A Warsaw conference of Foreign Ministers approves the holding of experts’ meetings on problems relating to the convocation of a pan-European security conference.

Soviet Union / U.S. / U.K. / France / West Germany – September 3, 1971 (CAC / EWR)
The United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, and France sign the Quadpartite Agreement securing access to West Berlin and clarifying the city’s status in relation to West Germany.

Soviet Union/China/South-East Asia – September 7, 1971 (CWIHP)
Le Duc Tho offers advice to Leng Sary about the current conflict between China and the Soviet Union, suggesting that Cambodia, along with Vietnam, should promote international solidarity and avoid taking sides in the dispute. 

Hungary / France – September 8-10, 1971 (HC)
French foreign minister Maurice Schumann negotiates in Budapest.

Poland / Austria – September 9, 1971 (KCA)
A new five-year trade and economic cooperation agreement between Poland and Austria is signed by the Polish Minister of Foreign Trade Kazimierz and the Austrian Trade Minister, Josef Staribacher.  

East Germany (GDR) / Nepal – September 10, 1971 (KCA)
The Nepalese Government announces that it has established relations with East Germany at the Consulate-General level.

East Germany / Finland / West Germany – September 10, 1971 (TFD)
The Finnish government proposes the two German governments with the so called “German package”. This meant recognition for both Germanies in return for the recognition of Finnish neutrality, and a promise to abstain from threats of force, with economic compensation for the destruction caused by German troops in Finland during 1944-1945.

Hungary / Romania – September 10-12, 1971 (HC)
A Romanian delegation led by Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Ilie Verdeţ arrives in Budapest to visit the International Hunting Exhibition.

Soviet Union – September 11, 1971 (HC / KCA)
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, Chairman of the Council of Ministers  of the Soviet Union from 1958 to 1964, and First Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party from 1953 until his resignation from Premiership, dies in Moscow after a long illness, aged 77.

Czechoslovakia / Austria – September 12, 1971 (KCA)
A new five-year trade and economic cooperation agreement between Czechoslovakia and Austria is signed in Brno between Austria and Czechoslovakia, by Josef Staribacher and Czechoslovak Minister of Foreign Trade, Andrej Barčak.

Hungary / Austria – September 12, 1971 (HC)
The unofficial meeting of Hungarian Foreign Minister, János Péter, and Austrian Foreign Minister Rudolf Kirchschläger takes place in Sopron and St. Margarethen.

East Germany / Poland / Soviet Union – September 13-18, 1971 (CAC)
An East German–Polish–Soviet command exercise, “Herbststurm 71,” envisages offensive operations against Denmark in cooperation with the Warsaw Pact’s Baltic navies, aimed at the destruction of reserves of NATO’s Baltic Straits Command and the occupation of the Jutland Peninsula.

Hungary / North Korea – September 13-23, 1971 (HC)
Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi pays a friendly visit to the Korean People’s Democratic Republic.

Poland / U.S September 14, 1971 (BUS)  
Poland receives a $25 million loan to buy American agricultural goods.

Hungary / Soviet Union – September 15, 1971 (HC)
The Moscow Big Theatre (Bolshoi) arrives in Budapest for a guest performance.
The company of the Hungarian State Opera House arrives for a guest performance in Moscow.

Romania – September 15, 1971 (KCA)
A new Council of Socialist Culture and Education, replacing the State Committee for Culture and Art, is set up by decree, under the chairmanship of Dumitru Popescu.

Yugoslavia / Sweden – September 15, 1971 (KCA)
Three armed Croatian terrorists, believed to be Ustashi, force an SAS DC-9 jet airliner on a flight from Gothenburg to Stockholm to land at Malmö Airport, where they threaten to blow up the plane unless the Swedish authorities release seven other Croats currently serving prison sentences in Sweden for various acts of terrorism.

Yugoslavia / U.S. September 15, 1971 (BUS) 
The nine day visit of a Yugoslav military mission in the U.S. comes to an end, the aim of which is to forge “normal, friendly military contacts” with the Atlantic power.

Hungary / Ukraine – September 16, 1971 (HC)
A MALÉV  TU-134 plane crashes near Kiev. 49 are killed.

West Germany / Soviet Union – September 16-18, 1971 (KCA) 
West German Chancellor Brandt, accompanied by Egon Bahr, meets with Soviet leader Brezhnev in Oreanda, Crimea. On September 18, a joint communiqué is issued. Speaking to journalists, Brezhnev explains that the six-point peace program set out at the 24th Congress of the CPSU must be implemented as soon as possible.

Hungary – September 18, 1971 (HC)
The statement of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Parliament is published saying that Hungary is ready to take part in the practical preparations of the European security conference.

Soviet Union / France / West Germany (FRG) – September 19, 1971 (KCA)
Soviet diplomatic appointments are announced and include (1) the appointment of Pyotr Abrassimov, Ambassador to the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), as Ambassador to France in succession to Valerian Zorin; (2) the appointment of Valerian Falin, a senior official in the Soviet Foreign Ministry and an expert on German affairs, as Ambassador to the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) in succession to Semyon Tsarapkin.

Soviet Union / U.S. – September 20, 1971 (KCA)
Two agreements, negotiated during the fifth round of SALT talks (see July 8-September 24, 1971), are signed in Washington by Rogers, the U.S. Secretary of State, and Gromyko, the Soviet Foreign Minister. The first agreement contains measures to reduce the “risk of outbreak of nuclear war.” The second agreement provides for the improvement of the “hot line” between the two countries (established in 1963) through the eventual replacement of the existing cable and radio teleprinter links by a satellite communications system.. Both agreements come into force immediately upon signature.

Romania / U.K. – September 20-22, 1971 (PER)
The UK Secretary for Education and Science, Margaret Thatcher visits Romania.

Hungary / U.S – September 21, 1971 (HC)
Ambassador Károly Szabó hands over his credentials to Richard Nixon, President of the United States of America.

United Nations – September 21, 1971 (KCA)
In New York, the 26th session of the UN General Assembly opens and elects Adam Malik, the Indonesian Foreign Minister, as its President for the session.

Hungary / Romania – September 21-28, 1971 (HC)
The conference of the academies of the socialist countries takes place in Bucharest.

Hungary – September 22-23, 1971 (HC)
The autumn session of the Parliament takes place. Act no. 3 of 1971 about the co-ops and act no. 4 of 1971 about the youth are adopted.

Soviet Union / Yugoslavia - September 22-25, 1971 (KCA)
Brezhnev visits Yugoslavia and recognizes the state’s right to pursue independent foreign policy and internal affairs. During talks with President Josip Broz Tito on September 23rd and 24th both bilateral and international issues are discussed. Leonid Brezhnev underlines the importance of Belgrade (1955) and Moscow (1956) declarations as the basis of Soviet-Yugoslav relations, and confirms that Yugoslav authorities are building a ‘socialist’ system in their country. Furthermore, they discuss the German question, Brandt’s new eastern policy, the situation in Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, the policy of non-alignment, European security, American and Chinese foreign policy, the situation in the Third World, etc.

Hungary – September 24, 1971 (HC)
A government order is adopted about personal real estate property. An individual or a family can own one apartment and one holiday home or real estate.

Soviet Union / U.K. –September 24, 1971 (KCA)
The British Government requests the departure of 90 Soviet diplomats and other officials within two weeks, on the grounds of their alleged involvement in espionage. On the same grounds, another 15 Soviet officials currently overseas are denied permission to return to Britain. The Soviet Government responds by ordering 4 British diplomats and a British businessman to be expelled from Moscow, and denies 13 other British subjects permission to return to the USSR.

GDR / USA – September 25, 1971 (CWIHP)
The GDR Ministry of Foreign Affairs perceives the balance of power to be ever shifting in favour of the socialist countries and posits that the US is striving to prevent the European Security Conferences from convening.

Hungary / Soviet Union – September 25-27, 1971 (HC)
L. I. Brezhnev, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union pays a visit to Hungary.

Hungary / Italy – September 25 – October 2, 1971 (HC)
Hungarian cultural days take place in Sorrento and Naples.

Soviet Union / India – September 27-29, 1971 (KCA)
Indira Gandhi pays an official visit to Moscow at the Soviet Government’s invitation. Talks that focus on the Pakistan question are conducted with Nikolai Podgorny and Alexei Kosygin.

Yugoslavia / Luxembourg, September 27-30, 1971 (AY)
Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg visits Yugoslavia. Although no salient international questions are raised, or any bilateral issue discussed, the importance of the visit for Yugoslav side lies in the fact that it demonstrates the wish to maintain relations with all European states, even the small ones such as Luxembourg.

Hungary / Vatican - September 28, 1971 (KCA / BUS / HC)
Cardinal József Mindszenty is received by the Pope in Rome, after living in asylum in the American Embassy in Budapest since November 4th, 1956.

Soviet Union / U.S. September 28, 1971 (BUS)
In Geneva, the U.S. and the Soviet Union present their common proposal to ban biological weapons.

East Germany / West Germany – September 30, 1971 (KCA)
Heads of the delegations from both East Germany’s and West Germany’s Post and Telecommunications Ministries agree to sign a protocol on postal services and telecommunications, permitting the creation of a color television relay system between the two countries.

Hungary / U.N. – September 30, 1971 (HC)
The Hungarian National Committee of the Security and Cooperation in Europe is formed. (The Chairman is Gyula Kállai, president of the People’s Patriotic Front and member of the Political Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party.)
Foreign Minister János Péter negotiates in New York with Indonesian Foreign Minister and President of the 26th General Assembly of the United Nations, Adam Malik.


October 1971

Poland – October-December 1971 (KCA)
Further purges of the PUWP and removal of several Cabinet ministers consolidate Gierek’s position.

Hungary / Vatican – October 1, 1971 (HC)
The Vatican lifts the restriction (July 16, 1957) that reserved the right for the Vatican to permit a Catholic priest to become a representative, member of the council or to take other political positions. (From this time on this right is due to the Hungarian Catholic Episcopal Department.)

Poland – October 4, 1971 (CWIHP)
According to an informational note to the CC PUWP Secretary, the meeting of the International Departments of seven fraternal parties will primarily focus on the situation in China, and attempt to coordinate policy.

Soviet Union / Algeria / Morocco – October 4-8, 1971 (KCA)
Kosygin undertakes an official visit to Algeria, holding talks with President Boumedienne. October 8, 1971, Kosygin makes an official visit to Morocco, holding talks with King Hassan and Prime Minister M. Karim Lamrani.

Hungary / COMECON – October 4-9, 1971 (HC)
The first agricultural symposium of the countries belonging to the COMECON is organized in Budapest.

Hungary / U.N. – October 5, 1971 (HC)
Foreign minister János Péter negotiates with U.N. Secretary-General U Thant about personal questions.

Hungary / Canada – October 6, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian-Canadian five-year trade agreement is signed in Ottawa.

Soviet Union / NATO October 6, 1971 (BUS)
NATO commissions its former Secretary-General Manlio Brosio to start preliminary talks with the Soviet Union on troop reduction in Central Europe.

Soviet Union / Morocco – October 10, 1971 (KCA)
Agreements are signed which guarantee both the Soviet Union and Morocco respective equality in their ports in regards to port dues, freedom of access, and use of installations. The USSR also agrees to help build a hydro-electric plant at the Ait-Aadel Dam. A joint communiqué is issued referring to the Palestinian question.

Hungary – October 11-13, 1971 (HC)
The 6th Congress of the industrial co-ops takes place.

Soviet Union / Egypt (UAR) – October 11-13, 1971 (KCA)
President Salat of Egypt visits Moscow for talks with Brezhnev and other Soviet leaders. A joint communiqué is issued stating that the USSR and Egypt have agreed to take measures to strengthen Egypt’s military strength.

Hungary / Soviet Union / COMECON – October 12-14, 1971 (HC)
The 55th session of the Executive Committee of the COMECON takes place in Moscow. The Complex Program is on the agenda (July 26-29).

Soviet Union - October 12, 1972 (KCA)
It is announced in both Washington and Moscow that President Nixon will visit Moscow in May 1972 for talks with the Soviet leadership, following his visit to Beijing.

Iran / Hungary October 12-16, 1971 (HC)
Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi travels to Iran to the celebrations commemorating the 2500th anniversary of the existence of the Iranian state.

Yugoslavia / Iran – October 13-16, 1971 (AY)
Yugoslav delegation visits Iran. President Josip Broz Tito and Deputy Foreign Minister Anton Vratusa attend the 2500 Year Celebration of the Persian Empire in Persepolis.


Hungary / Soviet Union – October 14, 1971 (HC)
Chairman of the Hungarian Writers’ Association József Darvas signs a Hungarian-Soviet agreement in Moscow about mutual publication of literary works.

Romania / Iran – October 14-16, 1971 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple participates in the festival celebrating the 2500th anniversary of the creation of Iran.

Hungary – October 16, 1971 (HC)
The First International Small Sculpture Biennale is opened in Budapest.

Yugoslavia / India – October 16-20, 1971 (AY)
Yugoslav delegation headed by Josip Broz Tito visits India. Main topic during meetings with Indira Ghandi and other Indian representatives is the Indo-Pakistan conflict over the Bangladesh Liberation War. They agree about the right for the Bangladeshi to self-determination and independence.

Soviet Union / Canada – October 17-26, 1971 (KCA)
The Soviet Prime Minister, Alexei Kosygin, makes an official state visit to Canada, signing an agreement on October 20, 1971, concerning scientific, technical, educational, cultural and other exchange visits by scientists. On October 26th, a joint communiqué is issued, dealing with a number of international concerns and future co-operation between Canada and the Soviet Union.

Hungary – October 19-20, 1971 (HC)
A conference takes place in Eger with the title “Patriotism, history and history teaching”.

Yugoslavia / Egypt – October 20-21, 1971 (AY)
Yugoslav delegation headed by Josip Broz Tito visits Egypt and meets with President Anwar el-Sadat. The visit is organized in a cordial atmosphere and mainly international issues are discussed.

Romania – October 20-22, 1971 (KCA)
The Fifth Five Year Plan (1971-1975) is approved by the Grand National Assembly. In its final form, the Plan provides for generally higher targets than had been foreshadowed in the draft Plan presented by President Ceauşescu to the Party Congress in August 1969.

Hungary October 22, 1971 (HC)
An economic action committee meeting takes place in the Parliament. (The presenter is Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock.) The topics are the following: investment tensions; the improvement of profits; manpower-management problems; the supplementary activities and efficiency of the agricultural co-operatives; assigning responsibility for these problems.
Poland – October 23, 1971 (KCA)
Six leaders of an underground political organization known as Ruch (“Movement”) are sentenced to terms of imprisonment in Warsaw. The charges include “activity contrary to the vital interests of the State” and the theft of State property.

Soviet Union / France – October 25-30, 1971 (KCA)
Brezhnev makes an official visit to France, the first he has made to a non-communist country since assuming his current office. He is given the reception of a Head of State. On October 27 a ten-year economic treaty is signed to increase Franco-Soviet trade. Renault signs a 200 million dollar deal to construct a diesel motor plant for the truck factory, Kama. On October 30, Brezhnev and President Pompidou issue a common declaration. They attach a “declaration of principle” in which they name five conditions of peaceful coexistence: the immutability of present boundaries, non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, equality, independence, renouncing the use of force and the threat to use force. The Soviet-French declaration states that it is not directed against any nation and does not involve the two countries’ obligations to other states.

Hungary / Soviet Union – October 25 – November 3, 1971 (HC)
A Hungarian Parliament delegation is staying in Moscow. (It is led by president of the Parliament, Antal Apró.)

Hungary / Eastern Block – October 26-29, 1971 (HC)
The meeting of the Ministers of Education of the socialist countries takes place in Budapest. (Hungary is represented by minister of education Pál Ilku.)

Soviet Union / Cuba – October 26-30, 1971 (KCA)
Kosygin pays an official visit to Havana, Cuba. Where he holds talks with Prime Minister Fidel Castro.

Poland / Warsaw Treaty Organization – October 26-29, 1971 (CAC / MMS)
A meeting of the WP Military Council in Warsaw decides to hold exercises with tactical missiles involving all member-states except Romania, which criticizes the mulitiplicity of training exercises by the Pact.

Hungary – October 27, 1971 (HC)
Government order no. 1045/1971 about further education allowances given to the children of manual workers is adopted.

Yugoslavia / Canada / U.K. / U.S. October 27-November 8, 1971 (BUS)    
Yugoslav President Tito visits the US, Canada, and the UK. On October 30, Tito meets Nixon, who calls the Yugoslav politician “a world statesman of the first rank.” He adds, ”May our friendship…always be steadfast and strong and may our dedication to the principle of the right of every nation in the world to be independent in a world of peace be as steadfast and strong .” A joint communiqué is issued after the second meeting of the U.S. and the Yugoslav leader according to which, “Yugoslavia’s policy of non-aligned policy has been a significant element in international relations. Countries following such a policy, together with the rest of the world can make an active contribution to the resolution of world problems and to the more favorable evolution of international relations.”

Hungary – October 28, 1971 (HC)
The polyethylene factory of the Tisza Chemical Combine is opened.

Hungary – October 29-30, 1971 (HC)
A national women’s conference takes place in the Parliament on the deficiencies of the success of the equality of rights.

Romania – October 30, 1971 (HOR)
With work beginning on September 7, 1964, the Hydroelectric Center at the Iron Gates on the Danube goes into operation, generating 1050 megawatts.

Soviet Union / East Germany (GDR) – October 30, 1971 (KCA)
Leaving France (see October 25, 1971), Brezhnev flies to East Berlin for talks with Erich Honecker, First Secretary of the East German Socialist Unity Party, before returning to Moscow. It is widely suggested that the purpose of his visit is to persuade the East German leaders to reach a speedy agreement with West Germany on Berlin, and thereby facilitate the holding of the proposed European security conference.


November 1971


Yugoslavia – November-December, 1971 (KCA)
A major political crisis in Yugoslavia arising out of the growth of nationalist feeling in the republic of Croatia, culminates in late 1971. Several prominent leaders of the Croatian League of Communists resign from office (see November 23, 1971 and December 6, 1971).

Sweden / UK / Hungary – November 2, 1971 (HC)
Dénes Gábor, scientist of Hungarian descent is awarded the Nobel-prize in physics.

Yugoslavia / Canada – November 2-8, 1971 (AY)
Yugoslav delegation headed by Josip Broz Tito visits Canada. President Tito discusses various international issues with Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, including non-aligned policy, the Indo-Pakistan conflict, Soviet policy towards European security and cooperation, crises in the Middle East and South Africa.


Hungary – November 3, 1971 (HC)
The meeting of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party takes place. The topics are the following: the international situation, the development of public administration and the party-control of the state work.

Romania – November 3-5, 1971 (HOR)
A program is adopted by the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, which lays the basis for a mini-cultural revolution in the country. It will be marked by the creation of a cult of personality built around Nicolae Ceauşescu. It will later also include his wife, Elena.

Hungary November 4, 1971 (HC)
Law decree no. 28 of 1971 of the Presidential Council about the amendment and addition of the penal code is adopted. Criminal acts are divided according to their social danger to crimes and offences; it restores life sentence; introduces four classes of prison.

Soviet Union / U.S. November 5, 1971 (BUS) 
The U.S. sells wheat valued at 136 million dollars to the Soviet Union. The agreement was made possible by the fact that the American Seamen’s Union withdrew their demand to ship 50% of the wheat in American vessels.

Hungary – November 6, 1971 (HC)
The opera Vérnász [Blood Wedding] by Sándor Szokolay is presented at a gala celebrating November 7, the anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – November 7-8, 1971 (AY)
Yugoslav delegation led by President Josip Broz Tito visits the U.K. on their return from Canada, and meets with British Prime Minister Edward Heath. President Tito informs British Prime Minister about his latest meetings and talks with American, Soviet, and Third World leaders, thereby underlining Yugoslav non-aligned policy and independence. On November 8th Queen Elisabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh receive President Tito and his spouse Jovanka in Buckingham Palace.

Soviet Union / West Germany – November 11, 1971 (KCA)
In Bonn, an agreement is concluded for a bi-weekly air service between Moscow and Frankfurt-am-Main, by George Leber, Federal Minister of Transportation and Boris Bugayev, Soviet Minister of Civil Aviation. The service commences on February 1, 1972.

East Germany (GDR) – November 14, 1971 (KCA)
Elections for a new Volkskammer are held in East Germany, as well as elections for a new Municipal Assembly are held in East Berlin, and elections for 14 Regional Assemblies.

Romania / GATT – November 14, 1971 (HOR / CER)
Romania becomes a member of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

Soviet Union / U.S. - November 15-February 4, 1972 (KCA)
The sixth round of SALT talks between the U.S. and Soviet Union take place in Vienna. On February 4, a joint communiqué is issued stating that progress was made on a number of issues and both delegations express their continued support for further talks in the near future.

Poland / Soviet Union - November 15, 1971 (PSM)
Poland and the Soviet Union sign an agreement on tourism.

Hungary / Italy – November 15-19, 1971 (HC)
Hungarian Economic Days are organized in Italy.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 16, 1971 (HC)
Minister of Heavy Industry Gyula Szekér signs the agreement in Moscow about the construction of the Hungarian-Soviet pipe-line.

Soviet Union / U.S. November 18, 1971 (BUS)    
The US Department of Commerce announces that it has permitted US companies to sell the USSR 528 million dollars’ worth of equipment and technical data for the construction of the Kama truck factory. The department’s spokesman said that the license would allow American businessmen to participate in the international competition for the construction of the truck factory.

Poland / Soviet Union / U.S. November 20, 1971 (BUS)
U.S. Secretary of Commerce, Maurice H. Stans and Soviet Chairman of the Council of Ministers Kosygin negotiate improving bilateral trade relations in Moscow. In the course of his visit, the USSR bought 25 million dollars’ worth of mining and oil drilling equipment from U.S. firms. After Moscow, Stans visits Poland. He says that the U.S. “sets its sight on a substantial increase in trade with Poland.” Stans also announces that he will recommend the extension to Poland of credits through the U.S. Export-Import Bank.

Hungary / Romania – November 20-23, 1971 (HC)
Foreign minister János Péter negotiates in Romania.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 22-23, 1971 (HC)
The national meeting of the Hungarian-Soviet Friendly Society takes place. (Chairman: Antal Apró.)

United Nations – November 23, 1971 (KCA)
The UN General Assembly elects India, Yugoslavia, Sudan, Guinea, and Panama to the Security Council for two-year terms, beginning on January 1, 1971.

Yugoslavia / Romania – November 23-24, 1971 (AY)
Josip Broz Tito visits Romania, and meets with Romanian President Nicolae Ceausescu. They discuss bilateral and international issues.


Bulgaria / Hungary – November 23-27, 1971 (HC)
Bulgarian Chairman of the Council of Ministers Stanko Todorov negotiates in Budapest.

Yugoslavia – November 23-December 3, 1971 (KCA)
Students of the Zagreb University begin a strike in support of the Croatian leadership, which is currently conducting negotiations at the Federal level for a larger share of foreign exchange earnings. On November 26, students at Split join the strike. The strike lasts until December 3.

Czechoslovakia – November 26-27, 1971 (KCA)
General elections are held in Czechoslovakia for the Federal Assembly, the two national Councils, and the regional and local councils. They are the first general elections since 1964. The turnout is 99.45 % and for both Houses 99.8 % are cast in favor of the joint list presented by the communist-dominated National Front.

East Germany (GDR) – November 26 and 29, 1971 (KCA)
The newly elected Volkskammer (see November 14, 1971) meets to nominate the members of the Council of State (supreme legislative and executive organ) and to approve the new Council of Ministers.

Soviet Union / Niger – November 26-December 2, 1971 (KCA)
A Soviet delegation headed by Alexei Shvedov visits Niger. December 6, 1971: In Moscow, it is announced that the USSR and the Republic of Niger have agreed to establish diplomatic relations at the ambassadorial level.

Hungary / COMECON – November 29-December 3, 1971 (HC)
The 41st session of the Permanent Transportation Committee of the COMECON takes place in Budapest. The topics are the following: shipment and transportation on the Danube; navigational cooperation in trading.

Hungary / Algeria / Congo/ Guinea – November 29-December 14, 1971 (HC)
Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi pays a visit to Africa. (Stations: Algeria, Guinea, Congo.)

Poland / Malta – November 30, 1971 (KCA)
A trade agreement with Poland is signed in Valetta by Paul Xuereb, the Maltese Minister of Trade, Industry, Agriculture and Tourism, and Stanisław Długosz, Director of the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

U.S. / Romania November 30, 1971 (BUS)
President Nixon empowers the Export-Import Bank to grant credit to Romania for the purchase of U.S. goods. According to the Export Expansion Finance Act passed in August, the President may make such concessions to communist states if it is in the national interest of the United States.

Poland / Warsaw Treaty Organization – November 30-December 1, 1971 (CAC / MMS)
A Warsaw meeting of Foreign Ministers appeals for accelerated preparations for a security conference, aiming to convene it in 1972.


December 1971

East Germany / West Germany – December 1971 (BES)
Convention between FRG and GDR signed regarding the transit of civilians and goods between the FRG and West Berlin.

Hungary – December 1, 1971 (HC)
The session of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party takes place. Member of the party’s political committee Rezső Nyers speaks about the people’s economic plan of 1972 and the socialist work competition.

Hungary – December 2, 1971 (HC)
Government order no. 1048 of 1971 about the harmonization of the industrial activities of the agricultural co-operatives and the people’s economic aims and no. 41 of 1971 about the definition of the scope of activities of the co-operatives are adopted.

Yugoslavia – December 1-2, 1971 (HR)
The 21st Meeting of the Presidency of the LCY takes place. The nationalistic and separatist politics of the leadership of the LCC is condemned. The current leadership headed by Savka Dabčević Kučar and Miko Tripalo is dismissed.

Soviet Union – December 5, 1971 (KCA)
The Soviet Government officially attributes the blame for the Indo-Pakistan war to Pakistan in a statement. December 6, 1971: Official statements from the PRC conversely blame India for the conflict and accuse the USSR of encouraging Indian “aggression.”

Soviet Union / Niger – December 6, 1971 (KCA)
Following a Soviet delegation’s visit to Niger between November 26 and December 2, it is announced in Moscow that the Soviet Union and the Republic of Niger have agreed to establish diplomatic relations at an ambassadorial level.

Yugoslavia – December 6, 1971 (KCA)
A meeting of the Executive Committee of the Croatian League of Communists is held. After the meeting a statement is released in which President Tito’s criticisms of the Croatian leadership are accepted as justified and in which it is announced that “nationalist, chauvinist, secessionist and counter-revolutionary elements” will be combated (see December 11-14, 1971).

Poland – December 6-11, 1971 (KCA/ HC)
PUWP First Secretary Gierek’s position is greatly strengthened at the Sixth Congress of the PUWP. During the Congress, the Partisan faction was severely weakened after its leader General Moczar was not reelected to the Politburo. In addition, the former First Secretary Gomułka and his supporters were not reelected to the Central Committee.

U.K. / U.S. December 7, 1971 (BUS)  
NATO’s Eurogroup decides that the member states will increase their defense expenditures by one billion dollars. According to British Secretary of Defense Lord Carrington, the United States can be well satisfied with what Europe is doing. He states to journalists that those who criticize European efforts do so without knowing the facts. He adds that the European members constitute 90% of NATO’s ground forces, 75% of its air force and 80% of its navy.

Hungary – December 8-11, 1971 (HC)
The 8th Congress of the Young Communist League takes place. (The first Secretary of the YCL is István Horváth.)

Czechoslovakia – December 9, 1971 (KCA)
Following the general elections of November 1971, Lubomír Štrougal, the Prime Minister, forms a new Federal Government.

Soviet Union / U.S. December 9, 1971 (BUS)  
Soviet Minister of Agriculture Vladimir U. Matskevich announces that his country wants to buy American agricultural machinery and licenses to manufacture tractors and combine-harvesters by the “millions” in the USSR.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – December 9, 1971 (JBT)
Soviet Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Baibakov visits Yugoslavia and meets with President Josip Broz Tito to discuss economic cooperation.

NATO – December 9-10, 1971 (KCA)
The Winter Meeting of the North Atlantic Council is held in Brussels, and is attended by Foreign and Defense Ministers from 15 member countries. At the conclusion of the meeting, a communiqué is issued that includes discussions of: the Aims of the Alliance; Southern Asia, European Developments; Trade and Monetary Policy; Berlin and Germany; European Security Conference; Mutual Balance of Force Reduction; SALT talks; Disarmament and Arms Control; Mediterranean; Committee on Challenges of Modern Society; the Next Ministerial Meeting; and the Transmission of a Communiqué.

Yugoslavia – December 11-14, 1971 (KCA)
In the course of a meeting of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Croatia, held to discuss the crisis, Savka Dabčević-Kučar (the Chairman of the Croatian League of Communists) announces that both she and Pero Pirker (the Secretary of the Executive Committee) are resigning from their official positions and from the League of Communists. On the night of December 13-14, Milka Planinc and Josip Vrhovec, both members of the Executive Committee, are elected Chairman of the Croatian League of Communists and Secretary of the Executive Committee respectively.

East Germany / West Germany – December 11-20, 1971, KCA:
Berlin and Bonn, Representatives from East Germany and West Germany meet for talks December 11-18, which are concluded despite setbacks. On December 20, West German Chancellor Brandt and Foreign Minister Scheel issue a comprehensive memorandum to the Western Allies informing them of the results of talks with the East German Government on transit traffic and the signing of the final protocol of the Four Power Agreement. The three Western Powers conclude in official statements that the agreements should be included in the final protocols which they are willing to sign at any time. The USSR issues a corresponding declaration; although expressing satisfaction with the agreements, the statement concludes that dates for signing of the protocol are yet to be fixed.

Yugoslavia/Afghanistan, December 12-13, 1971 (JBT)
Mohammed Zahir Shah, king of Afghanistan, visits Yugoslavia.


Hungary / Yugoslavia – December 15-17, 1971 (HC)
Yugoslavian President of the Federal Executive Council Džemal Bijedić negotiates in Hungary.

Bulgaria – December 16, 1971 (KCA)
Petar Mladenov is elected as the new Foreign Minister by the National Assembly. Previously, on December 13, Ivan Bashev, then Foreign Minister, was killed while skiing on Mount Vitosha, near Sofia.

Romania – December 16-17, 1971 (KCA)
The Grand National Assembly passes a new law on safeguarding state secrets. The new law imposes severe penalties for transmitting state secrets to foreigners. State secrets are widely defined as “information, data or documents which obviously have this character, as well as those declared and qualified as such by decision of the Council of Ministers.

Romania – December 17, 1971 (CEC)
A new law is passed regarding the keeping of state secrets. It forbids the publication of and contact with foreign mass media. 

Hungary – December 20-21, 1971 (HC)
The Parliament is in session. The budget of the year 1972 is adopted.

United Nations – December 21, 1971 (KCA)
Kurt Waldheim, the Austrian Minister Representative at the UN, is chosen by the Security Council to be Secretary-General of the UN, succeeding U Thant.

Poland – December 22, 1971 (KCA)
A session of the Sejm decides that the Parliament should be dissolved on February 15, 1972, a year before its term expired.

United Nations - December 22, 1971 (HC)
The UN General Assembly elects Kurt Waldheim. He enters into office on January 1, 1972.

US / USSR – December 31, 1971 (LBC)
NASA announces that a Soviet-American space research information agreement will be signed.

Soviet Union / Finland – December 23, 1971 (TFD)
An agreement is made on economic, technological, and industrial co-operation between Finland and the Soviet Union. 

Hungary – December 24, 1971 (HC)
Law decree no. 33 of 1971 about pension allowance stimulating further work is adopted.

Soviet Union – December 24, 1971 (KCA)
The Soviet State Bank announces a new rate against the dollar of 82.9 kopecks, compared with the previous rate of 90 kopecks per dollar,,while maintaining the existing parity against gold. This is an effective upward revaluation of the rouble in dollar terms of 8.57 %.

Soviet Union / Malta – December 27, 1971 (KCA)
A Maltese-Soviet trade agreement is signed by Paul Xuereb, the Maltese Minister of Trade, Industry, Agriculture and Tourism, and A. E. Petrushev, Deputy Chairman of the State Committee of the Council of Ministers for Foreign Economic Relations.

Hungary - During the year, 1971 (HC)
According to the data of the Central Statistical Office the population of Hungary is 10 374 000 strong.

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016