The History of the Soviet Bloc 1945–1991


Edited by

Research Chair, Center of Social Sciences, Institute for Political Science,
Hungarian Academy of Sciences;
Founding Director, Cold War History Research
Center, Budapest;
Professor of History, Corvinus University of Budapest
Institute of International Studies

Associate editor

University of Szeged


Assistant editors




Izabel ÁCS, Chiara BERTUCCO, Noah BUYON, Megan DIBBLE, Marco GIACOMAZZI, Anusha GURUNG, Solveig HANSEN, Zsálya HAADI-NAGY, Konrad HYZY, Tomas KOLAR, Thomas KOLLMANN, Roman KOZIEL, Annamária KÓTAY-NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, Sára LAFFERTON, Marja LAHTINEN, Joseph LARSEN, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zsófia MADÁCSI, Csaba Zsolt MÁRTON, Anikó MÉSZÁROS, Oleksandr MURASHEVYCH, Tímea OKOS, Balázs OLTVÖLGYI, Roland PAPP, Dominika PROSZOWSKA, Rashid RAHIMLI, Martin ROMAIN, François  ROPARS, Vjenceslav RUPCIC, Lili SIKLÓS, Marcello TOMASINA, Zita Bettina VASAS, Aniello VERDE, Dóra VERESS, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF, Maciek ZAWADA, András ZÁM

© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016


The publication and the preceding research were sponsored by the Hungarian Cultural Fund


At the Cold War History Research Center we have been working on an extensive chronology of the Soviet Bloc for a number of years. The third part of the timeline contains information dealing with the period from 1968 to 1980. The years 1980–1991 will be available by the end of 2017.

The entries were compiled using mainly secondary sources so far, nevertheless, we are determined to further improve and continuously extend the chronology by including information from archival documents in the years to come. The chronology also presents data dealing with Austria, Finland and Yugoslavia. Although these countries were obviously not part of the Soviet Bloc, we still wanted to involve them since they maintained special relations with the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


List of Sources


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016

ISBN 978-963-12-7940-5


Chronology 1975


January 1975

Romania / Hungary - January, 1975 (HC) 
It is introduced in Romania that private persons cannot accommodate foreign nationals  (exceptions are parents, children, siblings and the spouses of these). This move is obviously aimed at reducing tourism from Hungary.
Hungary – January 1, 1975 (KCA)
The value of the forint has increased by an average of 6% against Western currencies.

Soviet Union – January 1, 1975 (KCA)
The Soviet Union increases the export prices of oil.

Hungary - January 2-22, 1975 (HC)
A national census takes place.
Soviet Union / Laos – January 6, 1975 (KCA)
It is announced that the Soviet Union will assist in the construction of a new town at Phon Savan, Laos. Three bridges and a hospital will be built as well.

Yugoslavia/Portugal – January 7, 1975 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito receives General Secretary of the Portuguese Socialist Party Mario Soares.

Yugoslavia / Hungary -  January 7-9, 1975 (HC)
Foreign minister Frigyes Puja has talks in Belgrade.
Yugoslavia / Australia – January 9-12, 1975 (KCA)
The Australian Prime Minister Gough Whitlam visits Yugoslavia. In talks, emphasis is placed on the development of mutual trade and the situation of Yugoslavs living in Australia.

Bulgaria / Greece – January 10, 1975 (KCA)
A permanent Greek-Bulgarian commission is established. It aims to create cooperation in power generation and in the utilization of rivers flowing through both countries.

Hungary – January 10, 1975 (KCA)
The appointment of five new Roman Catholic bishops, of a new supervisor of the central institutes of the Bishops’ Conference and of four new apostolic administrators is approved. Now the Bishop of Vác, Mgr. Mihály Endrey, can exercise his ministry after a long time.


Soviet Union / US – January 10, 1975 (LBC)
The Soviet Union informs the US that because of the Jackson-Vanik amendment it will not ratify the trade agreement signed in 1972, which would have unconditionally abolished discriminative trade restrictions. The USSR resents the Jackson-Vanik amendment and the restriction of Export-Import Bank loans, which it deems contrary to the 1972 trade agreement and the principle of non-interference in domestic affairs.Kissinger says that this step means that Moscow will not service its lend lease debt after 1975 therefore will not be eligible for the most favored nation treatment. Kissinger claims that in the past two years Moscow received 479 million dollars from the Bank.

Soviet Union – January 11, 1975 (KCA)
The spacecraft Soyuz 17 is launched and returns to earth on February 9. The spacecraft docks with Salyut 4 on January 12, and during the next four weeks the cosmonauts’ program includes research into physical processes and phenomena in outer space; observations of geological-morphological objects on the earth’s surface and atmospheric formations and phenomena with a view to obtaining data in the interests of the national economy; medico-biological research; and tests of the improved design of the station and of on-board systems and equipment. Moreover, the crew tests certain modifications in the spacecraft’s control systems.

Hungary -  January 12, 1975 (HC)
The television starts to air the 13-series documentary “Hazánk, Magyarország” [Our home, Hungary].
Yugoslavia / Australia – January 12, 1975 (JBT)
Australian Prime Minister Gough Whitlam visits Yugoslavia, and meets with President Josip Broz Tito.
Soviet Union / Australia – January 12-16, 1975 (KCA) see June 12—16
Prime Minister of Australia Gough Whitlam visits the Soviet Union to speak with Alexei Kosygin, Chairman of the Soviet Council of Ministers, and Kirill Mazurov, First Vice-Chairman of the Council. The two sides express “readiness to take part in the search for a solution to the question of making the Indian Ocean a “zone of peace”. Two agreements on scientific, technical and cultural co-operation are signed.

Bulgaria – January 14, 1975 (KCA)
Georgi Traikov, Chairman of the Bulgarian Agrarian Union and a member of the State Council, dies.

Soviet Union / U.S. January 14, 1975 (BUS)
According to a US report the Soviet Union starts to deploy 5518 MIRV-ed missiles.

Yugoslavia – January 14, 1975 (KCA)
Five Yugoslavs of Albanian nationality are sentenced to imprisonment from three to nine years for “attempting to overthrow the constitutional order and attacking the territorial integrity of Yugoslavia.”

Hungary - January 15, 1975 (HC)
The airplane MALÉV IL-18 falls down at Ferihegy airport. The nine-member personnel dies.
Czechoslovakia / U. S. – January 15, 1975 (KCA)
The two Houses of the Czechoslovak Federal Assembly decide that Czechoslovakia cannot sign an earlier agreement on the settlement of post-war property compensations questions with the United States because, according to the American Trade Act from 1975, most-favored nation treatment for Czechoslovakia is conditional on 100% compensation for property taken over by the Czechoslovak Government.

US – January 15, 1975 (LBC)
President Ford says in his State of the Union address: “If our foreign policy is to be successful we cannot rigidly restrict in legislation the president’s ability to act…Legislative restrictions intended for the best motives and purposes can have the opposite result as we have seen more recently in our trade relations with the Soviet Union”. With the communist states Ford hopes “to build a long-term basis for coexistence.”

Soviet Union / Japan – January 15-17, 1975 (KCA)
Gromyko, the Soviet Foreign Minister, and Kiichi Miyazawa, the Japanese Prime Minister, speak about the question of a Soviet-Japanese peace treaty (unresolved since World War II). In a communiqué issued after Miyazawa’s departure on January 19 it is stated that it was agreed to continue talks on the conclusion of a peace treaty.

Romania – January 17, 1975 (KCA)
Major-General Gheorghe Gomoiu is appointed Secretary of the Supreme Political Council of the Army, after Lieut.-General Constantin Oprita has been relieved of his duties without reasons given.

East Germany – January 20, 1975 (KCA)
Oskar Fischer is appointed to the position of East German Foreign Minister after the resignation of Otto Winzer. He represents the Socialist Unity Party.

Yugoslavia / Non-Aligned Movement – January 20, 1975 (HN)
The Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool is founded. Besides the Yugoslav news agency Tanjug, 11 other news agencies cooperate in the beginning.

Czechoslovakia / West Germany – January 22, 1975 (KCA)
An agreement on the further development of economic, industrial and technical cooperation is signed by West Germany and Czechoslovakia. A joint commission will be set up and emphasis will be placed on the fields of industry, agriculture, construction and telecommunication.

Yugoslavia / India – January 22, 1975 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito receives Indian Foreign Minister Yashwantrao Chavan.

Czechoslovakia/Soviet Union – January 22, 1975, (CWIHP)
Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior and the Soviet KGB provide short visits opportunity in order to share knowledges in criminology, security, scientific experimentation, and academia during semi-annual exchanges.

Soviet Union / Spain – January 23, 1975 (KCA)
Trade agreements are signed in Moscow between Spain and the U.S.S.R. In late January the Spanish Government announces that the Soviet airline Aeroflot, banned from Spanish airspace for 35 years, can now overfly Spanish territory on-route to Cuba.

Yugoslavia – January 24, 1975 (KCA)
It is reported that four professors at the Zagreb University have been expelled from the Croatian League of Communists for “forming a faction” and creating “an unhealthy situation” at the university’s faculty of law, and they are not allowed to continue teaching.

Yugoslavia – January 28, 1975 (KCA)
The Assembly of the Republic of Serbia decides to suspend eight teachers from the philosophical faculty at the University of Belgrade who were accused of “anti-socialist” activities.

Soviet Union / Angola / China / South Africa / Zaïre – January 31, 1975 (KCA)
After Angola reached its independence from Portugal on November 11, 1974, a transitional Government is established representing all three liberation movements. The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola, MPLA) is supplied with arms and equipment by the Soviet Union and by a detachment of 3,000 Cuban soldiers. The National Front for the Liberation of Angola (Frente National de Libertação de Angola, FNLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola, UNITA) have the assistance of the United States, the People’s Republic of China, Zaïre and South Africa.

Czechoslovakia / Austria – January 1975 (KCA)
Czechoslovakia and Austria decide to raise their respective legations to the level of embassies.

Poland – January 1975 (KCA)
It is announced that bilateral co-ordination committees will work towards normalization of Church-State relations.

Romania / U.S. - 1975 (RFN) see April 2.
Most-favoured-nation (MFN) status is extended and the U.S. tries to strengthen the basis of Romania’s autonomous foreign policy.

Soviet Union / Philippines – January 1975 (KCA)
An agreement on expanding scientific and cultural exchanges between the Soviet Union and the Philippines is signed.

Soviet Union – January 1975 (KCA)
The Soviet authorities deny allegations from Jewish sources that official harassment is to blame for the decline in Jewish emigration. Instead, Soviet authorities claim that the number of applications for visas dropped sharply in 1974.

Soviet Union / China / Mongolia – January 1975 (KCA)
President Tsedenbal of Mongolia alleges in an article published in the Soviet magazine Problems of the Far East, that Chinese troops have violated the border, cut down trees, started forest fires and driven cattle infected with contagious diseases into Mongolian territory. 

Soviet Union / Afghanistan – January 1975 (KCA)
In mid-January an agreement is signed between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union so that the latter can make available up to $600,000,000 to finance the projects within the framework of the fourth Afghan five-year plan. These include the construction of an oil refinery and a chemical and fertilizer factory, irrigation and agricultural projects and the development of the joint prospecting in Afghanistan.


February 1975


Yugoslavia / Greece – February 3, 1975 (KCA)
An agreement defining the status of Yugoslav transit trade through Salonika, Greece is signed.

Soviet Union / China – February 12, 1975 (KCA)
Leonid Ilyichev returns to Beijing to resume the border negotiations. He will leave Beijing for Moscow on May 5, but other members of the Soviet delegation will remain in the Chinese capital city.

UK / USSR – February 12-17, 1975 (LBC) see February 13—17.
British Prime Minister Harold Wilson visits the USSR. The two sides pledge to develop bilateral relations. Wilson announces that in the next five years, London will grant the Soviet Union $2.39 billion in low interest loans to buy British machinery and equipment. The Prime Minister said of his talks with Brezhnev that they opened a new age in Anglo-Soviet relations.


Hungary / Soviet Union - February 13-17, 1975 (HC)
Moscow days take place in Budapest on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the liberation of the Hungarian capital.

Yugoslavia – February 13, 1975 (KCA)
After three days of detention at a Novi Sad hotel, two U.S. opera singers, Gloria Bentley and Ann Waterman are expelled from Yugoslavia for “importing and distributing material hostile to Yugoslavia”.

Soviet Union / U.K. – February 13-17, 1975 (KCA) see February 12—17.
The British Prime Minister Wilson and the British Foreign and Commonwealth Secretary visit the Soviet Union. The main points of the joint communiqué issued at the end of the visit are: adherence to the principles of peaceful co-existence; the importance of developing economic, scientific, technological and industrial cooperation; an agreement on credits for a five-year period; an agreement on cooperation in the field of medicine and public health; the development of cooperation in agriculture and protection of the environment; the importance of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe; shared concern over the situation in the Middle East and Cyprus; the necessity of ending the war in Vietnam; and the importance of the Conference on the Law of the Sea. In addition to the joint communiqué, a protocol on consultations is signed, which provides for deepening and widening bilateral consultations on international matters. Representative of Great Britain and the Soviet Union also sign a Declaration on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and agree on a long-term program for the development of economic and industrial cooperation as well as a 10-year program for scientific and technological cooperation. In his speech in the House of Commons on February 18, Wilson says that further agreements include new contracts with British firms.

Soviet Union / Norway – February 14, 1975 (KCA)
The Soviet Union violates Norwegian airspace over the Varanger Peninsula in north-eastern Norway. Soviet apologies follow.

Hungary - February 17, 1975 (HC)
A memorial session takes place at the Academy on the 150th birth anniversary of Mór Jókai.

Yugoslavia – February 17, 1975 (KCA)
15 Croatian nationalists are given prison sentences ranging from 18 months to 13 years for subversive activities.

Hungary / Soviet Union - February 18, 1975 (HC)
The first Hungarian-Soviet natural gas agreement is signed.
Soviet Union / Guinea-Bissau – February 19-25, 1975 (KCA)
The delegation led by Francisco Mendes, Chief Commissioner of the Council of State Commissioners of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau, visits Moscow. After a talk with the Soviet Chairman of the Council of Ministers  Alexei Kosygin, it is agreed that the Soviet Union will give aid to Guinea-Bissau for the development of energy, health services, and education. Agreements are signed on economic, technical, cultural and scientific co-operation, and on trade and air services. It is also agreed that the Soviet Union will establish a trade mission in Guinea-Bissau.

Czechoslovakia – February 20-March 20, 1975 (KCA)

Yugoslavia – February 20, 1975 (KCA)
The Federal Council for the Defense of the Constitutional Order, which will deal with the settlement of the succession problem after the President’s death, is established. Vladimir Bakarić is appointed as the Chairman of the new council.

Yugoslavia – February 21, 1975 (KCA)
It is announced that Praxis has ceased publication.

Hungary / Austria - February 23-26, 1975 (HC)
Austrian foreign minister Erich Bielka is in Budapest. An extradition agreement is signed. Austria is the first capitalist country with which Hungary concludes an agreement like this after 1945.

Romania / New Zealand – February 23-25, 1975 (PER)
The Prime Minister of New Zealand, Wallace Edward Rowling, visits Romania.

Soviet Union / India – February 24-27, 1975 (KCA)
The Soviet Defence Minister, Marshal Andrei Grechko, visits New Dehli. He is accompanied by Admiral S. G. Gorshkov and Air Marshal P. S. Kutakhov, the commanders of the Soviet Navy and Air Force, and other military experts to discuss with their Indian counterparts. At the conclusion of the visit, a joint communiqué is issued on February 27. It expresses “grave anxiety at the action taken by certain quarters to step up an arms race”, after the United States have ended the embargo on the supply of military equipment to India and Pakistan. However, only Pakistan can take advantage of the lifting of the embargo, as India has obtained supplies of arms mainly from the Soviet Union in recent years.

Soviet Union / Iran – February 25, 1975 (KCA)
Iran and the Soviet Union sign an economic cooperation agreement covering projects with an estimated value of $3,billion.

Soviet Union / U.S. – February 26, 1975 (KCA)
An agreement is signed in Washington to provide for co-operation between the two countries in the Western Atlantic in the rational use of fisheries, co-ordination of scientific research and prevention of damage to fishing gear. Agreements providing the extention of existing agreements on fishing are signed at the same time.

Hungary - February 26-27, 1975 (HC)
The session of the scientific academies of the socialist countries takes place in Budapest (topic: “liberation”.)

Soviet Union / Egypt – February 27, 1975 (KCA)
A Soviet-Egyptian trade protocol for 1975 is signed in Moscow to provide for a 10 per cent increase in trade between the two countries.

Yugoslavia – February 28, 1975 (KCA)
The Russian-born writer Mihajlo Mihajlov is sentenced to seven years imprisonment for offenses dealing with hostile propaganda and banned from publishing or broadcasting anything for four years after being released from prison.

Yugoslavia / Spain – February 28, 1975 (JBT)
General Secretary of the Communist Party of Spain Santiago Carrillo visits Yugoslavia, and meets with President Josip Broz Tito.

Czechoslovakia / Soviet Union – February 1975 (KCA)
Even though the Czechoslovakian Government signed a trade and payments agreement with China, Husák still has good relations with the Soviet Union, visiting Moscow both in July 1974 and in February 1975.

Soviet Union / Finland – February, 1975 (TFD)
Finnish Communist leaders travel to the Soviet Union for consultations that might help to resolve the differences between the two factions of the Finnish Communist Party. This is a problem for the CPSU, as they support the Stalinist minority but do not want the Finnish communists to split up.


March 1975


Hungary - March 3, 1975 (HC)
The olefin works of the chemical combine at Tisza is opened.
Hungary / Soviet Union –March 3-6, 1975 (HC)
A session of the Hungarian-Soviet intergovernmental committee takes place. (Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers István Huszár signs 11 agreements.)
Hungary –March 4, 1975 (HC)
A memorial session takes place in the Academy on the 100th birth anniversary of Mihály Károlyi.

Czechoslovakia/Soviet Union – March 7, 1975 (CWIHP)
The Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior and Soviet KGB make agreement in connection with security issues concerning hostile ideological centres, emigrant groups, anti-Socialist, anti-Soviet, revisionist, and nationalist groups.

Romania / Ecuador – March 7-11, 1975 (PER)
The President of Ecuador, Guillermo A. Rodriguez Lara, visits Romania to sign an economical and technical cooperation agreement between the two countries.

Romania March 9, 1975 (KCA)
Elections to the Grand National Assembly are held, along with 2.5-year term elections for local councils. All candidates are nominated by the Socialist Unity Front, and 99.96% of registered voters cast votes. On March 17, the newly-elected Grand National Assembly reelects President Ceaușescu as head of state. On March 18, changes in the Government leadership are approved by the Assembly, and Manea Mănescu is appointed as Chairman of the Council of Ministers.

East Germany / Niger – March 10, 1975 (KCA)
It is reported that East Germany and Niger want to establish their diplomatic relations at embassy level.

Yugoslavia / Poland – March 10-13, 1975 (AY)
Yugoslav delegation headed by President Josip Broz Tito visits Poland. Talks are organized between President Tito and First Secretary of Polish United Workers’ Party Edward Gierek.


Soviet Union / France – March 10-24, 1975 (KCA)
The French Prime Minister, Jacques Chirac, visits the Soviet Union and signs agreements on co-operation in environmental protection and in agriculture.

Romania / U.S. – March 11-20, 1975 (KCA)
General Ion Coman, Chief of Staff of the Romanian Army, visits the U.S.

Hungary / Soviet Unio – March 16, 1975 (HC)
The Hungarian and Soviet sections of the gas pipelines Brotherhood are connected at Beregdaróc.
Yugoslavia / Sweden – March 16-18, 1975 (JBT)
Prime Minister of Sweden Olaf Palme visits Yugoslavia.
Hungary / Soviet Union / Soviet Bloc  March 17-22, 1975 (HC/KCA)
The 11th Congress of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party takes place. Program: the establishment of the developed socialist society, effective and careful management, the development of social democracy, the increase of the powers of the selected organs. Guidelines for the party congress include: maintaining special relations with the Soviet Union, rejecting nationalism and cosmopolitanism, consolidating the predominant position of the working class, introducing a 44-hour work week by 1980 and strengthening “democratic centralism.”
 The first secretary of the Central Committee is János Kádár, the secretaries are: Béla Biszku, András Gyenes, Imre Győri, Károly Németh, Miklós Óvári, Árpád Pullai. Members of the Political Committee: György Aczél, Antal Apró, Valéria Benke, Béla Biszku, Jenő Fock, Sándor Gáspár, János Kádár, György Lázár, László Maróthy, Dezső Nemes, Károly Németh, Miklós Óvári, István Sarlós. The following people are omitted from the PC: Lajos Fehér, Gyula Kállai, Rezső Nyers. The following new people are accepted into the PC : György Lázár, László Maróthy, Miklós Óvári, István Sarlós. The Central Committee has 125 members.
Soviet Union / Gambia – March 17-25, 1975 (KCA)
The President of Gambia, Dawda K. Jawara, visits the Soviet Union. On March 18 a fisheries cooperation agreement is signed and further talks on concluding an agreement on economic and technical cooperation will take place.

Romania – March 17, 1975 (CEC)
The Great National Assembly re-elects Nicolae Ceauşescu as President of Romania.

Comecon – March 18, 1975 (KCA)
The Hungarian Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenö Fock states that the members of Comecon (the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) have agreed that “ in the coming years prices will not be determined on the basis of five-year average prices in the world market ”. According to East German sources it means that the price of Soviet oil, which has already increased, will come close to the world level.

East Germany/West Bloc/East Bloc – March 19, 1975,CWIHP
A brief is prepared in regard to the politico-military situation in advance of the 17-25 March 1975 operational command staff exercise. It describes the military situation as of the 19 March, including the tactical information on geographic disposition, activities and status of Warsaw Pact and Western forces.

Soviet Union / France March 19 -21, 1975 (BUS)
French President Jacques Chirac visits the USSR. The joint communique that is issued uses the term “lasting coexistence” instead of previously “irreversible coexistence.” Observers attribute this change to a slight cooling of the relations between the two countries, namely to the fact that Moscow is unhappy about the improvement of the relations between France and the U.S.

Czechoslovakia / Poland – March 21, 1975 (KCA)
Czechoslovakia and Poland sign an agreement which slightly modifies the frontier between the two countries on the River Dunajec in order to make it possible for Poland to build a dam.

Yugoslavia / Finland – March 22, 1975 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito receives the President of Finland Urho Kekkonen. They agree that the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe should be organized during the current year on the highest level.

Yugoslavia – March 25, 1975 (KCA)
The sentences of two young Britons - Robert Curtis (25) and Paul Mason (23) - are reduced to three years, but their conviction is upheld as their activities will not be tolerated. They were sentenced to four years imprisonment by a Sarajevo military court on December 6, 1973, after being arrested while “plane-spotting” on the outskirts of a military airfield in Yugoslavia. On November 15, 1975 they could return to Britain, after being released thanks to an act of clemency.

Czechoslovakia / West Germany – March 24-25, 1975 (KCA)
The West German Foreign Minister, Hans-Dietrich Genscher, visits Prague. Both sides express their willingness to further improve bilateral relations.

Soviet Union / Congo – March 24-26, 1975 (KCA)
President Ngouabi visits the Soviet Union and signs agreements on co-operation in the field of economy, technology, agriculture and culture, as a result it is expected that the Soviet Union will increasingly participate in the exploitation of minerals and oil in the Congo.

East Germany / Austria – March 26, 1975 (KCA)
Austria and East Germany sign a consular agreement. The agreement recognizes an East German nationality causing controversy in West Germany as it is trying to preserve its right to grant consular protection to all German citizens. Austria’s main reason for signing the agreement is its concern over the position of 10,000-15,000 Austrians living in East Germany.

Soviet Union – March 26, 1975 (KCA)
The 1972 Convention, signed by the Soviet Union, ordering the destruction of and prohibiting the development, production or stockpiling of bacteriological (biological) and toxin weapons comes into force.

Hungary  March 27, 1975 (HC)
An order of the Council of Ministers (1010/1975) about the raise of low pensions and other allowances from July 1 is adopted.
Hungary –  March 28, 1975 (HC) see March 31
Law decree no. 7 of 1975 of the Presidential Council about the practicing of amnesty on the 30th anniversary of the liberation is adopted.

Hungary – March 31, 1975 (KCA) see March 28
A partial amnesty is announced in order to enable refugees to return to Hungary by the end of 1976, provided they have no other criminal acts to account for.

Soviet Union / U.K. March 31-April 2, 1975 (BUS)
At the invitation of the British Trade Unions Congress the president of the Central Council of Soviet Trade Unions, Aleksander Shelepin visits Great Britain. According to Shelepin the visit is of historical significance and allows a fundamental improvement of the relations between the trade unions of the two countries, such as the development of the Anglo-Soviet Trade Union Committee.

Soviet Union / Uganda – March 1975 (KCA)
In mid-March A. V. Zakharov, the Soviet Ambassador to Uganda, hands over to President Amin of Uganda a gift of 18 amphibian and ordinary tanks, while a squadron of MiG-21 fighter-bombers are being assembled by Soviet technicians at the Gulu Air Force base. Other equipment supplied includes Soviet-made armoured troop carriers, lorries, and anti-aircraft guns. Uganda’s defences are strengthened by Soviet supplies during 1975.


April 1975

Hungary  April 1, 1975 (HC)
The Museum of the Hungarian Workers’ Movement is opened in the Buda Castle.
Czechoslovakia / U.K. – April 1-5, 1975 (KCA)
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the U.K. Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Lord Goronwy-Roberts, visits Prague to discuss bilateral relations.

Czechoslovakia / France – April 2-7, 1975 (KCA)
The Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Bohuslav Chňoupek visits Paris to discuss the expansion of bilateral cultural relations.

Romania / U.S. – April 2, 1975 (KCA/HOR/PER)
A bill designed to implement the U.S.-Romanian trade agreement is signed and grants most-favoured-nation (MFN) status to Romania. Romania becomes the first communist country to receive the most-favored nation status. With the approval by the Senate on July 25, followed by the approval by the House of Representatives on July 28, Romania becomes the first communist country to benefit from the MFN clause in the U.S. Trade Act signed by President Ford on January 3, 1975.  The arrangement is to have an initial duration of 18 months, during which Romania’s policy towards the emigration of its Jewish and other citizens would be under scrutiny.

Hungary –  April 4, 1975 (KCA)
A partial amnesty applying to illegal emigrants and certain categories of detainees is announced.
Hungary –  April 4, 1975 (HC)
A military parade takes place in Budapest.

Romania / Japan – April 4-9, 1975 (PER)
President Ceauşescu and his wife visit Japan to discuss with Emperor Hirohito and with Prime Minister Takeo Miki.

Soviet Union / Somalia – April 5, 1975 (KCA)
An agreement on Soviet technical aid in maritime transport and the improvement of Somalia’s naval school is signed by Somalia and the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union – April 5, 1975 (KCA)
A Soyuz spacecraft is launched but it returns to earth almost immediately, because “during the third-stage stretch the parameters of the carrier rocket’s movement deviated from the pre-set values”.

Yugoslavia / Gabon – April 6-9, 1975 (JBT)
President of Gabon Omar Bongo makes an official visit to Yugoslavia.


Soviet Union / Hungary –  April 7-8, 1975 (HC)
A party and government delegation led by Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock is staying in Moscow.

Romania / Philippines – April 9-13, 1975 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits the Philippines to discuss with President Ferdinand Marcos. The University of Philippines honours Ceauşescu with the title of Doctor Honoris Causa.

Hungary –  April 10-11, 1975 (HC)
The Parliament is in session. Act no. 2 of 1975 about the social insurance is adopted. It states that each citizen is due free medical care. An amendment of the constitution takes place that ensures parliamentary elections are held every five years.


Romania / Jordan / Pakistan / Turkey – April 13-19, 1975 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Jordan, Pakistan and Turkey.

Bulgaria – April 15, 1975 (KCA)
Kiril Zarev is appointed Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers and Chairman of the State Planning Committee.

Romania / Yugoslavia – April 15, 1975 (KCA)
The first prototype of the Jurom fighter aircraft, jointly produced by Romania and Yugoslavia, is demonstrated at the Belgrade airport.

Soviet Union – April 16, 1975 (KCA)
It is announced that Alexander Shelepin has been removed from the Politburo “at his own request.” On May 22 it is announced that he has also been removed from his post on the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions. His removal from these offices takes place shortly after Shelepin’ s visit to Britain as the head of the delegation to the Trades Union Congress which caused hostile reactions, both because of his KGB connections and because of the Soviet Union’s policy towards Soviet Jews.

Yugoslavia / Tanzania – April 18-21, 1975 (JBT)
Tanzanian leader Julius Nyerere visits Yugoslavia, and meets with President Josip Broz Tito.

Soviet Union / India – April 19, 1975 (KCA)
The first Indian space satellite is launched by means of a Soviet rocket.

Hungary / Finland –  April 21-24, 1975 (HC)
Finnish Prime Minister Ahti Karjalainen is in Budapest.

Soviet Union / Egypt – April 22, 1975 (KCA)
At the end of a visit to Moscow by the Egyptian Minister of Foreign Affaires, Ismail Fahmy, it is confirmed that both countries have “the firm intention of continuing to build relations . . . on the strong foundation of the Soviet-Egyptian Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation”.

Hungary   April 23-24, 1975 (HC)
A session about the liberation takes place in the Academy.
Poland – April 24, 1975 (KCA)
Former Army Colonel Jerzy Pawlowski is arrested because of espionage for an unnamed NATO member-country.

Soviet Union / Sweden – April 25, 1975 (KCA)
A 10-year agreement providing for economic, scientific and technical co-operation is signed in Moscow by Mikhail Kuzmin, Soviet First Deputy Minister of Foreign Trade, and Rune Johansson, Swedish Minister of Industry.

Hungary / Denmark  - April 27-30, 1975 (HC)
Danish foreign minister K. B. Andersen is in Budapest.

East Germany / Finland – April 28, 1975 (KCA)
Finland and East Germany sign a consular agreement with the aim of developing consular relations. Diplomatic relations were established between the two countries on January 7, 1973.

Romania / Japan – April 1975 (KCA)
During a state visit by President Ceauşescu it is decided to set up a joint committee for trade and economic affairs, and an agreement is signed on scientific and technical co-operation between the two countries.

Soviet Union / Jamaica – April 1975 (KCA)
Jamaica establishes diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union / U.S – April-July 1975 (KCA) see June 10
On June 10, James R. Schlesinger, the U.S Secretary of Defence, requires the Senate Armed Services Committee to counterbalance the growing Soviet naval presence in the area surrounding the Diego Garcia Island. He supports his request by producing secret aerial reconnaissance photographs taken in April by an aircraft flying over international waters, showing “ the construction of fuel tanks, a long runway, a communications station and a missile handling facility ” at the Somali Red Sea port of Berbera. Schlesinger claims they are are Soviet installations. The existence of Soviet facilities is strongly denied in the Soviet Union and in Somalia. After a voice vote in the House of Representatives on July 28, the U.S. Navy is free to construct a harbour, a 12,000-foot runway and refuelling facilities for as carrier task force on Diego Garcia.

May 1975

Egypt / Hungary - May 1, 1975 (HC)
Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja travels to Cairo for a 4-day visit.

Bulgaria / Philippines – May 2, 1975 (KCA)
A trade agreement which contains a most-favoured-nation clause is signed between the two countries.

Hungary - May 6, 1975 (HC)
Minister of labor László Karakas reports about the situation of the working class.

Soviet Union – May 7, 1975 (KCA)
On the 30th anniversary of VE-Day, an amnesty is declared for “nearly everyone with a good war record” and not for prisoners convicted of “particulary dangerous state crimes”.

Hungary / Iraq - May 7-9, 1975 (HC)
Vice-President of the Revolutionary Command Council of the Iraqi Republic Saddam Hussein negotiates in Budapest with Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock.

Soviet Union / Libya – May 12-15, 1975 (KCA)
The Soviet Chairman of the Council of Ministers, Aleksei Kosygin, visits Libya. At the end of the visit a protocol on economic and technical cooperation and an agreement on the development and strengthening of cooperation in education, science, culture, information and sport are signed. The Libyan Minister of Planning and Scientific Research, Major Omar Abdullah Meheishi, visits Moscow, and during the visit an agreement on “cooperation in the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes” is signed.

Hungary - May 13, 1975 (HC)
Ferenc Márta is appointed as Secretary-General of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

Romania / Netherlands – May 13-16, 1975 (PER / CER)
The Queen of the Netherlands, Juliana and Prince Bernhard, visit Romania.

Romania / Jordan / Pakistan / Turkey – April 13-19, 1975 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Jordan, Pakistan and Turkey.

Hungary - May 15, 1975 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party, the National Council of the People’s Patriotic Front and the Presidential Council of the People’ Republic are in session. The latter two organizations adopt the resolution of the HSWP CC, according to which Chairman of the Council of Ministers Jenő Fock retires due to health reasons. György Lázár becomes Chairman of the Council of Ministers, Gyula Szekér is Deputy Prime Minister and István Huszár is the Chairman of the National Planning Bureau.
Bulgaria / West Germany – May 15, 1975 (KCA)
The Federal Republic of Germany and Bulgaria sign a 10-year agreement on economic, industrial and technological cooperation. A protocol under the agreement establishes a joint commission.

Yugoslavia / France – May 21, 1975 (JBT)
French Foreign Minister Jean Sauvagnargues meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito in Yugoslavia.

Poland / U.S. May 22, 1975 (BUS)
According to a report by The New York Times, two financial agreements are concluded between Poland and the U.S. One allows Poland to defer its obligation to purchase in dollars the Polish currency accumulated in the U.S. as a result of a commercial agreement twenty years earlier. The second agreeement allows citizens in Poland that retired in the U.S. to receive American pensions.

Romania / North Korea – May 22-26, 1975 (PER)
A North Korean delegation led by Kim Il-sung, visits Romania.

Soviet Union – May 23, 1975 (KCA)
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet approves a new law under which all funds sent to the Soviet Union from abroad will, from January 1, 1975, be subject to a tax of 30 per cent, in addition to the 35 per cent levied by the state bank as a “handling charge”; the remainder of the funds will be converted to roubles at the official exchange rate and no longer into special certificates which could be used at Berizoka stores or sold at about six times the normal exchange rate.

Soviet Union – May 24, 1975 (KCA)
The spacecraft Soyuz 18 is launched and it will return to earth on July 26. This flight –lasting 63 days – is the longest in the Soviet Soyuz programme. The two cosmonauts enter Salyut 4 on May 26 and their tasks include comprehensive photography of the territory of the Soviet Union in the medium and southern latitudes; obtaining scientific information on physical processes in the active areas of the sun, in the earth’s atmosphere and outer space; comprehensive photographic and spectrographic investigation of the polar lights; research into the responses of the human organism to the effects weightlessness; various ways and means of anticipating and preventing the adverse effect of of weightlessness; and a series of technological tests to check new systems and instruments of future spacecraft and missions involving long-term orbital stations.

Hungary - May 25, 1975 (HC)
The “pioneer city” of Zánka is opened at Lake Balaton.

Romania / Greece – May 26-27, 1975 (KCA/PER)
Konstantinos Karamanlis, the Greek Prime Minister, visits Romania. During his visit, a call is made to make the Balkan region a “zone of peace, friendship and co-operation”. It has also been agreed to double trade exchanges between the two countries during the 1976-1980 period and to expand scientific, technical and economic co-operation.

Soviet Union / Denmark – May 26-June 2, 1975 (KCA)
Queen Margrethe of Denmark visits the Soviet Union, becoming the first European sovereign to visit Russia since the 1917 revolution. In Moscow, she discusses with Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny and the Soviet Foreign Minister, Andrei Gromyko, on furthering development of Soviet-Danish friendly relations. At the conclusion of the visit, it is announced that Podgorny has accepted an invitation to pay an official return visit.

Poland – May 28, 1975 (KCA)
The Sejm approves an administrative reform put forward by the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers’ Party. The reform changes the local government structure – it previously consisted of three tiers: commune, district, and voivodship – to a two-tiered structure with 49 voivodships, including three autonomous cities of Warsaw, Łódź and Cracow. On May 12, Tadeusz Bejm is elected Minister of Local Authority and Environment.

Czechoslovakia – May 29, 1975 (KCA)
Gustáv Husák, General Secretary of the Czechoslovak Communist Party and Chairman of the National Front, is elected President of the Republic by the Federal Assembly. Husák is the second President, after Antonín Novotný, to hold both posts as the country’s head of state and as the First Secretary of the Communist Party. (However, Klement Gottwald was President of the Republic from 1948 and also CzCP leader as Party Chairman until his death in 1953.)

Yugoslavia / Egypt – May 29-30, 1975 (JBT)
President of Egypt Anwar el-Sadat makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. He meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito and discusses the Middle East crisis, and relations between the non-aligned and Arab countries.


Soviet Union – May 30, 1975 (KCA)
It is announced that the former Ministry of Heavy, Power and Transport Engineering will be divided into two all-Union ministries: the Ministry of Heavy and Transport Engineering under Vladimir Zhigalin and the Ministry for the Construction of Power Stations under Victor Krotow.

Poland / U.S. – May 1975 (KCA)
The Polish First Deputy Minister of Finance, Marian Krak, visits Washington and New York. Three agreements concerning the settlement of debts between the two countries are signed including: one deferring repayment from shipments of agricultural produce to Poland; one concerning payments of social security and other pensions earned by persons working in the United States who returned to Poland; and one concerning payments to holders of pre-World War II dollar bonds.

Yugoslavia – May 1975, (KCA)
Vladimir Bakarić (of Croatia) is elected Vice-President of the Presidency.


June 1975


Czechoslovakia – June 3, 1975 (VVR)
The first congress of the Pacem in Terris, the union of priests supporting the Communist regime is held.

Yugoslavia / Greece – June 4-5, 1975 (JBT)
Greek Prime Minister Konstantin Karamanlis makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. During conversations with President Josip Broz Tito the two statesmen raise multiple international issues, mainly regarding the Middle East and Cyprus crisis.

Romania / Brazil – June 4-7, 1975 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Brazil to discuss with President Ernesto Geisel. They sign several economical contracts and agreements.

Soviet Union / Luxemburg – June 4-10, 1975 (KCA)
The Grand Duke Jean of Luxemburg visits the Soviet Union. After the two sides have signed agreements covering air transport and scientific, technical and cultural co-operation, the Luxemburg Premier and Prime Minister Gaston Thorn have talks on June 6 with the Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers Alexei Kosygin and with the Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko. At the conclusion of the visit, it is announced that Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny has accepted invitation to pay an official return visit.

Yugoslavia / Greece – June 4-5, 1975 (KCA)
The Greek Prime Minister, Konstantinos Karamanlis, visits Yugoslavia. Agreements are concluded on Yugoslav transit traffic through the Greek port of Salonika, the construction of an oil pipeline from Salonika to the Yugoslav border, work on a proposed canalization of the River Varda, and a study regarding a canal link between the Danube and the Aegean Sea.

France - June 5-7, 1975 (HC)
Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja has talks in France.

Poland / Sweden – June 5, 1975 (KCA)
A 10-year economic, scientific and technical co-operation agreement is signed at the conclusion of a four-day visit to Sweden by Edward Gierek, First Secretary of the Polish United Workers’ Party.

Yugoslavia / North Korea – June 5-9, 1975 (JBT)
North Korean leader Kim Il Sung visits Yugoslavia. He is received by Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito. They discuss both state and party relations between North Korea and Yugoslavia.

Romania / Mexico – June 7-11, 1975 (KCA/PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Mexico to discuss with the President, Luis Echeverria Alvarez. After the visit, eleven economic cooperation agreements are signed.

Soviet Union / Japan – June 7, 1975 (KCA)
A three-year agreement is signed to end a fishing dispute. Measures to avoid future conflict between the two countries’ fishing vessels off the coasts of Japan and the Soviet Union are provided. Both sides also express agreement on closer co-operation in joint salmon breeding in Sakhalin and at the forthcoming session of the UN Conference on the Law of the Sea.

Soviet Union / Somalia / U.S. – June 10, 1975 (KCA) see April—July 1975
The U.S. Secretary of Defense, James R. Schlesinger, presents normally secret, aerial reconnaissance photographs taken in April 1975 by aircraft flying over international waters, which show “the construction of fuel tanks, a long runway, a communications station and a missile handling facility” at the Somali Red Sea port of Berbera. Schlesinger thinks they are Soviet installations; this is strongly denied both by the Soviet Union and Somalia.

USSR / US – June 10-11, 1975 (LBC)
Discussions between Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko and Secretary of State Kissinger on nuclear arms limitation take place. The main points of the talks are the following: how to monitor the number of MIRVs (for instance only a part of the Soviet Union’s ICBMs are equipped with more than one warheads); contested condition that cruise missiles do not exceed the 2400 limit on delivery vehicles, as agree at Vladivostok. The US does not accept this condition, while the USSR does.

Romania / U.S. – June 11, 1975 (KCA)
The Romanian President and Communist Party leader, Nicolae Ceauşescu, has talks in Washington with President Ford. The focus is on the U.S-Romanian trade agreement signed in April.

FRG / Hungary - June 11, 1975 (HC)
Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja pays a 3-day visit to the Federal Republic of Germany.

Soviet Union / China – June 11, 1975 (KCA)
The Soviet Union and China announce the signing of agreements with the North Vietnamese Government for the supply of emergency aid, for which no repayment will be required. The agreement with the Soviet Union was signed on May 12 and it provides for the delivery of fertilizers, foodstuffs, lorries and other goods; the agreement with China was signed on May 31 but its details are not publicized.

Soviet Union / Australia – June 12-16, 1975 (KCA) see January 12—16
The Australian Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam, visits the Soviet Union. Both sides express their willingness to search for a solution that will make the Indian Ocean a zone of peace. Earlier, on April 10, 1974, it is announced that Australia has refused a Soviet request to establish a joint scientific space tracking base in Australia.

Yugoslavia / East Germany – June 13, 1975 (JBT)
During his official visit to Yugoslavia East German Prime Minister Horst Sindermann is received by Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito.

Romania / Portugal – June 13-16, 1975 (KCA/PER)
During an official visit to Romania by President Costa Gomes of Portugal, a treaty of friendship and co-operation is signed on June 14. On June 16 further agreements on long-term trade and on scientific and technical co-operation. President Gomes’ visit is the first by a Portuguese President to a communist country, Romania having been the first such country to recognize the military regime which came to power in Portugal on April 25, 1974.

Hungary – June 15, 1975 (KCA)
General elections for the Hungarian National Assembly are held. Candidates are nominated by the People’s Patriotic Front. (Double nomination happens in 33 districts for the 352 parliamentary representative seats.) 97.6% of voters participated in the election and 99.6% of the participants vote for the official candidates.) 
On the same day, mid-term elections for local councils are held. On July 4, Pál Losonczi is reelected as chairman of the Presidential Council of Hungary (head of state). Some governmental changes are also approved by the newly-elected National Assembly.

Soviet Union – June 15, 1975 (KCA)
Elections to the Supreme Soviets are held. 99.98% of citizens participate in the elections, the results of which select all the unopposed candidates nominated in the Union Republics, Autonomous Republics, and Local Soviets.

Bulgaria / Romania – June 16-20, 1975 (PER)
The Bulgarian Communist leader, Todor Zhivkov, visits Romania.

Poland / France – June 17-20, 1975 (KCA/PSM)
The French President Giscard d’Estaing visits Poland. On June 20 three documents are signed: a charter of principles of friendly cooperation providing for cultural cooperation and consultations between ministers every year; a declaration on the principles and means of cultural and scientific cooperation, of information and human relations between two countries; and a five-year economic cooperation agreement. Four other documents signed during the visit include: a long-term program of economic, industrial, scientific, and technical cooperation; a coal agreement; a financial protocol; and an agreement to avoid double taxation. The main points of the joint communiqué issued at the end of the visit are: the importance of détente in Europe, a call for a conference on disarmament and a statement of satisfaction with current bilateral relations between Poland and France.

Soviet Union / Japan – June 18, 1975 (KCA)
The Soviet Government publishes a statement presented to the Japanese ambassador in Moscow, cautioning the Japanese Government against allowing itself “to be drawn, in one form or another, into the orbit of the Chinese policy”. The Japanese Foreign Minister replies in a statement sent to Gromyko and published on June 19 that the proposed peace treaty with China is “not directed against any third country”.

Soviet Union – June 20, 1975 (KCA)
Voronel, who founded a “Seminar for the Excluded” in 1972, states in Paris that it is difficult for the seminar’s members to make a living because of the control of the KGB, and that the seminar will continue to exist, especially if supported by the scientists of the world.

Soviet Union / U.S. – June 20, 1975 (KCA)
James Schlesinger, the US Defence Secretary, states that the Soviet Union has begun to deploy three new powerful continental missiles: 50 SS-19 missiles; 10 SS-17s missiles; and 10SS-18s missiles.

Kuwait / Hungary - June 23-26, 1975 (HC)
Foreign minister Frigyes Puja pays a four-day visit to Kuwait.

Soviet Union / Belgium – June 23-July 2, 1975 (KCA)
King Baudouin of the Belgians visits the Soviet Union with the Prime Minister, Léo Tindemans, and with the Foreign Minister, Renaat van Elslande. On June 25, Van Elsande and the Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko sign a joint declaration to relax the international tension, deciding to hold regular consultations on matters of mutual interest. Other documents signed on the same day include agreements on environmental protection and co-operation in tourism.  At the conclusion of the visit, it is announced that the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny has accepted an invitation to pay an official return visit.

COMECON – June 24-26, 1975 (KCA/ HC)
The 29th session of Comecon (the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) is held in Budapest and attended by representatives of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Cuba. Topic: the harmonization of the plans regarding the years 1976-1980, the long-term development of international production specialization and cooperation. Agreements from 1971 that concern joint investments in developing Soviet raw material resources are assessed. On July 4 Comecon and Iraq sign an agreement on economic, scientific and technical cooperation; a similar agreement is signed with Mexico on August 13. On May 16, 1973 an agreement on cooperation is signed between Comecon and Finland.
Yugoslavia / West Germany – June 24-26, 1975 (JBT)
President of the West German Social Democratic Party Willy Brandt makes a friendly visit to Yugoslavia as President Tito’s guest.

Bulgaria – June 27, 1975 (KCA)
As a result of the agreement reached by Todor Živkov’s audience with Pope Paul VI, the Bulgarian authorities agree to the appointment of a Roman Catholic Bishop and a Vicar-Apostolic in Bulgaria.

Soviet Union / Trinidad and Tobago – June 30-July 7, 1975 (KCA)
Eric Williams, the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, visits the Soviet Union for discussions on “favourable opportunities for the development of [bilateral] relations in various fields”.

Yugoslavia / Indonesia – June 30-July 2, 1975 (JBT)
President of Indonesia Suharto makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. During conversations between presidents Suharto and Tito most important topic is the forthcoming Summit Conference in Colombo.


Albania / East Germany / Romania / Soviet Union / Mozambique - June 1975, (KCA)
Albania, as well as the German Democratic Republic, Romania, and the Soviet Union establish diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of Mozambique.

Romania / Brazil – June 1975 (KCA) See June 7—11.
At the end of an official visit to Brazil by President Ceauşescu, a new trade and payments agreement is signed to replace the 1961 agreement.

Soviet Union / Japan – June 1975 (KCA)
During a meeting of the Soviet-Japanese Business Co-operation Committee in Tokyo, it is announced that there will not be further negotiations on oil supplies for Japan from the Tyumen oilfields (east of the Urals). This large-scale project envisaged five years earlier is abandoned because in March 1974 the Soviet Union proposed to link the project to the construction of a trans-Siberian railway to carry the oil to the coast, instead of it being pumped through a pipeline. The Japanese side feared that this would worsen Japan’s relations with China, as the railway line was criticized by China as they feared it would be used for Soviet military supplies.


July 1975


Bulgaria – July 1-2, 1975 (KCA)
Changes in the composition of the State Council and the Council of Ministers are announced. Among these are the election of Pencho Koubadinsky as a member of the State Council and Vesselin Nikiforov, president of the Bulgarian National Bank, as a new member of Government.

Hungary - July 2, 1975 (HC/KCA)
A session of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party takes place. Topic: the deficiencies in the implementation of the people’s economic plan for the year 1975. Pál Losonczi and István Huszár, head of the State Planning Office, are elected by the Central Committee of the Socialist Workers’ Party to its Politburo, whose membership is increased to 15, the highest figure since 1956. On the same day the Central Committee pushes through some government changes.

Bulgaria / Greece – July 2-4, 1975 (KCA)
The Greek Prime Minister, Konstantinos Karamanlis, visits Bulgaria. It is reaffirmed that there are “no controversial questions” between the two countries; Bulgaria gives a formal reassurance on the inviolability of the Greek-Bulgarian frontier in the event of an armed conflict between Greece and Turkey; and both sides advocate a meeting of experts or ministers of Balkan countries.

Hungary - July 3, 1975 (HC)
The M7 motorway is opened.

Soviet Union / France – July 3-7, 1975 (KCA)
One of the regular meetings of the Franco-Soviet trade commission signs a protocol in Moscow. A 10-year programme of co-operation in space research and satellite telecommunications is envisaged.

Comecon – July 4, 1975 (KSA)
An agreement on multilateral economic, scientific and technical co-operation is signed with Iraq. A similar agreement is signed with Mexico on August 13.


Hungary - July 4, 1975 (HC / KSA)
The inaugural session of the new Parliament takes place. The officials of the Presidential Council, the government and the Parliament are elected. The Chairman of the Presidential Council is Pál Losonczi; Chairman of the Council of Ministers is György Lázár; Speaker of the Parliament is Antal Apró.
The new government is formed. Chairman of the Council of Ministers: György Lázár; Deputy Prime Ministers: György Aczél, János Borbándi, Ferenc Havasi, István Huszár, Gyula Szekér. Ministers: Internal Trade is István Szurdi; Internal Affairs is Andárs Benkei; Health is Emil Schultheisz; Construction and Urban Development is József Bondor; Defense is Lajos Czinege; Justice is Mihály Korom; Furnace and Engineering Industry is Tivadar Nemeslaki; Light Industry is János Keserű; Transport and Post is Károly Rödönyi; Culture is László Orbán; Foreign Trade is József Bíró; Foreign Affairs is Frigyes Puja; Agriculture and Caterin is Pál Romány; Labor is László Karakas; Heavy Industry is Pál Simon; Education is Károly Polinszky; Finance is Lajos Faluvégi. Chairman of the National Planning Bureau is István Huszár.

Poland / Mongolia – July 4, 1975 (KCA)
A treaty of friendship and cooperation is signed between Mongolia and Poland.

Hungary / Bulgaria - July 8-9, 1975 (HC)
First Secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party Todor Zhivkov pays a visit to Hungary for the opening of the Bulgarian National Exhibition.
Hungary / Vatican  - July 8-12, 1975 (HC)
Diplomats of the Vatican Archbishop and Papal Nuncio Luigi Poggi and Nunciature Secretary Dias I negotiate in Hungary.

Soviet Union / Turkey – July 9, 1975 (KCA)
An agreement for $700,000,000 is signed with Turkey to finance Soviet-built projects and to be repaid with Turkish exports.

Romania / Austria – July 10-14, 1975 (PER)
The Austrian Chancellor, Bruno Kreisky, visits Romania.

Poland / U.K. – July 13-15, 1975 (KCA) See July 15
The U.K. Foreign Secretary James Callaghan, visits Poland. At the end of the visit a declaration on the development of friendly relations between Poland and Great Britain is announced. The main points of the declaration are: developing bilateral relations based on the principles of the U.N. Charter and the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe; developing economic, industrial, scientific, technical and cultural cooperation, aiming at détente in Europe; ending the arms race; and expanding political consultations on international matters.

Soviet Union / US - July 15-24, 1975 (HC) See July 17
A joint Soviet-American (Soyuz-Apollo) space travel takes place.

Soviet Union / Japan – July 15, 1975 (KCA) See July 24
The Export-Import Bank of Japan grants the Soviet Union two credits – one of 29,4000 million yen ($100,000,000) for the exploration of gas deposits in Siberia, and another of 71,400 million yen ($245,000,000) for the purchase of ammonia plants from Japan by the Soviet Union.

UK / Poland – July 15, 1975 (LBC) See July 13--15
British Foreign Office Secretary James Callaghan signs a declaration with his Polish counterpart, Stefan Olszowski on the development of friendly relations.

Hungary - July 16, 1975 (HC)
The Hungarian government takes a stand on the strengthening of international security.

Soviet Union / Canada / U.S. July 16 -17, 1975 (BUS)
It is revealed that the USSR is buying 3.2 million tons of wheat from the US and Canada.

Romania / Trinidad and Tobago – July 17, 1975 (KCA)
Eric Williams, the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago concludes an agreement in Bucharest. It provides principally for Romanian participation in industrial development.

Soviet Union / U.S. – July 17, 1975 (KCA) See July 15—24
An U.S. Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft dock and the crews meet each other through a special docking module. This is the first link-up between American and Soviet cosmonauts.

Hungary / The Netherlands - July 18, 1975 (HC)
A 10-year Hungarian-Dutch agreement on economic, industrial and technological cooperation is signed.
Yugoslavia / Mongolia – July 18-August 8, 1975 (JBT)
During summer holidays in Yugoslavia Mongolian leader Yumjaagin Tsedenbal meets unofficially with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito on July 25-26.
Soviet Union / U.S. – July 22, 1975 (KCA)
Brezhnev and Ford exchange messages regarding the completion of the Apollo-Soyuz flight. 

Soviet Union / Canada – July 23, 1975 (KCA)
Canada accuses Soviet trawlers of exceeding their quotas set by the International Commission for the North-West Atlantic Fisheries and ignoring claims for damage caused to Canadian lobster gear.

Soviet Union / China – July 24, 1975 (KCA)
China and the Soviet Union sign the annual trade and payment worth 211 million roubles.
Romania / France – July 24-28, 1975 (KCA)
During a visit to Romania, Jacques Chirac, the French Prime Minister, signs agreements  on economic, industrial, and technical co-operation between the two countries.

Soviet Union / Japan – July 24, 1975 (KCA) See July 15
A contract is signed between the (Japanese) Sakhalin Oil Development Co-operation Company and the Soviet Union for a Japanese credit of $100,000,000 to finance oil exploration off the Soviet island of Sakhalin (north of Japan) in exchange for the supply of crude oil and gas by the Soviet Union to Japan.

Hungary / UK - July 28-29, 1975 (HC)
British Foreign Office Secretary James Callaghan negotiates in Budapest.

Poland / U.S. – July 28, 1975 (KCA)
President Gerald Ford of the United States visits Poland. The main points of the joint statement issued during this visit are: the importance of the forthcoming conference in Helsinki; Polish support for the relations between the Soviet Union and the United States; the necessity of keeping and developing political détente in Europe; and the importance of the Vienna talks on mutual reduction of armed forces and armament in Central Europe. Both sides also express satisfaction with their bilateral relations and hope for their further development.

Romania / U.S. – July 28, 1975 (KCA)
The House of Representatives of Romania approves a bill implementing the U.S.-Romanian trade agreement signed on April 2, 1975. Romania becomes the first Communist country to benefit from the MFN clause in the U.S. Trade Act from January 3, 1975. Romanian policy on the emigration of its Jews and other citizens will remain under scrutiny. Romania however is the only Communist country keeping diplomatic relations with Israel and pursuing a liberal policy towards Jewish emigrants. The U.S.-Romanian agreement comes into power on August 3, 1975.

Poland / Spain – July 29, 1975 (KCA)
Poland and Spain sign a trade agreement providing for the annual supply of coal by Poland to Spanish steelworks in exchange for Spanish steel products and the sale of Spanish-made equipment. Earlier, on June 3, 1974 both countries signed a 10-year agreement on the development of trade, shipping, and industrial and technological cooperation.

Finland / Hungary - July 29 – August 2, 1975 (HC)
A delegation led by First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár participates in Helsinki in the third stage of the Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe. (Members of the delegation: Chairman of the Council of Ministers György Lázár, Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja.) The final act consisting of five parts is signed on August 1.

Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / East Germany / Hungary / Poland / Romania / Soviet Union / Yugoslavia – July 30-August 1, 1975 (KCA)
The third and final stage of the Conference on Cooperation in Europe takes place in Helsinki. Among the participants are representatives from the Eastern bloc – Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia. On August 8, the Final Act is published. It consists of four baskets: Questions Relating to Security in Europe; Cooperation in the Field of Economics, of Science and Technology and of the Environment; Cooperation in Humanitarian and Other Fields; and follow-up to the Conference. In his July 31 speech, the Soviet Communist Party leader Leonid Brezhnev regards the outcome of the conference as an important “insight into the future in terms of the realities of today and the centuries-old experience of the nations of Europe.”

Soviet Union / U.S. July 30, 1975 (BUS)
The CSCE conference meets in Helsinki in order to accept the conference’s final document. President Ford is heavily criticized for his participation at the conference, for example by California Governor Ronald Reagan, who states that “all Americans should be against” the final document. The final document accepts the inviolability, but not the immutability of the European borders. The signatories pledge to respect the basic freedom and human rights such as the freedom of thought, conscience and religion. They oblige themselves for the peaceful solution of disputes, and to announce war games larger than 25 thousand toops 21 days prior to the event.


August 1975


Yugoslavia / CSCE – August 1, 1975 (AY)
The Helsinki Final Act is signed by representatives of 35 states. Yugoslav delegation puts forward a series of proposals regarding the interconnectedness between European and Mediterranean security, the relationship between Europe and developing countries, the new international economic order, support for decolonization, ethnic minorities, workers and emigres, terrorism, etc.

East Germany / Canada – August 1, 1975 (KCA)
Canada and East Germany establish diplomatic relations at the ambassadorial level. Other countries which establish diplomatic relations with the German Democratic Republic (from the beginning of 1972) are: Bangladesh, Rwanda, Zambia, Burma, Colombia, Malaysia, Upper Volta, Libya, Cameroon, Ecuador, Venezuela, Singapore, Dahomey, Bolivia, Liberia, Jordan, Brazil, San Marino, Fiji, Panama, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Laos, New Zealand, Turkey, Thailand, Mauritius, and the Cape Verde Islands.

Poland / West Germany – August 1, 1975 (KCA)
A meeting between West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and First Secretary of the Polish United Workers’ Party Edward Gierek takes place in Helsinki. As a result, decisions are made to grant West German credits to Poland -- claims from  World War II to be paid by West Germany -- and on the problem of resettlement in West Germany of ethnic Germans presently living in Poland. These decisions are presented in the form of two agreements and a bilateral protocol.

Romania / U.S. – August 2-3, 1975 (KCA/HOR/CEC/PER)
Gerald Ford, President of the United States visits Romania finalizing the commercial agreement signed on 2 April. During his visit, the U.S.-Romanian trade agreement officially comes into force. In a joint communiqué, both countries express their determination to achieve disarmament in order to keep international peace.

Soviet Union / U.S. – August 2, 1975 (KCA)
Following the Soviet Union’s July purchases (2,000,000 tonnes of wheat on July 16, another 1,200,000 tonnes on July 17, and a further 1,000,000 tonnes on July 22; 4,500,000 tonnes of maize and 1,100,000 tonnes of barley on July 21) the US Department of Agriculture suspends further sales, pending a report on the size of the US grain crop to ascertain whether increased sales will lead to higher food prices in the USA.

Soviet Union / Egypt – August 3, 1975 (KCA)
It is announced in Cairo that the Egyptian Minister of Finance Ahmed Abu Ismail has failed to obtain a rescheduling of his country’s debt for military purchases during his visit to Moscow.

Soviet Union / Yemen - August 3, 1975 (KCA)
North Yemen declares that relations with the Soviet Union are “frozen.” It is reported that North Yemen refuses to accept a shipment of Soviet tanks and MiG aircraft and  expelled a number of Soviet military advisers.

Yugoslavia / U.S. – August 3-4, 1975 (KCA)
President Gerald Ford of the United States visits Yugoslavia. He discusses with President Tito the question of resuming U.S. arms supplies to Yugoslavia. A communiqué issued at the end of the visit says that both sides agree that there are possibilities for further mutually beneficial development of trade, investment and other contemporary forms of economic cooperation.

Hungary - August 4, 1975 (HC)
Fuel prices increase by 20%. Lumber and building material price increase by 20-50%.
Hungary - August 5-16, 1975 (HC)
The 2nd International Kodály symposium takes place. (August 12: an International Kodály Society is formed.)
Soviet Union August 5, 1975 (BUS)
The Soviet government refuses to issue multiple visas for foreign journalists as prescribed by the CSCE final document.

Soviet Union / Norway – August 8, 1975 (KCA)
The Norwegian Government complains about unauthorized Soviet helicopter movements on Spitsbergen.

Hungary - August 8, 1975 (HC)
The National Committee on National and Ethnic Minorities is formed.
Hungary / Soviet Union - August 9-15, 1975 (HC)
The first Hungarian-Soviet Youth Friendship Festival takes place in Hungary.

Poland / Soviet Union – August 11-12, 1975 (KCA)
The Soviet Chairman of the Council of Ministers, Aleksei Kosygin, visits Poland. It is agreed that from 1976 to 1980 the trade exchange will increase by at least 50% and that deliveries of machinery and equipment between the two countries will double.

Soviet Union August 14, 1975 (BUS)
Brezhnev meets 18 Congressional representatives in Yalta. Brezhnev assures them that the USSR will keep the clause of the CSCE final document relating to the freedom of information.

Soviet Union / Norway – August 14, 1975 (KCA)
In a speech to mark the 50th anniversary of the coming into force of the Spitsbergen Treaty, the Norwegian Prime Minister, Trygve Bratelli, warns the Soviet Union against attempts to change the nature of Norwegian sovereignty over the Svalbard archipelago.

Yugoslavia / UN – August 15, 1975 (JBT)
Yugoslav President meets with UN Secretary General Kurt Waldheim during his stay in Yugoslavia.

Hungary - August 18, 1975 (HC)
The TV and URH radio station at Széchenyi-mountain is put into operation.

Soviet Union / U.S. August 18, 1975 (LBC) 
The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL–CIO) calls for a boycott because the American administration sells wheat to the Soviet Union. AFL-CIO president George Meany declares that until the interests of US consumers and shipping is taken into account the wheat will not be loaded. The trade unions want a larger part of the wheat to be shipped in U.S. vessels. President Ford states that wheat exports always serve American interests and is a part of U.S. diplomatic objectives. – September 9. A provisional agreement is made between the administration and the trade unions on terminating the boycott. – The USSR announces that it will issue multiple visas for foreign journalists.

US / Hungary - August 20, 1975 (HC)
A Hungarian delegation travels to the United States for the 14th International World Congress of Historians. (The leader of the delegation is member of the Political Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party Dezső Nemes.)

Romania / Soviet Union / China – August 21, 1975 (KCA)
The Chinese Deputy Prime Minister, Li Hsien-nien and the Soviet Prime Minister, Aleksei Kosygin, visit Romania. The joint communiqué issued expresses satisfaction with the development of bilateral relations. It is reported that talks between the Romanian President and the Chinese representative primarily concern the international Communist movement.

Romania / Turkey – August 27-29, 1975 (PER) See August 29
The Turkish Prime Minister, Süleyman Demirel, visits Romania.

Soviet Union / Canada – August 28, 1975 (KCA)
An agreement is reached between the two countries to establish a joint fishing consultative commission and to Canadian ports to Soviet fishing vessels. They were closed to them since July 23, 1975.

Soviet Union / Denmark – August 28, 1975 (KCA)
A ten-year Soviet-Danish agreement on economic, industrial, and technical co-operation is signed in Moscow by the Soviet Minister of Foreign Trade, Nikolai Patolichev, and the Danish Minister of Foreign Economic Affairs, Ivar Nørgaard.

Hungary - August 29, 1975 (HC)
Law decree no. 20 of 1975 of the Presidential Council of the People’s Republic about the aftercare of those released from imprisonment is adopted (the institution of protector is introduced).

Romania / Turkey – August 29, 1975 (KCA) See August 27—29.
At the end of a visit to Bucharest by Süleyman Demirel, the Turkish Prime Minister, a treaty of economic, industrial, and technical co-operation is signed. At the same time, President Ceauşescu and Demirel sign a “solemn common declaration of principles” in which they call for a greater role to be played by small and medium-sized states in world politics.

Romania / U.K. – August 31- September 3, 1975 (PER) See September 15—18.
The leader of the British Conservative Party, Margaret Thatcher, visits Romania.

Albania / Bulgaria / Romania / Yugoslavia / Greece / Turkey – August 1975 (KCA)
Konstantinos Karamanlis, the Greek Prime Minister, invites the representatives from Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, and Yugoslavia to attend a meeting on Balkan co-operation to be held in Athens from January 26 to February 5, 1976. The Government of Albania is the only one to decline the invitation.

Yugoslavia / Senegal – August 30-September 3, 1975 (JBT)
President of Senegal Leopold Senghor makes an official visit to Yugoslavia. Alongside discussing bilateral relations, Presidents Tito and Senghor underline the importance of diplomatic, moral and material assistance to Angola, South Africa, and Palestine.


Romania – August 1975 (KCA)
A widespread Romanian military and industrial espionage network is uncovered.


September 1975


Soviet Union – September 3, 1975 (KCA)
In the Moscow daily, Izvestia, Georgi Arbatov, director of the United States Institute of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, writes: “The Soviet Union will make no concession in internal politics, especially in regard to ‘human rights’, in the name of détente and of the CSCE”.

Italy / Hungary - September 8, 1975 (HC)
A pilgrim group led by archbishop of Kalocsa József Ijjas travels to Rome for the celebrations of the Holy Year.  
Hungary - September 8, 1975 (HC)
The water power plant at Kisköre is opened.
Albania – September 9, 1975 (KCA)
The People’s Assembly approves a decree to make people change their names if they do not conform to the nation’s “political, ideological and moral standards”.

Poland / U.K. – September 9, 1975 (KCA)
A 10-year program for cooperation between Britain and Poland is signed in the implementation of a 1973 agreement for the development of economic, industrial, scientific, and technical cooperation. The program refers both to cooperation and to the creation of mixed enterprises in a third country.

Soviet Union – September 9, 1975 (KCA)
32 Soviet dissidents, among them Andrei Sakharov, the Nobel Peace Prize winner, appeal in a letter to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, for a total political amnesty which “would be weighty confirmation of the seriousness of the Soviet Union’s intention to carry out the proclaimed principles of détente”.

Hungary - September 9-15, 1975 (HC)
The 4th International Finno-Ugric Conference takes place in Budapest.
Yugoslavia / Congo – September 10-12, 1975 (JBT)
Military President of the Republic of Congo Marien Ngouabi pays an official visit to Yugoslavia, and meets with President Josip Broz Tito.

Poland / Austria – September 11, 1975 (KCA)
Poland signs a contract with the Austrian concern Steyr-Daimler-Puch for the supply of trucks, spare parts, and equipment during the next five years. In return, the Polish machine-building industry will supply goods to Austria.

Soviet Union – September 13, 1975 (KCA)
Nikolai Talyzin is appointed Minister of Communications.

Romania / U.S. – September 16, 1975 (KCA)
The US Department of Agriculture announces that two protocols were signed on exchanges of agricultural information between the two countries.

Romania / U.K. – September 16-18, 1975 (KCA) See September 15--18
British Prime Minister Harold Wilson visits Romania. A 10-year agreement on economic, industrial and technical cooperation; a convention on avoidance of double taxation; an agreement on cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy; and a joint declaration are all signed during the visit. Efforts will be made to develop bilateral relations in agreement with the rules of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, increase the volume of trade between Great Britain and Romania, and develop economic cooperation by concluding contracts and creating joint companies in various fields.

Hungary - September 16-20, 1975 (HC)
The Committee of the Christian Peace Conference is in session in Siófok. (200 clergy persons from 60 countries participate.)
Soviet Union / Norway – September 16-27, 1975 (KCA)
During a Soviet missile testing, Norway officially expresses “concern” at the Soviet’s warning to Norwegian shippers to stay clear of a substantial sector of the Barents Sea.

Soviet Union September 17, 1975 (BUS)
According to a report by the New York Times, the Soviet bloc received $594 million in loans in 1974 and $960 million in the first part of 1975.

Hungary - September 20-27, 1975 (HC)
A World Week of Fine Arts takes place in Hungary.

Comecon – September 22-26, 1975 (KCA)
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon) approves agreements with the 19th annual conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held in Vienna. The aim is to provide co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy.

Yugoslavia / Nepal – September 23-28, 1975 (JBT)
The royal couple of Nepal makes a state visit to Yugoslavia.


Hungary - September 24, 1975 (HC)
The 5-episode series “Microcosmos” about Béla Bartók premieres on television.
Hungary / India - September 26-30, 1975 (HC)
President of the Indian Republic, Ali Ahmed, is in Hungary.
USA / UN / Hungary - September 28. – October 11, 1975 (HC)
Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja takes part in the 30th session of the UN General Assembly in New York.
Hungary - September 29, 1975 (HC)
The Zoltán Kodály Pedagogical Institute of Music is opened in Kecskemét.
Hungary - September 29, 1975 (HC)
The Budapest office of the Palestine Liberation Organization is opened.
Hungary - September 29  – October 1, 1975 (HC)
A national conference on agitation and propaganda takes place. Topic: The 11th congress of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party.

Eastern bloc – September 30, 1975 (KCA)
97 countries become full parties to the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Among them are: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia.

Hungary / Lebanon - September 30, 1975 (HC)
A MALÉV plane falls into the sea near Beirut (60 victims).
Yugoslavia / India – September 30-October 4, 1975 (JBT)
President of India Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed makes an official visit to Yugoslavia.

Albania - September 1975 (KCA)
A number of members of the Albania Council of Ministers are dismissed from their posts: Abdyl Këllezi is replaced by Petro Dode as Deputy Chairman of the Council and Chairman of the State Planning Commission; Koço Theodhosi is replaced by Pali Miska as Minister of Industry and Mines and Kiço Ngjela is replaced by Nedin Hoxha as Minister of Trade.

Poland / Soviet Union – September 1975 (KCA)
At the end of September, Polish and Soviet trade agencies sign a contract providing for the supply of 117,000 tons of Soviet crude oil to Poland in 1976.

Romania / U.S. – September 1975 (KCA)
A military delegation led by General Frederick C. Weyand, the US Army Chief of Staff, visits Romania.

Soviet Union / Spain – September 1975 (KCA)
In early September, a new fishery agreement is signed for increased co-operation between the two countries’ fishing fleets in the Atlantic and the use of existing Soviet fishing bases in the Canary Islands.

October 1975

Hungary / Romania - October 1-3, 1975 (HC)
Hungarian-Romanian talks on cultural, scientific and educational cooperation take place.

East Germany – October 1-3, 1975 (KCA)
East Germany, as well as Austria, Belgium, Britain, Denmark, Finland, West Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland, recall their ambassadors “for consultation” by October 1 due to the conduct of the trials and the executions perpetrated by General Franco. East Germany subsequently breaks diplomatic relations with Madrid on October 3.

US / USSR – October 1, 1975 (LBC)
US Secretary of Defense Schlesinger returns from his tour in Europe, where he warned the Western Allies not to reduce their military expenditures any further. The Secretary urged the increase of conventional forces to reduce reliance on nuclear forces in case of conflict because, in terms of nuclear forces, the USSR caught up with the US. Schlesinger also called for a higher level of harmonization of NATO weaponry.

Yugoslavia / Italy – October 1, 1975 (KCA)
Italy and Yugoslavia announce the successful conclusion of negotiations over the border question of Trieste. The London Memorandum from 1954, first designed as a temporary solution, is accepted as a permanent one with Zone A passing under the administration of Italy and Zone B under the governance of Yugoslavia. On October 1 the Yugoslav Federal Assembly accepts a report on the agreement. The Italian Chamber of Deputies approves the agreement on October 3 and the Senate on October 9, 1975.

Romania – October 3, 1975
In support of the Government’s programme of promoting economic growth by strengthening Romania’s balance-of-payments position, the International Monetary Found announces that a stand-by agreement will be approved to authorize Romania to purchase up to the equivalent of 95,000,000 special drawing rights (SDRs).

Hungary - October 3, 1975 (HC)
The foundation-stone of the atomic power station at Paks is laid. ( January 20, 1979)
Hungary / Belgium / Luxembourg - October 6, 1975 (HC)
A ten-year Hungarian-Belgian-Luxembourgish agreement on economic, industrial and technological cooperation is signed.

East Germany / Soviet Union – October 6-13, 1975 (KCA)
An East German delegation visits the Soviet Union. On October 7, a 25-year Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance is signed in Moscow by the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Leonid Brezhnev, and by the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED), Erich Honecker. The treaty is ratified by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on December 4 and by the East German Volkskammer on December 5.

Hungary - October 9, 1975 (HC)
A government order (26/1975) about voluntary policemen and border guards is adopted.
Poland / West Germany – October 9, 1975 (KCA/ HDP)
The agreements on pension claims and credits, and the protocol on the emigration of ethnic Germans initialled in August 1975 are signed in Warsaw by the Polish and West German Foreign Ministers, Hans-Dietrich Genscher and Stefan Olszowski. Around 125,000 ethnic Germans may leave Poland and  Germany will pay Poland 1.3 billion German marks and will grant it a long-term loan of 1 billion marks. On the same day Genscher also signed with the Polish Minister of Foreign Trade, Jerzy Olszewski,an industrial and technical co-operation agreement.

Soviet Union / U.S. – October 9, 1975 (KCA)
The Soviet Union agrees with the US’s view that all SS-18 missiles should be counted as having multiple warheads.

Hungary - October 12, 1975 (HC)
The Hungarian National Gallery is opened in Buda Castle.
Hungary - October 13-17, 1975 (HC)
The 5-five piece series Szocialista nevelésért [For the socialist education] is presented (directors: István Dárday, Láslzó Mihályfi, Györgyi Szalai, Lász Vitézy, Pál Wilt).
Soviet Union / France – October 14-18, 1975 (KCA)
French President Giscard d’Estaing visits the Soviet Union. The leaders of both countries stress the need to implement the agreements of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. During the visit the following five documents are signed: a final communiqué which expresses willingness to develop mutual relations in accordance with the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe; a Declaration on the Development of Friendship and Cooperation between France and the Soviet Union; an agreement on tourism; an agreement on cooperation in aviation; and an agreement on cooperation in the field of energy.

Yugoslavia / Argentina – October 16, 1975 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito receives General Secretary of the Communist Party of Argentina Jeronimo Alvarez.

Czechoslovakia – October 17, 1975 (KCA)
A court in České Budĕjovice sentences Barry Meeker, a US helicopter pilot, in absentia to 10 years’ imprisonment for having flown 11 East Germans from Czechoslovakia to West Germany.

Soviet Union – October 17-19, 1975 (KCA)
At an international meeting, the “Sakharov hearing,” held at Christiansborg, Copenhagen, a total of 24 witnesses are heard by a panel of 12 questioners who come to the conclusion that “freedom of thought and expression in the Soviet Union is restricted by the authorities”. Nevertheless, the “hearing” is criticized by five of the witnesses.

Japan / Hungary - October 17-24, 1975 (HC)
Foreign Trade Minister József Bíró is in Japan. The first Hungarian-Japanese trade and shipping agreement is signed.

Bulgaria / Philippines – October 20, 1975 (KCA)
The ambassadors of Bulgaria and the Philippines in Tokyo ratify the first trade agreement between the two countries, signed in May 2, 1975.

Soviet Union / U.S. — October 20, 1975 (KCA)
Two agreements dealing with the supply of U.S. grain to the Soviet Union, and Soviet petroleum to the United States, are signed.

Yugoslavia / Israel – October 21, 1975 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito meets with the president of the World Jewish Congress Nahum Goldmann.

Soviet Union / Hungary - October 21-24, 1975 (HC)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers György Lázár stays in Moscow. A trade agreement lasting until 1990 is signed.

Romania / Pakistan – October 22-25, 1975 (PER)
The President of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, visits Romania.

Poland – October 23, 1975 (KCA)
Mieczysław Jagielski is replaced by Tadeusz Wrzaszczyk as Chairman of the Planning Commission. A number of governmental changes follow.

Romania / France – October 23, 1975 (PER)
The University of Nice honours Ceauşescu with the title of Doctor Honoris Causa.

Yugoslavia / Portugal – October 23-25, 1975 (JBT)
President of Portugal Francisco da Costa Gomes makes an official visit to Yugoslavia, and meets with Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito to discuss both the newly established bilateral relations and wider international issues, especially the situation in (former) Portuguese colonies.


Soviet Union / U.S. – October 26, 1975 (KCA)
It is reported that the US Government has informed the Soviet Government that unless the two sides can reach agreement on strategic arms limitation by about February 1976, further talks will have to be postponed until after the 1976 presidential elections in the USA.

Somalia / South Yemen / Hungary - October 26.  – November 4, 1975 (HC)
Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi travels to Somalia and South Yemen.
Soviet Union / Hungary - October 27-29, 1975 (HC)
Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Gyula Szekér signs 13 interstate agreements in Moscow.

Soviet Union / Bulgaria / Czechoslovakia / East Germany / Hungary / Poland / Romania — October 27, 1975 (KCA)
A North Vietnamese delegation led by Le Duan visits Moscow, after paying visits to Hungary, Bulgaria, East Germany, and Czechoslovakia. The visits continue to Poland and Romania. During the visit to the Soviet Union an agreement on Soviet economic aid to North Vietnam and a protocol on the coordination of the economic plans of both countries are signed. In a joint declaration issued at the end of the visit, friendly relations and cooperation between the two countries are emphasized. On December 20, 1975 a five-year cooperation agreement is signed, under which the Soviet Union will help North Vietnam in the construction of 40 projects such as a hydro-eclectic station or a thermal power station.

Poland / Italy – October 28, 1975 (KCA)
Two agreements on closer industrial, scientific and technical cooperation between Italy and Poland are signed, as well as a five-year program for increased trade.

Romania / Portugal – October 28-31, 1975 (PER)
Nicolae Ceauşescu visits Portugal to discuss with President Francisco da Costa Gomes.

Hungary / Sweden - October 30. – November 2, 1975 (HC)
Swedish Foreign Minister Sven Anderson negotiates in Budapest.

Yugoslavia – October 30, 1975 (KCA)
President Tito declares that he will “not hesitate to use any means at his disposal to neutralize the opposition composed of a handful of Cominformists, liberals and nationalists”.

Yugoslavia / Vietnam – October 1975 (KCA)
The Yugoslav President of the Federal Executive Council, Džemal Bijedić, visits Hanoi at the beginning of October. At a banquet in his honour on October 2 the North Vietnamese Prime Minister Pham Van Dong praises Yugoslavia’s independent foreign policy, its participation in the movement of non-aligned countries and its support for national liberation movements.


November 1975

Hungary / West Germany – November 1, 1975 (KCA)
An agreement on economic, industrial, and technical cooperation between Hungary and West Germany is signed.

Hungary / Soviet Union - November 4-13, 1975 (HC)
The Day of Soviet Culture takes place in Hungary. (November 2-5. Soviet minister of culture Ghemichev is in Budapest.)
Hungary - November 5, 1975 (HC)
A Rákóczi memorial committee is formed to celebrate the 300th birth anniversary of Ferenc Rákóczi II (March 27, 1676). (Chairman: president of the People’s Patriotic Front Gyula Kállai.)

Soviet Union / China – November 6, 1975 (KCA)
A Chinese message of greetings on the anniversary of the Russian revolution sent on November 6, 1975, is much briefer than the previous year’s. On the border question it merely states that it should be settled “in strict accordance with the achieved mutual understanding and by taking practical steps through talks based on equality”.

Soviet Union / U.S. – November 10, 1975 (KCA)
Kissinger states that there is substantial agreement on 90 per cent of the SALT II negotiations but the remaining 10 per cent on which there is no agreement is “of considerable significance”.

Yugoslavia / Italy – November 10, 1975 (KCA)
The agreement settling the border question between Italy and Yugoslavia in Trieste, agreed upon in October, is officially signed. At the same time, the economic cooperation pact is signed, under which a free industrial zone on both sides of the border in the region of Sežana-Fernetti will be created.


Hungary / US - November 10-12, 1975 (HC)
The Hungarian-American Economic Council holds its first meeting in Budapest.
Vatican / Hungary - Budapest 11-14, 1975 (HC)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers György Lázár is in Italy. (November 13. Pope Paul VI receives him at a private hearing in Vatican City. It is the first visit of a Hungarian prime minister since 1945.)

Bulgaria / Yugoslavia – November 11-12, 1975 (KCA)
Petar Mladenov, the Bulgarian Foreign Minister, visits Yugoslavia. Polemics about the alleged treatment of Macedonians in Bulgaria has continued thereafter in the Yugoslav press.

Soviet Union / Uganda – November 11, 1975 (KCA)
The Soviet Union suspends relations with Uganda after expelling the Soviet ambassador to Kampala the previous day. On November 17 normal relations are restored.

Romania / Vietnam – November 13-18, 1975 (PER)
The First Secretary of the Vietnamese Workers’ Party, Le Duan, visits Romania.

Czechoslovakia / France – November 14, 1975 (KCA)
A 10-year trade and technological co-operation agreement is signed in Paris by the French Prime Minister, Jacques Chirac, and the Czechoslovak Prime Minister, Lubomír Štrougal.

Albania – November 17, 1975 (KCA)
A 51-member committee established by the People’s Assembly draws up a draft constitution replacing the March 1946 edition. The Albanian State is described as the “Socialist People’s Republic of Albania” and it is supposed to pursue a “policy of friendship, co-operation and mutual support based on Marxism-Leninism and proletarian internationalism”. In addition, the constitution abolishes private property.

Soviet Union – November 17, 1975 (KCA)
Amnesty International estimates that there are “at least 10,000 political and religious prisoners in the USSR” and that they are “maltreated”.

Soviet Union / South Africa – November 18, 1975 (KCA)
It is announced that a delegation of the Communist Party of South Africa led by Chairman Yusuf Dadoo, had a meeting in Moscow with Soviet officials, including Boris Ponomaryov (an alternate member of the Politburo and Secretary of the Soviet Party’s Central Committee). At the meeting, the Soviet Union’s “firm support for the just efforts” of the South African party and the African National Congress (ANC) were reaffirmed.

Czechoslovakia – November 21, 1975 (KCA)
Vladimír Blažek, Director of the Central Region of Czechoslovak Railways, becomes Minister of Transport instead ofŠtefan Šutka.

Yugoslavia – November 21, 1975 (HR)
A Political School "Josip Broz Tito" opens in Kumrovec (Tito`s birthplace). Its aim is to provide young communists with a 10 month long course of Marxist doctrine.


Libya / Tunisia / Hungary - November 24-29, 1975 (HC)
Chairman of the Presidential Council Pál Losonczi is in Libya and Tunisia.

Soviet Union / Norway – November 25-December 5, 1975 (KCA)
A round of negotiations is held in Oslo on the delimitation of the Barents Sea.

Hungary - November 26-27, 1975 (HC)
The Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party is in session. Topics: the implementation of the fourth 5-year plan; the people’s economic plan of 1976 and the budget.

Poland / U.S – November 27, 1975 (KCA)
Barcikowski, the Polish Minister of Agriculture, and Earl L. Butz, the US Secretary of Agriculture, sign a trade agreement: Poland will buy from the U.S., over a period of at least five years, 2,500,000 tonnes of feed grain per annum at an annual cost of about $300,000,000. Barcikowski announced, on September 15, that the Soviet Union would subsidize hard-currency imports of grain to Poland because the USSR was unable, in view of its own harvest shortfall, to supply Poland with grain under existing contracts.

Romania / Iran – November 27- December 1, 1975 (PER)
The Ceauşescu couple visits Iran. The University of Teheran honors Nicolae Ceauşescu the title of Doctor Honoris Causa.

Hungary / Palestine - November 28, 1975 (HC)
János Kádár negotiates in Budapest with leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Yasser Arafat.
Hungary - November 30, 1975 (HC)
The communication of the National Material and Price Bureau about price increases is released. (From December 1 the price of sugar increases by 50%, from January 1976 the price of building materials, furniture, paper and services increase by 32-33% and from July the price of meat and meat products increase also by 32-33%.)

Bulgaria – November 1975 (KCA)
To encourage the “process of all-round bringing together of the Bulgarian and Soviet peoples”, it is announced that from the current academic year the study of the Russian language in all Bulgarian schools will start in the third grade, instead of the fifth; that plenty of children have been sent into schools where all subjects are taught in Russian; and that many parents desire their children to “study Russian even in kindergarten”.


December 1975

US – December, 1975 (LBC)
Kissinger’s advisor, Helmut Sonnenfeldt defines US policy as “a policy of responding to the clearly visible aspirations in Eastern Europe for a more autonomous existence within the context of a strong Soviet geopolitical influence”. Some observers interpreted the Sonnenfeldt Doctrine as US acceptance of permanent Soviet hegemony over Eastern Europe.

Bulgaria / Turkey – December 1-2, 1975 (KCA)
After Petar Mladenov, the Bulgarian Foreign Minister, visited Ankara in September 1975, Süleyman Demirel, the Turkish Prime Minister, and Isan Sabri Çaglayangil, the Foreign Minister, visit Sofia.

Bulgaria – December 1-3, 1975 (KCA)
The National Assembly approves the plan for the socio-economic development of Bulgaria and its budget from 1976: among the plans, Bulgaria’s trade with Comecon countries is to rise by more than 20 percent, with deliveries of specialized products alone, to increase by 34 per cent.

Hungary - December 4, 1975 (HC)
The government adopts an order (36/1975) about the financial conditions of certain house building forms and the social-political allowances. The lent sums are increased, interest rates are reduced.
Romania – December 4, 1975 ((KCA)
During a joint session of the Councils of Working People of German and Hungarian Nationality in Romania, President Ceauşescu stresses that socialism and communism can “not be built according to nationalities”. As for the problem of reuniting families and of emigration, especially of certain citizens of German nationality, the President declares that “various old retrograde concepts, including nationalistic and chauvinistic concepts and manifestations”, will have to be combated “in a militant and firm manner”.

Romania / Federal Republic of Germany – December 4-5, 1975 (PER)
The Vice-Chancellor and Foreign Ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany, Hans Dietrich Genscher, visits Romania.

Poland / Hungary - December 7-10, 1975 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár is staying in Poland at the 7th Congress of the Polish United Workers’ Party (December 8-12).
Hungary / Romania - December 8-11, 1975 (HC)
Romanian foreign minister Gheorghe Macovescu negotiates in Budapest.
Hungary - December 8-13, 1975 (HC)
The 13th congress of the Hungarian labor unions takes place. (Chairman: Aladár Földvári, secretary-general: Sándor Gáspár.)
Poland – December 8-12, 1975 (KCA)
The Seventh Congress of the Polish United Workers’ Party (PUWP) is held in Warsaw. Also present are Leonid Brezhnev, General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party, the leaders of the communist parties of all Warsaw Pact member-states (except President Ceauşescu of Romania), and delegates from 69 communist or socialist parties and liberation movements. The PUWP expresses support for the development of contacts between the communists, socialists, social democrats and other democratic groups – tactics advocated by West European communist parties. The congress concludes with the re-election of Gierek as the Party’s First Secretary for another five years. At the same time, the rise in the number of candidate members of the Central Committee from 93 to 111 is approved.

Soviet Union / Afghanistan – December 9-10, 1975 (KCA)
In a communiqué issued at the conclusion of his state visit to Kabul, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny states that the Soviet Union and Afghanistan express “the hope that political discord between Afghanistan and Pakistan will be settled by peaceful means by way of talks”.

Soviet Union / Iceland – December 10, 1975 (KCA)
It is announced in Reykjavik that the Icelandic Government has rejected an application by the Soviet Union for port facilities for the latter’s long-distance fishing fleet.

Czechoslovakia/Soviet Union – December 11, 1975 (CWIHP)
The CSSR and USSR sign an agreement on: subverting attempts by hostile factions to infiltrate both countries and joint staff and having access to classified military information; detection and obstruction of attempts by enemies to carry out subversive acts against national and joint armed forces; perfection of counter intelligence security actions by the Warsaw Treaty united command; prevention of possible leaks of classified information.

Soviet Union — December 14, 1975 (KCA)
The five-year plan for 1976-1980 is published. It contains the growth targets in national income, industrial production, capital investments, wages, and agricultural production. Priority is given to heavy industry.

Soviet Union / Egypt – December 14, 1975 (KCA)
The Egyptian Minister of Finance, Ahmed Abu Ismail, announces that Egypt has declined to sign a trade protocol for 1976 because no agreements were reached on the rescheduling of Egypt’s debts to the USSR during the visit of the Soviet Deputy Minister of Foreign Trade, L. T. Grishin.

Cuba / Hungary - December 14-24, 1975 (HC)
First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party János Kádár goes to Cuba for the 1st Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba (December 17-22).
Soviet Union / Hungary - December 15-16, 1975 (HC)
The Foreign Ministers of the socialist countries hold a meeting in Moscow.

Soviet Union / U.S. — December 15, 1975 (KCA)
The U.S. Senate approves the first tax agreement between the Soviet Union and the United States.

Yugoslavia / Cambodia – December 16-19, 1975 (JBT)
Head of the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea (GRUNK) and President of the National United Front of Kampuchea (FUNK) Norodom Sihanouk pays a friendly visit to Yugoslavia.

Soviet Union – December 17, 1975 (KCA)
Zurab A. Pataridze, a Secretary of the Central Committee of the Georgian Communist Party, is elected Premier of Georgia, succeeding Givi Dzhavakhishvili, who retired “at his own request”.

Hungary - December 17-19, 1975 (HC)
The winter session of the Parliament takes place. Act no. 4 of 1975 about the fifth five-year plan of the people’s economy and act no. 5 of 1975 about the budget of 1976 are adopted.
Hungary - December 18-19, 1975 (HC)
The regional meeting and leader electing assembly of the Hungarian Historical Society takes place. (Chairman: Iván Berend T., secretary-general: Ottó Szabolcs.)

Soviet Union — December 18, 1975 (KCA)
A six-year shipping agreement is signed between the Soviet Union and the United States, effective January 1, 1976.

Czechoslovakia / Austria – December 19, 1975 (KCA)
An agreement is signed in Vienna on compensation for the property of Austrian citizens confiscated in Czechoslovakia following the expulsion of Austrian citizens after May 8, 1945.

Romania – December 19, 1975 (KCA)
Before the Grand National Assembly, President Ceauşescu pleads for a new kind of unity between the Communist and Workers’ parties of the world “based on the different historical, social and political conditions” under which various parties work, and granting each part “the right to work out its political line in complete freedom”.

Soviet Union – December 19, 1975 (KCA)
Bally Iazkuliev, Chairman of the Turkmenistan’s Supreme Soviet, succeeds Oraz Orazmukhamedov as Premier of the Soviet Republic of Turkmenistan. Orazmukhamedov was removed from his posts and from the Turkmenistan Communist Party’s Central Committee “for serious shortcomings in work and personal conduct”.

Romania – December 20, 1975 (KCA)
The economic plan for 1976 is announced. It is approved in mid-January 1976.

Hungary / Romania – December 20-21, 1976 (CEC)
A Hungarian delegation led by János Kádár visits Romania.

Soviet Union / Hungary - December 22-23, 1975 (HC)
Frigyes Puja negotiates in Moscow.
Hungary - December 24, 1975 (HC)
A government order (38/1975) is adopted according to which the sum of the annual increase of pensions cannot be less than 50 Forints per month.

Soviet Union – December 24, 1975 (KCA)
Antanas Barkauskas, chairman of the Lithuanian Supreme Soviet and veteran of World War II, takes over as President of the Soviet Republic of Lithuania, replacing Motiejus Šumauskas, who retired.

Yugoslavia – December 25, 1975 (KCA)
In a statement by General Franjo Herljević, Secretary for Internal Affairs, the Yugoslav police is said to have arrested during 1975 some 200 “political criminals” belonging to 13 different underground groups.

Soviet Union – December 26, 1975 (KCA)
The Tupolev-144 (TU-144) inaugural flight from Moscow to Alma-Ata takes place. The Soviet Union becomes the first country to inaugurate a regular supersonic air service.

Soviet Union / China – December 27, 1975 (KCA)
The three members of the crew of the captured Soviet helicopter are released after over 21 months, and return to Moscow two days later.

Romania / Soviet Union – December 28, 1975 (KCA)
A commodities and payments agreement for 1976-80 is signed in Moscow. Provision is made for an increase of 70 per cent by volume in trade exchanges.

Soviet Union – December 28, 1975 (KCA)
The Supreme Court of the Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan is reported to have condemned five men to death for having defrauded the state of 9,000,000 rubles between 1966 and 1970. The death penalty, which has been abolished in 1947, reintroduced in 1950 for “traitors and spies” and extended in 1954 to cover murder, have also been applied to “economic crimes”. Hence, during the first nine months of 1975, a total of 11 death sentences are recorded in the Soviet press.

Yugoslavia / Austria – December 29, 1975 (JBT)
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito meets with Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky.

Soviet Union – December 29, 1975 (KCA)
Yevgeni Kozlovsky, Deputy Minister of Geology is appointed Minister of Geology in succession to Alexander Sidorenko, who was given another appointment. Changes in the Governments of Lithuania, Georgia, and Turkmenistan are announced at the same time.

Soviet Union — December 1975 (KCA)
A number of trials of Jews and dissidents are held in the Soviet Union, all accussed receiving penalties. The trials of Shtern and  Kovalev are the most criticized in the West.
A letter protesting against the Government’s policy of “forcible Russification”, which has led to the detention of “numerous Armenians, Lithuanians, Ukrainians, Jews, Tartars and others in concentration camps and prisons”, has been sent to the Soviet Chairman of the Council of Ministers Alexei Kosygin by the imprisoned Vladimir Bukovsky.

Hungary - during the year 1975 (HC)
According to the data of the Central Statistical Office the population of Hungary is 10 572 000.

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


© Cold War History Research Center, Budapest 2016