The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Research Chair, Center of Social Sciences, Institute for Political Science,
Hungarian Academy of Sciences;
Founding Director, Cold War History Research
Center, Budapest;
Professor of History, Corvinus University of Budapest
Institute of International Studies

Associate editor

University of Szeged


Assistant editors




Izabel ÁCS, Chiara BERTUCCO, Noah BUYON, Megan DIBBLE, Marco GIACOMAZZI, Anusha GURUNG, Solveig HANSEN, Zsálya HAADI-NAGY, Konrad HYZY, Tomas KOLAR, Thomas KOLLMANN, Roman KOZIEL, Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Oleksandr MURASHEVYCH, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Roland PAPP, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Martin ROMAIN, François  ROPARS, Vjenceslav RUPCIC, Lili SIKLÓS, Marcello TOMASINA, Zita Bettina VASAS, Aniello VERDE, Dóra VERESS, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, András ZÁM

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016


The publication and the preceding research were sponsored by the Hungarian Cultural Fund


At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The third part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1968 to 1980. The years 1980–1991 will be available by the end of 2017.

The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


List of Sources


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016

ISBN 978-963-12-7940-5


Chronology 1974


China / Soviet Union – 1971-1974 (KCA)
The Soviet-Chinese “propaganda war” -- the long line of attempts of one country to discredit the other -- continues.

January 1974

Soviet Union – January 2, 1974 (KCA)
An increasingly violent propaganda campaign against Alexander Solzhenitsyn and his book: “The Gulag archipelago” begins in the Soviet Union.

Romania January 7, 1974 (BUS)
Romania and AT&T sign an agreement on scientific, technical, commercial, and industrial cooperation in the field of telecommunications, industry, and consumer goods.

Czechoslovakia / Warsaw Pact members – January 7-9, 1974 (KCA)
In Prague representatives from 67 Communist parties meet to discuss the journal of the Communist movement, “Problems of Peace and Socialism” (the English-language counterpart being the “World Marxist Review.”) The conference declares a protest against the persecution of Communists in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

Afghanistan / Middle East / Soviet Union – January 8, 1974 (CWIHP)
The KGB informs Kabul about Moscow's fear regarding the fight among Afghan political parties, and its consequences for the Soviet Union's relations with the Middle East.

Soviet Union / Hungary - January 8-10, 1974 (HC)
Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja has talks in Moscow.

Yugoslavia / Belgium – January 10, 1974 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito receives Belgian Prime Minister Edmond Leuburton.

Czechoslovakia – January 15, 1974 (KCA)
Josef Smrkovský, one of the three leading reformers during the 1968 Prague Spring, dies.

Soviet Union / U.S. January 16, 1974 (BUS)
The U.S. cancels the Leningrad Kirov ballet’s tour in the U.S. The reason: the Soviet Union did not allow two former members of the Kirov ballet to emigrate to the U.S.

Hungary / U.N. – January 16, 1974 (HC)
The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and Hungary sign an agreement about the establishment of a National Educational Technique Center.

Soviet Union / U.S. January 17, 1974 (BUS)
The Central European arms reduction talks are resumed. NATO wants to reduce Soviet and United States land forces first, while the Warsaw Pact wants to extend it to nuclear and air forces. NATO wants to reduce Warsaw Pact troops by 225 thousand and by 77 thousand its own units. The Warsaw Pact recommends equal reduction for both alliances.

China / Soviet Union –  January 18, 1974 (CWIHP)
The Chinese intensify the use of propaganda against Soviets. At the same time, this [propaganda] constitutes 'a scarecrow' for those who would like to ease tensions in Sino-Soviet relations.”

Soviet Union / China – January 19, 1974 (KCA)
A Chinese note announces that three Soviet diplomats and two other nationals who work at the Soviet Embassy in China have been arrested on charges of espionage. The five are released on January 19. Similarly, the Soviet Union also arrests and expels a Chinese diplomat on charges of espionage.

China / Japan / Soviet Union – January 21, 1974 (CWIHP)
Chinese use anti-Soviet propaganda to undermine global Soviet influence; this is especially seen in Sino-Japanese relations and recent visits by Japanese polticians to China.

Albania / Soviet Union – January 23, 1974 (KCA)
A report issued from Vienna announces that Albania rejected the previous week’s invitation from the Soviet Union to reinitiate diplomatic relations that were broken in December 1961.  Although similar invitations are made annually, Albania consistently refuses to restore relations, saying that it will change its policy only if the Soviets assume a more Marxist-Leninist approach.

Yugoslavia / India – January 24-29, 1974 (AY)
Josip Broz Tito visits India, and meets with Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, and Presdent Varahagiri Venkata Giri. They discuss mainly international issues, the policy of non-alignment, and the need to foster peaceful international cooperation. During his visit to India President Tito meets with Prime Minister of Sri Lanka Sirimavo Bandaranaike. He also receives the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding.

Soviet Union / Cuba – January 28 - February 3, 1974 (KCA)
Brezhnev visits Cuba. On February 2, Fidel Castro and Brezhnev sign a joint declaration affirming their common beliefs, encouraging peace and stability, discussing the European Security Conference, and supporting further attempts to promote positive ends in the international arena.

Yugoslavia / Bangladesh – January 29-February 2, 1974 (AY)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito visits Bangladesh, and meets with President Mohammad Mohammadullah and Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.

Romania / Jordan – January 29-30, 1974 (PER)
The King of the Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan, Hussein Ibn Talal, visits Romania.

Soviet Union / China – January 30, 1974 (KCA)
A non-stop air service between Beijing and Moscow is introduced, under an agreement signed the previous month.

Hungary – January 31, 1974 (HC)
A government order (1006/1974) about the creation and usage of local arms and flags is adopted. The arms have to reflect the traditions of the settlement but at the same time they have to pay heed to socialist development as well.

East Germany / Hungary – January 31- February 5, 1974 (HC)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the German Democratic Republic Horst Sindermann is in Budapest.

February 1974

East Germany – February 1, 1974 (KCA)
An annual report of the Federal Ministry of the Interior demonstrates that a total of 6,522 inhabitants of East Germany fled to the West in 1973.  On December 31, 1973, the August 13 Committee explains that most escapes occur through other Communist countries; the number of those who flee through vehicles increased by 49%.

Soviet Union / Cuba - February 2, 1974 (KCA)
Both Fidel Castro and Brezhnev sign a joint declaration affirming their common beliefs, encouraging peace and stability, discussing the European Security Conference, and supporting further attempts to promote positive ends in the international arena.

Yugoslavia / Nepal – February 2-5, 1974 (AY)
Josip Broz Tito visits Nepal. This is the first visit of a foreign statesman to the Kingdom of Nepal since king Birendra succeeded the throne after his father’s death.

Soviet Union / U.S. February 4-5, 1974 (BUS)
Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs Gromyko talks with  Secretary of State Kissinger and President Nixon in Washington. They agree on resuming the SALT talks.

Yugoslavia / India – February 5, 1974 (AY)
Josip Broz Tito makes a short visit to India on his way to Syria, and meets with Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.

Vatican / Hungary - February 5, 1974 (HC)
The Vatican makes it public that Pope Paul VI declared the post of Archbishop of Esztergom as empty on December 18th, 1973. It also makes public that on February 2nd 1974, it appointed László Lékai as Apostolic Governor of Esztergom, József Bánki as Archbishop of Eger, Imre Kisberk as Bishop of Székesfehérvár and László Kádáras Apostolic Governor of Veszprém. (February 15: The Presidential Council approves of it.)

Yugoslavia / Syria – February 5-7, 1974 (AY)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito visits Syria, and meets with Syrian President Hafez al-Assad. President Tito supports Syrian struggle for territories occupied by Israel in 1967 war.

Soviet Union / U.S. February 6, 1974 (BUS)
According to a report in 1973, Soviet-American trade doubled and reached 1.4 billion dollars.

Romania – February 6-7, 1974 (MMS)
The WP Committee of Ministers of Defense convenes in Bucharest.

Czechoslovakia/Soviet Union – February 11, 1974 (CWIHP)
A protocol signed by the CSSR and USSR arranges visits between the Czechoslovak and Soviet Interior Ministries’ experts to obtain information on physical and chemical research, and military research. They both agree to mutual consultations on public security, military, and the shared border of CSSR and USSR.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary / Yugoslavia – February 12, 1974 (HC)
The representatives of Yugoslavia, Hungary and Czechoslovakia sign the agreement on the construction and usage of the Adria pipeline. They plan to transport Arab oil in the pipeline running from Rijeka through Százhalombatta to Czechoslovakia.

Romania / Lebanon / Libya – February 12-21, 1974 (PER)
Nicolae Ceauşescu visits Lebanon and Libya. A Lebanese University honors Ceauşescu with the title of Doctor Honoris Causa.

Soviet Union – February 13, 1974 (KCA)
Nobel Prize-winning author Alexander Solzhenitsyn is expelled from the Soviet Union and deprived of his citizenship seven weeks after his book, The Gulag Archipelago, is published.

Yugoslavia / Mexico – February 13-15, 1974 (JBT)
Mexican President Luis Echeverria Alvarez makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. During his stay he is received by President Josip Broz Tito. The two statesmen discuss both international and bilateral issues. They agree on mutual principles of peace, peaceful coexistence, political, and economic independence. President Tito expressed Yugoslav support for Mexican struggle to form a nuclear weapons free zone in Latin America.

Hungary - February 14-16, 1974 (HC)
Foreign minister Frigyes Puja is in Vienna.

Hungary / Czechoslovakia - February 14, 1974 (HC)
The government discusses and adopts the proposal concerning the construction of the joint Hungarian-Czechoslovak Gabčíkovo – Nagymaros Dams on the basis of the joint proposal put forward by the Chairman of the National Water Bureau, the Chairman of the National Planning Bureau, and the Finance Minister.

Romania / Libya – February 14, 1974 (KCA)
Romania establishes diplomatic relations with Libya at the ambassadorial level.

Soviet Union / France February 14 -18, 1974 (BUS)
Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko’s four-day visit in Paris.

Bulgaria – February 15, 1974 (KCA)
Vladimir Makarov, Katrin Lwow, and Teodosi Belyakovski are sentenced by a municipal court in Sofia to prison terms of three to five years on charges of crimes committed against Bulgaria.  However in March, Lwow’s four-year sentence is remitted.

Hungary - February 15, 1974 (HC)
Emil Schultheisz is appointed as health minister.
The postponement of the Hungarian trip of Josip Broz Tito (February 17-18) is announced.

Czechoslovakia / Hungary / West Germany – February 16, 1974 (KCA)
Jenő Fock, the Hungarian Chairman of the Council of Minister, deals with the question of diplomatic relations between West Germany and Hungary during a press conference at the conclusion of a visit to Czechoslovakia.
Hungary / Libya – February 19-21, 1974 (HC)
Libyan Prime Minister Abdessalam Jalloud negotiates in Budapest.

Yugoslavia – February 21, 1974 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Federal Assembly ratifies a new Constitution. The solutions adopted under the 1967, 1968 and 1971 amendments are entered into the new Constitution. The Constitution introduces a consensus among republics and provinces in decision-making, including the decision to amend the Constitution. The right to self-determination and secession is legalized, but it remains unclear whether this right belongs to the peoples or to republics. Social ownership is defined as the main feature of the economic system. Instead of the previous five houses, the SFRY Assembly is now made up of the Federal Council and the Council of Republics and Provinces. Josip Broz Tito becomes the president "without any limitation on his term of office." The Federal Executive Council members are elected by both houses of the SFRY Assembly, which have to pay attention to the equal representation of republics and appropriate representation of autonomous provinces. Some important novelties are introduced in the field of self-management

Hungary - February 21, 1974 (HC)
The excavation of Gothic sculptures from the Middle Ages (probably the works of Hungarian craftsmen) begins.

Poland - February 26, 1974 (PSN)
The Political Bureau of the Polish United Workers’ Party decides to create the Institute on Fundamental Problems of Marxism-Leninism (later nicknamed Marlena).

Soviet Union / Syria – February 27, 1974 (KCA)
Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko arrives in Damascus, Syria for a two-day visit. He meets with Syrian President Assad, Prime Minister Mahmoud al Ayoubi, and Foreign Minister Abdel Khaddam.

Hungary / Romania – February 27- March 3, 1974 (CER)
The Romanian Chairman of the Council of Ministers, Ion Gheorghe Maurer, visits Hungary.

March 1974

Romania / Argentina / Brazil / Liberia / Guinea – March, 1974 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Argentina, Brazil, Liberia and Guinea. The University of Buenos Aires and the University of South Bahia-Blanca honors Nicolae Ceauşescu with the title of Doctor Honoris Causa.

Bulgaria – March, 1974 (KCA)
Stamen Stamenov, a constituent in the bureau of Council of Ministers, is entrusted with the Ministry of Mineral Resources.

Yugoslavia / Australia / Guinea / Guyana / Jamaica / Sierra Leone / Surinam – February 28 – March 8, 1974 (KCA)
At a meeting held in Conakry (Guinea) seven major bauxite-producing countries set up an International Bauxite Association. The seven members represent some 63% of world bauxite production.

Soviet Union / Egypt / Syria – March 1, 1974 (KCA)
Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko arrives in Cairo, Egypt for a four-day visit where he meets with Egyptian President Sadat.  After the trip, he re-visits Syria for more talks with Syrian leaders before returning to the Soviet Union on March 7.

Hungary – March 4-5, 1974 (HC)
A conference entitled “The social-economic stimulation of workers” takes place at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

Soviet Union / Norway – March 7, 1974 (KCA)
In Oslo, the Soviet Union and Norway sign an agreement guaranteeing the Soviets’ rights to use an airport on West Spitsbergen, an island in the Arctic Ocean. 

Czechoslovakia / West Germany – March 8, 1974 (KCA)
West Germany’s Bundesrat rejects a treaty to normalize relations between Czechoslovakia and the Federal Republic of Germany.

Soviet Union / France – March 12-13, 1974 (KCA / BUS)
French President Pompidou and Soviet Communist Party General Secretary Brezhnev meet in Pitsunda, a Black Sea resort, for talks.  At the end of the discussions a communiqué announces that the leaders express their support for mutual cooperation.  Also discussed are the European Security Conference and the reporting of Soviet issues in the French press. In separate talks, French Foreign Minister Jobert and Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko discuss issues surrounding the U.N.’s resolution to withdraw Israeli forces from Arab regions. At the press conference held after the talks, Pompidou supports Brezhnev’s call to accelerate the Geneva security talks but does not agree that a summit with the participation of 35 states should end the conference.

Hungary - March 12-23, 1974 (HC)
The Danube Commission convenes in Budapest.

Czechoslovakia / Poland - March 14, 1974 (PSM)
Poland and Czechoslovakia sign a declaration of friendship and cooperation. A similar declaration is signed again on July 6, 1977.

Soviet Union / China – March 14, 1974 (KCA)
A Soviet helicopter with a crew of three frontier guards is forced to land in the Chinese frontier province of Sinking. Although the Soviet Foreign Ministry requests the return of the helicopter and crew on the following day, a Chinese note of March 23 asserts that the crew was not carrying medical personnel nor medicines, and that documents found on board prove that it was engaged in espionage.

East Germany – March 14, 1974 (KCA)
Three documents were signed between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, agreeing to the creation of permanent representative missions.

NATO / U. S. – March 15, 1974 (KCA)
A particularly strong criticism of the policies pursued by the U.S.’s European allies is made by President Nixon during a press conference given to the Executives Club in Chicago.

Soviet Union / Norway – March 18, 1974 (KCA)
The Norwegian Prime Minister, Trygve Bratteli, arrives in Moscow for an eight day visit. It is agreed that during the latter half of the year, the Soviet Union and Norway should open discussions on dividing the Barents Sea continental shelf.

Cyprus / Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia –March 19, 1974 (CWIHP)
Wary of an attempted coup sponsored by Athens, the Makarios’s government seeks Bulgarian assistance for closing an arms deal with Czechoslovakia.

Yugoslavia / North Korea – March 20, 1974 (JBT)
North Korean delegation visiting Yugoslavia is received by President Josip Broz Tito.


Hungary – March 20-21, 1974 (KCA/ HC) See March 19—20.
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. Topics: the situation of the working class as presented by HSWP CC Secretary Béla Biszku; the situation of public education as presented by HSWP CC Secretary György Aczél; the convocation of the congress, and the announcement of personal changes as presented by HSWP CC First Secretary János Kádár.
The plenary meeting of the CC decides on the following changes in the party and State leadership:
Károly Németh and Imre Győri are the new Secretaries of the HSWP CC; György Aczél (after being relieved of his office of HSWP CC Secretary) and János Borbándi are the new Deputy Chairmen of the Council of Ministers; Zoltán Komócson (Secretary of the HSWP CC) is the Editor-in-Chief of Népszabadság; István Sarlós is the Secretary-General of the People’s Patriotic Front; Imre Katona is the First Secretary of the Budapest Committee of the HSWP. Rezső Nyers (after being relieved of his office of HSWP CC secretary) is the Director of the Institute of Economics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.  Deputy Chairmen of the Council of Ministers Miklós Ajtai and Lajos Fehér as well as general-secretary of the People’s Patriotic Front István Bencsik retire. (The official reasons for the personnel changes: the better distribution and rearrangement of the forces in accordance with the requirements of practical work.)

East Germany / Poland / Soviet Union – March 22, 1974 (KCA)
Ministers in charge of directing environmental issues sign an agreement in Helsinki to protect and prevent the pollution of marine territories in the Baltic Sea.

Soviet Union  / Iraq – March 23, 1974 (KCA)
Marshal Grechko, the Soviet Defense Minister arrives in Baghdad for a four-day visit, aimed at preventing a resumption of the fighting, and delivers a letter to President Bakr from Brezhnev.

Soviet Union / U.S. March 24 -28, 1974 (BUS)
The Moscow talks of U.S. Secretary of State Kissinger. The main topic of the talks are the SALT II negotiations. Kissinger comes up with a proposal meant as a conceptional break-through, but it does not bring the expected result. There is no progress on the Central European arms reduction talks either.

Romania – March 25-26, 1974 (KCA/ ABR)
The Romanian Communist Party Central Committee plenum approves important changes in governmental and party structures, e.g. a Permanent Bureau should replace the Party Presidium. However, this reform will have to be confirmed at the 11th Party Congress planned for November 1974.

Hungary – March 26-27, 1974 (MMS)
WP Military Council convenes in Budapest.

Romania – March 26, 1974 (CEC) See March 29
Ion Gheorghe Maurer, one of the most important communist leaders, withdraws from political activity.

Hungary - March 28, 1974 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár delivers a speech at Nyíregyháza. (Content: the leading role of the working class has to be strengthened in all fields of economic, social, and political life.)

Soviet Union / China – March 28, 1974 (KCA)
According to the forced landing of a Soviet helicopter on March 14 followed by a Chinese accusation over the mission of the helicopter’s crew, a Soviet note completely denies the Chinese allegations of espionage, and states that the only recent incident involving entry into Chinese airspace occurred in February 1973, when a civilian plane on a regular flight had lost its bearings.

Romania – March 28-29, 1974 (KCA/HOR/ADC/CER)
The Grand National Assembly ratifies a constitutional amendment creating a President of the Socialist Republic of Romania and elects Nicolae Ceauşescu as the first President following his position as President of the State Council. He also remains Secretary General of the Romanian Communist Party.

Yugoslavia / Egypt – March 28-30, 1974 (JBT)
Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. He and President Josip Broz Tito discuss the Middle East crisis agreeing on the right of each nation and state to economic and political independence.


Romania – March 29, 1974 (KCA)
The Grand National Assembly passes legislation on the press that abolishes preliminary censorship, and gives responsibility of a publication’s contents to its editor-in-chief. The Grand National Assembly also passes legislation on financial control, instituting a Court of Preventive Financial Control that will be responsible for all official financial transactions.

Romania – March 29, 1974 (KCA) See March 26
The Romanian Grand National Assembly appoints Manea Mănescu (the brother-in-law of President Ceauşescu) as Chairman of the Council of Ministers after Ion Gheorghe Maurer was relieved of his responsibilities because of age and health.

Yugoslavia / Peru – March 30, 1974 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito receives Peruvian Foreign Minister Miguel Angel de la Flor.


April 1974


Hungary – April 1, 1974 (HC)
A revision of wages among Hungarian workers and work leaders outside the state industry takes place.

France – April 2, 1974 (HC)
French President Georges Pompidou dies.

East Germany / Spain – April 4, 1974 (KCA)
The German Democratic Republic and Spain’s first trade agreement is signed, after provisionally in force since January 1, 1974.

Hungary – April 7-9, 1974 (HC)
Vice-Chancellor and Foreign Minister of the Federal Republic of Germany Walter Scheel is in Budapest.

Hungary / U.N. – April 9, 1974 (HC)
The sixth extraordinary session of the UN is opened. Topics: energy and raw material problems, the creation of a new economic world order. Official statement: May 1.

Soviet Union / U.S. April 9, 1974 (BUS)
U.S. Secretary of Commerce, Frederick Dent expresses his hope that Congress will pass the cabinet’s trade bill. Dent says this in Moscow where he is staying as the leader of a commercial delegation. In his view, the participation of 76 U.S. companies at the Moscow trade fair signals that American businessmen wish to develop Soviet-American commercial enterprises. At the same time Senators Jackson and Ribicoff tell Kissinger that they will do everything against the passage of the trade bill if Moscow fails to guarantee the emigration of Jews and others.

Hungary – April 10-12, 1974 (HC)
First secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ party János Kádár and Prime Minister Jenő Fock have talks in Prague.

Soviet Union / Syria – April 16, 1974 (KCA)
Syrian President Assad returns to Damascus from a trip to the Soviet Union.  A statement is issued in support of Syria’s “defensive power,” the use of force to free occupied territory and an agreement with Israel that would play a role in larger Middle East settlements.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – April 17, 1974 (JBT)
President Josip Broz Tito receives the U.S. senator Edward Kennedy

Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / East Germany / Hungary / Poland / Romania / Soviet Union / Warsaw Pact members – April 17-18, 1974 (KCA)
Heads of Governments, Communist Party officials, and foreign ministers from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union attend a Political Consultative Committee meeting of the Warsaw Pact. The leaders reaffirm their commitment to constructing defenses against the West as long as NATO is still in existence. The meeting issues several statements: 1) pressure on Israel to remove forces from occupied Arab land, 2) support of the Paris Agreement in the Vietnam conflict, and 3) a rebuke against the military junta in Chile and urges them to release political prisoners there.

Soviet Union  / Egypt – April 18, 1974 (KCA)
President Sadat of Egypt announces that Egypt will be neutral between the two superpowers. He also announces the end of Egypt’s dependence on the Soviet Union for firearms.

Soviet Union / Japan – April 22, 1974 (KCA)
In Tokyo, a protocol is signed granting the Soviet Union a $1.05 trillion loan to develop coal deposits in the Yakutia territory in Siberia. The protocal will also develop timber resources in the Soviet Far East and commercial prospecting for natural gas. Soviet organizations will use the loan in Japan to buy machines, equipment, and other materials and consumer goods to complete the tasks.

Romania / Republic of Costa Rica – April 22-25, 1974 (PER)
The President of the Republic of Costa Rica, Jósé Figueres Ferrer, visits Romania.

Czechoslovakia – April 24, 1974 (KCA)
The Federal Assembly passes a bill that gives the Czechoslovak National Security Corps (the body responsible for public security and the secret police) greater power.

East Germany / West Germany– April 24, 1974 (KCA)
Günter Guillaume, one of the personal aids of West German Chancellor Willy Brandt, is arrested for being a suspected East German spy. Also arrested are his wife and four others.

Hungary – April 24-25, 1974 (HC)
The Parliament is in session. Act no. 1 of 1974 about family, marriage and guardianship is adopted.

East Germany / West Germany – April 25, 1974 (KCA)
It is announced in Bonn that West Germany’s Permanent Representative Mission will open on May 2 in East Berlin.

Hungary – April 27-28, 1974 (HC)
Hungarian Minister of Transportation and Post György Csanádi dies.

Yugoslavia / Hungary – April 27-28, 1974 (AY)
Josip Broz Tito visits Hungary, and meets with General Secretary of Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party Janos Kadar. They discuss bilateral issues, especially the field of economic cooperation, as well as various international issues, including the Middle East crisis, the situation in Vietnam, and European security and defense policy.

Yugoslavia / Costa Rica – April 25-30, 1974 (JBT)
President of Costa Rica Jose Figueres Ferrer visits Yugoslavia, and meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito.

Hungary – April 29, 1974 (HC)
Minister of Public Education Miklós Nagy dies.

East Germany / West Germany – April 29, 1974 (KCA)
The Government of West Germany calls off, without explanation, talks due to take place the following day between Kurt Neir, the East German Deputy Foreign Minister, and  Gaus to discuss the accreditation of the heads of the permanent missions to be set up in Bonn and East Berlin.

Soviet Union / Japan – April 30, 1974 (KCA)

Soviet Deputy Minister of Foreign Trade Alhimov returns to Moscow after a month-long visit to Japan. Before leaving, he initials a memorandum detailing cooperation between the two countries for the exploitation of southern Yakutia’s coal deposits.  In exchange for $450 million, the Soviet Union will supply Japan 104 million tons of coking coal from 1979 to 1998. Japanese press reports say that the Soviets plan to construct railways connecting Yakutia with the Trans-Siberian Railway to move the coal.

May 1974

Romania – May 1974 (KCA)
President Ceaușescu announces a reorganization of the country’s foreign trade system. The reorganization provides for the transfer of the majority of foreign trade companies to the supervision of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation.

Czechoslovakia – May, 1974 (KCA)
Reports say that wages increased by 11.6% over the previous three years. The official cost of living, however, fell by 0.6%.    

Soviet Union  / Syria – May 5-7, 1974 (KCA)
Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko visits Damascus for discussions with Syrian President Assad and other authorities.  A communiqué issued on May 7 announces that the Soviet Union supports Syria’s actions, and that both countries agree on Middle East peace through the withdrawal of Israeli forces occupying Arab territories and respect for Palestinian rights.

UK / USSR – May 6, 1974 (LBC)
Great Britain and the USSR sign a ten-year economic, scientific and technological treaty of cooperation.

East Germany / West Germany – May 6, 1974 (KCA)
The West German Chancellor, Willy Brandt, resigns after admitting that he understood for several months that Günter Guillaume, his personal assistant, was suspected of espionage on behalf of East Germany.

Hungary – May 7-15, 1974 (HC)
The eleventh congress of the International Youth Association takes place in Budapest.

Soviet Union / China – May 8, 1974 (KCA)
The magazine Literaturnaya Gazeta alleges that the Chinese committed “spectacular violations” on the frontier, but the Soviet Union has refrained from publicizing them.

Romania – May 11, 1974 (KCA)
Changes in the National Defense Council include the installation of Draganescu, Stefan Andrei, Oprea, Ion Koman, and Constantin Oprita, all of whom replace other personalities.

Romania – May 12-19, 1974 (PER)
The first TIBCO’74 exhibition in Bucharest opens. 10 countries and 24 foreign companies participate.

Hungary – May 13, 1974 (KCA)
The Presidential Council appointes Károly Polinszky, hitherto Deputy Minister of Education, as Minister of Education in place of Miklós Nagy, who died on April 29.

Hungary / Mexico – May 14, 1974 (KCA)
Mexico establishes diplomatic relations with Hungary.

East Germany / West Germany – May 14, 1974 (KCA)
Under the direction of former Vice-Chancellor Scheel, who is temporarily serving as Chancellor, the West German Government structures a commission to probe issues of security surrounding the Guillaume incident.

Union Soviet  / Libya – May 14-20, 1974 (KCA)
Libyan Prime Minister Abdul Salam Jallud visits Moscow, accompanied by the Libyan Minister for Industry and Raw Materials and Deputy Minister for the Economy.  Jallud conducts discussions with Brezhnev, Kosygin, and Podgorny.  On May 20, Libya and the Soviet Union sign a trade agreement granting each other most-favored-nation status. The two states agree to create a joint commission to examine trade questions.  They also agree to develop cooperation in economic, scientific, and technical areas.  Additionally, an Iraqi news agency announces that the two countries agree on military cooperation and an exchange of firearms.

Soviet Union/China – May 15, 1974 (KCA)
Izvestia states that the Soviet Union proposed in June 1973 that a meeting between Soviet and Chinese representatives might be organized at any level, including “the summit”.

West Germany – May 15, 1974 (HC) see May 16.
The new Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany is Helmut Schmidt and the new Foreign Minister is Hans Dietrich Genscher.
Walter Scheel is elected as President of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Yugoslavia – May 15-17, 1974 (KCA)
The Assembly of the Federal Republic elects Tito as President for an unlimited term, approves the appointment of a new collective presidency, and confirms a new Federal Executive Council.

Hungary - May 17, 1974 (HC)
The Budapest International Fair Center is inaugurated in Kőbánya and the first specialized International Spring Fair in Budapest is opened.

Albania – May 17, 1974 (KCA)
An announcement is issued from Vienna stating that the head of the Albanian Orthodox Church and Archbishop of Tirana, Damnian, died in prison in November, 1973.  He was in prison since 1967 when Albania shut down all churches and mosques in an attempt to become a fully atheist state.

France – May 19, 1974 (HC)
Valéry Giscard d’Estaign is elected as President of France.

Soviet Union / Libya - May 20, 1974 (KCA)
Libya and the Soviet Union sign a trade agreement granting each other most-favored-nation status. The two states agree to create a joint commission to examine trade questions. They also agree to develop cooperation in economic, scientific, and technical areas. Additionally, an Iraqi news agency announces that the two countries agree on military cooperation and an exchange of firearms.

Hungary / Iran - May 20, 1974 (HC)
Iranian Prime Minister Hoveyda arrives in Budapest for a four-day visit.

Soviet Union / U.S. May 21, 1974 (BUS)
NBC and the Soviet government sign a contract on the exchange of news-and entertainment programs.

Soviet Union / U.S. May 21, 1974 (LBC)

Soviet Union / China – May 23, 1974 (KCA)
The Soviet Foreign Ministry states that: “The Soviet side sees no difficulties in the solving of the question of passage of Chinese vessels through Soviet inland waterways, if China returns to the positions of respect for the sovereign rights and territorial integrity of the Soviet Union”.

Hungary / Soviet Union / India  – May 23, 1974 (CWIHP)
Five days after India's first nuclear test, the Hungarian Embassy in New Delhi reports that Indian foreign policy experts speculate that the test could lead to closer Indian-Soviet relations. Soviet Union is expected to support India in its nuclear test explosions.

Romania – May 23-25, 1974 (CER)
In Romania a Congress of the Socialist Union is held where Nicolae Ceauşescu is elected as a President of the Union.

Hungary / Italy - May 23-26, 1974 (HC)
Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro is in Budapest.

Hungary - May 23, 1974 (HC)
A government order (1026/1974) about the development of the workforce situation is adopted. (The possibility to change workplaces is often limited.)

East Germany / Finland – May 27, 1974 (KCA)
First official visit by a Finnish Foreign Minister, Ahti Karjalainen, to Eastern Germany. The visit follows an agreement on the establishment of full diplomatic relations between the two countries in 1972.

Soviet Union / Warsaw Pact / Yugoslavia – May 27-30, 1974 (KCA)
The tenth Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia is held in Belgrade.  A delegation of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union attends the meeting, and so do delegations from the parties of other Warsaw Pact states.

Hungary - May 28, 1974 (HC)
CC Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party Zoltán Komócsin dies.

Soviet Union / Syria – May 28-29, 1974 (KCA)
Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko visits Damascus for discussions with Syrian President Assad and other authorities. A communiqué issued after the trip that announces the need for Soviet participation to promote peace in the Middle East.

Hungary / Iraq / Syria – May 28- June 6, 1974 (HC)
Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja has talks in Syria and Iraq.

Hungary - May 28-29, 1974 (HC)
It is the first time that a central final/entrance (high school/university) examination is written in mathematics and physics.

Hungary – May 29, 1974 (HC)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock visits the Iron- and Metalworks in Csepel.

Soviet Union / China – May 30, 1974 (KCA)
A Chinese Foreign Ministry’s statement rejects a Soviet offer by claiming that Heishatzu is Chinese territory and the channel, which the Soviet Union regards as its frontier, is a Chinese inland waterway. Therefore Chinese vessels have the right to use the Amur and the Ussuri rivers up to their confluence, although the Soviet Union has been forcibly obstructing them from doing so since 1966.

India / Soviet Union / US – May 31, 1974 (CWIHP)
According to confidential government sources India is becoming more independent from the Soviet Union, even if it doesn’t mean its close cooperation with the US. Its main goal is reinforcing the countries independence, assume a greater role in international politics, which was one of the objectvies of the nuclear test on 18th May 1974.

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Bloc  / Soviet Union –  May 31, 1974 (CWIHP)
An agreement is signed between the Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior and the KGB to inform each other on internal security situations.

June 1974


Albania – June, 1974 (KCA)
According to the census from the end of 1973 (published in June 1974) the population of Albania has reached 2,322,600 people, 34% of whom live in urban areas.

Romania – June 1974 (KCA)
The U.S. Manufacturers Hanover Trade Trust Company opens a branch in Bucharest, the first branch of a Western bank in a communist country.

Soviet Union  / Afghanistan – June 1974 (KCA)
President Daud of Afghanistan visits Moscow. An extensive economic cooperation agreement is signed by Afghanistan and the Soviet Union under which the natural gas price paid by the Soviet Union will be increased. In mid-January another agreement is signed under which the Soviet Union provides financial support for projects within the Afghan five-year plan, such as the construction of an oil refinery and irrigation and agricultural projects.

Hungary / Portugal – June, 1974 (KCA)
Hungary establishes diplomatic relations with Portugal.

East Germany / Portugal – June, 1974 (KCA)
East Germany establishes diplomatic relations with Portugal.

Czechoslovakia / Portugal – June, 1974 (KCA)
Czechoslovakia establishes diplomatic relations with Portugal.

Yugoslavia / Portugal – June, 1974 (KCA)
Yugoslavia establishes diplomatic relations with Portugal.

Bulgaria – June 1, 1974 (KCA)
Heinrich Nathan Spetter, a Bulgarian Jew, is sentenced to death by firing squad on charges of espionage.

Afghanistan / Soviet Union – June 2, 1974 (CWIHP)
Soviet Union decides to support Afghanistan. The Soviets pledge to help with domestic and international policy of the country, and the U.S.S.R. claim’s that the cooperation between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan is in the interests of world peace.

Romania  / Portugal – June 3, 1974 (KCA)
Romania establishes diplomatic relations with Portugal.

Hungary / U.S. – June 4, 1974 (HC)
A Hungarian-American Chamber of Commerce agreement is signed in Budapest.

U.S. June 5, 1974 (BUS)
In a speech given at the Naval Academy, Nixon emphasizes that the U.S. cannot use its foreign policy to transform other societies. Its main responsibility in the nuclear age is to forestall a war that could annihilate humanity.

Yugoslavia – June 7, 1974 (HR)
The exhibition of Serbian painter Mića Popović entitled Sights (Prizori) is banned because of a painting depicting Josip Broz Tito and Jovanka Broz with the Dutch royal couple.

Soviet Union  / Portugal – June 9, 1974 (KCA)
Portugal and the Soviet Union establish diplomatic realtions. For the first time, ambassadors would be exchanged between the two countries.

Bulgaria – June 10, 1974 (KCA)
Bulgaria establishes diplomatic relations with Mexico.

Poland  / Ivory Coast – June 10, 1974 (KCA)
Poland establishes diplomatic relations with the Ivory Coast.

NATO / Warsaw Pact members – June 11-12, 1974 (KCA)
The NATO Nuclear Planning Group meets.  A communiqué issued at the end of the meeting discusses, among other things, the growing nuclear potential of the Soviet Union and the military strategy of the Warsaw Pact.

Yugoslavia / Iraq – June 13, 1974 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito receives deputy chairman of the Ba’athist Revolutionary Command Council Saddam Hussein.

NATO / Warsaw Pact members – June 14, 1974 (KCA)
The NATO Defense Planning Committee meets in Brussels.  A communiqué issued at the end of the meeting discusses, among other things, the following topics: the role of the Soviet Union in the Middle East, the SALT talks, the increasing military power of the Warsaw Pact, and defense issues.

Soviet Union – June 16, 1974 (KCA)
Elections for the two houses in the Supreme Soviet are held. Official results say that 161,689,612 people, or over 99% of the total electorate, voted.

Hungary / Soviet Union – June 18, 1974 (KCA)
Ten Jews are granted permission to receive training as rabbis at a seminary in Hungary, the last remaining functioning Jewish seminary in Eastern Europe.
Reports say that there are fewer than six rabbis in the entire Soviet Union.

Soviet Union / Warsaw Pact s / NATO – June 18-19, 1974 (KCA)
The Spring Ministerial Meeting of NATO takes place in Ottawa, attended by the foreign ministers of the 15 member states.  A communiqué issued at the end of the meeting discusses, among other things, the following topics: East-West relations and the growing military power of the Warsaw Pact, East and West Germany, the SALT talks, and the European Security Conference.

COMECON / Bulgaria - June 18-21, 1974 (HC)
The 28th session of the Comecon takes place in Sofia. An agreement is reached to cooperate in the exploitation of the Orenburg gas quarries and the construction of the gas pipe.

Hungary – June 20, 1974 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. Decisions about persons: János Berecz is the head of the Foreign Affairs Department of the CC; Károly Grósz is the head of the Department of Agitation and Propaganda of the CC; István Katona is Editor-in-Chief of Népszabadság.

Hungary – June 21, 1974 (HC)
The Presidential Council of the Hungarian People’s Republic is in session. The Ministry of Public Education is divided into Ministry of Education (Minister of Education is Károly Polinszky) and Ministry of Culture (Minister of Culture is László Orbán.) Károly Rödönyi is appointed as Minister of Transportation and Post.

Bulgaria / Portugal – June 24, 1974 (KCA)
Bulgaria establishes diplomatic relations with Portugal.

Yugoslavia / West Germany – June 24-27, 1974 (AY)
Yugoslav delegation led by President Josip Broz Tito makes an official visit to West Germany. It is received by President Gustav Heinemann, and Chancellor Helmut Schmidt. President Tito meets privately with former chancellor Willy Brandt.

Soviet Union / China – June 25, 1974 (KCA)
The suspended negotiations on border disputes between China and the Soviet Union, resume when Leonid Ilyichev, the Leader of the Soviet delegation and a Deputy Foreign Minister, returns to Beijing. However, the talks will be suspended again on August 19.

Hungary / Mongolia – June 25-29, 1974 (HC)
A Mongolian delegation led by First Secretary of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal is in Budapest.

Soviet Union / U. S. – June 27 - July 3, 1974 (KCA/ HC)
President Nixon and U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger visit the Soviet Union for a summit meeting with Brezhnev. On June 28, three agreements between the two countries are signed: 1) cooperation for housing and construction, 2) cooperation for energy research, 3) cooperation of the health authorities to produce an artificial heart. On July 3, a treaty is signed to limit underground nuclear weapons tests in addition to a protocol of the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems that was signed originally in 1972.  Another two protocols are signed to regulate the dismantling and replacing of missiles. The meeting concludes with a communiqué articulating the topics covered, including the importance of improving relations; limiting strategic arms; the European Security Conference; Germany; Vietnam; the Middle East; scientific, economic, and commercial cooperation; and the establishment of consulates-general.

Romania / Egypt – June 27-30, 1974 (PER)
The Egyptian president, Mohammed Anwar Sadat, visits Romania.

Soviet Union – June 28, 1974 (KCA) See June 27—July 3.
Three agreements between the two countries are signed: 1) cooperation for housing and construction, 2) cooperation for energy research, 3) cooperation of the health authorities to produce an artificial heart.

Romania  / Egypt – June 30, 1974 (KCA)
It is announced that Romania and Egypt have agreed to set up a joint cooperation commission, a joint company for petroleum research and exploitation, and a Romano-Egyptian bank. Romania will give Egypt a loan to finance Egyptian purchases in Romania.

Czechoslovakia / West Germany – June 30, 1974 (KCA)
West Germany ratifies the treaty to normalize relations with Czechoslovakia.


July 1974


Poland – July, 1974 (KCA) See July 5
The Polish Government and the Holy See establish “permanent working contacts.” The Polish Bishops’  Conference views it as “a preparatory step towards a normalization of Church-state relations.” The Conference underlines that numerous demands of the Church remain unfulfilled; among them are unconditional freedom of religion, religious instructions for children and students, equality of Roman Catholics in every sphere of life, and the nomination of new bishops.

Romania – July 1, 1974 (KCA)
The World Bank grants its first loan to Romania.

Hungary - July 1, 1974 (HC)
The National Youth Committee is established.

Bulgaria – July 3, 1974 (KCA)
A plenary session of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party decides on changes in leadership. Two Central Committee Secretaries are elected to the Politburo, four candidate-members are elected as members of the Politburo, and three candidate-members of the Politburo are relieved of duty. The Central Committee decides to propose that the National Assembly replace the current Minister of the Chemical Industry with Georgi Pankov.

Soviet Union / U.S. – July 3, 1974 (KCA)
A treaty is signed to limit underground nuclear weapons tests in addition to a protocol of the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems signed originally in 1972.  Another two protocols are signed to regulate the dismantling and replacing of missiles. The meeting concludes with a communiqué articulating the topics covered, including the importance of improving relations; limiting strategic arms; the European Security Conference; Germany; Vietnam; the Middle East; scientific, economic, and commercial cooperation; and the establishment of consulates-general.

Soviet Union / China – July 4, 1974 (KCA)
The annual trade and payment agreement between the Soviet Union and China is signed. The agreed volume of trade is 266 million rubles.

Poland / Vatican – July 5, 1974 (HDP) See July, 1974
Official relations between the Polish People’s Republic and the Vatican are established.

Yugoslavia / Poland – July 5-7, 1974 (JBT)
First Secretary of the Polish United Workers’ Party Edward Gierek makes a private visit to Yugoslavia, and meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito.

Czechoslovakia / France / U.K. / U.S. July 6, 1974 (BUS)
A preliminary agreement is made between the U.S. and Czechoslovakia on the settlement of post-war financial claims. The U.S. returns to Czechoslovakia 20.4 tons of gold that had been removed by the Germans and was under the control of the British-French-American tripartite Gold Committee. It is valued at cc. 80 million dollars. Czechoslovakia pays compensation for nationalized US property and for the debt deriving from surplus property credit (all in all about 80 million dollars). The U.S. compensates Prague for a steel plant it purchased in 1946, which was never delivered.

Hungary – July 7-14, 1974 (HC)
A Chilean solidarity week takes place in Hungary.

Romania / Yugoslavia – July 8-11, 1974 (KCA)
President Tito of Yugoslavia visits Romania. The final communiqué condemns imperialism and hegemonism and underlines the need to settle the mutual relations between Balkan countries. A 10-year agreement on economic, scientific and technical cooperation between Yugoslavia and Romania is signed.

Hungary / Soviet Union - July 9-11, 1974 (HC)
A session of the Hungarian-Soviet intergovernmental economic committee takes place. Long-term agreements are concluded and an accord about the construction of the transmission line between Vinnitsa and Albertirsa is reached.

Hungary – July 10, 1974 (HC)
The National Public Education Council is formed. (Chairman: György Aczél.)

Soviet Union / Somalia – July 11, 1974 (KCA)
A treaty of friendship and co-operation between Somalia and the Soviet Union is signed, during a visit to Somalia by Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny, is published in Mogadishu on July 14.

Czechoslovakia / West Germany – July 15, 1974 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Federal Assembly unanimously ratifies the treaty to normalize relations with West Germany.

Soviet Union – July 25, 1974 (KCA)
The Supreme Soviet meets to elect its officers.

Czechoslovakia – July 26, 1974 (KCA)
Czechoslovak courts administer new sentences for the survivors of the 1952 show trials on espionage and treason.

Bulgaria / Venezuela – July 26, 1974 (KCA)
Bulgaria establishes diplomatic relations with Venezuela.

Soviet Union – July 26, 1974 (KCA)
The Supreme Soviet approves the full list of members of the Soviet Council of Ministers with Aleksej Kosygin as Chairman.

Soviet Union / Warsaw Pact / Mongolia – July 30-31, 1974 (KCA)
General Secretaries of the Communist Parties in the Warsaw Pact and in Mongolia meet in Crimea. The meeting releases a communiqué pressing for both political and military détente.

Soviet Union / France July 31, 1974 (BUS)
The French Creusot-Loire Company signs a 210 million dollar deal with the Soviet Union to build two ammonia plants.

August 1974


Hungary / Sierra Leone — August 1-3, 1974 (HC)
President of the Republic of Sierra Leone Siaka Stevens negotiates in Budapest.

Soviet Union / Hungary - August 2-5, 1974 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár negotiates in the Crimea with Secretary-General of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Brezhnev.

Romania – August 7, 1974 (CER)
Representatives of Romanian writers meet with Nicolae Ceauşescu in Neptun, on the Black Sea.

Hungary / Poland – August 7-8, 1974 (HC)
Polish Prime Minister Piotr Jaroszewicz is in Budapest.

East Germany / Senegal – August 9, 1974 (KCA)
East Germany enters into diplomatic relations at ambassadorial level with Senegal.

USA - August 9, 1974 (HC)
Gerald Ford becomes President of the United States.

Bulgaria / Thailand – August 10, 1974 (KCA)
Bulgaria establishes diplomatic relations with Thailand.

China / India / Soviet Union – August 14, 1974 (CWIHP).
The Soviet Union claims that the Indian government informed the Soviet Union in advance of India’s intention to explode a nuclear device. The Soviet Union applied strong pressure to prevent it as it would increase nuclear proliferation.

Yugoslavia / Syria – August 14-16, 1974 (JBT)
Syrian President Hafiz el-Assad makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. During talks with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito, they discuss mainly international issues, especially the Middle East crisis. The two statesmen agree that solving the Cyprus crisis should be based on respecting independence, sovereignty, and integrity of the Republic of Cyprus.

East Germany– West Germany  - August 19, 1974 (CWIHP)
At a confidential meeting Klaus Blech from the FRG’s foreign ministry speaks of the problem of mutually agreed changes of frontiers, confidence-building measures, and the possible limits and results of CSCE treaties.

Hungary – August 19-24, 1974 (HC)
A world conference of economists takes place in Budapest.

Romania – August 19-30, 1974 (KCA/PER)
Bucharest is host to the U.N. World Population Conference where over 5000 delegates from over 130 countries participate.

Bulgaria / Hungary – August 21-23, 1974 (HC)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock visits Bulgaria.

Bulgaria – August 22, 1974 (KCA)
Henrich Nathan Spetter is released from prison and arrives in Tel Aviv.  He was originally sentenced to death on charges of espionage on June 1, 1974.

Romania – August 19-30, 1974 (KCA)
Bucharest is host to the U.N. World Population Conference.  Representatives from over 130 countries attend the meeting.

Yugoslavia / Cuba – August 25, 1974 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito receives Cuban Foreign Minister Raul Roa Garcia.

Romania / U.N. – August 28, 1974 (PER)
In Bucharest, Romania and the United Nations sign an agreement to establish the demographic centre UN-Romania (CEDOR).

Hungary – August 31, 1974 (HC)
Law decree no. 13 of 1974 of the Presidential Council of the Hungarian People’s Republic about the reforming of teacher training institutions into teacher training colleges is adopted.


September 1974


Hungary –September 1, 1974 (HC)
The price of heating materials is increased by 25% and the price of gas is increased by 40% on average.

Soviet Union – September 2-8, 1974, (KCA)
During 1973, 34,750 Soviet Jews were allowed to emigrate to Israel, compared to 31,478 in 1972, approximately 15,000 in 1971, and 10,330 in the ten years between 1961 and 1970. Jews from the Soviet Union comprised the majority of immigrants entering Israel in 1972.

Romania / Syria – September 2-7, 1974 (PER)
The President of Syria and the leader of the Arabic Socialist Party, Hafez al-Assad, visits Romania.

Romania  / France – September 4, 1974 (KCA)
It is announced that Romania has signed an agreement with France to purchase 100 Puma helicopters.

Bulgaria – September 4, 1974 (KCA)
Chairman of the State Council Zhivkov opens Bulgaria’s  first nuclear power plant in Kozloduy. The principal equipment was supplied by the Soviet Union.

East Germany / U. S. – September 4, 1974 (KCA)
The United States and the German Democratic Republic establish diplomatic relations.

Hungary – September 4, 1974 (HC)
An order of the Council of Ministers (1046/1974) about the establishment of the National Council of Environmental Protection is adopted. (Its chairman is the all-time Minister of Construction and Urban Development).

Hungary – September 6, 1974 (HC)
The jubilee exhibition with the title “The 25 years of Hungarian-Soviet scientific-technological cooperation” is opened.

Yugoslavia – September 6, 1974 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito sends notes to all heads of states of non-aligned countries, to permanent members of the UN Security Council, and to the UN Secretary General regarding the Cyprus crisis.

Czechoslovakia  / Hungary – September 9-11, 1974 (HC)
Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja is in Czechoslovakia.

Bulgaria September 9, 1974 (BUS)
Bulgaria is the last state to announce that it will no longer jam Voice of America.

Romania / Israel – September 9-12, 1974 (KCA)
The Romanian Foreign Minister Gheorghe Macovescu visits Israel. An agreement on increased exchanges in trade, tourism and culture, and on improved economic and technical cooperation is signed.

Yugoslavia / Non-Aligned Movement – September 9-13, 1974 (HN)
The first meeting of non-aligned countries responsible for developing mutual economic cooperation takes place in Belgrade.

Albania – September 11, 1974 (KCA)
An announcement issued from Belgrade says that Albanian Minister of Defense General Beqir Balluku is removed from office.

Hungary – September 12, 1974 (HC)
The Council of Ministers adopts an order (1047/1974) about the establishment of the independent Hungarian Radio and the independent Hungarian Television as well as of the National Radio and Television Commission.

Hungary – September 13, 1974 (HC)
The College of Transport and Telecommunications in Győr is opened.

Soviet Union — September 16, 1974 (KCA)
Police crush the first exhibition of non-conformist artists. The second exhibition is allowed on September 29, 1974 in Moscow and the third one follows on December 22-25, 1974 in Leningrad.

East Germany / U.N. / West Germany – September 18, 1974 (KCA)
The United Nations General Assembly admits the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany to U.N. membership, thus increasing the number of member statest to 135. 
Hungary / Finland – September 18-22, 1974 (HC)
Finnish Prime Minsiter Kalevi Sorsa is in Budapest.

Soviet Union / India – September 19, 1974 (KCA)
A protocol signed at the conclusion of the second meeting of the Indo-Soviet joint commission on economic, scientific and technical co-operation provides for large-scale Soviet and Indian industry.

Yugoslavia / Sri Lanka – September 19-23, 1974 (JBT)
Sri Lankan Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike visits Yugoslavia. The main issue discussed with the Yugoslav representatives and President Josip Broz Tito is the forthcoming Fifth Summit Conference of Non-Aligned countries which should be held in Colombo in 1976.

Yugoslavia / Cyprus – September 22, 1974 (JBT)
President of Cyprus Archbishop Makarios visits Yugoslavia, and meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito. President Tito accuses Greek military junta, as well as ‘imperialist powers’ for threatening the independence of Cyprus. He also warns the President of Cyprus not to rely on foreign aid, but to find an internal solution to the crisis.


Bulgaria / U.S. September 24, 1974 (BUS)
An agreement is signed on the expansion of US-Bulgarian commercial relations.

Yugoslavia / Israel – September 24, 1974 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito and president of the World Jewish Congress Nahum Goldmann discuss the Middle East Crisis.

Hungary / Soviet Union – September 25-30, 1974 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár and Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock have talks in the Soviet Union. (After the conference János Kádár stays in the Soviet Union for a holiday.)

October 1974

Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – October, 1974 (KCA)
At the end of the month Bulgarian officials decide to increase the currency exchange rate by approximately 25% for tourists from the West. However, the exchange rate with Yugoslavia is reduced.

Soviet Union / China – October 1, 1974 (KCA)
In a greeting from the Soviet Union to China on the 25th anniversary of the Chinese Revolution, the Soviet Government renews its offer of a non-aggression pact.

Romania – October 2, 1974 (KCA)
A new exchange rate comes into power for non-commercial transactions with non-socialist countries (also to be used with Yugoslavia and Cuba).

Soviet Union / U.S. October 4, 1974 (BUS)
The U.S. administration refuses a Soviet request to buy 3.4 million tons of wheat.

Soviet Union / U. S. – October 5, 1974 (KCA)
Two U.S. export companies cancel their contracts to supply maize and wheat to the Soviet Union after company executives meet at the White House with U.S. President Ford and U.S. Secretary of the Treasury William Simon.

Albania – October 6, 1974 (KCA)
Elections for the People’s Assembly take place. Election turnout is 100%, and the 250 candidates of the Democratic Front are voted in unanimously.

Hungary / Romania – October 6, 1974 (HC)
A joint Romanian-Hungarian ceremony takes place in Arad (Romania) on the 125th anniversary of the execution of the Hungarian generals (October 6, 1849). (A symbolic funeral of the 13 martyrs takes place. The Hungarian delegation is led by the Minister of Culture László Orbán.)

Yugoslavia / Burma – October 7-11, 1974 (JBT)
Burmese President and Prime Minister U Ne Win makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. During the visit he meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito. They discuss various international and bilateral issues, especially the situation in the Middle and Far East.

Poland – October 8, 1974 (KCA/HDP)
The First Secretary of the Polish United Workers’ Party, Edward Gierek, visits the United States. Three joint declarations are signed (on principles of mutual relations, development of cooperation and agricultural trade) as well as six agreements (on coal research, health, environment, science and technology, avoidance of double taxation and cooperation by chambers of commerce). At the same time several changes in the government are announced.

Hungary / Palestine – October 12-14, 1974 (HC)
President of the Palestine Liberation Organization Yasser Arafat is in Budapest.

Soviet Union / Israel – October 18, 1974 (KCA)
Israeli Foreign Minister Yigal Allon sends a telegram to Henry Kissinger thanking him for his influence on Jewish emigration issues in the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union / U. S. – October 19, 1974 (KCA)
Secretary of the Treasury William Simon announces that he reached an agreement to sell grain to the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union will buy 1.2 million tons of wheat and 1 million tons of maize, collectively worth about $400 million.

Soviet Union / U. S. – October 23, 1974 (KCA)
Henry Kissinger arrives in Moscow for a four-day set of discussions with various Soviet leaders, including Brezhnev and Gromyko.  A communiqué issued at the end of the meeting announces the topic of strategic arms, and the determination of the United States and the Soviet Union to progress in their relations.

Soviet Union / Pakistan – October 24-26, 1974 (KCA)
The Prime Minister of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, visits Moscow. He asks Soviet leaders to convince Afghan politicians not to interfere in Pakistan’s internal affairs.

Hungary / Norway – October 24-28, 1974 (HC)
Norwegian Prime Minister Trygve Bratteli pays a visit to Hungary.

Soviet Union / U. S. – October 26, 1974 (KCA)
It is announced that Brezhnev and President Ford will conduct a meeting in the Vladivostok area in February.

Soviet Union / U. S. – October 26, 1974 (KCA)
The Soviet Ambassador in Paris Stepan Chervonenko strongly denies reports that his Government agreed to liberalize its emigration procedures in return for U.S. trade concessions, saying that no such agreement can exist because it covers two different fields.

Hungary / Egypt – October 26, 1974 (HC)
A Hungarian scientific and cultural center opens in Cairo.

Hungary / Poland – October 28-31, 1974 (HC)
Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi pays a visit to Poland.

Soviet Union / West Germany – October 28-31, 1974 (KCA)
West German Federal Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher visit the Soviet Union. The main topic of discussion is Berlin – the West German Government wants West Berlin to be included in the bilateral agreements with the Soviet Union while the Soviet Union does not see West Berlin as a part of West-Germany. In spite of these differences a joint communiqué is issued in which good relations and regular consultations between the Soviet Union and West Germany are mentioned. During the visit, two trade agreements are signed. On October 28, an agreement between the Soviet Bank for Foreign Trade and a consortium of banks headed by Deutsche Bank is signed on credit given by West German banks to the Soviet bank. The second agreement, signed on October 29, covers the delivery of an additional amount of Soviet natural gas to West Germany.

Soviet Union / Somalia – October 29, 1974 (KCA)
The Soviet-Somali treaty of friendship and cooperation signed in July 1974 is ratified in Mogadishu.

Yugoslavia / Austria – October 29, 1974 (KCA)
The Yugoslav Foreign Secretary Miloš Minić hands to the Austrian charge d’ affaires in Belgrade a note in which Yugoslavia accuses Austria of failing to respect the rights of the Croats in Burgenland and the Slovenes in Carinthia. The Austrian response stresses the existence of bilingual schools and radio which are an example of respecting the right of minorities. The note is rejected by Yugoslavia as it is considered to be “unconstructive and arrogant.”

Albania – October 29, 1974 (KCA)
The People’s Assembly convenes and affirms the lineup of the Presidium.  Afterward, the body confirms as Mehmet Shehu as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, who then announces the Cabinet. Chairman Shehu’s speech to the assembly assesses developments within the previous four years, and Albania’s diplomatic relations, especially those with Greece, Italy, and Yugoslavia. The Government supports futher development of normal relations between Albania and Romania. In the same time Shedu reiterats his Government’s opposition to the establishment of diplomatic relations the United States, the United Kongdom, and Western Germany.


Yugoslavia / Denmark – October 29-November 1, 1974 (AY)
Yugoslav delegation led by President Josip Broz Tito visits Denmark. Meetings are organized with Queen Margarethe II, and Prime Minister Poul Hartling.


Romania – October 30, 1974 (CER)
In Romania, a new law is adopted (the law of 63), which includes the patrimony of national culture.

Bulgaria – October 31, 1974 (KCA)
The National Assembly approves Cabinet changes.  Among the changes to the State Council, Tanchev replaces Georgi Traikov as First Vice-Chairman. The National Assembly also passes new reforms to harmonize the penal code with the Communist Party’s agenda.  Additionally, the National Assembly grants amnesty to Bulgarian citizens who lived abroad and returned by December 31, 1975, and were never declared enemies of the state nor sentenced by the courts.

India / Hungary – October 31, 1974 (CWIHP)
Hungary chooses not to condemn India for its nuclear explosion on 18th May 1974 in Pokhran. It caused immense surprise and the Indian government reassures the world that India did not intend to launch a nuclear weapons program.

November 1974

Soviet Union / China – November 1974 (KCA)
According to one unconfirmed report, about 30 men are killed or wounded in a clash between Soviet and Chinese troops on the Mongolian border.

Czechoslovakia – November, 1974 (KCA)
Official estimates report that from 1968-1971 approximately 127,700 Czechoslovak citizens left the country illegally.

Czechoslovakia – November 1, 1974 (KCA)
The Times in London publishes a letter, sent by 29 released political prisoners, criticizing the Czechoslovak regime.

Romania / United States – November 3-4, 1974 (PER)
The U. S. Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, visits Romania.

Soviet Union / U. S. – November 4, 1974 (KCA)
100 Soviet Jews send a letter to U.S. Senator Henry Jackson saying that Soviet authorities have used military conscription against Jews who petitioned to emigrate to Israel. They also request Senator Jackson to use his power to ensure that these measures end.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – November 4, 1974 (JBT)
U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger visits Yugoslavia, and meets with President Josip Broz Tito to discuss various bilateral and international topics, especially the Middle East crisis.

Czechoslovakia/Soviet Union – November 5, 1974 (CWIHP)
A protocol agreed by the border forces of Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union aims to facilitate the exchange of bilateral information between the two forces, discussing the findings of both security organizations from May 1972 to October 1974, and coordinating the security organization and new border security agreement. 

Soviet Union / China – November 7, 1974 (KCA)
The Chinese Government replies in a message of greeting on the anniversary of the Russian Revolution by proposing that a non-aggression treaty should be accompanied by the withdrawal of all armed forces from the disputed borders areas - a proposal which the Soviet Union has repeatedly rejected in the past.

Hungary / West Germany – November 11, 1974 (KCA/HC)
An agreement on economic, industrial and technical cooperation between Hungary and West Germany is signed.

Yugoslavia / East Germany – November 12-15, 1974 (AY)
Yugoslav delegation led by President Josip Broz Tito makes an official visit to East Germany.

Croatia/Yugoslavia – November 15, 1974 (KCA)
A parcel bomb installed by Draoja explodes in a Zagreb post office killing one person.

Soviet Union — November 17, 1974 (KCA)
Amnesty International publishes a report that estimates that there are “at least 10,000 political and religious prisoners in the USSR” and that all of them are “maltreated.”

East Germany – November 19-21, 1974 (MMS)
WP Military Council convenes in Berlin.

Hungary / Burma / India – November 20-30, 1974 (HC)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock pays a visit to India and Burma.

Bulgaria – November 21, 1974 (KCA)
The State Council relieves Pencho Koubadinsky from his position as Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers.

Soviet Union / U. S. – November 23-24, 1974 (KCA)
U.S. President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev conduct a summit meeting by Vladivostok. They discuss numerous issues on the relations between the two countries and on international matters. At the end of the meeting, they sign a joint communiqué discussing the following subjects: strategic arms limitations; Soviet-American relations; cooperation in commercial, economic, and scientific areas; the European Security Conference; the Cyprus issue; and the Middle East. Furthermore, President Ford reiterates the invitation, originally issued in July by President Nixon, to Brezhnev to visit the U.S. in 1975. Ford and Brezhnev also sign a statement announcing that they will make a new agreement on limiting strategic offensive arms through 1985.

Hungary / France – November 25, 1974 (HC)
A long-term Hungarian-French economic and industrial agreement is signed.

Romania – November 25-28, 1974 (KCA/CEC)
The 11th congress of the Romanian Communist Party takes place in Bucharest. On November 25 General Secretary Ceaușescu presents the report of the Communist Party’s Central Committee, in which he summarizes the Party’s achievements, international political life and relations between Romania and different countries. He postulates a new type of unity between Communist countries based on their independence; the principle of national sovereignty and independence is among the priorities. He underlines the importance of continuing economic development so that the gap between Romania and other countries will narrow. On November 28, Ceauşescu is reelected as the Party’s General Secretary for other five years; on the same day a new Central Committee is elected. The Permanent Bureau replaces the Presidium.

Soviet Union / Norway -- November 25- December 5, 1974 (KCA)
The first round of negotiations between Norway and the Soviet Union on the delimitation of the Barents Sea takes place in Moscow. The second round in Oslo follows on November 25-December 5, 1975. The talks turn out to be inconclusive.

Soviet Union / China – November 26, 1974 (KCA)
The Soviet Government’s officially replies to the Chinese Government’s message of November 7, saying that if favors talks “without any preliminary conditions” on all questions of Soviet-Chinese relations, including frontier issues. However, the Chinese message, which presents “all kinds of preliminary conditions”, doesn’t provide a basis for an understanding. On the same day, Brezhnev also rejects the Chinese proposals in a speech in Ulan Bator, the capital of Mongolia.

Yugoslavia / Zambia – November 27-29, 1974 (JBT)
Zambian President Kenneth Kaunda visits Yugoslavia, and meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito. The two statesmen discuss the policy of non-alignment, decolonization of Portuguese colonies, European security and defense policy, and other international issues.

Yugoslavia / Palestine – November 30-December 4, 1974 (JBT)
PLO leader Yasser Arafat visits Yugoslavia. During his stay he is received by Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito.

December 1974

Poland – December 1974 - January 1975 (KCA)
Official announcements about favorable developments in the Polish economy are made. On December 13, it is announced that the frozen prices of basic food items will remain the same in 1975.

Soviet Union / China – December 1974 (KCA)
A number of unconfirmed reports of armed clashes between Soviet and Chinese troops on the frontiers of the two countries are received in December 1947.

Soviet Union / China – December 1974 (KCA)
The December issue of the Chinese journal ”Historical Research” reaffirms the Chinese Government’s position that China does not claim the return of the territory annexed by Tsarist Russia under the “unequal treaties”, which Beijing is prepared to accept as the basis for a settlement, but of further territories occupied by Russia in violation of those treaties. China is also prepared to consider “adjustments” in the disputed areas as part of a general settlement.

Bulgaria / Poland / Soviet Union – December, 1974 (KCA)
East European countries derive most of their supplies from the Soviet Union. Bulgaria introduces petrol rationing at the rate 45 liters a month, while Poland imposes restrictions on the use of buses and coaches on the weekend and for recreational purposes Poland also instructs official bodies to reduce the use of transport by one-third.

Poland – December 1, 1974 (KCA)
The population of Poland is 33,700,000. That is a growth of 700,000 in comparisaon to the previous year. 54% of the population lives in urban areas.

Czechoslovakia – December 2, 1974 (KCA)
A number of changes in the Czechoslovak Government are announced, including the appointment of Josef Simon to the role of Deputy Prime Minister. According to a report from November 12, 1974 a cultural attaché, Jiří Stárek, reveals private information about the purge in the Czechoslovak Army during a press conference.

Soviet Union / U. S. – December 2, 1974 (KCA)
President Ford gives a televised press conference where he elaborates on the proposed agreement for arms control with the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union – December 4-7, 1974 (KCA)
The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union visits France. The main points of a communiqué issued at the end of his visit cover: the importance of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe; shared concern over the situation in the Middle East; the danger of the situation in Cyprus; the need to restore peace in Vietnam; the efforts to bring about universal disarmament and the importance of bilateral Franco-Soviet economic relations, especially industrial, scientific, and technological cooperation. An agreement on deliveries by the Soviet Union to France of additional quantities of natural gas is signed.

Hungary – December 5, 1974 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. The People’s Economic Plan of the year 1975, the national budget, and the preparation of the five-year plan are on the agenda.

Yugoslavia – December 5, 1974 (KCA)
Three Croats – Rudolf Prskalo, Nikola Lisac and Tomislav Rebrina – are sentenced to 12 years imprisonment by a court in Madrid on charges of hijacking a Swedish airliner.

Soviet Union / France December 5-7, 1974 (BUS)
Leonid Brezhnev visits France. Brezhnev and French President Valéry Giscard d’Estaing sign a five-year, 2.65 billion dollar commercial agreement. A twenty year agreement is signed on the sale of 2.5 billion (later 4 billion cubic meters) of Soviet natural gas to France; another agreement is made on the construction of a $1.15 billion aluminum complex in Siberia, the cost of which is covered 50-50% by the two sides. France extends a $2.5 billion credit to finance the Soviet orders.

Yugoslavia – December 5, 1974 (JBT)
President Josip Broz Tito receives UNESCO director-general Amadou-Mahtar M’Bow.

Yugoslavia/Nepal – December 6, 1974 (JBT)
President Josip Broz Tito receives Prime Minster of Nepal Nagendra Prasad Rijal.

Hungary – December 6, 1974 (HC)
The underpass at Deák Square is opened in Budapest.

NATO / East Germany / Warsaw Pact members – December 10-11, 1974 (KCA)
Winter Ministerial Meeting of NATO takes place in Brussels.  The following topics are included in the communiqué publicized at the end of the meeting:  satisfactory developments on the ties between the two sides of Germany and those of Berlin would help stabilize Europe; a proposal for the reduction of both American and Soviet ground forces.

East Germany / West Germany / Soviet Union / US / CSCE – December 18, 1974 (CWIHP)
Conversation between Klaus Blech and Siegfried Bock regarding the frontiers component of the CSCE negotiations.

Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / East Germany / Hungary / Poland / Romania / Soviet Union – December 18-19, 1973 (KCA)
Officials of nine Communist Parties meet for a conference in Moscow. The conference is attended by the Committee Secretaries from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union. Subjects of the conference include the spread of socialism and peace, and reduction of anticommunism.

Czechoslovakia – December 19, 1974 (KCA)
 An agreement is signed in Vienna on compensation for the property of Austrian citizens confiscated in Czechoslovakia following the expulsion of Austrian citizens after May 8, 1945.

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Bloc / Soviet Union – December 19, 1974 (CWIHP).
Creation of the plan of coordination between the Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior and the Soviet KGB for the years 1975 -1977. Both countries promise to detect and prevent hostile activities and protect all sort of state secrets.

East Germany/West Germany – December 19, 1974 (CWIHP). see December 18.
A memorandum regarding a conversation between Klaus Blech and Siegfried Bock with relation to the recognition of frontiers component of the CSCE negotiations is signed.

Hungary – December 19-20, 1974 (HC)
The Parliament discusses the budget for 1975.

Hungary – December 19-21, 1974 (HC)
The preparatory meeting of the conference of the European Communist and Workers’ parties takes place in Budapest.

Romania / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia / U.S. December 20, 1974 (BUS)
The US Senate passes the Trade Reform Act. According to the act, tariffs on goods from developing countries can be abolished with the exception of communist states; this does not include Romania and Yugoslavia. The USSR may receive trade benefits if it relaxes emigration controls ,primarily for Jews. The Jackson-Vanik amendment ties the most favored nation clause to the liberalization of emigration. Congress maximized the amount of Export-Import Bank loan that can be granted to the Soviet Union.

Bulgaria / West Germany – December 21, 1974 (KCA)
A Communiqué is issued stating that Bulgaria and West Germany established full diplomatic relations.

Czechoslovakia – December 22, 1974 (KCA)
According to an official Chinese report, the Czechoslovak Government has concluded a trade and payments agreement with China. No details of the agreement are known.

Soviet Union — December 26, 1974 (KCA)
The Soviet Minister of the Interior Nikolai Shchelokov announces that between 1976 and 1981 a new internal passport will be issued to all Soviet citizens over the age of 16.

Bulgaria – end of 1974 (KCA)
The population of Bulgaria is 8,706,000. This represents an increase of 60,500 people compared with the total population at the end of 1973. The urban population has increased by 2% up to 58.5% in total.

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016