The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Research Chair, Center of Social Sciences, Institute for Political Science,
Hungarian Academy of Sciences;
Founding Director, Cold War History Research
Center, Budapest;
Professor of History, Corvinus University of Budapest
Institute of International Studies

Associate editor

University of Szeged


Assistant editors




Izabel ÁCS, Chiara BERTUCCO, Noah BUYON, Megan DIBBLE, Marco GIACOMAZZI, Anusha GURUNG, Solveig HANSEN, Zsálya HAADI-NAGY, Konrad HYZY, Tomas KOLAR, Thomas KOLLMANN, Roman KOZIEL, Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Oleksandr MURASHEVYCH, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Roland PAPP, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Martin ROMAIN, François  ROPARS, Vjenceslav RUPCIC, Lili SIKLÓS, Marcello TOMASINA, Zita Bettina VASAS, Aniello VERDE, Dóra VERESS, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, András ZÁM

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016


The publication and the preceding research were sponsored by the Hungarian Cultural Fund


At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The third part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1968 to 1980. The years 1980–1991 will be available by the end of 2017.

The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


List of Sources


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016

ISBN 978-963-12-7940-5


Chronology 1976


Yugoslavia — 1976 (KCA) see March—April 1976
Yugoslavia strengthens its two systems for the internal defense of the state, the General People’s Defense based on the army, and the Social Self-Protection countering any negative representations of its politics or cultural fields. Trials of “Cominformists” (communists opposing President Tito's policies) as well as Croat and Serbian Nationalists and alleged Albanian secessionists take place throughout the year. Members of nationalist movements are reported to be responsible for the attempted and successful assassinations of Yugoslav consular officials abroad.

Czechoslovakia — 1976 (CHH)
The campaign against the musical underground represented by the Plastic People of the Universe, is initiated when Ivan M. Jirous, the musical director celebrates his own wedding. Dozens of rock groups perform at the wedding. One month later, more than 20 musicians are arrested.

Romania — 1976 (CEC)
Romania starts to import petrol.

Romania / United States — 1976 – 1986 (RCN)
Romania is granted the status of MFN. The President annually asks Congress by June 3 to extend Romanian MFN for another year, each House of Congress, until September 3, has to pass a resolution of disapproval to deny the request. Romanian MFN survives all hearings. Every summer, negotiations are connected with a discussion about Jewish emigration.


January 1976


Czechoslovakia — January 1976 (KCA)
It is announced that Czechoslovakia ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Right adopted by the U.N. in 1966. 

Soviet Union — January 1976 (KCA)
The report on the previous five-year plan is published, the conclusion of which is that “the main social and economic tasks of the ninth Five-Year Plan (1971-1975) were achieved.”

Soviet Union / Amnesty International — January 1976 (KCA)
Amnesty International in Vienna refers inter alia to the cases of Paruir Airikian, an Armenian who was in a labor camp from 1970 to 1973 and is currently sentenced to seven years on the charges of having contacts with foreigners; Alexander Feldman, a Ukrainian Jew who is sentenced to three and a half year for malicious hooliganism; Yakov Nikolayevich Pavlov, a Baptist who was sentenced to five years in 1974 for conducting religious propaganda and organizing religious instruction for minors; Irina Stasiv-Kalynez, who was sentenced to six years in 1972 after protesting against the arrest of Valentyn Moroz in 1970; and of Nina Strokatovaa Karavansksya in 1972.

Hungary - January 1, 1976 (HC)
A new Highway Code comes into force. (It adapts to the European norms.)
Hungary - January 1, 1976 (HC)
A new regulation of company income is introduced.
Hungary / Czechoslovakia – January 6, 1976 (HC)
A new joint Czechoslovak-Hungarian railway station is opened in Rajka.

Czechoslovakia — January 6, 1976 (KCA) Czechoslovakia and Turkey sign an agreement on economic, scientific, technical, and industrial cooperation in Ankara. 

Soviet Union — January 9, 1976 (KCA)
Andrei Amalrik, a historian and a Soviet dissident, refutes the official contention that people in the Soviet Union are not punished for their opinions. He writes in his statement distributed by Andrei Sakharov, the 1975 Nobel Prize winner, that: “Of course, it is impossible to try someone for unexpressed opinions….But as soon as an unorthodox view has been expressed, in writing or verbally, it is assumed that an indictable offence has been committed. The assessment of ‘anti-Sovietism” depends entirely on the good will of the inquirers, for there is no legal definition of this concept.”

Soviet Union — January 9-13, 1976 (KCA)
Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko visits Japan to resume talks on the conclusion of a peace treaty. No compromise is reached in the “territorial dispute” but both sides express satisfaction with the development of bilateral relations and announce that they will start talks for a cultural agreement.

Albania / Soviet Union — January 11, 1976 (KCA)
The Soviet Union issues a call to Albania to restore diplomatic relations between the two countries, but it is again rejected.

Hungary / Portugal – January 12-15, 1976 (HCA)
For the first time, a Portuguese Foreign Minister, Ernesto Melo Antunues negotiates in Hungary.

US / USSR – January 14, 1976 (LBC)
Henry Kissinger on the SALT talks: The US never thought that it was doing the Soviets a favor by negotiating on the limitation of strategic arms with them. The limitation of strategic arms is a global issue that cannot be subordinated to the constant changes of Soviet-American relations.

Hungary / Iran / Vietnam / Singapore / India – January 17 – February 8, 1976 (HC)
Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja travels to Iran, Vietnam, Singapore and India.


Poland — January 19, 1976 (KCA)
It is announced that the elections of the Sejm will take place on March 21, 1976. The elections to voivodship councils take place on the same day.

Hungary / Vatican – January 19-24, 1976 (HC)
Archbishop and Papal Nuncio Luigi Poggi and Nunciature Secretary Munos Sainz negotiate in Hungary.

Albania — January 21, 1976 (KCA)
A draft constitution is published. The main points of the document are: the country changed its name to the Socialist People's Republic of Albania; the Party of Labor is defined as the “sole directing political power in state and society”; bans the establishment of any foreign bases or troops in Albania; abolishes private property; and announces equality between the sexes.

Czechoslovakia/Soviet Union – January 23, 1976 (CWIHP)
The Interior Ministries of Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union agree to provide short visits in order to exchange information on informational systems, mechanized and automated systems of computational technology, and criminology.

US / USSR – January 23, 1976 (LBC)
Kissinger’s talks in Moscow on SALT-II. Kissinger negotiates with Brezhnev, Gromyko and other leading Soviet politicians. In Kissinger’s view the talks led to significant progress in SALT. They managed to agree on the definition of “heavy” and “light” missiles. Since the SALT treaty signed in 1972 failed to clarify the difference, the Soviet Union changed its SS-19 rockets since then to “light” SS-11s, the explosive power of which was raised by 50%. The US accuses Moscow of violating the “spirit” of the SALT-I treaty. The USSR recommends that the Vladivostok limit for missiles and strategic bombers should be lowered.


Poland — January 24, 1976 (KCA/CEC) see February 10
Constitutional amendments to the 1952 constitution are published. The most important changes introduced are: defining the Polish People’s Republic as a socialist state, establishing the socialist economic system as the foundation of the socio-economic order in Poland, and granting equality of rights to all the citizens. The Sejm approves the amendments on February 10 with one abstention.

Romania – January 24, 1976 (CEC)
The death of Emil Bodnăraș is announced. After Ion Gheorghe Maurer withdrew from political life, all the political power is concentrated in the hands of Nicolae Ceauşescu.

Hungary / UN – January 26-27, 1976 (HC)
The seminar of the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) takes place in Budapest. The economic experts of 28 developing countries participate.

Romania / Spain – January 26-29, 1976 (PER)
A delegation of the Spanish Workers’ Party led by Felipe Gonzáles, visits Romania.

Bulgaria / Romania / Yugoslavia — January 26 - February 5, 1976 (KCA)
 A meeting of the Balkan Cooperation, along with Greece and Turkey, is held in Athens. It aims to establish more concrete cooperation in the economic, technical, scientific, touristic and cultural fields. On February 5, a final communiqué is issued that underlines the spirit of good-neighborliness, cooperation, and mutual understanding. A number of proposals and suggestions to be put forward to the governments are approved.


Bulgaria / Soviet Union — January 27- 28 1976 (KCA)
During a plenary session, the Bulgarian Communist Party Central Committee underlines “the unity and fraternity of the Bulgarian Communist Party and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.” The importance of the Soviet Union to Bulgaria is illustrated by the fact that at the end of 1975, over 50% of Bulgaria’s foreign trade was with the Soviet Union. In addition to economic relations, educational relations are also strengthened by recent decisions to introduce the Russian language to Bulgarian schools starting from the third grade, as opposed to the earlier practice of teaching Russian         from the fifth grade.

Soviet Union — January 29, 1976 (KCA)
A map is issued by the U.S. Pentagon showing that there are over 2,800 Soviet military advisors in Africa, about 200 of them in Angola.

Hungary – January 30, 1976 (HC)
Law decree no. 3 of 1976 of the Presidential Council of the People’s Republic about state awards is adopted. It systematizes the circle of state awards.

Soviet Union — January 31, 1976 (KCA)
The Central Statistical Board publishes a report stating that the Soviet Union’s grain crop of 1975 is the worst produced in ten years. The overall volume of agricultural production is reported to be 6% less than in 1974. Throughout the year 1975 the Soviet Union buys large amounts of grain from the United States, Canada, Australia, Argentina, and West European countries.


February 1976


Soviet Union / China — February 1976 (KCA)
A TASS commentator writes that: “The course of events in China has disclosed a section of party and government leaders who have not yet compromised themselves by taking action against the ‘left’ and who show loyalty to Mao Tse-tung, but whose political records show them to belong to the same category of leading workers of the older and the next generation as the ‘moderates’. Hua Guofeng, for example, is named as representative of this section in the Political Bureau.”

Soviet Union / China — February 3, 1976 (KCA)
A documentary film on China is shown on Soviet television. It violently attacks Chairman Mao and his wife, Chiang Ching, but contains no attacks on Chou En-lai.

Soviet Union / France / Italy / U.K. — February 3, 1976 (KCA)
Leonid Plyushch, released from the Dnepropetrovsk mental hospital in January 1976, speaks at a press conference in Paris giving details of the treatment that he and some 60 other political prisoners underwent at the hospital. He appeals inter alia to the Communist parties of France, Italy, and Britain to continue to press the Soviet Union for the release of political prisoners.

Soviet Union / China — February 3, 1976 (KCA)
Beijing radio alleges that the Chinese militia has driven out the Soviet troops infiltrating into Sinking, but it doesn’t give details or dates of the clash. This allegation is denied by the Soviet Union. The radio repeats the allegation again on March 12.

Romania / Greece – February 3-8, 1976 (PER)
A delegation of Panhellenic Socialist Movement led by Andreas Papandreu, visits Romania.

Hungary – February 4-9, 1976 (HC)
Prime Minister of the Republic of Cape Verde Pedro Pies is staying in Hungary.

Soviet Union — February 6, 1976 (KCA)
Cuba and the Soviet Union sign a five-year trade agreement for 1976-1980 that aims to double the volume of trade between the two countries. Under the additional trade protocol for 1976, the Soviet Union will increase its supplies of machinery, equipment, oil, and chemical products while Cuba will supply more sugar and nickel.

Hungary – February 10, 1976 (HC)
A national price conference on price policy questions takes place.

Poland / Soviet Union – February 10, 1976 (HDP) See January 24.
The Sejm approves amendments to the constitution, which include an alliance with the Soviet Union and the role of the Polish United Workers’ Party.

US – February 10, 1976 (LBC)
California Governor Ronald Reagan attacks Ford’s foreign policy: “One wonders if even we have a foreign policy, because it is impossible to detect a coherent global view.” “The balance of forces has been shifting gradually toward the Soviet Union since 1970…It has continued through the years of so-called détente…Let us not be satisfied with a foreign policy whose principle accomplishment seems to be our acquisition of the right to sell Pepsi Cola in Siberia.” Reagan accused American foreign policy of not negotiating from a position of strength with the Soviets

Soviet Union – February 9-11, 1976 (MMS)
COMECON Inter-Governmental Committee meets in Moscow and discusses the Orenburg natural gas pipeline issue.

Hungary / Greece – February 11-13, 1976 (HC)
Greek Foreign Minister Dimitri Bitsios negotiates in Budapest.

Hungary / Vatican – February 12, 1976 (HC)
Pope Paul VI appoints László Lékai as Archbishop of Esztergom.

Poland — February 12, 1976 (KCA)
Poland and the Philippines sign a trade and economic agreement granting “most favored nation” status in trade and fishing. They also agree to settle the payments in convertible currencies. Philippines will export abaca, coconut oil, bananas, and sugar while Poland will offer technical help to Philippine industries.

Soviet Union — February 15, 1976 (KCA)
Officials of the State Security Committee (KGB) questions Yury Orlov, a Soviet dissident, when TASS, the state news agency, accuses him of engaging in a new provocation designed to compromise the process of international détente.

Hungary / the Netherlands – February 17-19, 1976 (HC)
Dutch Foreign Minister Max van der Stoel is in Budapest.
Warsaw Pact / NATO / MBFR – February 19, 1976 (CAC)
At the MBFR talks, the Warsaw Pact proposes proportional reductions on the assumption that a rough equilibrium exists. It also accepts the Western idea of reductions in stages, but opposes an asymmetrical approach, as favored by the West.

Soviet Union — February 20, 1976 (KCA)
Pravda presents an article entitled “On Real and Imaginary Freedom”, signed by “I. Alexandrov”, that “the system of Soviet democracy far surpasses any bourgeois-democratic system.” The article condemns “those who support socialism but think that they will be able to build a society of equality and justice with help of the ‘critical’ promptings of the class enemy.”

Hungary / Soviet Union – February 21. – March 7, 1976 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár is staying in Moscow for the 25th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, held between February 24 and March 5.

Soviet Union — February 24 - March 5, 1976 (KCA)
The 25th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is held in Moscow. It is attended by 103 delegations from Communist parties and national organizations from 96 countries. In his report presented on February 24, Leonid Brezhnev underlines the Soviet policy of détente, support for the liberation movement and aiming to reduce the military potential in Europe. He defines Maoism as “directly hostile” to the Marxism-Leninism but calls for normalization of Chinese-Soviet relations. Brezhnev points out the growth in the Soviet Union’s economy but criticizes lacks in agriculture and light industry. He provides a detailed analysis of the international situation and of Soviet relations with other countries as well as insight into the economic situation of the country. Discussion and speeches delivered by foreign representatives follow. On March 4, the Congress elects a new expanded Central Committee, which elects new Politburo and Secretariat. A number of Cabinet changes are announced at the same time.

Albania — February 25, 1976 (KCA)
It is announced that the territorial waters of Albania will extend to 15 nautical miles along its entire coastline, with the exception of the area between the Albanian coastline and the Greek islands.

Soviet Union — February 25, 1976 (KCA)
Leonid Brezhnev, the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, makes a speech to the CPSU congress. The speech details the draft of the tenth five-year plan for the economic development in 1976 – 1980.

Soviet Union — February 26, 1976 (KCA)
The third and final volume of the Gulag Archipelago of Alexander Solzhenitsyn is published in Paris. This book is about Soviet labor camps.

Romania — February 26, 1976 (KCA)
President Ceauşescu of Romania underlines, in his speech at the Soviet Communist Party Congress, Romania’s policy of political and economic independence.

Yugoslavia — February 26, 1976 (KCA)
Mihajlo Mihajlov, a writer sentenced to seven years imprisonment, is stated to be in a good health in spite of his hunger strike started December 6, 1975 in protest against his treatment in prison.


March 1976


Hungary – March 1976 (HC)
Warsaw days take place in Budapest.

Yugoslavia – March – April, 1976 (KCA) see 1976
A number of trials of Stalinists, Croatian nationalists, and other opponents to the Government take place in Yugoslavia.

Soviet Union / U.K. — March 1, 1976 (KCA)
In a television interview broadcast by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), Alexander Solzhenitsyn declares inter alia: “The West is on the verge of a collapse created by its own hands. The Soviet Union’s economy is on such a war footing that even if it were the unanimous opinion of all the members of the Politburo not to start a war that would no longer be in their power. To avoid that would require an agonizing change from a monstrous war economy to a normal peace economy…”

U.S. – March 2, 1976 (HC)
American president Gerald Ford announces that he wants to secure peace from the “position of power”.

Hungary / Austria – March 2-3, 1976 (HC)
Hungarian-Austrian foreign ministerial negotiations take place in Graz and Sopron.

Yugoslavia / Portugal – March 4, 1976 (JBT)
Josip Broz Tito receives a member of the Revolutionary Council of Portugal Vitor Alves.

Yugoslavia / Cuba – March 6-8, 1976 (JBT)
Prime Minister of Cuba and First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba Fidel Castro makes an official working visit to Yugoslavia during which he meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito and other Yugoslav representatives. Cuban and Yugoslav delegation discuss mainly Third World issues and the policy of non-alignment.


Soviet Union — March 10, 1976 (KCA)
The Soviet embassy in Paris calls Alexander Solzhenitsyn, the 1970 Nobel Prize winner, “an enemy of détente who has declared himself in favor of a return to the Cold War, which is resolutely rejected by the peoples of the world”, and someone who “advocates direct interference in the internal affairs of the Soviet Union.”

Yugoslavia / Mexico, Panama, Venezuela, Portugal – March 10-22, 1976 (AY)
Yugoslav delegation headed by President Josip Broz Tito visits Mexico (March 10-14), Panama (March 14-17), Venezuela (March 17-19), and Portugal (March 20-22). During the official part of the journey Yugoslav delegation meets with President of Mexico Luis Echeverria, President of Panama Demetrio B. Lakas, Panamanian Prime Minister Omar Torrijos, and President of Venezuela Carlos Andres Perez. On the way back, Yugoslav delegation makes an unofficial visit to Portugal, and meets with President of Portugal Francisco de Costa Gomes. Alongside bilateral issues, main topic in conversations between the Yugoslavs and the Latin American leaders are international crises, the policy of non-alignment, the forthcoming Summit Conference in Colombo, as well as the positive aspects of nuclear weapons free zones.

Hungary – March 11, 1976 (HC)
A government order (1007/1976) about the modification of the sick pay system and the strengthening of the sick pay discipline is adopted.

Hungary / COMECON – March 12, 1976 (HC)
The working committee of the International Commission on European Security and Cooperation dealing with the strengthening of democracy, social development, and elimination of fascism has its inaugural meeting in Budapest.

Bulgaria — March 14, 1976 (KCA)
It is announced that the national elections will be held on May 30, 1976.

Soviet Union — March 15, 1976 (KCA)
The Egyptian Parliament approves a bill on the immediate abrogation of the 15-year Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation with the Soviet Union from 1971. It is also decided to withdraw naval facilities for Soviet warships at Egyptian ports. The Egyptian decision is explained by the Soviet refusal to supply Egypt with arms and to accept a moratorium for Egypt’s debts.

Hungary – March 18-19, 1976 (HC)
The spring session of the Parliament takes place. Act no. 1 of 1976 about national defense and act no. 2 of 1976 about environmental protection are adopted.

Bulgaria — March 19, 1976 (KCA)
Bulgaria and France sign a five-year economic cooperation agreement. The agreement aims to reduce Bulgaria’s unfavorable balance of trade with France.

Poland — March 21, 1976 (KCA)
The elections to the Sejm are held with the following results: 55% for PUWP, 25% for United Peasants’ Party (UPP), 8% for Democratic Party (DP), and 12% for Independents. 98.72% of voters take part in the elections. On the same day, elections to the 49-voivodship councils are held with 98.1% participation. At the first session of the new Sejm on March 25, Piotr Jaroszewicz is reelected as the Prime Minister and a new Council of State under the presidency of Henryk Jabłoński is elected.

Hungary – March 26, 1976 (HC)
A memorial gala takes place in the Erkel Theatre on the 300th birth anniversary of Ferenc Rákóczi II. President of the National Council of the People’s Patriotic Front Gyula Kállai and member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Béla Köpeczi deliver speeches.

US / Yugoslavia – March 26, 1976 (LBC)
An American chemical firm signs a $700 million agreement on investment with Yugoslavia. A petrochemical plant will be built on the island of Krk. American sources claim that this is the largest ever US investment in the Balkan state.

Romania / Greece – March 26-29, 1976 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Greece to discuss with President Konstantinos Tsatsos, and with Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis.

Hungary – March 27, 1976 (HC)
A report is released on the implementation of the fourth five-year plan 1971-1975.

Hungary / Bulgaria – March 28-31, 1976 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár goes to Sofia for the 11th Congress of the Bulgarian Communist Party.

Hungary / Vatican – March 29 (HC)
Archbishop of Esztergom and Primate László Lékai visits Pope Paul VI in Vatican City.

Romania / Kuwait – March 29-31, 1976 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Kuwait and hold discussions with Sabbah as-Salim as-Sabbah, the Emír of Kuwait.

Soviet Union — March 29 - April 1, 1976 (KCA)
West German Economics Minister Hans Friderichs visits the Soviet Union. During the visit it is announced that the plan to build an atomic power plant at Kaliningrad was abandoned.

Yugoslavia / Sweden – March 29-April 1, 1976 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito pays an official visit to Sweden. Among other topics, Yugoslav and Swedish representatives discuss the relations between non-aligned and neutral countries.


US / Soviet Union – March 29, 1976 (LBC)
Kissinger on US policy toward Eastern Europe: “Our policy in no sense accepts Soviet ’dominion’ of Eastern Europe nor is it in any way designed to seek the consolidation of such ’dominion’. On the contrary we seek to be responsive to, and encourage as responsibly as possible, the desire of East Europeans for greater autonomy, independence and more normal relations with the rest of the world. It is our policy that in this way there should also occur a greater Soviet acceptance of this autonomy and independence.”


Bulgaria — March 29 - April 2, 1976 (KCA)
The 11th congress of the Bulgarian Communist Party is held in Sofia. Bulgarian representatives as well as delegates from 105 other countries attend the congress. The analysis of the Bulgarian achievements under the 1971-75 development plan is presented, a new plan for 1976-80 is approved, and new Central Party organs are elected. The First Secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party Todor Zhivkov provides a detailed survey on the international and domestic situation, and the close cooperation between the Soviet and Bulgarian Communist parties is emphasized. On April 2, Zhivkov is reelected as the Party’s First Secretary and some changes in the Politburo are announced.

Soviet Union / U.S. — March 30, 1976 (KCA)
Leonid Plyushch declares before the International Relations Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives that in his estimation more than 1,000 dissidents are held in psychiatric hospitals in the U.S.S.R., and he asked for continuing public pressure on the Soviet authorities to obtain the release of political detainees.


April 1976


Albania — April 1, 1976 (KCA)
It is announced that the salaries of government officials, managers, and intellectuals will be reduced by 4%-25% and the royalties of artists and writers by between 30%-50%. The aim is to narrow the “essential differences” between citizens in the town and countryside.

Soviet Union / U.K. — April 1, 1976 (KCA)
In a talk broadcast by the BBC, Alexander Solzhenitsyn takes the basic position of a need for “spiritual regeneration” in the face of “the decline of contemporary thought” which has, he says, only contempt for anything which does not stem directly from economics but which is based on moral criteria. In his view, socialism with its logical progression towards ideal of equality, the use of force, and force labor, is part of the program of all prophets of socialism, including the Communist Manifesto. He also criticizes Britain for not taking any notice of the 15 million strong Gulag Archipelago, or the number of those who were deported to Soviet labor camps.

Hungary – April 2, 1976 (HC)
The co-operative Skála department store is opened in Budapest.

Hungary – April 3, 1976 (HC)
The Hejőcsaba (Miskolc) cement factory is opened.

Soviet Union — April 7, 1976 (KCA)
Following the confirmation of Hua Guofeng’s appointment as the Chinese Premier on April 7, Kosygin, the Soviet Premier, sends him a telegram of congratulations that says that the Soviet Union is “prepared to normalize relations with China on the basis of the principles of peaceful coexistence”.


Hungary / Bulgaria – April 6-8, 1976 (HC)
Bulgarian Chairman of the Council of Ministers Stanko Todorov has talks in Budapest.

Hungary – April 7-9, 1976 (HC)
An International Red Cross Organization conference about environmental protection takes place in Budapest.

Poland — April 8, 1976 (KCA)
The former Army Colonel Jerzy Pawlowski is sentenced by a military court to 25 years hard labor, ten years suspension of civic rights, and forfeiture of his property for espionage in favor of an unnamed NATO country.

Yugoslavia / Egypt – April 8-10, 1976 (JBT)
Egyptian president Anwar el-Sadat makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. Presidents Tito and el-Sadat discuss the preparations for the Conference of Non-aligned countries in Colombo, as well as the ways to solve the Middle East crisis.


Soviet Union — April 9, 1976 (KCA)
Andrei Amalrik, a historian and Soviet dissident, states that he has applied for permission to leave the country for the United States, although he was previously determined not to emigrate. He was informed by Soviet authorities that he can only apply for permission to go to Israel. He will be granted a visa for Israel on June 23.

Romania — April 9 - 13, 1976 (KCA)
President Ceauşescu of Romania visits the Philippines. During the visit, agreements on trade, economic, technical, and scientific cooperation are signed.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – April 10-14, 1976 (HC)
First secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár is staying in Prague at the 15th Congress of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.


Czechoslovakia — April 12 - 16, 1976 (KCA/VVR) see April 12
The 15th Congress of the Czechoslovak Communist Party is held in Prague and is attended by party delegates and representatives from 86 different countries. President Gustáv Husák presents a report on party activities and the social developments since 1971. The Prime Minister Lubomír Štrougal presents the economic plan for 1976­ - 1980.  On April 16, elections to the Central Committee, Presidium, and Secretariat are announced. Husák is reelected as General Secretary. The Congress of the Communist party accepts the concept of ‘extended socialism’.

Hungary – April 13, 1976 (HC)
The exhumation of mass graves of the battle of 1526 at Mohács begins.

Soviet Union — April 14, 1976 (KCA)
The Soviet Union and Cuba sign a five-year economic and technical cooperation agreement. It is reported to provide for the construction of a nuclear power plant in Cuba, and for cooperation in the fields of electric power engineering, oil refining, construction materials, and sugar refining.

Soviet Union — April 15, 1976 (KCA)
Two trials of dissidents, including the 1975 Nobel Prize winner Professor Andrei Sakharov, end.

Romania – April 15, 1976 (CEC)
A law is passed regarding the construction of a hydroelectric power plant at the Danube - Black Sea canal.

Soviet Union — April 21, 1976 (KCA)
268 Crimean Tartars, most of them from Uzbekistan, and 100 other Soviet citizens send appeals against the sentence of  Mustafa Dzhemilev, 33, the dissident Crimean Tartar sentenced in Omsk for two and a half years in a strict-regime labor camp for spreading anti-state propaganda.

Yugoslavia / Uganda – April 20-22, 1976 (JBT)
President of Uganda and Chairmen of the Organization of African Unity Idi Amin makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. In a joint statement Idi Amin and Josip Broz Tito condemn all forms of imperialism, colonialism, neocolonialism and domination, thereby underlining the role of the OAU and the NAM in achieving world peace, and true independence of all peoples and nations in the world.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia – April 26-27, 1976 (HC)
Czechoslovak Prime Minister Lubomír Štrougal stays in Budapest.

Soviet Union — April 26 - 29, 1976 (KCA)
The Egyptian delegation visits Moscow. During the visit the 1976 Egypt USSR trade agreement is signed.

Hungary / Vatican – April 27, 1976 (HC)
The Vatican’s spokesperson announces that Pope Paul VI intends to appoint new cardinals, among them Archbishop and President of the Hungarian Catholic Episcopal Department, László Lékai. On May 24 László Lékai is inaugurated as Cardinal.

Soviet Union / China — April 28, 1976 (KCA)
A long article in Pravda calls for the resumption of the border negotiations between China and the Soviet Union. It attributes the Chinese Government’s anti-Soviet policy to “the Mao Tse-tung group”, and commented: “The Chinese people are not going along with Maoism, as was shown by the recent large-scale unrest in Beijing and other Chinese cities.

Hungary / West Germany (FRG) – April 28-30, 1976 (HC)
Foreign Minister of the Federal Republic of Germany H. D. Genscher is in Budapest.

Soviet Union / China — April 29, 1976 (KCA)
During a banquet in honor of Robert Muldoon, the New Zealand Prime Minister, Hua Guofeng, the Chinese Prime Minister, denounces the Soviet Union as “widely ambitious” and “the most dangerous source of war”.

Soviet Union / China — April 29, 1976 (KCA)
An explosion occurs at the gates of the Soviet embassy in Beijing, two Chinese guards and a civilian are killed.

Albania — April 29, 1976 (KCA)
Governmental changes are announced: Themie Thomai is appointed Minister of Agriculture and Tefta Cami is appointed Minster of Education.


May 1976


Hungary / U.S. / Canada – May 3-11, 1976 (HC)
Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Gyula Szekér has talks in the United States. On May 4, President Ford greets him, and on May 12-15 he stays in Canada.

Yugoslavia — May 7, 1976 (KCA)
Vidoje Žarković is elected Vice-President of the Yugoslav Presidency for one year, replacing Vladimir Bakarić starting from May 16, 1976.

Soviet Union — May 8, 1976 (KCA)
It is announced that Leonid Brezhnev, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party, was promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union.

Hungary / Soviet Union – May 8-11, 1976 (HC)
The 11th Congress of the Young Communist League takes place. The First Secretary is László Maróthy.

Yugoslavia / Greece – May 10-13, 1976 (AY)
Josip Broz Tito visits Greece, and meets with President Konstantinos Tsatsos, and Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis.

Soviet Union — May 13, 1976 (KCA)
A group of nine dissidents (including Alexander Ginsburg, the former Major-General Pyotr Grigorenko, Anatoly Marchenko, and Yelena Bonner) led by Yury Orlov announce that they have formed a “Public Group to assist the Fulfillment of the Helsinki Accords in the Soviet Union”.

Soviet Union / China — May 13, 1976 (KCA)
Following the explosion at the gates of the Soviet embassy in Beijing, a Chinese spokesman says that the explosion is “an act of sabotage by a counter-revolutionary who was killed on the spot”.

Hungary / Austria – May 16-19, 1976 (HC)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers György Lázár visits Austria.

Soviet Union — May 17, 1976 (KCA)
 An earthquake takes place in the Republic of Uzbekistan. It is reported that 6 people were killed, 160 injured, and over 10,000 made homeless.

Hungary – May 17-18, 1976 (HC)
A general assembly of the Hungarian Writers’ Association takes place. The Chairman is Imre Dobozy and the Secretary-General is Gábor Garai.

Hungary / East Germany – May 17-22, 1976 (HC)
A delegation led by first secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár arrives in Berlin to the 9th Congress of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany.

East Germany — May 18 - 22 1976 (KCA)
The Ninth Congress of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany is held in Berlin attended by representatives of 92 countries. First Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party Erich Honecker presents a report in which he underlines the close ties between GDR and the Soviet Union, reviews the economic achievements, denounces Maoism, and expresses support for an international Communist conference. A number of speeches by foreign representatives follow. On May 22 the new Central Committee and Politburo are elected. Honecker as reelected, his new official title is General Secretary. A new Party program, a Party statute, and the five-year plan for economic development 1976-1980 are approved. It is also announced that the elections will take place on October 17, 1976.

US – May 20-21, 1976 (LBC)
The Oslo meeting of the Foreign Ministers of NATO takes place. Secretary of State Kissinger declares that NATO will continue to provide firm support to the West against Soviet military and ideological aggression irrespective of who will win the election in November. According to Kissinger, communist ideology poses a menace to Western institutions and values. NATO must strive to preclude Moscow’s expansionist aspirations. Regarding Eastern Europe, Kissinger refuted Sonnenfeldt’s position that accepts spheres of influence. Kissinger stated that the US wants to encourage Eastern Europe’s independence and autonomy from the Soviet Union with responsible steps. (Sonnenfeldt, who was Kissinger’s close aid and thus his views were identified with those of the secretary of state, declared at a confidential briefing: the fact that the Soviets were unable to win Eastern Europe’s loyalty is an unfortunate historical failure, since Eastern Europe belongs to their sphere and national interest. US policy must be directed at an evolution between the East Europeans and the USSR, which would make their relationship organic. This worked in the case of Poland. The Poles were able to overcome their romantic leanings that led to catastrophe in the past.) Comments: Sulzberger, New York Times: This is like a call to the Kremlin to maximize its control over Eastern Europe and even integrate it into the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union / China — May 21, 1976 (KCA)
The Soviet Union and China sign the annual trade and payment worth 280 million rubles.

Hungary / Soviet Union – May 21, 1976 (HC)
The Hungarian-Soviet work plan on cultural and scientific cooperation for the years 1976-1980 is signed in Budapest.

Czechoslovakia / COMECON – May 24, 1976 (MMS)
A COMECON meeting takes place in Bratislava.

Soviet Union — May 25, 1976 (KCA)
The Supreme Court of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic (RSFSR) confirms the sentence of Mustafa Dzhemilev, the dissident Crimean Tartar, despite appeals from 268 Crimean Tartars and 100 other Soviet citizens. (See April 21).

Soviet Union / Warsaw Pact / NATO – May 25–27, 1976 (CAC / MMS)
A meeting of the Military Council in Kiev hears a report on increases in NATO’s capabilities.

US / USSR – May 26, 1976 (LBC)
The speaker of the State Department announces that four Soviet trade union leaders did not get a visa to the US. The decision was influenced by the AFL-CIO’s opposition. The Soviet press accuses the US of violating the Helsinki accord.

Romania — May 26 - 27, 1976 (KCA)
The Greek Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis visits Romania. A joint 12-point declaration is issued during the visit that calls for “making the Balkan region a zone of peace, friendship, and cooperation.” Both countries agree to double their trade exchange and to develop scientific, technical, and economic cooperation.

Soviet Union — May 28, 1976 (KCA)
The United States and the Soviet Union sign a treaty controlling underground nuclear explosions for non-military purposes. Both countries already ratified the 1963 Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, which prohibits all nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water. During 1975 and 1976 U.S.-Soviet talks on Limitations of Strategic Arms (SALT) continued.

Yugoslavia – May 28, 1976 (HR)
After 23 year-long construction, the railroad between Belgrade and Bar (port in Montenegro) is ceremoniously opened. Tito gives a speech on a rally in Belgrade, and boards the first train to Bar.

Yugoslavia — May 29, 1976 (KCA)
The first direct railway line from Belgrade to Adriatic Sea (at Bar) is opened to traffic.

Bulgaria — May 30, 1976 (KCA)
Elections for Bulgaria’s National Assembly, county, district, urban, and rural People’s Councils take place. Elections of judges and judicial assessors at municipal and district courts are held at the same time. In the general elections 99.99% of voters take part in elections and 99.92% vote for the candidates nominated by the Fatherland Front. The new National Assembly reelects Todor Zhivkov as the First Secretary of the Communist Party and Chairman of the State Council. On June 16, under chairman Stanko Todorov, the New State Council and the Council of Ministers are approved.

Yugoslavia / Guinea Bissau – May 30-June 2, 1976 (JBT)
President of Guinea Bissau Luiz Cabral makes an official visit to Yugoslavia during which he meets with President Josip Broz Tito.


Soviet Union — May 31, 1976 (KCA)
Cuba purchases a nuclear power station from the Soviet Union, which will be constructed in central Cuba with Soviet technical help.

Soviet Union — May 31 - June 3, 1976 (KCA)
The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Philippines and the Soviet Union is announced during the visit of President Marcos of the Philippines to Moscow. A trade agreement is also signed.


June 1976


Soviet Union — June 1976 (KCA)
Nina Bukovskaya, the mother of Vladimir Bukovsky, in prison since January 1972, states that her son has been punished, together with some 50 other prisoners, for demanding the status of a political prisoner and refusing to perform the compulsory work introduced at the Vladimir prison a year earlier. She says that the punishment involves solitary confinement and food restrictions, as a result of which her son has developed a stomach ulcer and has a liver complaint. On August 19 she compares the condition of her son to “an inmate of the Auschwitz Nazi concentration camp”.

Soviet Union — June 1976 (KCA)
Mikhail Leviev, a Jew who was accused of corruption and sentenced to death in December 1974, is commuted to 15 years detention in a strict-regime labor camp.

Romania / Turkey – June, 1976 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Turkey to discuss with President Fahri S. Korütürk and with Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel.

Soviet Union — June 1976 (KCA)
Professor Marat Vartanyan of the Moscow Institute of Psychiatry discusses a draft code of ethical principles for psychiatry. He is opposed to any abuse of psychiatry as a means of suppressing opinion and political dissent. However, Viktor Fainberg, who spent five years in a Soviet mental hospital, says that Professor Vartanyan’s main function is “to prevent any action being taken abroad on behalf of the victims of psychiatric torturers in his country”.

 Romania – June 2-4, 1976 (CEC)
The first Congress of the Political Education and Socialist Culture takes place. This is a new element of Causescu’s propaganda.

Czechoslovakia/Soviet Union – June 4, 1976 (CWIHP)
The Czechoslovak and Soviet Ministries of the Interior sign an agreement on strengthening bilateral ties in the areas of science, technology, security operations and criminology, best practices of propaganda methods, roadway security and oversight, education of government officials and administrative organization.

Hungary – June 4, 1976 (HC)
The Vasarely Museum is opened in Pécs.

Soviet Union — June 6 - June 16, 1976 (KCA)
Two Soviet spacecrafts, Venus 9 and Venus 10, are launched into orbit around Venus. Throughout 1973-1976 four spacecrafts are launched to the moon. Along with the continuation of the Soviet Lunar explorations, the Soviet Satellite program launches around 900 satellites.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – June 7, 1976 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito receives Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Konstantin Katushev who conveys Leonid Brezhnev’s personal letter to President Tito.

Romania / Federal Republic of Germany – June 7-8, 1976 (PER)
The Chairman of the Christian Democratic Union Helmut Kohl, visits Romania.

Hungary / Finland – June 7-9, 1976 (HC)
Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja is in Finland.

Yugoslavia / Turkey – June 8-10, 1976 (AY)
Josip Broz Tito visits Turkey, and meets with President Fahri Korutürk and Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel.

Soviet Union / India — June 8 - 13, 1976 (KCA)
Indian Premier Indira Gandhi visits Moscow. A joint declaration on the further development of friendship and cooperation between the two countries is signed.

Germany/Croatia/Bosnia/Serbia – June 9, 1976 (KCA)
Hrvatski Narodni Odbor (HNO-Croatian People's Resistance), chaired by Stjepan Bilandžić from 1965 until his arrest, is banned by the Federal Interior Minister - Professor Maihofer.

Hungary / East Germany – June 10-12, 1976 (HC)
Foreign Minister of the German Democratic Republic is in Budapest.

Yugoslavia / Japan – June 12-15, 1976 (JBT)
Prince Akihito of Japan and Princess Michiko pay an official visit to Yugoslavia.

Hungary / France – June 13-16, 1976 (HC)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers György Lázár has talks in France.

Romania — June 15, 1976 (KCA)
A number of new appointments to the Council of Minister are announced, among which Colonel-General Ion Coman is appointed Minister of Defense.

Soviet Union / China — June 16, 1976 (KCA)
The Financial Times comments that: “The size of the trade (between the Soviet Union and China) now puts the Soviet Union in roughly the same bracket as the U.K. in the list of Beijing’s partners, though it is far outclassed by Japan, West Germany, France, and increasingly the U.S.”

US / Soviet Union – June 16, 1976 (LBC)
From the election platform of the Democratic Party: In the field of Soviet-American relations “A principle goal must be the continued reduction of tension with the Soviet Union…The continued USSR military dominance of many Eastern European countries remains a source of oppression for the peoples of those nations, an oppression we do not accept, and to which we are morally opposed. Any attempt by the Soviet Union to dominate other parts of Europe – such as Yugoslavia – would be an action posing a great threat to peace. Eastern Europe will not truly be an area of stability until these countries regain their independence and become part of a large European framework.”

Yugoslavia / Togo – June 23-26, 1976 (JBT)
President of Togo Gnassingbe Eyadema makes an official visit to Yugoslavia.


Hungary – June 24-25, 1976 (HC)
The summer session of the Parliament takes place. Act no. 4 of 1976 about food products is adopted.

Poland — June 25, 1976 (KCA)
Workers display open resistance in response to the announcement of proposed increases in food prices. As a result, these price increases are cancelled the same day and a number of imprisonment sentences are imposed on people involved in the resistance.

Yugoslavia / Syria – June 25-26, 1976 (JBT)
President of Syria Hafiz el-Assad makes an official visit to Yugoslavia.


Hungary – June 26, 1976 (HC)
The Helikon Palace Museum and monument library is opened in the Festetics Palace in Keszthely.


US – June 25, 1976 (LBC)
Kissinger on Eastern Europe: “We are determined to deal with Eastern Europe on the basis of the sovereignty and independence of each of its countries. We recognize no sphere of influence and no pretensions of hegemony.” The West will “continue to pursue measures to improve the lives of the people in Eastern Europe in basic human terms – such as freer emigration, the unification of families, greater flow of information, increased economic interchange and more opportunities for travel”.

Romania / Syria – June 26-28, 1976 (PER)
The President of Syria, Hafez al-Asaad, visits Romania.

Yugoslavia – June 28, 1976 (KCA)
Marko Krpan and Pavel Perović attempt to murder the Yugoslav vice-consul in Dusseldorf, Vladimir Topić.

Hungary / East Germany – June 28. – July 1, 1976 (HC)
A delegation led by First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár travels to East-Berlin to the conference of the European communist and workers’ parties between June 29 and 30, the delegation of 29 parties participate.

Hungary / Denmark – June 28. – July 1, 1976 (HC)
Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja is in Denmark.

Soviet Union — June 29, 1976 (KCA)
Andrei Amalrik, a historian and a Soviet dissident, says in his statement that: “I irritated the authorities so much because I was in a way the first complete dissident, a person really outside the system. The movement for human rights and democracy in the Soviet Union has three lines of defense. On the first are those, like Vladimir Bukovsky, in jails, camps and mental hospitals, who take the sharpest blows. The second line is those who live and struggle in the Soviet Union, like Sakharov and Yury Orlov. And finally there are those beyond the boundaries of the Soviet Union in the safest conditions but who still have to continue to struggle…I hope, I am even sure, that being (outside the U.S.S.R.) there I will be able to be more useful than here.” (See also April 9).

East Germany / Romania – June 29-30, 1976 (PER)
A Conference of the Communist and Workers’ parties takes place in Berlin. With Ceauşescu’s policy of independence and strong internal sovereignty, Ceauşescu can strengthen his political power.

Yugoslavia / Eastern Bloc – June 29-30, 1976 (JBT, HN)
League of Communists of Yugoslavia takes part in the Conference of Communist and Workers’ Parties of Europe in Berlin. Yugoslav delegation led by President Josip Broz Tito stays in East Germany between June 27 and July 1. In his speech to the conference President Tito emphasizes the basic principles of international cooperation, which, in his view, include independence, equality, and non-interference in other country's (or movement's) internal matters. He also adds that the struggle for political, economic, and cultural independence, for international cooperation based on equality, and for world peace and security, is most visible in the activities of the NAM.


East Germany — June 29 - 30, 1976 (KCA)
The Conference of European Communist Parties is held in East Berlin. The representatives attend the conference from all the European countries except for Albania and Iceland. The delegates deliver numerous speeches. A 10,000-word declaration titled For Peace, Security, Co-operation and Social Progress in Europe is adopted. The final document of the Conference emphasizes the equality and independence of all Communist parties and their right to decide on foreign policy without interference. It expresses the Communist parties attitude to following issues: disarmament and security in Europe, democracy and national independence, international cooperation, and international peace and security.

July 1976


Czechoslovakia – July 1976 (CHH)
Three young men are tried for organizing a lecture by Ivan M. Jirous.

Hungary – July 1, 1976 (HC)
An order of the Council of Ministers (1023/1976) about the regulation of those taking jobs who have completed higher education is adopted. One must find a job exclusively and by application.

West-Germany – July 1, 1976 (KCA)
A list compiled by an official of the Ministry of the Interior and by a BfV official is inserted in a special directive. It contains 239 organizations and 287 publications of “extreme left-wing” or “hostile to the state”.

Romania — July 2, 1976 (KCA)
Ion Dincă and Ion Hortopan are elected as members of the State Council.

Soviet Union — July 2, 1976 (KCA)
The Soviet Union and Western Samoa establish diplomatic relations at an ambassadorial level.

Bulgaria — July 2 - 4 1976 (KCA)
Greek Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis visits Bulgaria. Bulgaria reassures Prime Minister Karamanlis on the inviolability of the Greek-Bulgarian border and it is concluded that there are “no controversial questions.”

Yugoslavia — July 5, 1976 (KCA)
Former Colonel Vlado Dap čević  is sentenced to death for high treason but the sentence is converted into life imprisonment. A number of trials against Croatian nationalists take place during summer of 1976.

COMECON – July 6-9, 1976 (MMS)
The 77th session of COMECON Executive Committee takes place in Berlin.

COMECON — July 7 - 9, 1976 (KCA)
The 30th session of Comecon is held in East Berlin. Representatives attend the conference from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, Cuba, and Yugoslavia. Observers from Angola, North Korea, Laos and Vietnam also attend the session. “Common goal programs” in fuel, raw materials, consumer goods, transport sectors, and a general plan for the development of an integrated power system are discussed. The cooperation agreements with Iraq and Mexico are approved at the Comecon session.

Hungary / Belgium – July 8-10, 1976 (HC)
Belgian foreign minister van Elslande negotiates in Budapest.

Soviet Union / European Parliament — July 9, 1976 (KCA)
The European Parliament calls on the Soviet Government to end the maltreatment of Vladimir Bukovsky and other political prisoners. (See also June 1976).

 Hungary / Finland – July 9-15, 1976 (HC)
A Hungarian-Finnish friendship week takes place in Budapest and Helsinki.

Hungary / Soviet Union – July 12, 1976 (HC)
A Hungarian-Soviet interstate agreement is signed regarding Soviet help in establishing the Transdanubian power station and coal mines.

Soviet Union / Canada — July 14, 1976 (KCA)
A ten-year economic agreement is signed by Canada and the Soviet Union under which a joint commission will be set up.

Soviet Union / the Netherlands — July 15, 1976 (KCA)
Andrei Amalrik, a Soviet dissident, and his wife are allowed to leave the country, reaching the Netherlands before visiting other Western countries.

Soviet Union / France — July 16, 1976 (KCA)
In the exchange of letters between the Soviet Union and France both sides agree to carry out the joint declaration on disarmament measures. They also agree to improve measures to prevent accidental or unauthorized use of nuclear weapons and notify each other immediately about any incident, which might lead to the explosion of combat nuclear devices. They will try to avoid the action that might lead to the situations in the case of unexplained nuclear incident.

Hungary / Romania / Canada – July 17 - August 1, 1976 (HC / HOR / TCR)
The 21st Summer Olympic Games take place in Montreal, Canada. Hungarian sportsmen win 4 gold, 5 silver and 12 bronze medals. 14 year-old Romanian gymnast Nadia Comaneci distinguishes herself by recording seven perfect scores, the first time in Olympic history, and three gold medals, including individual all-around champion. Her success attracts worldwide attention to the country

US / Soviet Union – July 19, 1976 (LBC)
A US-Soviet agreement allows Moscow to raise maritime shipping tariffs to the West’s level. Earlier the Soviet state company used tariffs that were 20-40% lower than those of its Western competitors.

Hungary – July 21, 1976 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. Topics include the international situation, the exchange of membership books, and the state of agriculture.

Hungary – July 22, 1976 (HC)
Imre Pozsgay is the new minister of culture.

Soviet Union — July 23, 1976 (KCA)
At the end of a Soviet visit to Mali, it is announced that the Soviet Union will supply military aid.

Hungary – July 24, 1976 (HC)
The Minister of Domestic Trade prohibits the selling of alcohol at all work places, entering into force September 1.

Hungary – July 27-30, 1976 (HC)
Director General of UNESCO Mahtar M’Bow stays in Budapest.

Soviet Union — July 30, 1976 (KCA)
Dmitry Ustinov, Minister of Defense, is promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union. Some changes in USSR and Republican Government are announced at the same time.


August 1976

Hungary / Poland – August 2-3, 1976 (HC)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers György Lázár negotiates in Poland.

Romania / Armenia / Georgia / Moldova / Soviet Union – August 2-12, 1976 (PER / CEC)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Armenia, Moldova, and Georgia. On the 3rd of August, the Ceauşescu couple discusses with  Brezhnev intensifying international relations.

Romania – August 6, 1976 (CEC)
In Romania a new law is adopted. Every person over 16 is required to take part in utility work.

Hungary – August 9, 1976 (HC)
Physics Nobel Prize Laureate, Jenő Wigner, pays a visit to Hungary.

Hungary / Soviet Union - August 9, 1976 (HC)
300 young volunteers travel to Ust-Ilimsk for 2 years for the construction of the lumber and cellulose combine.
Soviet Union / Western European countries — August 9, 1976 (KCA)
Andrei Amalrik visits Stockholm and criticizes Western Governments for “ignoring their friends in the Soviet Union” by failing to maintain contacts with dissident groups. He states that: “The West all too easily accepts the rules of the game dictated by the Soviet Union, regarding members of the movement for human rights as dangerous conspirators whose romantic aims one, at best, can sympathize with at a distance, but whom one should avoid meeting personally. But what the movement is doing in the Soviet Union is not only legal under the Soviet constitution but is also designed to improve mutual East-West relations.”

Hungary – August 12, 1976 (HC)
The standpoint of the Hungarian government on strengthening international security is revealed.

Hungary / Soviet Union – August 14, 1976 (HC)
József Marjai is appointed as the new ambassador to Moscow. His credentials are handed over on September 29th.

Czechoslovakia – August 16, 1976 (CHH)
Human rights activists Jaroslav Seifert, Václav Černý, Jan Patočka, Karel Kosik, Václav Havel, Ivan Klíma, and Pavel Kohout send a letter of appeal to Heinrich Böll in the case of trials against members of the musical underground, Ivan M. Jirous, Svatopluk Karásek, Karel Soukup, and Vratislav Brabenec.

Hungary – August 16, 1976 (HC)
Chairman of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Tibor Erdey-Grúz dies.

Yugoslavia / Non-Aligned Movement, August 16-19, 1976 (HN)
The Fifth Summit Conference of Non-Aligned Countries takes place in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Members of 114 delegations attend the conference (86 members, 21 observers, and 7 guests). The conference adopts a declaration demanding a new world economic order, a new finance and currency system, and a new world information and communication order. In his speech to the conference on August 17th President Tito underlines that the main aim of the NAM should be the struggle for new economic world order. He also states that the non-aligned countries must stay committed to collective action in order to achieve their goals, and that they should foster solidarity, cooperation, and unity among themselves.


Soviet Union / Amnesty International — August 18, 1976 (KCA)
A Hamburg Statement by Amnesty International states that persons are placed in psychiatric clinics because of their political or religious views. Those persons also include: Anatoly Uvarov, Mikhail Zveev, a law student named Popov, Alexander Agrientov, and Viktor Marezin.

Yugoslavia / Iran – August 21, 1976 (AY)
Josip Broz Tito visits Iran on his way back from the Conference in Colombo.


Soviet Union / International PEN Club — August 26, 1976 (KCA)
The International PEN Club in London renews the appeal for Bukovsky’s release. (See also August 9, 1976).

Hungary / Soviet Union – August 26, 1976 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár, spending his vacation in the Soviet Union, meets Brezhnev in Crimea.

Hungary – August 27, 1976 (HC)
The Presidential Council of the People’s Republic is in session. Order no. 23 of 1976 about land organization and order no. 24 of 1976 about expropriation are adopted.

Yugoslavia / Spain – August 28, 1976 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito receives President of the Communist Party of Spain Dolores Ibarruri.

Hungary – August 29, 1976 (HC)
A historical memorial is erected in Mohács on the 550th anniversary of the Mohács battle.

Czechoslovakia/Soviet Union – August 30, 1976 (CWIHP)
The Czechoslovak and Soviet security branches agree to cooperate in the acquisition and share the documents on hostile people, counter-intelligence on the US, its allies and China, surveillance of persons working for embassies, international firms or otherwise engaged in economic relations, and security programs in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the Vietnamese Socialist Republic.

US / Soviet Union – August 31, 1976 (LBC)
The US announces that the Soviet Union started to deploy multiple warhead intermediate range missiles to Eastern Europe.


September 1976

Poland – September 1976 (HDP)
The Workers’ Defense Committee (KOR) is established to help workers persecuted by Communist authorities for their participation in the events of June 1976.

Soviet Union — September 2, 1976 (KCA)
Nikolai Tikhonov is appointed a First Vice-Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers.

Hungary / Norway – September 6-9, 1976 (HC)
For the first time, Norwegian Foreign Minister Knut Frydenlund negotiates in Hungary.

Soviet Union — September 7, 1976 (KCA)
The United States grants asylum to a pilot of the Soviet Air Force who landed on September 6 in the Japanese island of Hokkaido.

Soviet Bloc / Mongolia – September 7-11, 1976 (MMS)
Soviet Bloc states’ Ministers of Culture meet in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Soviet Union / U.S. — September 8, 1976 (KCA)
Alexander Solzhenitsyn, the 1970 Nobel Literature Prize winner living in Zurich, Switzerland since 1974, is granted permanent residence in the United States after touring the U.S. for some time for giving lectures and making speeches.

Yugoslavia / Romania - September 8-11, 1976 (JBT)
Romanian leader Nicolae Ceausescu makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. Tito and Ceausescu agree on the necessity of different roads to socialism, and of equality in international relations.

China – September 9, 1976 (HC)
Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party Mao Zedong dies.

Poland / Cuba – September 9–16, 1976 (CAC)
“Shield-76” maneuvers in Poland, with participation of Western observers as well as defense minister Raúl Castro of Cuba.


Hungary / Austria – September 11-12, 1976 (HC)
Austrian Chancellor Bruo Kreisky pays an informal visit to Budapest.

Czechoslovakia — September 14, 1976 (KCA) Changes in the government take place, among which Josef Nagr is appointed Minister of Agriculture.

Soviet Union — September 15, 1976 (KCA)
Pyotr Starchik, a non-conformist singer held in a psychiatric prison in Kazan between 1972 and 1975, is again taken to a psychiatric hospital after giving his own interpretation of certain modern poets such as the late Ossip Mandelshtam and Marina Tsvetayeva. He will be released on November 15 because he yields to the authorities’ demands. He also says that: “The authorities cannot allow such activities to go on uncontrolled, even though there were only a few doubtful songs among those I used to sing.”

Romania – September 16, 1976 (CEC)
The first maritime drilling rig starts to function.

Hungary – September 17-20, 1976 (HC)
The council meeting of the European Baptist Federation takes place in Budapest.

Hungary – September 18-19, 1976 (HC)
The 6th congress of the People’s Patriotic Front takes place. The Chairman is Gyula Kállai and the Secretary-General is István Sarlós.

Hungary – September 20, 1976 (HC)
A memorial committee is formed on the 100th birth anniversary of Endre Ady (November 12, 1877). The chairman is Antal Apró.

Hungary / Laos – September 23-27, 1976 (HC)
Prime Minister of Laos Kaysona Phomvihane negotiates in Hungary.

Soviet Union / UNESCO — September 24, 1976 (KCA)
In Paris, Andrei Amalrik says that he is ready to testify before UNESCO on the violation of cultural freedom in the U.S.S.R. Additionally, he proposes that at the following meeting to the Helsinki Conference in Belgrade in 1977, the West should achieve the establishment of a permanent organ charged with supervising the application of the clauses of the Helsinki agreement relating to the freedom of movement of persons, ideas, and information between East and West.

Soviet Union / U.N. — September 28, 1976 (KCA)
At the U.N. General Assembly’s 31st session Andrei Gromyko, the Soviet Foreign Minister, makes a strong plea in his speech for “disarmament and an end to the arms race.” He says that there is no room for excuses which prevent bringing the cause of the prohibition of all nuclear weapon tests finally to conclusion, and that the disarmament problem should be examined in all its aspects at a world disarmament conference.

Soviet Union — September 28, 1976 (KCA)
Uganda and the Soviet Union sign a new agreement for the Soviet Union to supply long-range aircraft and “certain other hardware” to Uganda.

Hungary – September 28, 1976 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár, Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi, and Chairman of the Council of Ministers György Lázár pay a visit to one of the Transdanubian units of the Hungarian People’s Army.

US / Soviet Union – September 29, 1976 (LBC)
According to the data of the US commercial office in Moscow in the first half of 1976 the US delivered $1.4 billion of goods to the Soviet Union, as opposed to $521 million in the same period in 1975. The Soviet imports from the US were $39.7 million, which means a decline of $34 million. In 1976 the US sold 3.3 million tons of grain to the USSR.


October 1976


Soviet Union  – October 1976.
Yakov Ryabov is elected Secretary of the Central Committee in charge of the state defense industry.

East Germany – October 1976 (CWIHP)
East Germany provides an analysis of the November 1976 plenary session of socialist countries' permanent commission of scientific institutions. The plenary session discussed issues of European security and cooperation.

Soviet Union / China — October 1976 (KCA)
The Soviet Union welcomes the arrest of Chiang Chiang, the wife of Chairman Mao. She was the leader of the “Gang of Four”.

Soviet Union / China — October 1, 1976 (KCA)
An article by “I. Alexandrov”, published in Pravda, contains no reference to Chairman Mao, and declares: “Our country is ready to hold talks with China on the settlement of frontier problems without any prior conditions. The Soviet Union has never had and has no economic, territorial or other claims on China….We believe that there are no problems in the relations between our states that cannot be solved, given mutual desire and a spirit of good-neighborliness, mutual benefit and consideration for each other’s interests.”

US / Soviet Bloc – October 6, 1976 (LBC)
The televised debate of Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter. In defense of the Helsinki agreement Ford declares that “there is no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe and there never will be under a Ford administration.” – Carter’s reply: I would like to see Ford “convince the Polish-Americans and the Czech-Americans and the Hungarian-Americans that those countries do not live under the domination and supervision of the Soviet Union behind the Iron Curtain”.

Hungary / Venezuela / Peru / Panama / Cuba – October 6-19, 1976 (HC)
Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi travels to Venezuela, Peru, Panama, and Cuba.

Soviet Union — October 7 - 13, 1976 (KCA)
President Neto of Angola visits Moscow. During the visit, a 20-year Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation is signed.

Hungary – October 8-11, 1976 (HC)
A development conference takes place in Budapest with the participation of 100 countries and organizations.

Czechoslovakia – October 11, 1976 (Ch77HRICz)
In a detailed letter Václav Havel expresses his dissatisfaction with the situation in Czechoslovakia and with the trials of underground musicians.

Romania / Belgium – October 11-14, 1976 (PER)
The Grand Duke, Jean of Luxemburg and his wife, Josephine Charlotte, visit Romania.

Soviet Union / Warsaw Pact Members — October 12, 1976 (KCA)
Colonel-General Anatoly Gribkov is appointed Chief of Staff of the United Armed Forces of the Warsaw Treaty states.

Albania — October 13, 1976 (KCA)
Manush Myftiu is appointed Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers.

US / USSR / Soviet Bloc – October 14, 1976 (LBC)
At his televised press conference Ford acknowledges that he made a mistake by asserting that there was no Soviet domination in Eastern Europe.Carter says that “Ford disgraced our country by claiming Eastern Europe is free of the domination of the Soviet Union’”. He called the President’s statement “ridiculous” and said that Ford’s “claim of freedom is a cruel hoax upon millions of Eastern Europeans who lived under Soviet domination for their entire lives”. The president of the Polish-American Congress, Aloyzius Mazewski stated that the Polish Americans would have voted for the Republican candidate (Ford) as a change, but because of his statement many of them will vote for Carter. Carter expressed his sorrow for the incident to Mazewski by phone. Viktor Viksnis, President of the Baltic Nations Committee declared “there are no free countries in Eastern Europe and the President should be the first to know that”. The President of the Ukrainian Congress Lev Dobriansky called Ford’s statement “preposterous and shocking”. In Kissinger’s view Ford wanted to say that “the US did not accept the Soviet domination of Eastern Europe”. President Ford tries to explain his statement at UCLA: “Last night at the debate I spoke of America’s firm support for the aspirations for independence of Eastern Europe.” The US “has never conceded and will never concede their domination by the Soviet Union”. “It is our policy to use every peaceful means to assist countries in Eastern Europe in their efforts to become less dependent on the Soviet Union and to establish closer and closer ties with the West – and, of course, with the United States of America”. He adds that he hopes for Polish independence and calls the presence of Soviet troops there “tragic”.

Hungary – October 14-15, 1976 (HC)
The Parliament is in session. Act no. 5 of 1976 about public education and act no. 6 of 1976, about the election of council members, are adopted.

Poland — October 15 - 17, 1976 (KCA)
President Giscard d’Estaing of France visits Poland. In a joint communiqué both sides emphasize the rapid development of bilateral relations and especially economic cooperation. France agrees to return the “Polish National Defense Fund” to the Polish Government. This consists of 61 crates filled with works of art that were deposited in France in 1940 to avoid seizure by the Nazis.

East Germany — October 17, 1976 (KCA)
Elections for the Volkskammer are held. Additionally, the elections for 14 Regional Assemblies and for the East Berlin Municipal Assembly are held. 98.58% of voters take part in general elections, and 99.86% vote for the candidates that are nominated by the National Front.

Soviet Union / China / Mongolia — October 18, 1976 (KCA)
At a banquet in honor of President Tsedenbal of Mongolia, Leonid Brezhnev says: “We have of course given particular attention to the problems of Asia, including the most complicated problems. Can they be solved? We answer this question in the affirmative. It is enough to build relations with perseverance step by step, on the principles of good-neighborliness and real respect for the equality and sovereignty of other states, to look to the future and to carry on a constructive dialogue. Every country which approaches the problem in this way can count on our understanding.” Meanwhile, President Tsedenbal says that: “perspective for the consolidation of peace and security are opening up for the Asian continent”.

Czechoslovakia — October 21- 23, 1976 (KCA)
Elections for the Federal Assembly are held. 99.7% of voters take part in the elections and 99.97% vote for the candidates nominated by the National Front. Following the elections are a number of official statements concerning both the economic situation and the situation of dissidents in Czechoslovakia.

US / Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – October 22, 1976 (LBC)
Presidential Candidate Jimmy Carter on Yugoslavia: “I think it would be unwise for us to say that we will go to war in Yugoslavia if the Soviets should invade – which I think would be an extremely unlikely thing…I would never go to war or become militarily involved in the internal affairs of another country unless our own security was directly threatened.” Carter’s statement was questioned in the event of a Soviet invasion of Yugoslavia.

Soviet Union / China — October 25, 1976 (KCA)
Leonid Brezhnev in the Communist Party’s Central Committee says that: “China is the scene of a complex internal political development. At present it is difficult to foresee its political line. But it is already clear that the foreign policy pursued by Beijing for the last 15 years is largely discredited throughout the world. The improvement of our relations with China is our constant concern. We stand firmly by the principles of equality of rights, respect for sovereign and territorial integrity, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs and non-resort to force. In other words, we are all ready to normalize our relations with China on a basis of peaceful coexistence. I must emphasize that we consider there no problems in relations between the U.S.S.R. and the People’s Republic of China which cannot be solved in a spirit of good-neighborliness. We shall continue to act in this spirit. Everything will depend on the position adopted by the other side.”

Soviet Union — October 25 - 26, 1976 (KCA)
The tenth five-year plan for the economic development of the U.S.S.R. in 1976 – 1980 as well as the state plan and state budget for the year 1977 are approved by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU).

Hungary – October 26, 1976 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. Árpád Pullai is released from his post of CC Secretary and Sándor Borbély is appointed instead of him.

Soviet Union / China — October 27, 1976 (KCA)
The Chinese Government rejects the congratulatory message sent from Leonid Brezhnev on the appointment of Hua Guofeng as Chairman of the Chinese party.

Soviet Union — October 27 - 29, 1976 (KCA)
The Supreme Soviet (Parliament) of the U.S.S.R. adopts the tenth five-year plan for the economic development of the U.S.S.R. in 1976 – 1980 as well as the state plan and state budget for the year 1977.

Hungary / Yugoslavia – October 27-30, 1976 (HC)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers György Lázár negotiates in Yugoslavia.

Soviet Union / U.K. — October 28 - November 3, 1976 (KCA)
A Soviet delegation led by Boris Ponomaryov, a Secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party and an alternate member of its Politburo, visits Britain at the invitation of the Labor Party’s national executive committee.

East Germany — October 29, 1976 (KCA)
The Council of State is approved.

Hungary – October 29, 1976 (HC)
Árpád Pullai becomes Minister of Transport and Post, Vilmos Sághy becomes Minister of Domestic Trade.

Soviet Union — October 30, 1976 (KCA)
The group of nine dissidents led by Yury Orlov claims that more than 30 alleged dissidents have been arrested, given prison sentences, or taken to mental hospitals since the signing of the Helsinki agreement. They also claim that there are around 100 political prisoners in labor camps.


November 1976

Soviet Union / China — November 1, 1976 (KCA)
A Chinese Foreign Ministry official tells visiting French journalists that: “If the U.S.S.R. wants polemics to stop it must admit all its errors since 1960 and change its line….In practice, can there be peace with the U.S.S.R.? In our opinion, that is impossible”. TASS reports on the same day that “anti-Soviet diatribes continue in the Chinese press and that the Chinese representative to UNESCO has made an‘absurd declaration’ opposing the admission of Angola (China taking no part in the relevant vote)”. These are the first criticisms of China published in the Soviet press since Chairman Mao’s death. No reports have appeared of the violent anti-Soviet speeches by the Chinese representative in the U.N. General Assembly.

US – November 2, 1976 (HC)
Jimmy Carter is elected as President of the United States.

US / Czecholovakia – November 3, 1976 (LBC)
The US and Czechoslovakia mutually reduce the travel restrictions of diplomatic representatives.

Czechoslovakia — November 4, 1976 (KCA)
New Slovak and Czech Governments are sworn in. Premiers of both Governments remain in place (Peter Colotka and Josef Korčák, respectively).

Soviet Union / China — November 5, 1976 (KCA)
At a meeting in Moscow, to celebrate the anniversary of the revolution of the Soviet Union, Fyodor Kulakov, a member of the Politburo, describes the fact that peaceful relations with China have been interrupted for nearly 15 years as “unjustified and unnatural”. For the first time in 10 years the speaker did not attack China and the Chinese diplomatic representative did not walk out.

Soviet Union / China — November 6, 1976 (KCA)
China’s annual message of greeting to the Soviet Government says that the differences of principle should not prevent normal interstate relations on the basis of the five principles of peaceful coexistence.

Soviet Union / China — November 15, 1976 (KCA)
Li Hsien-nien, a Chinese Deputy Premier, explicitly rejects the Soviet overtures in his speech at a banquet in honor of President Bokassa of the Central African Republic. He declares that: “Social imperialism, while continuing to slander and threaten China, has not stopped putting on a show of détente in relations between us, with the aim of blurring the difference in principle between Marxism and revisionism. It has even gone so far as insolently to demand that our country should change its policy. That is wishful thinking and day-dreaming.” The Soviet ambassador to China, Vasily Tolstikov, walks out during the speech.

Soviet Union — November 15, 1976 (KCA)
Plyushch and three other Soviet dissidents who live in the West – Vadim Belotserkovski, a writer who left the Soviet Union in 1972; Anatoly Levitin-Krasnov, and Herman Andreyev, a literary critic who had emigrated to West Germany in 1975 – announce in Paris that they wish to assist in the establishment of a Russian left-wing liberal press in the West and express their various views on “the fight against all forms of exploitation”, for “democratic freedom” and the right to “immediate and unconditional independence” for all the nations forming the Soviet Union.

Soviet Bloc / Soviet Union – November 15, 1976 (MMS)
Ministers of Higher Education of socialist countries meet in Moscow.

Yugoslavia / Soviet Union, November 15-17, 1976 (AY)
Soviet Union initiates a meeting between Josip Broz Tito and Leonid Brezhnev, which takes place in Belgrade. The aim of this visit is to strengthen the Soviet influence in Yugoslavia (according to the 25th Congress of the CPSU). Main topics in the discussions include bilateral relations, European security and stability, Summit Conference of Non-Aligned countries in Colombo, U.S. foreign policy, etc.

Soviet Union — November 16, 1976 (KCA)
There are reports of Losif Terelya and Mikhail Kukobaka, two Ukrainian nationalists, being taken to psychiatric clinics after they had served 20 years in prisons and hospitals.

Hungary – November 17, 1976 (HC)
A meeting is held on the state and tasks of the education of ethnic and national minorities.

Soviet Union / Chile — November 17, 1976 (KCA)
The Chilean Government orders the immediate release of “all detainees under the state of siege,” but excludes Luis Corvalán Lepe, the former Secretary-General of the Chilean Communist Party, and Jorge Montes, a leader of the underground Communist Party in Chile. The Chilean government is doing this because it is waiting for the release of Vladimir Bukovsky, imprisoned in the Soviet Union since 1972, and Major Hubert Matos, who was detained in Cuba since December 1959. The order of the Chilean Government will be issued officially on December 18.

Hungary / Finland – November 17-20, 1976 (HC)
President of the Republic of Finland Urho Kekkonen stays in Hungary.

Soviet Union / U.S. — November 21, 1976 (KCA)
A U.S. official discloses that the Soviet Union has tentatively agreed to the U.S. fisheries legislation establishing a 200-mile fishing limit for the United States starting from March 1, 1977.

US / Romania – November 21, 1976 (LBC)
A 10 year agreement on trade and economic cooperation is signed between the US and Romania. This is the widest agreement Washington has made with an East European state.

Hungary / Turkey – November 22, 1976 (HC)
The first Hungarian-Turkish long-term agreement on economic, industrial, and technological-scientific cooperation is signed in Budapest.

Warsaw Pact / Romania – November 23-24, 1976 (MMS)
Warsaw Pact sates’ Deputy Foreign Ministers meet in Bucharest.

Hungary / U.S. – November 24-25, 1976 (HC)
The Trade Minister of the USA Elliot Richardson negotiates in Budapest.
The district studios of the Hungarian Television are opened in Pécs and Szeged.

Soviet Union — November 25, 1976 (KCA)
There is an announcement in London that the release of Starchik has followed the formation of a new committee led by Tatyana Khodorovich with the object of freeing detained dissidents.

Romania / East Germany / Czechoslovakia / Bulgaria / Warsaw Pact – November 25–26, 1976 (CAC / HC / MMS)
The Political Consultative Committee of the members of the Warsaw Treaty is in session in Bucharest. It submits a draft treaty for an all-European security conference that is in opposition to the first use of nuclear weapons; creates a committee of Foreign Ministers and a Unified Secretariat as PCC organs (only the former implemented), and approves the creation of special forces equipped with up-to-date weapons. East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria urge closer coordination in view of the disruptive internal effects of Helsinki.

Romania / Soviet Union – November 25-28, 1976 (PER)
Brezhnev visits Romania. Both sides guarantee closer relations.

Soviet Union / Chile — November 26, 1976 (KCA)
President Pinochet of Chile makes the concrete proposal for the exchange of Luis Corvalán for Vladimir Bukovsky and of Montes for Major Matos after the visit to Santiago by members of a Copenhagen “Sakharov committee” campaigning for human rights for Soviet citizens. (Sees also November 17, 1976, and December 18, 1976).

Soviet Union / China — November 27 - 28, 1976 (KCA)
Leonid Ilyichev returns to Beijing on November 27 to resume border negotiations after an absence of 18 months. He meets with Huang Hua, the Chinese Foreign Minister, the following day. However, he will fly back to Moscow on February 28, 1977.


December 1976


Soviet Union — December 1976 (KCA)
The organizers of a symposium held in Moscow to discuss Jewish culture are temporarily detained or placed under house arrest.

Hungary – December 1, 1976 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. They criticize that the economy was not able to fulfill the goals of 1976.

Soviet Union — December 3, 1976 (KCA)
Alexander Zinoviev’s proposed dismissal from the Philosophical Institute in Moscow is (based on the ground that he published an anti- Soviet” book in Switzerland) was withdrawn (presumably) as a result of protests in Western countries.

Yugoslavia / PLO – December 4, 1976 (JBT)
President Josip Broz Tito receives the leader of the PLO Yasser Arafat.

Soviet Union — December 5, 1976 (KCA)
A silent vigil to express solidarity with prisoners of conscience, attended by Andrei Sakharov, the 1975 Nobel Peace Prize winner, and several hundred supporters before the Pushkin monument in Gorky Street, Moscow, is dispersed by police.

Yugoslavia / France – December 6-7, 1976 (JBT)
French President Valery Giscard d’Estaing pays an official visit to Yugoslavia, during which he meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito.


Hungary / Austria – December 6-8, 1976 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár visits Austria.

Hungary / India – December 6-13, 1976 (HC)
Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi stays in India.

Soviet Union — December 10, 1976 (KCA)
A decree of the Presidium of the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet is published. It introduces “temporary measures” for the preservation of marine resources and the regulation of fisheries in sea areas up to 200 miles from the coasts of the Soviet Union. It sets up quotas for fishing every species of fish. The new limits are of particular importance in the Barents Sea, the Baltic Sea, and off the Soviet Union’s eastern coast.

Soviet Union — mid-December 1976 (KCA)
More than 150 writers from 14 countries appeal to the Soviet authorities for the release of Eduard Kuznetsov, who is serving a 15-year hard-labor sentence in a prison camp for allegedly plotting to hijack a Soviet airliner in 1970.

Czechoslovakia / Romania / Warsaw Pact / NATO – December 10–11, 1976 (CAC)
Defense ministers of the Warsaw Pact meet in Prague and discuss NATO’s modernization of intelligence, command, and fighting capabilities, which they regard as the most crucial transformation since the “equipment of NATO forces with nuclear weapons.” Romania opposes the creation of a Warsaw Pact agency for the standardization of equipment.

Bulgaria – December 10-11, 1976 (MMS)
WP Committee of Ministers of Defense meets in Sofia.

Yugoslavia / Iraq – December 13, 1976 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito receives Vice-Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council of Iraq Saddam Hussein in Belgrade.

Hungary – December 13-15, 1976 (HC)
An international theater conference takes place in Budapest with 20 countries participating.

Soviet Union / U.N. — December 14, 1976 (KCA)
Oleg Troyanovsky, former ambassador to Japan, is reported to have been appointed the U.S.S.R.’s Permanent Representative at the United Nations in succession to Yacov A. Malik.

Hungary – December 14-15, 1976 (HC)
The 2nd congress of the Council of Agricultural Co-operatives takes place. The chairman is István Szabó.

Romania / France – December 14-17, 1976 (PER)
The Romanian Chairman of the Council of Ministers, Manea Manescu, visits France.

Soviet Union — December 15, 1976 (KCA)
Ilya Levin, a Leningrad Jew who was refused permission to emigrate, is given a 15-day prison term for alleged hooliganism.

Hungary / Soviet Union – December 15-21, 1976 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár takes part in the celebrations organized for the 70th birthday of the General Secretary of the CPSU, Leonid Brezhnev.

Yugoslavia / Israel – December 16, 1976 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito meets with the President of the World Jewish Congress Nahum Goldmann in Yugoslavia.

Soviet Union / Chile / U.S. — December 18, 1976 (KCA)
The Chilean Government issues an official statement, saying that the Soviet Union has agreed to release Vladimir Bukovsky in the manner proposed by Chile. It is the first time that the Soviet Government agrees to allow a prisoner held for “anti-Soviet activities” to leave the country in exchange for a Communist leader held in detention by an anti-communist regime. The liberation is carried out in Zurich, Switzerland in the presence of U.S. and Soviet ambassadors.

Soviet Union / France — December 18, 1976 (KCA)
Georges Marchais, the Secretary-General of the French Communist Party, describes the exchange between Vladimir Bukovsky and Luis Corvalán as “lamentable” and as “bargaining between a socialist country and a fascist country over two men imprisoned for having exercised the inalienable right of human beings”.

Soviet Union — December 18, 1976 (KCA)
Corvalán is flown to the Soviet Union by the same Soviet aircraft that Vladimir Bukovsky flew to Zurich.

Soviet Union — December 19, 1976 (KCA)
Yury Brezhnev, the son of Leonid Brezhnev and director of a foreign trade center specializing in raw materials, is promoted to the post of Deputy Minister of Foreign Trade.

Soviet Union / U.K. — December 19, 1976 (KCA)
The Morning Star, an organ of the British Communist Party, expresses regret that the release of Vladimir Bukovsky has taken place “through an exchange arrangement between a fascist and a socialist country instead of as an act of justice in its own right”, and it calls for “an end to the use of administrative and repressive measures, including exile, to answer political dissident in the Soviet Union and other socialist countries”.

Soviet Union / Italy / Chile December — 19, 1976 (KCA)
L’Unità, an organ of the Italian Communist Party, claims that the Chilean regime has gained most from the Bukovsky- Corvalán exchange and that socialism throughout the world is the loser.

Soviet Union — December 19, 1976 (KCA)
Bukovsky, following his arrival in the West, describes his exchange with Corvalán as “an extraordinary event” because it is “the first time that the Soviet Government officially recognized that it held political prisoners”. He also mentions the Helsinki agreements as “a Soviet Maneuver” to achieve unilateral disarmament of the West and to keep Western human rights campaigners from “interfering” in the internal affairs of the Soviet Union. (Sees also December 18, 1976). 

Hungary / Romania – December 20-21, 1976 (CEC)
A Hungarian delegation led by János Kádár visits Romania.

Soviet Union — December 21, 1976 (KCA)
Yuliya Vosnesenskaya, a poet, is arrested in Leningrad. She will be sentenced to five years in exile for “slandering the Soviet system” on December 30, 1976.

Soviet Union / Chile — December 22, 1976 (KCA)
The Literaturnaya Gazeta admits that Corvalán’s release is connected with the case of Bukovsky. It states that President Pinochet of Chile has expressed “a rabid wish to get Bukovsky through representations of a third country” and that “the anti-Soviet character of Mr. Bukovsky himself became more and more clear after this Chilean executioner revealed his love for Bukovsky”.

Soviet Union — December 23, 1976 (KCA)
Leonid Brezhnev officially welcomes Corvalán in Moscow. Brezhnev says that his release is the result of pressure brought to bear by “the Communist movement” and “the forces of democracy and peace”. Corvalán in turn expresses his “deep gratitude for everything that the Soviet people have done and are still doing for the liberation of all political prisoners.”

US / Hungary – December 24, 1976 (LBC)
The Department of Treasury of the US announces that Hungary paid 4.3 million dollars to the US for war damage of American property.


Yugoslavia / Somalia – December 24, 1976 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito meets with a senior member of the Supreme Revolutionary Council and Defense Minister of Somalia Mohammad Ali Samatr.

Soviet Union — December 25, 1976 (KCA)
Izvestia claims that Vladimir Bukovsky, who was released due to a prisoner exchange agreement between the Soviet and Chilean Governments, has “enriched no sphere of knowledge or of the human spirit, not written any book nor made any scientific discovery”, that he has been expelled from university during his first year for “total incapacity”, and that he is “semi-literate” and “a common-law criminal… in the pay of foreign anti-communists”.

Soviet Union — December 25, 1976 (KCA)
Vladimir Borisov, who was a founding member of the Committee for Human Rights in 1970 and a friend of Vladimir Bukovsky, is arrested and taken to a mental hospital in Leningrad.

Soviet Union — December 27, 1976 (KCA)
Vladimir Sverdlin, a Leningrad Jew who was waiting for two years for permission to emigrate to Israel, is arrested and charged with illegal possession of firearms.

Soviet Union — December 28, 1976 (KCA)
Three members of the Russian Orthodox Church – the Rev. Gleb Yakunin, Varsonofy Haibulin, and Viktor Kapitanchuk – present themselves as founders of a committee to cooperate with public and state organizations in dealing with grievances of believers in the U.S.S.R., alleging that the freedom of religion guaranteed by the constitution is widely disregarded.

Hungary – December 29, 1976 (HC)
The Presidential Council of the People’s Republic is in session. Law decree no. 33 of 1976 about the permanent land usage, law decree no. 34 about the further development of land property and land usage, and law decree no. 35 about real estate records are adopted.

Soviet Union / China — December 30, 1976 (KCA)
Soviet press reports refer to Huang Hua’s “diatribes against social imperialism” at a recent national agricultural conference in Beijing.

Hungary – December 31, 1976 (HC)
The Hilton Hotel is opened in Budapest.

Hungary – December 31, 1976 (HC)
The first section of the North-South metro line (metro line 3) is opened in Budapest, between Deák Square and Nagyvárad Square.

US / Soviet Union – December 31, 1976 (LBC)
The head of the US Air Force intelligence, General George J. Keegan, states his views on the strategic balance. While the American doctrine is based on avoiding war, the Soviet Union’s is on winning a war. The General claims that the Soviets achieved military superiority. Keegan was also convinced by the Soviet civil defense program that the US is behind in the strategic arms race. According to Keegan the Soviets accomplished a program that guarantees basic civilian and military leadership and the fighting potential to survive in the circumstances of total war. This means that the Soviets are confident in surviving a nuclear war, although they know that they must suffer huge losses in the process. – CIA Director George Bush asserts in a program on CBS that he finds it outrageous that the Keegan report was leaked out and although he did not comment on the content he added, he has troubling signs at his disposal on Soviet military objectives.



1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016