The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Research Chair, Center of Social Sciences, Institute for Political Science,
Hungarian Academy of Sciences;
Founding Director, Cold War History Research
Center, Budapest;
Professor of History, Corvinus University of Budapest
Institute of International Studies

Associate editor

University of Szeged


Assistant editors




Izabel ÁCS, Chiara BERTUCCO, Noah BUYON, Megan DIBBLE, Marco GIACOMAZZI, Anusha GURUNG, Solveig HANSEN, Zsálya HAADI-NAGY, Konrad HYZY, Tomas KOLAR, Thomas KOLLMANN, Roman KOZIEL, Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Oleksandr MURASHEVYCH, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Roland PAPP, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Martin ROMAIN, François  ROPARS, Vjenceslav RUPCIC, Lili SIKLÓS, Marcello TOMASINA, Zita Bettina VASAS, Aniello VERDE, Dóra VERESS, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, András ZÁM

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016


The publication and the preceding research were sponsored by the Hungarian Cultural Fund


At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The third part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1968 to 1980. The years 1980–1991 will be available by the end of 2017.

The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


List of Sources


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016

ISBN 978-963-12-7940-5


Chronology 1977


Poland – 1977 (HDP)
Underground monthly Głos (The Voice) is founded. It is supposed to serve as an organ of the democratic movement. Until December 1981, 35 issues are released, after the imposition of martial law it appears infrequently

Poland – 1977 (HDP)
NOWA (Independent Publishing House), one of the biggest underground publishing houses in communist Poland, is established.

Romania – 1977 (CEC)
It is reported that Romania has a $3.6 billion dollar external debt.

West-Germany – late 1977 (KNC)
Professor Maihofer, Hans-Georg Faust and Karl Dirnhofer are arrested in connection with documents on the Traube Affair. Due to these documents, Traube has been victim of illegal electronic monitoring by BND without the Interior Minister’s prior knowledge.


January 1977


Czechoslovakia – January 1, 1977 (PSCZ)
The opposition issues the manifesto Charta ’77, demanding the fulfillment of commitments ratified in The Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, known as the Helsinki Final Act and the International Covenants of the UN from 1966 (ratified in Czechoslovakia in 1976, see January 1976). The text of the manifesto is not published.

East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) – January 1, 1977 (KCA)
Under a new passport law, all visitors to the GDR or East Berlin will need a valid visa until the midnight on the day of entry. At the same time, all control points between East Berlin and the GDR are withdrawn as East Berlin is perceived by the Soviet Union as an integral part of the GDR.

Romania – January 1, 1977 (PER / ADC)
Paul Goma issues a public letter calling for respect for human rights in Romania and for Romanians to sign Charter ’77 (an informal civic initiative). It is read on Radio Free Europe. As a result, he is excluded from the Writers' Union of Romania and is repeatedly followed, arrested, and tortured by the Securitate. On November 20, 1977, Paul Goma and his family leave Romania and go into exile in France.

Hungary - January 1, 1977 (HC)
A new wages tariff system enters into force. The broadcast time of the second TV program in the TV is increased to 6 days.

Hungary – January 1977 (KCA)
Imre Miklós, Secretary of State and Chairman of the State Office for Church Affairs, writes that: “There are wide sections of believers among the supporters of the HSWP and the Government, for masses of believers also take part in the construction of socialism without in any way giving up their religious conviction.” He states that there is religious education on an optional basis in general and secondary grammar schools, and that the Church is free to teach the catechism, hold masses for children and organize courses to prepare applicants for first communion, confirmation, and religious weddings.

Soviet Union / Chile – January 4, 1977 (KCA)
At an official rally in his honor in Moscow, Luis Corvalán calls for the formation of a united front of all democratic forces against the “military dictatorship” in Chile. He specially appeals to the Christian Democrats to join the front, saying that in the interests of restoring democracy in Chile the former deep conflicts between the various political parties should be resolved in order jointly to overthrow the military junta. (See his release from Chile on December 18 and November 17, 1976).

Soviet Union – January 4, 1977 (KCA)
Vladimir Borisov, a founder-member of the Committee for Human Rights in 1970, is reported to have refused to emigrate under conditions such as the application in the case of Vladimir Bukovsky unless he is first declared sane and released from the mental hospital which he has been since December 25 last year. He will be declared sane, but the doctors will be instructed not to release him.

Soviet Union – January 4, 1977 (KCA)
Police searches are carried at the homes of Yury Orlov, the Chairman of the Public Group to assist the Fulfillment of the Helsinki Accords in the Soviet Union, Alexander Ginsburg, Ludmilla Alexeyeva, and Lidia Voronina.

Soviet Union – January 5, 1977 (KCA)
Yury Orlov is temporarily detained for questioning about his allegation of “spreading of deliberate fabrications slandering the Soviet system. He will be arrested on February 10, 1977.

Soviet Union – January 5, 1977 (KCA)
At a press conference of the Helsinki Group led by Yury Orlov, Major-General Pyotr Grigorenko announces the formation of a commission to control psychiatric repression with the object of preparing appeals to the Soviet authorities as well as to public opinion inside and outside the U.S.S.R.

Romania – January 5-12, 1977 (HOR)
A population census reveals a total of 21,559,416 inhabitants in the country.

Czechoslovakia – January 6 – 7, 1977 (KCA)
Western newspapers report that allegations of the non-observance of human rights in Czechoslovakia were made in a manifesto.

Soviet Union – January 6, 1977 (KCA)
Rudolf Barchai, founder and conductor of the Moscow Chamber Orchestra, leaves the U.S.S.R. for Vienna. He has been granted a visa for Israel after he was prevented from accompanying his orchestra.

Soviet Union – January 7, 1977 (KCA)
Aleander Ginsburg, who is the administrator of a fund set up by Alexander Solzhenitsyn to aid political prisoners and their families in the Soviet Union, says that 5,000 rubles belonging to the fund has been seized by the police.

Hungary - January 10, 1977 (HC)
The General Assembly of the Hungarian Film and TV Artists’ Association takes place (Chairman: Zoltán Fábri).
Hungary - January 10, 1977 (HC)
Prices are increased (the consumer price of tinned and frozen food increases by 25%, the price of coffee increases by 30%.)
Hungary / Turkey  - January 10, 1977 (HC)
Foreign minister Frigyes Puja travels to Turkey for a 5-day meeting.

Soviet Union – January 10, 1977 (KCA)
Yury Mnyukh, a physicist present during the search by Soviet officials at Alexander Ginsburg’s flat, appeals for contributions to replenish Solzhenitsyn’s fund for political prisoners and their families.

Soviet Union – January 10, 1977 (KCA)
TASS announces that “an explosion of low intensity” has taken place on January 8 on a Moscow underground railway line. Several passengers were injured and the inquiry is under way.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – January 10-12, 1977 (HC)
Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs István Rosta runs consultations in the Czechoslovakian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 11, 1977 (KCA)
A group of 29 Leningrad Jews ask the “Helsinki Committee” of the U.S. Congress, which is investigating questions of human rights, to draw up an internationally valid definition of “state secrets” because the Soviet authorities refuse permission to emigrate to persons allegedly in possession of secret information.

Hungary - January 11-12, 1977 (HC)
The leaders of the writers’ associations of the socialist countries hold a meeting in Budapest.
Hungary / Italy – January 11-14, 1977 (HC)
Minister of Finance Lajos Faluvégi negotiates in Italy.

Yugoslavia / East Germany – January 12-15, 1977 (JBT)
General Secretary of the United Socialist Workers’ Party and President of the State Council of East Germany Erich Honecker makes an official visit to Yugoslavia during which he meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito.

Czechoslovakia – January 12, 1977 (KCA/ PSCZ)
Rudé právo, the official newspaper of the state, writes that the manifesto “Charta ‘77” is a “reactionary and shameful document” which will not be published in Czechoslovakia, and it attacks several signatories by name. It states that the manifesto is in fact “commissioned by anti-communist and Zionist centers and published by the most reactionary media”, and it adds that “those who place hurdles in the path of socialism and infringe the laws of the socialist state must expect to face the consequences”.
The article refers to the signatories of the manifesto as “political and social ship-wrecks, persons who have broken all ties with the people of their country”. Those who are criticized by the newspaper are – among others –  Jiří Hájek, Václav Havel, Pavel Kohout, and František Kriegel.  The signatories of the “Charta ‘77” are harshly persecuted.


Hungary / Spain – January 12-16, 1977 (NMC)
Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs János Nagy runs consultations in the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

US / Soviet Union – January 12, 1977 (LBC
An editor of Literaturnaia Gazeta is refused a visa to the US. The visa was denied because earlier Moscow failed to grant a visa to a congressional group, which was meant to monitor the execution of the Helsinki accord.

Czechoslovakia – January 13, 1977 (KCA)
Izvestia denounces the signatories of the manifesto “Charta ‘77” as “a group of people from the prostate wrecks of the Czechoslovak bourgeoisie and organizers of the 1968 counter-revolution”, and claims that their document contained “false and crude calumnies against Czechoslovakia, its achievements, its social system and its workers”.

Soviet Union / Amnesty International – January 13, 1977 (KCA)
Amnesty International maintains in a statements that since the signing of the Helsinki agreements on August 1, 1975, there have been convictions of last 90 Soviet “dissidents”, and that there has also been increasing application of new techniques of political persecution, such as harassment of prisoners, reprisals against friends and relatives, and the lodging of false criminal charges.

Soviet Union / U.K. – January 13, 1977 (KCA)
British Prime Minister James Callaghan says that the matters such as the release of people from the Soviet Union are not always achieved by public gestures but are best achieved privately. On the same day, Vladimir Bukovsky, who was released from the Soviet Union due to a prisoner exchange agreement between the Soviet Union and Chile, criticizes Callaghan: “It is difficult for me to imagine a real British gentleman who is trying to move deals in private with murderers. It seems to me that all these illusions about the possibility of doing things behind closed doors are based on wrong assumptions.” Bukovsky is on a 10-day visit to Britain.

Soviet Union – January 14, 1977 (KCA)
The implication that dissidents might be responsible for the explosions on January 10, 1977, is refuted in a statement signed by 300 Soviet dissidents, representing different groups and led by Andrei Sakharov. He says that the allegation is “obviously provocative” and suggests as a possibility that the explosion might have been caused by the KGB as part of tactics to discredit the dissident movement.

Soviet Union – January 14, 1977 (KCA)
Luis Corvalán is awarded the Order of Lenin in Moscow.

Hungary - January 14, 1977 (HC)
A socialist work competition is announced in the Iron and Metalworks in Csepel in honor of the 60th anniversary of the great October Socialist Revolution (November 7). (January 27: General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union L. I. Brezhnev writes a letter to the people of Csepel.)
Romania / Syria – February 15-16, 1977 (PER)
The President of Syria, Hafez al-Asaad, visits Romania.

Czechoslovakia – January 17, 1977 (KCA)
A number of signatories of the manifesto are reported to lose their jobs; among them are František Jiránek and Radom Palouš, both assistant professors at the Charles University in Prague.

Soviet Union – January 17, 1977 (KCA)
Kronid Lyubarski, an astrophysicist, is released from the Vladimir prison east of Moscow. He will be put under restriction instead. Lyubarski’s case draws attention from both the public and the authorities to Vasily Fedorenko, a Ukrainian who is sentenced to 15 years in prison for treason.

Czechoslovakia – January 18, 1977 (KCA)
It is reported that the widow of Rudolf Slánský appealed to President Gustáv Husák not to persecute the signatories of the manifesto, reminding him that he had once been persecuted in the 1950s by saying that: “more than 10,000 resolutions had demanded the death penalty for you”. Gustáv Husák was previously sentenced to life imprisonment in April 1954.

US / Soviet Union – January 18, 1977 (LBC)
The new US ambassador to Moscow presents his credentials. Moscow held back the agreement for over two months, which is usually granted automatically. The delay was attributed to the fact that the Soviet leadership was unhappy about the appointment, since the ambassador’s views on Soviet-American relations are thought to be hard line. – In a speech given in Tula, Brezhnev urges the ratification of the Vladivostok agreement without renegotiation.

Yugoslavia – January 18, 1977 (KCA)
 Džemal Bijedić, the Yugoslav President of the Federal Executive Council and a native of Bosnia-Herzegovina, is killed together with his wife and six other persons, when their twin-engine jet executive aircraft crashes in a blizzard near Sarajevo.

Yugoslavia / Libya – January 18-20, 1977 (AY)
President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito visits Libya. He meets with Libyan leader Muammar el Gaddafi to discuss both bilateral and international issues, with special emphasis on the Middle East crisis.


Austria – January 19, 1977 (KCA)
Austrian People’s Party (OVP) calls for an extraordinary parliamentary session to debate a motion of no-confidence in Karl Lütgendorf and to set up a parliamentary commission of inquiry, while the Freedom Party (FPÖ) tables a motion of no-confidence in the whole Government.

Czechoslovakia / Western socialists – January 19, 1977 (KCA)
Rudé právo issues a warning against any intervention in Czechoslovakia’s internal affairs by Western socialists and particularly rebuked Bruno Kreisky, the Austrian Federal Chancellor, for saying that he will consult other West European socialists on ways of helping human rights campaigners in Czechoslovakia.

Hungary / West Germany – January 19-20, 1977 (HC)
Günter van Well, Executive Director of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Federal Republic of Germany, runs consultations in Budapest.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – January 20, 1977 (KCA)
Ferenc Fehér, a Hungarian dissident Marxist, discloses that some 28 Hungarian intellectuals have sent the Charter 77 group a letter expressing solidarity and protesting against Czechoslovak Government reprisals against its members.

Czechoslovakia / U.K. – January 20, 1977 (KCA)
The Political Committee of the British Communist Party states that allegations made by Rudé právo about the manifesto being “an anti-state, anti-socialist and demagogic pamphlet’ by authors speaking from “cosmopolitan positions” and rejecting socialism as a social system” are “nowhere…backed by a single quotation from the document”.

Yugoslavia / Libya – January 20, 1977 (KCA)
President Tito of Yugoslavia returns to the country from Tripoli, Libya, where he has exchanged views with Colonel Mouammar Kadhafi, the Chairman of the Libyan Revolutionary Command Council, without carrying out an intended visit to Egypt for talks with President Anwar Sadat.

Hungary / Soviet Union – January 20-28, 1977 (HC)
Minister of Domestic Trade Vilmos Sághy pays an official visit to the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 21, 1977 (KCA)
Andrei Sakharov, the Nobel Peace Prize winner in 1975, appeals to the newly-inaugurated U.S. President Jimmy Carter to intervene in favor of political prisoners in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

Hungary - January 22, 1977 (HC)
The re-inaugurating meeting of the 100-member synod, the chief body of the Reformed Church in Hungary, takes place.

Czechoslovakia – January 22, 1977 (KCA)
President Gustáv Husák attacks the manifesto for the first time by saying that: “A pamphlet issued by 200 or 300 persons against socialist Czechoslovakia can’t have effect on the situation in our country”. Meanwhile, Rudé právo, the official newspaper of the state, declares that: “In a socialist state there will never be freedom for counter-revolutionary agitation, never democracy for the class enemy. Nobody will obtain the right to slander and betray the working class and the people publicly and with impunity.”

Czechoslovakia / U.K. – January 23, 1977 (KCA)
During its campaign against the Charter 77 supporters, Czechoslovak television accuses four British nationals – Richard Davy, Sir Cecil Parrott, Sir William Barker, and Cyril Jonsen – of working for British intelligence. A British Foreign Office spokesman will describe the charges as “quite untrue” on the following day.

Czechoslovakia - January 23, 1977 (KCA)
Pavel Kohout expresses surprise at the severity of the Government’s campaign against the Charter 77 supporters, seeing that President Gustáv Husák’s regime has repeatedly stated that Czechoslovakia has overcome the “trauma of 1968” and that there is no counter-revolutionary danger in the country. Besides, the sponsors of Charter 77 publish a new document describing political, social and religious discrimination applying to entrants to higher education and demanding an immediate end to these practices.

Czechoslovakia / Austria – January 25, 1977 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak ambassador in Vienna asks the Austrian Foreign Minister whether it will accept political exiles of the signatories of the manifesto.

Czechoslovakia / France – January 25, 1977 (KCA)
Georges Marchais, the Secretary-General of the French party, condemns the Czechoslovak authorities, saying that “the normal reaction should not have been repressive measures but discussion with those concerned”.

Romania – January 25, 1977 (KCA)
There are major changes in the Romanian Government in the leader of the Romanian Communist Party at a meeting of the Political Executive Committee (PEC) of the party’s Central Committee chaired by President Ceauşescu. The purpose of the changes is to strengthen leadership activity in the field of party and state work and to ensure a better fulfillment of the tasks envisaged in the decisions of the 11th Congress and by party and state policy.

Soviet Union – January 25, 1977 (KCA)
Andrei Sakharov, the Nobel Peace Prize winner in 1975, discloses that he has received “a very severe warning” from Sergei Gusev, Deputy Procurator-General, for having “defamed the Soviet Union” by accusing the KGB of being the perpetrator of the explosion on January 8, 1977. He also adds that he has refused to sign a disavowal of his statement by telling Gusev that his activities are not illegal. He confirms to continue to deal with specific cases of abuses of human rights on an individual basis.

Hungary / COMECON / Cuba – January 26, 1977 (HC)
Deputy Prime Ministers Gyula Szekér and Castilla run negotiations concerning mutual connections in Cuba at a session of the Comecon’s Executive Committee.

Austria – January 26, 1977 (KCA)
The Nationalrat (Lower House of the Federal Parliament) rejects motions of no-confidence from Austrian People’s Party and the Freedom Party, who called for no-confidence motion in Karl Lütgendorf and the whole government, respectively. However, the Nationalrat agrees to set up a parliamentary commission of inquiry to report back to the House.

Czechoslovakia / ICFTU / ILO – January 26, 1977 (KCA)
It is reported that the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), which inter alia sends a complaint to the International Labor Office (ILO) about Czechoslovakia’s “violations of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights”.

Czechoslovakia / U.S. – January 26, 1977 (KCA)
The U.S. State Department notes that the signatories of the manifesto in Czechoslovakia have reportedly been harassed or arrested, and declares that it will always strongly deplore “violations of rights and freedoms”.

Czechoslovakia / Austria – January 27, 1977 (KCA)
Bruno Kreisky, the Austrian Federal Chancellor, says that all signatories of the manifesto in Czechoslovakia will be welcome in Austria if they come of their own free will but that any attempt to deport them will be an infringement of the Helsinki declaration and may endanger its review in Belgrade later in 1977.

Soviet Union – January 27, 1977 (KCA)
Ernest Neizvestny, the Soviet sculptor, says in London that Alexander Zinoviev has asked for his help in drawing attention to his case in the Soviet Union. Zinoviev was threatened with dismissal from the Philosophical Institute in Moscow for publishing an “anti-Soviet” book in Switzerland.

Soviet Union/U.S. – January 27, 1977 (KCA)
A statement from the U.S. State Department refers to Andrei Sakharov as “an outspoken champion of human rights in the Soviet Union.” It adds that: “Any attempts by Soviet authorities to intimidate Sakharov will not silence legitimate criticism in the Soviet Union and will conflict with accepted international standards in the fields of human rights.”

US / Soviet Union – January 27, 1977 (LBC)
President Carter instructs the NSC to prepare to resume the SALT II talks with the USSR. The two sides are unable to agree whether to include in the Vladivostok agreement the Soviet Backfire strategic bomber and the US cruise missiles.
On March 30, 1977. – The State Department releases a declaration in defense of Andrei Sakharov. “Any attempts by the Soviet authorities to intimidate Mr. Sakharov will not silence legitimate criticism in the Soviet Union and will conflict with international standards in the field of human rights.” This is the first time the State Department spoke out for a member of the Soviet opposition. Carter said that he did not see the text but it was “his attitude”. He added: “preaching to other governments” may increase tension but the Soviet Union had to be made aware of “our deep commitment to human rights and our inclination to be at peace with the Soviet Union”.

Czechoslovakia – January 28, 1977 (KCA)
It emerges that no signatories of the manifesto want to leave Czechoslovakia. They aim to appeal to their Government.

Czechoslovakia / Norway / Italy – January 29, 1977 (KCA)
The Norwegian Government announces that it has postponed the Czechoslovak Minister of Foreign Trade, Andrej Barčák’s visit due to start on January 31 because the moment for it is “not appropriate”, while Signor Arnaldo Forlani, the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs, refuses on the same day to meet his Czechoslovak counterpart during a stopover in Prague.

Czechoslovakia / West Germany / Austria / Denmark / Iceland / Sweden – January 29, 1977 (KCA)
Leaders of the Social Democratic parties of Denmark, West Germany, Iceland, and Sweden, as well as Bruno Kreisky, the Austrian Federal Chancellor, meet in Stockholm to discuss ways of aiding the civil rights movement in Czechoslovakia.

Soviet Union / U.S. – January 29, 1977 (KCA)
Anatoly Dobrynin, the Soviet ambassador in Washington complains about the U.S. State Department’s statement on January 27 referring to Sakharov, while TASS also attacks the statement. President Jimmy Carter discloses on the following day that the statement by the U.S. State Department on January 27 was made without his knowledge.

Soviet Union / US – January 30, 1977 (LBC)
The report of the Joint Chiefs of Staff on Soviet military strength is published. According to the “available data” shows that the Soviet Union has not achieved strategic superiority over the US, but it does have such aspirations. The report says that the US second strike capability will continue to suffice into the 1980s.

Czechoslovakia – January 31, 1977 (KCA)
The Public Prosecutor in Prague tells Jiří Hájek that his movement contravenes Article 4 of the Czechoslovak constitution, under which the Communist Party was established as the “leading force” in society and the state.

Czechoslovakia – January 31, 1977 (KCA)
Bohuslav Chňoupek, the Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia, declares: “We have respected and fulfilled the provisions of the Helsinki conference in all its aspects from the very start… Since the signing of the Helsinki agreement we have concluded 150 various agreements, contracts and protocols, 37 of them with other signatories of the Final Act. We have also ratified the international declaration on human rights.”

Hungary / Yugoslavia – January 31 - February 2, 1977 (HC)
Yugoslavian Minister of Foreign Affairs Miloš Minić pays an official three day friendly visit to Budapest.

February 1977

Czechoslovakia / U.K. – February 1, 1977 (KCA)
Lord Goronwy-Robers, Minister of State at the U.K. Foreign and Commonwealth Office, informs Mečislav Jablonský, the Czechoslovak ambassador in London that the allegations against four British nationals by a Czechoslovak television are “not likely to improve relations” between the two countries, and he also warns him that great concern has been aroused in Britain over aspects of Czechoslovak policy which are widely thought to be at against the Helsinki declaration.

Czechoslovakia / U.S. – February 1, 1977 (KCA)
Rudé právo accuses the U.S. State Department of using false information to create “an international atmosphere unfavorable to the aims of the Helsinki conference”. [See also the claim by the U.S. State Department on January 26, 1977.]

Czechoslovakia / U.K. – February 2, 1977 (KCA)
Anthony Croslan, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Secretary, declares in the House of Commons that his Government’s commitment to human rights remains “absolutely firm and strong” and that the incidents connected with the Charta ‘77 initiative in Czechoslovakia are bound to come up at the Belgrade conference and to “color some of the discussions” which will take place there.

Soviet Union – February 2, 1977 (KCA)
Alexander Ginsburg, the administrator of a fund set up by Alexander Solzhenitsyn to aid political prisoners and their families in the Soviet Union, states that since the fund’s creation it has disbursed 270,000 rubles, and that he has never received any convertible currency from abroad. He will be arrested the following day.

Bulgaria – February 4, 1977 (KCA)
Ivan Nedev is replaced as Minister of Foreign Trade by his First Deputy Minister, Khristo I. Khristov.

Czechoslovakia – February 5, 1977 (KCA)
Rudé právo comments on the signatories that: “Regardless of whether they are politically naïve or politically insidious, they are objectively playing a sorry role in the actions of rabid anti-communism.” It also describes the Charter 77 objectives as “to disrupt the peaceful climate in the country, to divert attention from the problems of the capitalist countries beset by unemployment, inflation and an economic, social and moral bankruptcy, to inculcate in the people of the West the fear of socialism, and to obstruct international détente”.

Czechoslovakia – February 7, 1977 (KCA)
In a television interview broadcast in Vienna, Jiří Hájek states that the signatories of the manifesto -- who regard themselves as Marxists -- feel that respect for the Civil Rigths Covenant will mean, on the other hand, “a deepening of the Czechoslovak socialist system towards democracy, humanism and greater efficiency” and, on the other hand, “a contribution to progress of détente in Europe.”

Czechoslovakia – February 7, 1977 (KCA)
Vasil Biľak, a Secretary of the Communist Party’s Central Committee and a member of its Politburo, says in a speech before party functionaries that the true object of the signatories of the Charta 77 manifesto is to coordinate hostile attacks against the entire community of socialist states. He claims that the party has the broad support of the people of Czechoslovakia and issues a warning that those who think that the tolerance of the leadership signified weakness and are moving towards confrontation will have to bear the consequences.

Soviet Union – February 7, 1977 (KCA)
Mikola Rudenko is reported to have been arrested in Kiev, whereas Olexy Tikhy, a teacher, has been arrested in Donetsk.

US / Soviet Union – February 7, 1977 (LBC)
According to a statement by the State Department Secretary of State Cyrus Vance told Soviet ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin that the US was “watching with concern” the case of Alexander Ginzburg who was arrested on February 3 with the charge of possessing foreign currency. Ginzburg is in charge of a financial fund that supports political prisoners and their family members. A similar stance was taken about the arrest of another arrested opposition figure, Yurii Orlov. Orlov heads an unofficial Soviet group, which monitors the execution in the USSR of the human rights clauses of the Helsinki accord. – President Carter assures Sakharov of his support in a letter saying, “The American people and our government will continue our firm commitment to promote respect for human rights not only in our own country but also abroad. We shall use our good offices to seek the release of prisoners of conscience...” Carter’s letter was a response to the letter Sakharov addressed to him. According to the State Department the question of human rights does not involve those areas of the Soviet-American relationship, where the interests of the two countries coincide. July 12, 1978. – Soviet-American accord on the shipment of US grain to the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union pays damages to the US for violating the 1972 agreement by shipping only 23% of the purchased grain in ships sailing under US flag instead of the one third stipulated by the agreement. The USSR undertook to ship one third of the grain bought from the US in American vessels.


Hungary / Soviet Union – February 7-9, 1977 (HC)
State Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Pál Rácz runs negotiations in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union.

East Germany / Hungary – February 7-11, 1977 (HC)
Minister of Justice Mihály Korom negotiates in the German Democratic Republic.

US / Soviet Union – February 8, 1977 (LBC)
President Carter recommends an agreement with the USSR on strategic arms limitation in such a way that they would return to the unresolved issues. He also recommended that the two countries freeze the development of mobile ICBMs and a decision on a complete ban on nuclear testing.

Soviet Union / European Communist parties – February 9, 1977 (KCA)
Major-General Grigorenko appeals to leaders of European Communist parties to urge the Soviet leaders to release both Ginsburg and Rudenko, an end to the repression of the human rights movement, and an amnesty for political prisoners.

Hungary / Spain - February 9, 1977 (HC)
Hungarian-Spanish diplomatic relations are established on the level of ambassador.

Czechoslovakia / Austria – February 10, 1977 (KCA)
In the Vienna Arbeiter-Zeitung, the organ of the Austrian Socialist Party, it is claimed that Dubček has expressed verbal support for the manifesto in Czechoslovakia.

Soviet Union / China – February 10, 1977 (KCA)
A long article in Pravda protests strongly against recent Chinese attacks on the Soviet Union. It says, they “only play into the hands of the enemies of socialism and the detractors of international détente”.

Albania – February 11, 1977 (KCA)
Myqerem Ismail Fuga is relieved of his post as Minister of Light and Food Industries on a proposal by Mehmet Shehu, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers.

Hungary - February 11, 1977 (HC)
An Endre Ady Memorial Museum is opened in Budapest.
Yugoslavia – February 14 - 15, 1977 (KCA)
President Tito appoints Veselin Đuranović, President of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Montenegro, as the new President of the Federal Executive Council, and the appointment is subsequently approved by the Federal Assembly on March 15.

Hungary / Poland – February 14-16, 1977 (HC)
Minister of Foreign Affairs Frigyes Puja pays a friendly visit to Poland.

Romania / Syria – February 15-16, 1977 (PER)
The President of Syria, Hafez al-Assad, visits Romania.

Soviet Union / Belgium / EEC – February 16, 1977 (HC)
Negotiations begin in Brussels between the Soviet Union and the European Economic Community.

North Korea – February 16, 1977 (CWIHP)
The DPRK reaches out to other socialist nations to gain support for its 4-point proposals. They include references to the DPRK’s developing nuclear power and the possibility of nuclear war on the Korean peninsula.

East Germany / Hungary / Warsaw Pact – February 19-23, 1977 (HC)
Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs János Nagy participates in a meeting of the Deputy Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Warsaw Pact members in Berlin.

Hungary / Vietnam – February 19-25, 1977 (HC)
Minister of Foreign Trade József Bíró pays an official friendly visit to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Hungary / Vietnam – February 19-25, 1977 (HC)
Deputy Prime Minister János Borbándi visits Hanoi to participate in the 6th session of the Hungarian-Vietnamese economic and technical-scientific cooperation committee.

Hungary / Soviet Union – February 21-22, 1977 (HC)
Deputy Prime Minister Gyula Szekér runs negotiations in Moscow.

Hungary / Soviet Union – February 21-24, 1977 (HC)
Minister for Transport and Postal Services Árpád Pullai pays an official friendly visit to Moscow.

Hungary / Switzerland – February 22-26, 1977 (HC)
General Secretary of the Swiss Ministry of Foreign Affairs Albert Weitnauer negotiates in Budapest.

Soviet Union – February 24, 1977 (KCA)
The Soviet Government announces that it will enforce exclusive fishing control in the newly-declared 200 mile zone from March 1, 1977.

East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) - February 25, 1977 (KCA)
The East German Government introduces a toll of DM 10 on all vehicles entering East Berlin.

Soviet Union / U.K. – February 25, 1977 (KCA)
A British-Soviet agreement is signed in Moscow, providing for cooperation in the scientific, educational and cultural fields.

Soviet Union / South Korea – February 27, 1977 (KCA)
The Government of South Korea discloses that its appeals to the Soviet Union through a third country for discussions on the fisheries question have been ignored. It has to order its fishing vessels to leave the waters within the zone off the Soviet Union’s eastern coasts due to the new declaration of the Soviet Government on fishing zones and quotas under its water territory.

Yugoslavia / Ethiopia – February, 27, 1977 (JBT)
Delegation of Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia led by Lieutenant Colonel Atnafu Abate makes a visit to Yugoslavia at the end of February 1977. On February 27th the delegation is received by President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito.

Hungary / UK – February 27-March 2, 1977 (HC)
Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja pays an official visit to the UK.

Soviet Union – February 28, 1977 (KCA)
Ivan Polyakov, a former partisan leader, is elected Chairman of the Presidium of the Byelorussian Supreme Soviet in succession to the late Fyodor Surganov, who was killed in a car crash on December 26, 1976.

Soviet Union / Japan – February 28, 1977 (KCA)
During the talks between Zenko Suzuki, the Japanese Ministers of Agriculture and Forestry, and Alexander Ishkov, the Soviet Minister of Fisheries, they agree that for the time being the Soviet Union will “not apply coercive measures” against Japanese fishing vessels within the newly declared zone of the Soviet Union. (Sees also Febrary 24, 1977).

Hungary / Italy – February 28-March 5, 1977 (HC)
Vice-Chairman of the Council of Ministers Ferenc Havasi pays an official visit to Italy.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary - February 28, 1977 (HC)
A delegation led by Minister of Culture Imre Pozsgay travels to Czechoslovakia to the organization series called The Days of Hungarian Culture.


March 1977


Poland – March, 1977 (HDP)
The Movement for the Defense of Human and Civil Rights is established in Warsaw. It publishes a number of underground periodicals mobilizing public opinion against communist regimes.

Albania / Greece – March 1977 (KCA)
A protocol is signed in Athens at the end of March 1977 covering the implementation for 1977 of a five year trade agreement concluded between the Governments of Albania and Greece in May 1976. On March 30, the cooperation between the two countries begin in the field of maritime and road transport.

Hungary / North Korea – March 1-5, 1977 (HC)
József Bíró runs negotiations in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

Poland – March 3, 1977 (PSN)
The Council of State ratifies the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

Czechoslovakia/Soviet Union – March 4, 1977 (CWIHP)
The Soviet KGB and Czechoslovak Interior Ministry agree to exchange workers focusing on sharing of information and expertise in various areas, including: identification procedures for unidentified bodies, security measures for capital regions, fire-fighting methods and ways to combat subversive activity in youth and the exchange of publications on the Soviet military, security and criminology.

Romania – March 4, 1977 (HOR/CEC/KCA)
A 7.2 magnitude earthquake occurs at 9.21 p.m. local time, the heaviest earthquake recorded in Europe since October – November 1940 in Romania. 1,570 people are killed and 11,300 are wounded. A state of emergency is declared throughout the country to deal with the disaster.  Its epicenter is at a depth of about 110 kilometers below Ploesti (the center of Romania’s oilfields in Vrancea province and about 40 miles north of Bucharest). The first shock is followed by further tremors of up to 4.5 in intensity during the next few days.

Hungary - March 4. 1977 (HC)
The 100 000th Icarus bus is produced.
Hungary - March 5-6, 1977 (HC)
The 2nd national Women Conference takes place. (The Chairwoman of the National Council of Hungarian Women is László Erdei.)

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – March 7-9, 1977 (HC)
Czechoslovakian Minister of Foreign Affairs Bohuslav Chňoupek pays an official friendly visit to Budapest.

Hungary / Romania - March 10, 1977 (HC)
A Council of Ministers meeting takes place: Hungary gives financial aid to Romania to mitigate the damages caused by the earthquake.

Hungary / Iraq / Kuwait – March 12-18, 1977 (HC)
Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Róbert Garai negotiates in the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of Iraq and Kuwait.

Czechoslovakia – March 13,1977 (PSCZ)
Jan Patočka, the speaker of the Charta‘77, dies after a lengthy interrogation.

Hungary March 14, 1977 (HC)
The 5th General Assembly of the Hungarian Theatre and Art Association takes place. (Chairwoman: Mária Sulyok; Secretary-General: Károly Kazimir.)

Hungary / Austria – March 14-16, 1977 (HC)
Austrian Federal Minister of Education and Art Affairs Fred Sinowatz negotiates in Budapest.

Soviet Union – March 16, 1977 (KCA)
TASS, the Soviet news agency, reports that Konstantin Katushev, Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party’s Central Committee in charge of relations with Communist or Workers’ parties in power in other countries, is appointed as Vice-Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers and representative of the Soviet Union at the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), in place of Mikhail Lesechko.

Hungary / Greece – March 16-19, 1977 (HC)
Frigyes Puja pays an official visit to Greece.

Hungary – March 16, 1977 (HC)
The Congregation of Nazarenes Believing in Christ becomes a legally accepted denomination.
Hungary - March 17, 1977 (HC)
The spring session of the Parliament takes place. Act no. 1 of 1977 about the registrations, suggestions, and complaints of public interest is adopted.

East Germany / West Germany – March 20, 1977 (BES)
Chancellor Schmidt activates the direct telephone line to Honecker established in 1974 for readopting direct communication.

US / Soviet Union – March 20, 1977 (LBC)
CIA Director Stansfield Turner declares on CBS television: the US-Soviet military balance is tilted in favor of the Russians.

Soviet Union / US – March 21, 1977 (LBC)
Brezhnev attacks Carter’s manifestations about Soviet dissidents. In a speech given at the Moscow Cngress of Trade Union Deputies, he condemned what he called the interference of official American organs in Soviet domestic affairs and warns: in such circumstances the normal development of relations is impossible.

Soviet Union / Mozambique / Somalia / Tanzania / Zambia – March 21 - April 3, 1977 (HC)
Soviet Head of State Podgorny visits four African countries during his trip: Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania, and Zambia.

Hungary - March 21-29, 1977 (HC)
The Szövetség ’77 [Alliance ‘77] commander and staff leading exercise takes place in Hungary. (It is lead by Commander-in-Chief of the joint forces of the Warsaw Treaty member states Marshal Kulikov.)
Romania – March 22, 1977 (CEC)
Nicolae Ceauşescu decides to build a new political-administrative center in Bucharest. Many old buildings are destroyed.
Soviet Union / Tanzania – March 22, 1977 (KCA)
President Nikolai Podgorny, the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., arrives in Tanzania. He is accompanied by the First Deputy Defense Minister, General Sergei Sokolov, and the deputy head of the KGB, Major-General Viktor Samodurov.  Podgorny is the first Soviet head of state to visit Africa. He travels to Dar-es-Salaam on the following day to meet with President Julius Nyerere.

East Germany (GDR)  / Hungary – March 22-25, 1977 (HC)
Under the leadership of First Secretary of the HSWP’s Central Committee János Kádár, a party and governmental delegation visits the German Democratic Republic. A Hungarian-East German friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance treaty is signed.

Soviet Union / Tanzania – March 23 – 25, 1977 (KCA)
Podgorny and President Nyerere of Tanzania have talks covering general issues, including international issues in the Middle East, disarmament, and world peace. However, the press conference on March 25 is called off after the Tanzanians refuse a request that all questions should be submitted in advance.

Soviet Union / Tanzania – March 26, 1977 (KCA)
Soviet-Tanzanian agreements on trade and on cultural, scientific and technical cooperation are signed, and a joint communiqué is issued after Podgorny declares that the destruction of colonialism and racism in southern Africa is a major international task.

Soviet Union / Zambia – March 26 – 29, 1977 (KCA)
Nikolai Podgorny visits Zambia. He talks with President Kenneth Kaunda with leaders of three of the principal nationalism movements in southern Africa, namely Joshua Nkoma from the Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU), Sam Nujoma from the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO), and Oliver Tambo from the African National Congress of South Africa.

Soviet Union / US – March 26-31, 1977 (HC)
American Secretary of State Cyrus Vance pays an official visit to the Soviet Union. For the first time in 17 years, he and Minister of Foreign Affairs Gromyko hold an international press conference following the negotiations.

Soviet Union / Western media – March 28, 1977 (KCA)
Podgorny condemns the Western press for suggesting that the Soviet Union has expansionist aims in Southern Africa and wishes to aid those fighting for independence.

Soviet Union – March 28, 1977 (KCA)
Ivan Pudkov is appointed as Minister of Machine-Building for the Light and Food Industries and Domestic Appliances in succession to Vasily N. Doyenin, who died in February.

Hungary - March 28, 1977 (HC)
Theatre no. 25 and the State Theatre “Déryné” unite under the name Népszínház [People’s Theatre].
Soviet Union / Namibia / South Africa / Zambia – March 29, 1977 (KCA)
A joint statement signed by Podgorny and President Kaunda of Zambia calls on South Africa to withdraw from Namibia and says that there could be no settlement of the country’s future without the participation of the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO). It condemns the acts carried out by the South African Government and declares its full support for the ‘lust struggle of the South African people”.

Soviet Union / Mozambique – March 29 – 31, 1977 (KCA)
Podgorny visits Mozambique. He arrives in Maputo on March 29 and is welcomed by President Machel. They sign a 20-year treaty of friendship and cooperation on March 31.

Greece / Albania – March 30, 1977 (KCA)
It is reported, that co-operation between Albania and Greece begins in the field of maritime and road transport and that Albania is interested in placing orders for ships and lorries in Greece.

US / Soviet Union – March 30, 1977 (LBC)
After three days of negotiations the US and the Soviet Union come to an agreement on the SALT treaty. Secretary of State Vance offered to Brezhnev the reduction of the 2400 limit for delivery vehicles established in Vladivostok and recommended a moratorium on testing new weapon systems. An alternative proposal would have allowed the retention of the 2400 level but would have left the question of Backfire bombers and cruise rockets unresolved. According to the Soviet position Backfire bombers are medium range, therefore they do not fall under the Vladivostok agreement.

Soviet Union / Cuba / Zambia / the West – March 31, 1977 (KCA)
President Kaunda of Zambia speaks in an interview with The Times. He says that it is “childish” of the West to suggest that African countries are exposing themselves to communist influence; if Arica comes under communist influence the West is to blame. He also says that Castro and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny have received “a hero’s welcome” in Africa because it is the Eastern bloc countries which are supporting the African nations.

Hungary - March 31, 1977 (HC)
The exhibition “The history of the Hungarian working class movement 1919-1975” is opened in the Hungarian Workers’ Movement Museum.


April 1977


East Germany / Cuba – April 2 – 4, 1977 (KCA)
Fidel Castro arrives in East Berlin. He talks with Erich Honecker, the General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party (SED). He says that in the course of his African tour he has seen “all the evil that capitalism, colonialism and materialism have inflicted on a large part of humanity” and admits that Cuban technicians are working in Tanzania, Somalia, Mozambique and South Yemen, attributing the Cuban role in African and other parts of the world to his country’s “internationalism”.

Soviet Union / Somalia – April 2 – 3, 1977 (KCA)
Podgorny pays a brief unofficial visit to Somalia where he confers with General Siyad Barreh of Somalia before leaving for the U.S.S.R.

Hungary / US – April 2-6, 1977 (HC)
American Assistant Secretary of State Arthur Hartman runs negotiations in Budapest.

Soviet Union / Cuba – April 4, 1977 (KCA)
Fidel Castro, arrives in Moscow. He meets with Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Nikolai Podgorny; Leonid Brezhnev; Alexei Kosygin, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers; and Andrei Gromyko, the Foreign Minister.

Hungary / Soviet Union – April 4, 1977 (HC)
Károly Szarka pays a one day visit to Moscow.

Soviet Union – April 5, 1977 (KCA)
Nikolai Maltsev is appointed as Minister of the Oil-Extraction Industry in succession to Valentin Shashin, who died in March.

Hungary / US - April 6, 1977 (HC)
A Hungarian-American (USA) agreement on cultural, educational, scientific and technological cooperation is signed in Budapest.

Hungary / Poland – April 6-8, 1977 (HC)
Minister of Finance Lajos Faluvégi negotiates in Poland.

East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) – April 7, 1977 (KCA)
The maximum penalty for escapes from the Democratic Republic is raised from two years’ imprisonment to life imprisonment. The issue of escapes continues to cause tensions between East and West Germany.

Hungary / Vietnam – April 7-11, 1977 (HC)
Military Commander and Minister of Defense Vo Nguyen Giap, member of the Vietnamese Communist Party’s Executive Committee and Deputy Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam pays an official friendly visit to Hungary.

Soviet Union / Cuba – April 8, 1977 (KCA)
A joint communiqué between the Soviet Union and Cuba expresses Soviet and Cuban solidarity with the “people of Africa, Asia and America who are fighting against imperialism” and the determination of the respective Communist parties to “do everything possible to strengthen the unity of the socialist countries, to promote the cooperation of the international communist and national liberation movements and to unite all the anti-imperialist forces in the struggle for peace, democracy and social progress”.

Soviet Union / Syria – April 8, 1977 (HC)
Syrian president Hafez Al-Assad visits the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union / Spain – April 9, 1977 (HC)
After 40 years of illegality, the Communist Party of Spain is allowed to operate. Santiago Carrillo is chosen as General Secretary. In May, former Party Chairwoman Dolores Ibarurri returns from her Moscow exile.

UN / Hungary - April 9, 1977 (HC)
The government of the Hungarian People’s Republic sends the UN Secretary-General its views and suggestions for the extraordinary session of the UN General Assembly dealing with disarmament (May-June 1978).
Italy / Vatican / Hungary - April 11, 1977 (HC)
A church delegation led by Cardinal László Lékai  (who is also Archbishop of Esztergom, and head of the Hungarian Catholic Episcopal Department) travels to Rome. (Ad limina – “to the doorstep” – visit. It is an obligation of Archbishops to appear from time to time and give an account to the Pope.) ( November, 1987)
Romania – April 12, 1977 (CEC)
A decree is passed stating that the Securitate is subordinate to the Interior Minister, Tudor Postelnicu.

Hungary / Italy – April 13, 1977 (HC)
Minister of Education Károly Polinszky visits Italy.

Hungary - April 13, 1977 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. (A resolution about the celebrations of the 60th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution is adopted.)
Hungary  -  April 16-17, 1977 (HC)
The 5th congress of the socialist brigade leaders takes place.
Hungary / Yemen – April 18-21, 1977 (HC)
Under the leadership of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Council of the Yemeni People’s Democratic Republic Abdul Fattah Ismail, the party and governmental delegation of the YPDR pays an official visit to Hungary.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – April 18-22, 1977 (HC)
Ferenc Havasi pays an official visit to Yugoslavia.

Hungary - April 19-21, 1977 (HC)
The leaders of the writers’ associations of the socialist countries meet in Budapest.

Soviet Union / U.K. – April 19 – 26, 1977 (KCA)
Cledwyn Hughes, Chairman of the Parliamentary Labor Party of the United Kingdom, visits the Soviet Union.

Romania / Hungary - April 21-24, 1977 (HC)
The Madách Theatre delivers a performance in Romania.
Yugoslavia / Angola – April 22-25, 1977 (JBT)
Angolan delegation headed by President of the People’s Republic of Angola Agostinho Neto pays an official visit to Yugoslavia. On April 23rd the delegation is received by President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito.
Yugoslavia / Egypt – April 27, 1977 (JBT)
President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito receives Vice-President of Egypt Hosni Mubarak who conveys to him information about President Sadat’s recent visit to West Germany, France and the U.S.
Hungary - April 27, 1977 (HC)
The leaders of the associations of ethnic and national minorities in Hungary meet.
Hungary - April 29, 1977 (HC)
The Presidential Council of the People’s Republic is in session. Law decree no. 11 of 1977 about owner-occupied blocks (which repeals act no. XII of 1924) and law decree no. 12 about housing cooperatives are adopted.
Hungary - April 30, 1977 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár is awarded the International Lenin Peace Prize.


May 1977


Austria / Hungary – May 2, 1977 (HC)
Austrian Vice Chancellor and Federal Minister of Finance Hannes Androsch negotiates in Budapest.

East Germany/Cuba/Ethiopia – May 3, 1977 (CWIHP)
East German leader Erich Honecker and Cuban leader Fidel Castro discuss during a meeting in East Berlin about Castro’s visit to Somalia and Ethiopia, criticizing Siad Barre and the need to help the revolution in Ethiopia.

Hungary / Norway – May 2-4, 1977 (HC)
György Lázár pays an official visit to Norway. He is the first Hungarian prime minister to visit Norway since 1945.

Hungary - May 4-6, 1977 (HC)
The 137th General Assembly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences takes place (President: János Szentágothai).
Hungary - May 5, 1977 (HC)
The orders of the Council of Ministers about securing the workforce for harvesting plants needing manual work are adopted (the involvement of students, pensioners, industrial workers living in the countryside, soldiers).
Yugoslavia / Guyana – May 9-13, 1977 (JBT)
President of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana Arthur Chung makes an official visit to Yugoslavia during which he meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito. The two statesmen discuss the international situation, as well as the policy of non-alignment.
Hungary / Soviet Union – May 10-11, 1977 (HC)
Colonel General and Minister of Defense Lajos Czinege pays an official friendly visit to the Soviet Union.

Hungary / Soviet Union – May 10-12, 1977 (HC)
István Roska holds consultations in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union / U.K. – mid-May 1977 (KCA)
Tony Wedgwood Benn, the U.K. Secretary of State for Energy, visits the Soviet Union.

Bulgaria – May 12, 1977 (KCA)
At a plenary session of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party, it is decided to relieve Boris Velchev of his posts as member of the Politburo and Secretary of the Central Committee, and also to remove him from the Central Committee. The Committee proposes Grigor Stoichkov as a Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers and Chairman of the Council of Territorial and Urban Organization, and Ivan Sakarev as Minister of Building and Building Materials. These proposals are approved by the National Assembly on the same day.

Yugoslavia – May 12, 1977 (KCA)
At a session of the Presidency of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Stevan Doronjski, the Presidency’s member for the autonomous region of Voivodina, is elected Vice-President for one year in succession to Vidoje Zarković, whose one-year term is about to expire on May 16.

Hungary / Israel - May 12, 1977 (HC)
The new President of the National Representation of Hungarian Israelites and the Budapest Israelite Community takes his oath on the constitution in front of the Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi.
Yugoslavia / China – May 13, 1977 (JBT)
Delegation of the National People’s Congress of China makes an official visit to Yugoslavia in May 1977. On May 13th the delegation is received by President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito.
Soviet Union / Hungary - May 13-23, 1977 (HC)
The Hungarian National Theatre gives guest performances in the Soviet Union.

Hungary / Italy – May 16-20, 1977 (HC)
Italian Minister of Finance Filippo Maria Pandolfi signs an agreement in Budapest.

Hungary / France – May 16, 1977 (HC)
Under the leadership of HSWP’s Political Committee member and Speaker of the National Assembly Antal Apró, the Hungarian governmental delegation visits France for a week.

Frigyes Puja signs an international agreement on the prohibition of environmental warfare in Geneva.

Soviet Union / U.S. – May 18, 1977 (KCA)
An agreement is signed in Geneva by Andrei Gromyko, the U.S.S.R. Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Cyrus Vance, the U.S. Secretary of State, on cooperation between the two states in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes.

Hungary - May 19, 1977 (HC)
The order of the Council of Ministers (15/1977) about central wage policy measures is adopted. (It includes the wage increase of 1.2 million people, including 1 million manual worker.)

Poland / Romania – May 19, 1977 (PSM)
Poland and Romania sign a Treaty on Friendship and Cooperation. 

Yugoslavia / U.S. – May 21, 1977 (JBT)
President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito receives Vice-President of the United States Walter Mondale.

Soviet Union / U.K. – May 23 – 26, 1977 (KCA)
Edmund Dell, Secretary of State for Trade of U.K., visits the Soviet Union with the aim of expanding British trade with the U.S.S.R.

Hungary / Italy – May 23-26, 1977 (HC)
Italian Minister of Justice Francesco Paolo Bonifacio negotiates in Budapest.

Hungary / Poland – May 23-26, 1977 (HC)
Minister for Transport and Postal Services Árpád Pullai runs negotiations in Warsaw and signs treaties.

Soviet Union – May 24, 1977 (KCA)
At the end of a session of the plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), the party announces that the plenum released Nikolai Podgorny from his duties as member of the Politburo of the CPSU. It elects Konstantin Rusakov as Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, and has released Konstantin Katushev from his duties as Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee in connection with his transfer to work with the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance.

Hungary / Austria – May 24-26, 1977 (HC)
Rudolf Kirschläger, Federal President of the Republic of Austria, pays an official visit to Hungary.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Warsaw Pact Members – May 25-26, 1977 (HC)
Members of the Warsaw Pact develop a Foreign Affairs Committee and holds its first session in Moscow. Hungary is represented by Frigyes Puja.

Romania / Ghana / Ivory Coast / Mauritania / Nigeria / Senegal – May 25-27, 1977 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Ghana, Ivory Coast, Mauritania, Nigeria and Senegal.

Romania – May 26-27, 1977 (CEC)
George Macovescu becomes President of the Writers Union.

Soviet Union – May 27, 1977 (KCA)
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet “basically approves” the draft of constitution and submits it for national discussion after its publication, which will take place on June 4. The Presidium will decide to convene an extraordinary session of the Supreme Soviet in October for the final approval of the new constitution.

Hungary - May 27, 1977 (HC)
The Presidential Council of the People’s Republic is in session. (Law decree no. 14 of 1977 about small industries and law decree no. 15 about private trade are adopted.)
Yugoslavia / West Germany – May 27-June 1, 1977 (JBT)
Chancellor of West Germany Helmut Schmidt makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. During the visit he meets with President Josip Broz Tito with whom he discusses both bilateral and international issues.

Austria – May 29, 1977 (KCA)
In an interview published in Kronen Zeitung, Bruno Kreisky says: “The inferences in the commission of inquiry’s report are that he (Karl Lütgendorf) did not exactly tell me the whole truth. That is decisive as far as I am concerned. The people who elected me trust and believe me. I cannot put my good name in question because of Lütgendorf.”

Czechoslovakia  / Cuba / Switzerland / USA – May 30, 1977 (HC)
Within the terms of the American-Cuban agreement, the Cuban Embassy of Switzerland and the Washington Embassy of Czechoslovakia are in charge of the advocacy and representation of the two parties.

Hungary / Norway – May 30-June 1, 1977 (HC)
Norwegian Director-General of Foreign Affairs Torbjörn Christiansen runs consultations in Budapest.

Romania / US – May 30, 1977 (LBC)
Romania signs a two billion dollar coal agreement with the US firm, Occidental Petroleum.

Austria – May 31, 1977 (KCA)
Karl Lütgendorf, the presidium of the ruling Austrian Socialist Party (SPÖ) formally approves four ministerial changes: Otto Rosch becomes Minister of National Defence; Erwin Lanc becomes Minister of the Interior; Karl Lausecker becomes Minister of Transport and Communication; and Franz Loschnak becomes Under-Secretary of State in the Federal Chancellery. As for himself, Lütgendorf submits his resignation to President Rudolf Kirchschlager on the same day due to the accusation of his act for personal financial gain.


June 1977


Soviet Union / France – June 1977 (KCA)
During an official visit to the Soviet Union, General Méry, Chief of Staff of the French Armed Forces, signs an agreement with Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov, Chief of the Geneal Staff of the Soviet Army Forces, on relations between the two countries’ armed forces between 1977 and 1978.

Austria – June 1, 1977 (KCA)
During a debate on the commission’s report in the Nationalrat, Kreisky pays tribute to Lütgendorf’s achievements as Defense Minister and says that although he has acted from good motives there is no excuse for the presentation of information known to be inaccurate.

Hungary / Romania – June 3, 1977 (HC)
Minister of Justice Mihály Korom arrives in Romania.

Soviet Union – June 3, 1977 (KCA)
Vasily Kazakov, previously Deputy Minister of Aircraft Construction, is appointed as the U.S.S.R. Minister of the Aircraft Industry, in place of Pyotr Dementive, who died on May 14, 1977.

Soviet Union – June 4, 1977 (KCA) see May 27
The draft of the new constitution of the Soviet Union is published.

Hungary / India – June 5-6, 1977 (HC)
State Secretary of the Indian Foreign Ministry J. S. Mehta holds consultations in Budapest.

Yugoslavia / Italy – June 6-7, 1977 (JBT)
Foreign Minister of Italy Arnaldo Forlani makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. On May 6th he meets with President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito.

Soviet Union – June 7, 1977 (KCA)
A group of Ukrainians is reported to have smuggled a “declaration of principle” to the West on guarantees of human rights and increased autonomy for Ukraine. The document is said to have been drawn up by Major-General Grigorenko and nine of his supporters at a meeting at the house of Mikola Rudenko in November 1976.

Hungary / Vatican City / Italy – June 7 – 9, 1977 (KCA / HC)
János Kádár, the First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party (HSWP), pays an official visit to Italy. He is received in private audience by Pope Paul VI. He is the highest-ranking official of any of the ruling parties in Communist states to be received by the Pope.

Hungary June 7-9, 1977 (HC)
A meeting takes place in Parliament about integrating the Roma population.

Austria – June 8, 1977 (KCA)
The new members of the Austrian Government take office.

Finland / Hungary – June 8-12, 1977 (HC)
Deputy State Secretary of the Finnish Foreign Ministry Jaakko Niemi holds consultations in Budapest.

NATO / Soviet Union – June 9, 1977 (LBC)
According to a NATO announcement the Soviet Union proceeded to deploy its new intermediate range mobile missiles codenamed SS 20

Yugoslavia / Syria – June 9, 1977 (JBT)
President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito receives an official representative of the Syrian Government.

Soviet Union / Sudan – June 10, 1977 (HC)
The Soviet Union calls back its military experts from Sudan because of the unfriendly politics of the local government.

Hungary / Romania – June 15-16, 1977 (HC/PER/CEC)
János Kádár holds a friendly meeting with RCP’s General Secretary and President of the Romanian Socialist Republic Nicolae Ceauşescu in Debrecen and in Oradea / Nagyvárad.

Hungary / Finland – June 15-17, 1977 (HC)
HSWP’s Political Committee member and Head of the Council of Ministers György Lázár pays an official visit to Finland.

Bulgaria / Hungary – June 15-21, 1977 (HC)
Under the leadership of President Vladimir Bonev, the delegation of the Bulgarian National Assembly pays an official visit to Budapest.

Yugoslavia / OSCE – June 15-August 5, 1977 (JBT)
Representatives of 33 European countries, the U.S. and Canada meet in Belgrade at the preparatory meetings for the first OSCE Conference.


Soviet Union – June 16, 1977 (KCA)
At the start of a joint session of the two chambers of the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet, it is announced that Nikolai Podgorny requested to be relieved of the chairmanship of the Supreme Soviet’s Presidium in connection with his retirement. Accordingly, Mikhail Suslov, a member of the Politburo responsible for ideology, nominates Leonid Brezhnev for the post of President. The members of the Supreme Soviet unanimously elect him as Chairman of the Presidium.

Soviet Union – June 17, 1977 (KCA)
At a meeting of the Supreme Soviet’s Presidium, President Leonid Brezhnev discloses that the decision to combine the posts of General Secretary of the CPSU’s Central Committee and of President has been made at the Central Committee’s meeting on May 24, 1977.

Croatia/Yugoslavia/Slovenia – June 19, 1977 (KCA)
A parcel bomb installed by Draoja explodes on the board of the “Hellas Express” from Dortmund to Athens, near Trbovlje in Slovenia, shortly after crossing the Yugoslav border.

Soviet Union – June 19, 1977 (KCA)
There are local elections for the soviets of territories, regions, districts, towns, and villages throughout the Soviet Union. Votes are cast, and as officially announced afterwards, 166,169,714 voters voted or 99.98 percent of the total registered electorate.

COMECON / Poland– June 20-22, 1977 (HC)
György Lázár participates in the 31th session of the COMECON in Warsaw. Topic: the coordination of the people’s economic plans for 1981-1985.


Soviet Union / France – June 20 – 22, 1977 (KCA / HC)
Leonid Brezhnev pays an official visit to Paris at the invitation of President Giscard d’Estaing of France. It is his first visit to Western Europe since December 1974. On June 22, Brezhnev signs six documents, including a joint declaration, in which President Giscard d’Estaing’s acceptance of an invitation to visit the Soviet Union, a joint statement on the relaxation of international tension and a Soviet-French declaration on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.

Hungary / Poland – June 20-July 4, 1977 (HC)
Polish Minister of Defence General Wojciech Jaruzelski pays an official, four-day long visit to Hungary.

Yugoslavia / Libya – June 21-24, 1977 (JBT)
Libyan leader Muammar el Gaddafi makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. He is received by President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito with whom he discusses both bilateral and international issues, above all the politics of non-alignment and the Middle East crisis.


Hungary - June 22, 1977 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. (There were 765 566 party members on December 31, 1976. Topics: the current questions of cultural policy, suggestions for the filling of state positions.)
US / Soviet Union – June 23, 1977 (LBC)
The US Department of Commerce announces that it will not authorize Control Data Corporation to sell the Soviet Union the license of a computer system it developed. According to the Department the system offered for sale has a larger capacity than any known Soviet system, therefore it could well be used for strategic or military purposes.
Hungary - June 24, 1977 (HC)
Kálmán Ábrahám becomes the Minister of Construction and Urban Development. Ferenc Trethon is Minister of Labor and József Szakali is Chairman of the Central People’s Control Commisson.

Hungary / Japan / Malaysia / Philippines – June 27-July 8, 1977 (HC)
State Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Pál Rácz negotiates in Japan, Malaysia and The Philippines during his Far East trip.

Romania – June 28-29, 1977 (CEC)
The Central Committee accepts the abolition of censorship.

US / Soviet Union – June 30, 1977 (LBC)
President Carter says at a news conference that although human rights are a central issue for US foreign policy, there is no link between it and the SALT talks. He declares that he would like to meet Brezhnev this year.

Yugoslavia / Non-Aligned Movement – June 30-July 1, 1977 (HN)
The first meeting of the coordinators for the monetary and financial cooperation of the non-aligned countries takes place in Belgrade. Measures for implementing the decisions of the Colombo Conference in the financial sphere are passed.

July 1977


Soviet Union / France – July 1977 (KCA)
Soviet Union and France sign an agreement to prevent any accidental incidents that can lead to a nuclear war between the two countries.

Soviet Union / U.S. – July 1, 1977 (KCA)
A TASS commentary broadcast on Moscow radio refers to the neutron bomb project and other recent U.S. Defense developments: “The fifth trial of a new ballistic missile for the Trident atomic submarines, which are under construction, was held in the United States recently. According to press reports, the installation of new 12 nuclear warheads of high accuracy in strategic missiles is to start soon. The development of a new type of strategic M-X missiles is continuing. Work is underway for the creation of neutron bombs and warheads for missiles, with which it is planned to equip the U.S. troops in Western Europe.”

Hungary - July 1, 1977 (HC)
A Council of Ministers order (1027/1977) about the establishment of a Council of Cultural Relations is adopted. (It works as a government committee, the Chairman is the authorized Deputy Prime Minister.)
Hungary - July 2-3, 1977 (HC)
The 7th General Assembly of the Scientific Educational Society takes place (Chairman: Gyula Ortutay, Secretary-General: Imre Kurucz.)

Soviet Union / U.S. – July 3, 1977 (KCA)
Following the statement by President Jimmy Carter of the United States after a neutron bomb test on June 30, Pravda accuses the United States of beginning a “new round of the arm race” which is “dangerous to mankind” and only plays into the hands of “the enemies of peace and the monopolies of the military-industrial complex”.

Hungary / West Germany (FRG) – July 4-7, 1977 (HC)
János Kádár pays a friendly visit to the Federal Republic of Germany.

US / Soviet Union – July 5, 1977 (LBC)
Brezhnev’s discussion with the US ambassador in Moscow. According to the TASS news agency the Soviet leader criticized those elements of US politics which are not in harmony with the constructive development of relations.

Hungary / Soviet Union / Warsaw Pact members – July 5-8, 1977 (HC)
Under the leadership of HSWP’s Political Committee member and Speaker of the National Assembly Antal Apró, a Hungarian parliamentary delegation travels to Leningrad to participate in the consultative meeting of the parliamentary representatives of the Warsaw Pact members.

Albania / China – July 7, 1977 (KCA)
The Zeri i Popullit’s (the Voice of the People) editorial (the official organ of the ruling Albanian Party of Labor) criticizes indirectly the basic policy orientation of China. Entitled “The Theory and Practice of Revolution”, the editorial refers to the Maoist thesis of the division of the world into three groups of superpowers, developed countries and developing countries.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia - July 11-12, 1977 (HC)
The joint committee of Hungarian-Czechoslovak economic and scientific-technological cooperation holds a meeting in Budapest. They prepare the intergovernmental agreement of the The Gabčíkovo – Nagymaros Dams. ( September 14-16. 1977; October 11. 1979.) The Hungarian delegation is led by Deputy Prime Minister Gyula Szekér.
Hungary / Yugoslavia – July 12, 1977 (HC)
Pál Losonczi spends his holiday in Yugoslavia. During this time, he consults with Stane Dolanc, Secretary of the Executive Bureau of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia.

Hungary / West Germany (FRG) – July 17, 1977 (HC)
FRG’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Hans Apel negotiates in Budapest.

Hungary / West Germany (FRG) - July 17-19, 1977 (HC)
Finance Minister of the Federal Republic of Germany Hans Apel negotiates in Budapest. An agreement on the ceasing of double taxation is signed.

Albania / Greece – July 18, 1977 (KCA)
An agreement providing for a regular air service between Tirana and Athens is signed in the Albanian capital city. The airliners will also fly to the Greek island of Corfu or at Ioannina in northern Greece.

Hungary / Netherlands – July 18-21, 1977 (HC)
Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs János Nagy visits the Netherlands.

Hungary / West Germany – July 18-24, 1977 (HC)
FRG’s Minister of State for the Foreign Affairs Klaus von Dohnanyi negotiates in Budapest.

Soviet Union / U.S. – July 21, 1977 (KCA)
President Jimmy Carter refers to the Soviet expression of concern regarding the American neutron bomb test:“The Vladivostok negotiations of 1974 left some issues unresolved and subject to honest differences of interpretation. Meanwhile, new developments in technology have created new concerns. The Soviets are worried about our Cruise missiles. We are concerned about the security of our deterrent. Our Cruise missiles are aimed at compensating for the growing threat to our deterrent capability represented by the build-up of Soviet strategic offensive weapons forces. If these threats can be controlled, we are prepared to limit our own strategic programs. But if an agreement cannot be reached, there should be no doubt that the United States can and will do what it must to protect its security and ensure the adequacy of its strategic posture.”

East Germany / Hungary – July 21-23, 1977 (HC)
Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Károly Szarka pays a friendly visit to the GDR.

Hungary / Soviet Union – July 26, 1977 (HC)
János Kádár meets General Secretary of the CPSU’s Central Committee Leonid Brezhnev in the Crimea.

Hungary / Yemen – July 26, 1977 (HC)
Prime Minister of the Yemeni People’s Democratic Republic and Minister of Defence Ali Nasser Mohammed spends his holiday in Hungary. During this time, he meets with  György Lázár.


August 1977

Romania – August 1-3, 1977 (HOR / CEC / ADC)
A 35,000 strong miners strike occurs in Jiu Valley. They demand improved living and working conditions. The strikers take the representative of the Central Committee, Ilie Verdeţ, hostage demanding direct talks with Nicolae Ceauşescu who comes to Jiu Valley and promises to fulfill all of the strikers’ demands. In the months and years that follow, a gradual repression against the miners is initiated. Two strike leaders are assassinated. This was the largest strike of its kind under the communist regime in Romania.

US / USSR – August 3, 1977 (LBC)
Georgii Arbatov accuses President Carter that his policy caused the deterioration of US-Soviet relations. Arbatov charged Washington with intervention in Soviet home affairs and questioned US sincerity about the SALT talks in light of the fact that the US made the decision to deploy cruise missiles and the production of the neutron bomb.
Hungary / USA - August 4, 1977 (HC)
The new ambassador of the United States Philip M. Kaiser hands over his credentials.
Romania / Soviet Union – August 5, 1977 (CEC)
Nicolae Ceauşescu meets  Brezhnev in Crimea.
Hungary / Vietnam – August 5-8, 1977 (HC)
VCP’s Political Committee member, Central Committee Secretary, Foreign Minister, and Deputy Prime Minister of the Vietnamese Socialist Republic Nguyen Duy Trinh pays an unofficial friendly visit to Hungary.

Mongolia / Democratic People's Republic of Korea / Hungary - August 9-24, 1977 (HC)
Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja travels to Mongolia and to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

Soviet Union / U.S. / NATO countries – August 10, 1977 (KCA)
A commentary on the neutron bomb test by the United States in Pravda says that the weapon is designed for deployment in West European NATO countries, first in West Germany, and that the deployment of neutron bombs in central Europe will “create serious new obstacles at the Vienna talks”.

PRC / Soviet Union / US - August 12, 1977 (HC)
President of the Chinese Communist Party Hua Guofeng announces at the 11th congress of the CCP that the Soviet social imperialism means a greater danger threat than the United States.

Hungary / Mongolia – August 16, 1977 (HC)
Frigyes Puja flies to Mongolia for a four day official friendly visit.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – August 16-23, 1977 (AY)
Yugoslav delegation led by President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito makes an official visit to the USSR. President Tito is awarded the ‘October Revolution Medal’. During talks with Leonid Brezhnev various questions are raised, regarding both bilateral and international issues (the U.S. foreign policy, the Helsinki Accords, securing peace in Europe, Egypt, in the Middle East, in Africa, China, Ethiopia, Somalia, Algeria, Libya…).


Bulgaria / Hungary – August 16-18, 1977 (HC)
Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Károly Szarka participates in coordination meetings in Sofia.

Hungary / Mongolia / North Korea – August 16-21, 1977 (HC)
Frigyes Puja travels further from Mongolia to the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – August 17, 1977 (HC)
František Krajčír, First Deputy of the Czechoslovakian Foreign Ministry, holds consultations in Budapest.

Hungary - August 17, 1977 (HC)
The Planetarium is opened in Budapest.
Hungary / Cuba – August 22-September 6, 1977 (HC)
Member of the Political Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba and Deputy Prime Minister Osvaldo Dorticos pays a friendly visit to Hungary.

Yugoslavia / China / North Korea – August 24-September 1, 1977 (HC)
Josip Broz Tito negotiates in North Korea and consults in China.

Yugoslavia / North Korea – August 24-29, 1977 (AY)
President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito makes his first visit to the PR Korea. Upon arrival, Yugoslav delegation is greeted with ceremonies. During the following days official talks are organized between Kim Il Sung and President Tito.

Romania / Israel – August 25-30, 1977 (HC / PER)
Israeli Prime Minister Menahem Begin visits Romania.

Hungary - August 26, 1977 (HC)
The Presidential Council of the People’s Republic establishes the National Environment and Nature Protection Office.
Yugoslavia – August 28, 1977 (HR)
The Yugoslav rock band “Bijelo dugme” performs in Belgrade at Hajdučka česma. This is the biggest concert in the history of Yugoslavia so far, with between 70.000 and 100.000 attendees.
East Germany (GDR) / West Germany (FRG) – August 28, 1977 (KCA)
The East German Government retracts a visa, which was issued to a Christian Democrat (CDU) party member. On December 6, 1977 a similar decision is applied to a a member of the Free Democratic party.

Yugoslavia / China – August 31-September 7, 1977 (AY)
Yugoslav delegation led by President Josip Broz Tito makes its first official visit to China. During the visit official talks are organized between the Yugoslav delegation and the highest Chinese representatives.

September 1977


Soviet Union – September 1, 1977 (KCA)
The text and music of a new national anthem omits all reference to Stalin comes into force.

Bulgaria / Hungary – September 1-2, 1977 (HC)
György Lázár pays an official visit to the People’s Republic of Bulgaria.

UK / Soviet Bloc / NATO /  US – September 2, 1977 (LBC)

The London Institute for Strategic Studies reports that the Warsaw Pact has 103 divisions as opposed to NATO’s 64 (plus 10 French). The USSR has qualitative and quantitative superiority in SAMs, armored vehicles, and artillery. The units of the Warsaw Pact have unified weapons systems, while a significant part of the NATO weapon systems are not compatible. The Institute believes that the USSR is modernizing its nuclear strategic force at a much larger pace than the US. Although Washington enjoys a numerical superiority in warheads, the Russian weapons have higher explosive power, although their ability to hit targets is less accurate.









800 (estimate)



150 (estimate)



3300 (estimate)


Soviet Union / UN – September 4-12, 1977 (HC)
UN’s General Secretary Kurt Waldheim negotiates in the Soviet Union.

West Germany – September 5, 1977 (HC)
In the Federal Republic of Germany, Hanns-Martin Schleyer, President of the Federation of German Industries, is kidnapped by a far-left terrorist organization, the RAF (Red Army Fraction).

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – September 5-7, 1977 (HC)
Czechoslovakian Deputy Prime Minister and Head of State Planning Committee Václav Hůla negotiates in Budapest.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – September 5-9, 1977 (HC)
Czechoslovakian Minister of Justice Jan Nĕmec holds talks in Budapest.

Hungary / UK – September 7-9, 1977 (HC)
British Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs R. A. Hibbert visits Hungary.

Yugoslavia / Iran – September 8, 1977 (AY)
Josip Broz Tito visits Iran on the return journey from China.

Poland / France – September 12 – 14, 1977 (PSM)
During the visit of Edward Gierek to France it is decided that the Polish Cultural Center will be opened in Paris and the French Cultural Center will be opened in Warsaw.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia - September 14-16, 1977 (HC)
A Czechoslovak party and government delegation led by Secretary-General of the Czechoslovak Communist Party and President of the Republic Gustáv Husák arrives in Budapest. Heads of Governments György Lázár and Lubomír Štrougal sign the intergovernmental agreement about the The Gabčíkovo – Nagymaros Dams, which schedules the end of the investment to 1991. (July 11-12, 1977; October 11, 1979; May 25, 1991)




Hungary / Finland – September 19-25, 1977 (HC)
Finnish Minister of Interior Affairs Eino Uusitalo negotiates in Budapest.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – September 21, 1977 (HC)
Árpád Pullai negotiates in Czechoslovakia.

Soviet Union / USA – September 22-23, 1977 (HC)
Soviet-American negotiations begin in Washington (Gromyko, Carter, Vance).


Yugoslavia / Hungary - September 22-24, 1977 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár negotiates in Belje (Yugoslavia) with President of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia B. Tito.

Hungary / Yugoslavia / UN / West Germany – September 26-October 1, 1977 (HC)
Frigyes Puja attends the XXXII session of the UN General Assembly held in New York. He makes a speech on the 7th of October. During the session, he speaks with General Secretary Kurt Waldheim. He also speaks to the President of the Yemeni People’s Democratic Republic. During the session, he consults with the Foreign Ministers of the following states: Republic of Afghanistan; People’s Republic of Angola; United States of America; People’s Republic of Benin, Republic of Burundi; Costa Rica; Kingdom of Denmark; Republic of Ecuador; Ethiopia; Republic of Finland; Republic of Greece; Republic of India; Republic of Iraq; Republic of Iceland; Jamaica; Japan; People’s Democratic Republic of Laos; Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; United States of Mexico; People’s Republic of Mozambique; German Democratic Republic; Federal Republic of Germany; Kingdom of Norway; Republic of Austria; Republic of Peru; Republic of Portugal; State of Spain; Syrian Arab Republic; and the Republic of Turkey.

Yugoslavia / US – September 28-October 4, 1977 (LBC)
Yugoslav politician, Edvard Kardelj, visits the US, where he meets President Jimmy Carter and Vice-President Walter Mondale. At the end of his visit, Kardelj announces that Yugoslav-American relations improved a great deal and “the US has an interest in accepting Yugoslavia as it is”. According to Kardelj, Washington accepts Belgrade’s non-aligned policy as the mirror of Yugoslav politics and no longer views it as simply a pro-Soviet movement.

Hungary - September 29, 1977 (HC)
The Parliament is in session. Act no. IV of 1977 about the Civil Code is adopted.
Hungary / Italy - September 30. – October 3, 1977 (HC)
Secretary-General of the Italian Communist Party Enrico Berlinguer visits Budapest.

October 1977


Poland – October, 1977 (HDP)
A group of Polish dissident intellectuals start organizing lectures and courses outside the control of communist state educational institutions. The classes are held mainly in private residences and churches and are called the Flying University (after the clandestine university organized in Poland under Russian occupation in the late 19th century). In 1978 the Flying University is turned into the Association of Scientific Courses.

Yugoslavia / Panama – October 1, 1977 (JBT)
President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito receives an official representative of the Republic of Panama who informs him about the talks between Panama and the USA on the Panamanian Chanel.


Hungary / Iraq - October 1-3, 1977 (HC)
Prime Minister György Lázár pays an official visit to Iraq.

Hungary / Sweden – October 2-4, 1977 (HC)
Minister of Culture Imre Pozsgay spends three days in Stockholm.

US / USSR – October 4, 1977 (LBC)
In a speech given to the UN, Carter declares that in the nuclear age the notion that war is the continuation of politics with other means has become obsolete. Nuclear war can no longer be measured with the archaic concepts “victory” and “defeat”. This cold reality lays a terrible responsibility on the US and the Soviet Union. The US is willing to go as far in reducing nuclear arms as possible without putting national security at risk. The US is“willing now”,on a reciprocal basis to reduce its nuclear arsenal by “10%, 20%, even 50%”. The US would “not use nuclear weapons except in self-defense; that is in circumstances of an actual nuclear or conventional attack on the United States, our territories or armed forces, or such an attack on our allies”.

Yugoslavia – October 4, 1977 (HC)
The post-meeting of the OSCE begins in Beograd. It finishes on  March 9, 1978.

Hungary / Poland – October 5-6, 1977 (HC)
General Secretary of the PUWP’S Central Committee Edward Gierek visits Hungary with Political Committee member and Prime Minister Piotr Jaroszewicz.

Bulgaria / Hungary / COMECON – October 5-7, 1977 (HC)
Minister of Domestic Trade Vilmos Sághy participates in the meeting of the Comecon members’ Ministers of Domestic Trade in Sofia.

Hungary / Finland – October 5-9, 1977 (HC)
Minister of Culture Imre Pozsgay negotiates in Helsinki.

Hungary - October 6, 1977 (HC)
An order of the Council of Ministers (39/1977) about the states’ right of first purchase in the real estate trade is adopted.

East Germany – October 7, 1977 (EWR)
There is police action at a youth protest in East Berlin’s Alexanderplatz on a national holiday of the GDR. Hundreds of young people are arrested and condemned. The youth of East Berlin was protesting  the restrictive policy of the SED.

Soviet Union – October 7, 1977 (KCA)
The Supreme Soviet unanimously approves the new constitution of the Soviet Union, replacing Stalin’s 1936 constitution. October 7 is also declared as Constitution Day of the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union / U.K. – October 9 – 11, 1977 (KCA)
David Owen, the U.K. Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, visits Moscow for talks with Alexei Kosygin, the Soviet Chairman of the Council of Ministers, Andrei Gromyko, the Soviet Foreign Minister, and with other members of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers on matters of the international situation as well as on Anglo-Soviet relations. He also talks with Brezhnev on October 10. A joint communiqué on October 11 lists a number of agreed positions which emerged in talks between Owen and Gromyko.

Hungary / USA – October 9-11, 1977 (HC)
Counselor of the U.S. Department of State Matthew Nimetz negotiates in Budapest.

Soviet Union / U.K. – October 10, 1977 (KCA)
David Owen, the U.K. Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth, and Gromyko (in the presence of General Secretary Brezhnev) sign an agreement on the prevention of any accidental outbreak of nuclear war.

Hungary / North Korea – October 10-15, 1977 (HC)
Military General and DPRK Defense Minister O Dzin U pays an official visit to Hungary.

Hungary / Afghanistan – October 11-14, 1977 (HC)
Pál Losonczi pays an official visit to the Republic of Afghanistan.

Yugoslavia / France – October 12-14, 1977 (AY)
Official Yugoslav delegation headed by President Josip Broz Tito visits France, and meets with President Valery Giscard d’Estaing and other French representatives.

Yugoslavia / US – October 13, 1977 (LBC)
A Yugoslav-American agreement on broadening military cooperation is signed. Defense Secretary Brown announces that his government will increase arms sales to Yugoslavia, more Yugoslav officers will be trained, and the contact between the officer corps of the two countries will be broadened. The discussions took place in Belgrade. This was the first time an American Defense Secretary visited a communist state.

Afghanistan / Hungary - October 14-18, 1977 (HC)
Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi travels to Afghanistan.

Hungary / Canada – October 16-22, 1977 (HC)
Minister of Agriculture and Food Pál Romány travels to Canada.
Yugoslavia / Portugal – October 17-19, 1977 (JBT)
Yugoslav delegation led by President Josip Broz Tito visits Portugal, and meets with President of Portugal Antonio Ramalho Eanes. Main topic in mutual conversations is the issue of decolonization of former Portuguese colonies.


Hungary - October 20, 1977 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. The guidelines of the long-term foreign trade policy and the development of production structure are adopted.
Yugoslavia / Algeria – October 20-21, 1977 (AY)
Yugoslav delegation led by Josip Broz Tito visits Algeria. During meetings with Houari Boumediene and other Algerian representatives mainly international issues are discussed, especially the policy of non-alignment.
Hungary / Austria - October 21, 1977 (HC)
The Austrian Cultural Institute is opened in Budapest.

Hungary / Austria  – October 24-26, 1977 (HC)
Austrian Minister of Foreign Affairs Willibald Pahr pays an official visit to Hungary.

Soviet Union – October 25-26, 1977 (KCA)
The 1976–80 Five-Year Plan and State Plan and Budget for 1977 by Communist Party's Central Committee and Supreme Soviet is approved.

Hungary / Austria – October 25-27, 1977 (HC)
Árpád Pullai negotiates in Vienna.

Romania – October 26-27, 1977 (CEC)
The Central Committee forbids the use of „Sir” (in Romanian:”domn”) and „Madam” (in Romania:”doamnă”).

East Germany / Hungary – October 26-29, 1977 (HC)
DRG’s Minister of Public Education Margot Honecker (wife of Erich Honecker) comes to Budapest for three days.

Soviet Union / Egypt – October 26, 1977 (HC)
President Sadat announces that Egypt will suspend repayment of the Soviet military loan for the next 10 years from 1st January 1978.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 26-29, 1977 (HC)
HSWP’s Political Committee member and Deputy Prime Minister István Huszár visits Belgrade.

Hungary / Japan – October 27-29, 1977 (HC)
Japanese Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs M. Takashima visits Budapest.The first session of the Hungarian-Japanese economic joint committee takes place.


Hungary / France – October 27-29, 1977 (HC)
French Prime Minister Raymond Barre visits Hungary.

Yugoslavia / Non-Aligned Movement – October 27-30, 1977 (JBT)
The first conference of radio broadcasting organizations of non-aligned countries takes place in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. A Committee for the cooperation of the radio broadcasting companies od non-aligned countries is established
West Germany / G.B. – October 28, 1977 (DKK)
West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt holds a speech in front of the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London where he indicates in public for the first time that the disparity in Europe is a serious problem.

Romania / Egypt – October 29-November 3, (PER)
Egyptian President, Mohammed Anwar Sadat, visits Romania.


November 1977

Romania – November, 1977 (PER)
There is an American exhibition named AMERO ’77, and seventy-seven nations participate.

Yugoslavia – November 1977 (KCA)
Marko Krpan and Pavel Perović are sentenced to terms of imprisonment for the attempted murder of Vladimir Topić.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 1-8, 1977 (HC)
Under the leadership of János Kádár, a Hungarian party and governmental delegation participates in the 60th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution in the Soviet Union. (One member, HSWP’s Political Committee member and Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi stays in Moscow from the first to the fourth of November.) Kádár János makes a speech at the November 2 Central Ceremony, and for the November 5 Kiev Ceremony. György Lázár makes a speech in Jaroslav.

USA / Hungary - November 5, 1977 (HC)
It is announced that the United States will return the Hungarian holy crown and the coronation jewels to Hungary.
Sweden / Hungary - November 8-11, 1977 (HC)
Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja pays a visit to Sweden.



West Germany – November 8, 1977 (KCA)
The police receives information about the flat in which Schleyer might be imprisoned for the third time.

Hungary / Poland – November 9-12, 1977 (HC)
Minister of Domestic Trade Vilmos Sághy negotiates in Warsaw.

Hungary / Mexico – November 9-14, 1977 (HC)
Pál Losonczi pays an official visit to Mexico.

Mexico / Ecuador / Soviet Union / Hungary - November 9-17, 1977 (HC)
Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi travels to Mexico and Ecuador. (He returns home from Moscow on November 4.)

Hungary / Cuba – November 11-16, 1977 (HC)
Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary Armed Forces and CPC’s Political Committee member General Raul Castro Ruz pays an official visit to Hungary.

Soviet Union / Cuba / Ethiopia / Somalia – November 13, 1977 (HC)
Somalia – referring to the fact that the Soviet Union supports Ethiopia’s aggression against them – unilaterally terminates the friendship and cooperation treaty with the Soviet Union, and demands that Soviet experts leave the country immediately. They also cut off their diplomatic connection to Cuba.

Hungary / Ecuador – November 14-17, 1977 (HC) see November 9—17.
Pál Losonczi pays an official visit to Ecuador where he runs negotiations along with Minister of Foreign Trade József Bíró.

Hungary / Finland – November 14-17, 1977 (HC)
State Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Pál Rácz holds consultations in the Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Hungary / Soviet Union – November 14-18, 1977 (HC)
Minister of Justice Mihály Korom pays an official visit to the Soviet Union.

Hungary / Austria – November 18-20, 1977 (HC)
György Lázár visits Austria.

Israel / Egypt - November 20, 1977 (HC)
Anwar Sadat delivers a speech in the Israeli Parliament.
Hungary - November 22, 1977 (HC)
A gala celebration takes place in the Erkel Theatre on the 100th birth anniversary of Endre Ady.
West Germany / Yugoslavia – November 23, 1977 (KCA)
The Bundesgerichtshof orders the detention and investigative custody of IIija Svilar - a Yugoslav citizen, on suspicion of secret service activity and for incitement to murder.

Hungary / France - November 24-27, 1977 (HC)
Secretary-General of the French Communist Party G. Marchais pays a visit to Budapest.
Hungary - November 29-30, 1977 (HC)
The Committee of Defense Ministers of the Warsaw Treaty member-states holds its session in Budapest.


December 1977

Hungary - December 1, 1977 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. (The results achieved in 1977 lag behind the people’s economic plan of 1977.)

Poland / Vatican – December 1, 1977 (HPB)
Edward Gierek visits the Vatican and meets with Pope Paul VI.

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – December 1, 1977 (CWIHP)
The KGB and Czechoslovak Interior Ministry agree to regular, bilateral exchange of information on hostile residents of both countries who are thought to be in the employ of the special intelligence services of NATO countries and China.

Yugoslavia / Romania – December 3-4, 1977 (AY)
Josip Broz Tito visits Romania, and meets with Romanian leader Nicolae Ceausescu.


Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – December 5, 1977 (CWIHP)
The USSR and CSSR security schools agree to bilateral consultations regarding training content and internships for cadets and to share teaching materials, teachers, recorded lectures, and films.

Yugoslavia / U.K. – December 6, 1977 (AY)
President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito receives the leader of the Conservative Party of Great Britain Margaret Thatcher.


Czechoslovakia / East Germany / Egypt / Hungary / Poland / Soviet Union – December 7, 1977 (HC)
The Egyptian government closes the local consulates of the Soviet Union, the GDR, Poland and Czechoslovakia. It also closes the cultural headquarters of the Soviet Union, the GDR, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary in Cairo.

Romania – December 7-9, 1977 (CEC)
The National Conference of the Romanian Communist Party is held in Bucharest.

Egypt / Hungary - December 8, 1977 (HC)
The Hungarian cultural center, like the same institutions of several other socialist countries, is closed in Cairo.
Hungary / Cuba – December 8-15, 1977 (HC)
Deputy Foreign Minister Vencel Házi negotiates in the Cuban Foreign Ministry.

USA / Hungary - December 13, 1977 (HC)
Ambassador of the Unites States Philip Mayer Kaiser sends a letter to Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja. (In this letter he announces that it is the American people who will give back the crown to the Hungarian people.)
US / Soviet Union – December 14, 1977 (LBC)
The US Department of Justice announces that it raised the immigration quota of Soviet Jews. Until May 1978 five thousand may go to the US.
 US / Soviet Bloc – December 15, 1977 (LBC)
The Central European conventional arms reduction talks are postponed. NATO offers to withdraw one thousand warheads and twenty-nine thousand soldiers from Europe if the USSR pulls out five divisions (55-75 thousand troops) and 1500-1700 tanks. The US signaled that it would refrain from deploying neutron bombs and cruise rockets if the Warsaw Pact pulls out more troops than NATO proposes. The Warsaw Pact turns down the proposal since it insists on equal troop reduction.
Hungary - December 15-16, 1977 (HC)
The winter session of the Parliament takes place. Act no. VI of 1977 about state-owned companies is adopted.

Hungary / India – December 16, 1977
Minister of Foreign Trade József Bíró negotiates in India.

Hungary / USA – December 16, 1977 (HC)
Hungarian-American joint notice is issued on returning the Hungarian crown.

Hungary - December 17, 1977 (HC)
The National Institute for Educational Technology, built by the help of UNESCO, is opened in Veszprém.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary – December 18-23, 1977 (HC)
Czechoslovakian Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Zdeněk Trhlík visits Budapest.

Hungary / Soviet Union – December 19-24, 1977 (HC)
Soviet Minister of Culture Pyotr N. Demichev holds talks in Budapest.

Hungary / Soviet Union – December 21-23, 1977 (HC)
Minister of Foreign Trade József Bíró visits Moscow.

Yugoslavia / Palestine – December 28, 1977 (AY)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito meets with PLO leader Yasser Arafat in Yugoslavia.

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016